ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0011.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: EGF; PS NPs; cellular uptake; clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Online: 2 June 2017 (05:23:52 CEST)
The interaction between nanoparticles and cells has been studied extensively, but most research has focused on the effect of various nanoparticle characteristics, such as size, morphology, and surface charge, on the cellular uptake of nanoparticles. In contrast, there have been very few studies to assess the influence of cellular factors, such as growth factor responses, on the cellular uptake efficiency of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the uptake efficiency of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) by A431 cells, a human carcinoma epithelial cell line. The results showed that EGF enhanced the uptake efficiency of A431 cells for PS NPs. In addition, inhibition and localization studies of PS NPs and EGF receptors (EGFRs) indicated that cellular uptake of PS NPs is related to the binding of EGF-EGFR complex and PS NPs. Different pathways are used to enter the cells depending on the presence or absence of EGF. In the presence of EGF, cellular uptake of PS NPs is via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas in the absence of EGF, uptake of PS NPs does not involve clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Our findings indicate that EGF enhances cellular uptake of PS NPs by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This result could be important for developing safe nanoparticles and their safe use in medical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0159.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: peach carbon sources; agronomic efficiency; pue; partial factor productivity; soil p; biochar; trichoderma; ps
Online: 14 November 2019 (11:11:27 CET)
Phosphorus (P) is an important element in a complete and balanced fertility program that can improve crop P use efficiency and ultimately productivity and profitability. Phosphatic fertilizers use without organic fertilizers leads to gradual decline in soil organic matter, native nutrient status and ultimately reduction in agricultural productivity and economic growth. The objectives of this was to evaluate P efficiencies with incorporation of peach sources, beneficial microbes and P application. From sustainability points of view, alternative use of different sources and forms of organic sources alone or in combination with inorganic P and beneficial microbes possess potential for improving productive capacity of the soil. Separate field experiments (one each on maize and soybean as a test crop) were conducted at Agriculture Research Institute Mingora Swat (ARI) for two consecutive years in summer season of 2016 (year one) and 2017 (year two). For the first time such a study were conducted to utilize peach leftovers and biomass (leaves, twigs, fruits, stones and barks partially decomposed, its compost and biochar) along with three phosphorus (P) levels (50, 75, 100 kg P ha-1) and two beneficial microbes (PSB and Trichoderma) on such a way to enhance soil sustainability and P use efficiency of soybean and maize. The results revealed that organic sources had significant effect on soybean and maize P use efficiency (PUE), P agronomic efficiency (PAE), partial factor productivity (PFPp) and soil P concentration. In experiment 1 among the organic sources, peach residues increased soil P (12.0 mg kg-1) as compared to peach compost and biochar (8.6 & 11.7 mg kg-1). Soil P concentration was maximum (12.1 mg kg-1) with PSB than Trichoderma (9.5 mg kg-1). Application of P at 100 kg ha-1increased soil P contents (16.9 mg kg-1) as compared to 50 and 75 kg P ha 1 (5.9 & 9.6 mg kg-1) respectively. P concentration was increased drastically in year 2 (12.4 mg kg-1) than year one (9.1 mg kg-1). PUE in both crops (soybean and maize) was maximum (25.6 & 28.4%) with peach biochar than compost and residues along with Trichoderma (21.7 & 27.8%). Highest PUE in soybean was recorded with 75 kg P ha-1(22.2%) however in maize maximum PUE was noted with 50 kg P ha-1(33.5%). PAE and PFPp in both crops was maximum with biochar and soil application of Trichoderma than other organic sources and PSB. Among the P levels highest PAE in soybean and maize was recorded with 75 kg ha-1whereas PFPp in soybean was maximum with 75 kg P ha-1 and interestingly in maize it was noted with 50 kg ha-1. Conclusively soybean and maize PAE, PFPp and PUE was higher with biochar, soil incorporation of Trichoderma and P at the rate of 75 kg ha-1 and can improve soybean and maize yield and soil productivity on sustainable basis.