ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0283.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Moringa; pods; instant soup mixes; proximate; sensory and storage study
Online: 10 June 2021 (09:08:44 CEST)
Traditionally Moringa is known as mystical miracle tree or the tree of life. Soup can be classified as an appetizer, warm food during cold and sick. Moringa oleifera pods have been procured from College of Agriculture, JNKVV, Jabalpur. The present investigation is planned with objectives to standardize best combination of for the development of instant soup mix, to evaluate various quality parameters, to evaluate the storage stability and cost estimation of product. Protein in instant soup is ranged from 9.76 to 11.89 percent in different formulations of instant soup mix. Formulation MPP4 (11.89) had significantly maximum protein content followed by MPP3, MPP2, MPP1 and Control with the minimum protein content. The original instant soup mix (control) exhibited highest carbohydrate content (61.52%) followed by MPP1, MPP3, MPP4, and MPP2 with lowest content. The evaluated scores of control for colour and appearance, taste, flavour, consistency, after taste and overall acceptability are 8.36, 8.50, 8.60, 8.90, 8.76 and 8.63 respectively
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0129.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Pineapples; Ripening; Proximate composition; Sensory evaluation
Online: 10 January 2022 (16:15:22 CET)
The number of artificially ripened pineapples is outnumbered than the naturally ripened pineapples. However, there is a lack of understanding between artificially ripened and naturally ripened pineapples. Thus the inquiry was anticipated to explore the physicochemical changes and organoleptic acceptability of the naturally ripened and artificially ripened pineapples. Farmers used different chemicals such as calcium carbide, ethylene, besides growth hormones to reduce production loss. Here we evaluated the content of moisture, ash, protein, fat, crude fiber, reducing sugar, total sugar, titratable acidity, sucrose, and vitamin C in both naturally ripened and artificially ripened pineapples. Artificially ripened pineapples showed a significantly lower vitamin C than naturally ripened ones, but arsenic content was nil in both samples. In the case of color and appearance, there was no significant difference between the two samples, but in case of the other organoleptic properties, such as flavor, sweetness, sourness, the natural one was more acceptable. Thus naturally ripened pineapples are more beneficial to consumers than artificially ripened ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0202.v1
Online: 10 August 2018 (05:45:08 CEST)
The optimum conditions for the fermentation of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) into a vegetable protein based condiment (Iru) were developed using Levenberg-Marquardt (or Powell) method (using PSI software) with three (3) variables namely; inoculum concentration (bacillus subtilis), temperature and the fermentation duration. African locust bean seeds were fermented at various temperature of 40 - 70 °С for five days (120 hours) with different concentrations of Inoculum. The proximate analysis shows that fermentation increased the percentage protein. Protein had the highest composition with about 51 % after 72 hours at the lowest fermentation temperature of 40°С.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0148.v1
Online: 23 November 2017 (04:04:18 CET)
Baobab (Adansonia digitata) leaves are usually used in dry form in the preparation of a soup known as ‘miyan kuka’ in Northern Nigeria. The leaves are believed to have nutritional and medicinal benefits and have been used for those purposes in Africa and Asia. However there has been limited research on the detailed constituents of the dry leaves. In this study, phytochemical, elemental and proximate analyses of stored, sun and shade-dried baobab leaves were conducted. The results revealed a great variation in the nutritional contents of the leaves. The study reveals that the leaves are rich in phytochemicals such as glycosides, saponins, steroids and flavonoids while alkaloids, tannins and resins are absent. Also, they are important source of minerals such as zinc, copper, iron and manganese. In addition, they are rich in fibre, crude protein, nitrogen and ash. Contrasting responses were obtained in the samples studied. The implications of these responses are discussed in relation to crop yield.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: TGA, DTG, DSC, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, municipal solid waste, organic waste, proximate analysis, process kinetics, Coats–Redfern method
Online: 7 June 2021 (11:13:08 CEST)
In this study, 12 organic waste materials were subjected to TG/DTG thermogravimetric analysis and DSC calorimetric analysis. These analyses provided basic information about thermochemical transformations and degradation rates during organic waste pyrolysis. Waste materials were chosen to cover the most abundant waste that can be found in the municipal solid waste stream. Based on TG results, kinetic parameters according to Coats–Redfern method were determined. The pyrolysis activation energy was the highest for cotton 134.5 kJ∙(mol∙K)-1 and the lowest for leather 25.2 kJ∙(mol∙K)-1. The DSC analysis showed number of transformations occurred during pyrolysis for each material. For each transformation, normalized energy required for transformation, or released during transformation were determined and then summarized to present energy balance. The study found that only for three waste materials: PET (-220.1 J⸱g-1), leather (-66.9 J⸱g-1), and chicken meat (-130.3 J⸱g-1) energy balance was negative, while the highest positive balance value was found for potato peelings (367.8 J⸱g-1). The obtained results may be applied for the modelling of energy and mass balance of municipal solid waste pyrolysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0204.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Ecosystem service values; Land cover change; Proximate causes; Underlying causes
Online: 12 December 2022 (13:21:24 CET)
Land use/cover (LULC) change is one of the most important environmental phenomena that have affected the earths’ systems and its ecosystem services. Hence, this study was conducted with the main objective of assessing LULC change, its drivers andimpactson ecosystem services in Jimma Rare district for the year 1974–2019. In order to understand the spatial and temporal changes of LULC and its drivers four satellite images for the year1974, 1991, 2005 and 2019 were obtained and respondent interviews, focus group discussions (FGD) and field observations were employed. Moreover, the ecosystem service value coefficients developed at a global level were used to assess the impacts of LULC on ecosystem service provision of the study area. The results of the study revealed that grass land and forest land decreased from 4518.87ha (13.09%) to 902.42ha (2.61%) and 3287.79ha (9.52%) to 2506.63ha (7.26%) from 1974-2019 respectively. Similarly, wetland declined from1182.08ha (3.42%) to 562.37ha (1.63%) in the stated period.The greatest expansion of cultivated land and settlement area occurred during the year 1974-1991. Agricultural expansion, deforestation, overgrazing and expansion of rural and urban settlement were among the major proximate causes. Likewise, the major underlying drivers of LULC dynamics include population increase, the presence of weak policy and institutions, poverty and lack of awareness were identified by respondents and focus group discussants. The total natural capital value reduced from 662.75 (million $/ha/yr) to 577.03 (million $/ha/yr) in the study period indicating the impacts of LULC on ecosystem services. From this study, it is possible to conclude that Jimma Rare District has experienced a significant change in LULC and ecosystem service values over the past 45 years. Hence, appropriate policy packages of land use are required to curb the negative impacts of such changes in the study district in the provision of the required services for sustainable development.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0189.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: mushrooms; mushroom spent compost; renewable energy; biochar; biomass valorization; torrefaction; fuel properties; proximate analysis; carbon sequestration
Online: 20 June 2019 (03:40:36 CEST)
Mushroom production in Poland is an important and dynamically developing element of diverse agriculture. Mushroom spent compost (MSC) is major waste generated during production, i.e., MSC: mushrooms is ~5:1. To date, the main use of MSC is soil application as organic fertilizer. To date, several methods of MSC treatment have been researched and developed including production of compost, bioethanol, biogas, enzyme lactase, xylo-saccharides, and hydrogen. Torrefaction may be considered a novel approach for biomass valorization. Thus, we are pioneering the potential use of MSC valorization via torrefaction. We explored valorizing the waste biomass of MSC via thermal treatment – torrefaction (‘roasting’) to produce biochar with improved fuel properties. Here for the first time, we examined and summarized the MSC torrefaction thermogravimetric analyses, fuel properties data of raw biomass of MSC and biochars generated from MSC via torrefaction. The effects of torrefaction temperature (200~300 °C), process time (20~60 min), on fuel properties of the resulting biochars were summarized. The dataset contains results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as proximate analyses of MSC and generated biochars. The presented data are useful in determining MSC torrefaction reaction kinetics, activation energy and to further techno-economical modeling of the feasibility of MSC valorization via torrefaction. MSC torrefaction could be exploited as part of valorization resulting from a synergy between an intensive mushroom production with the efficient production of high-quality renewable fuel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0212.v1
Subject: Keywords: waste to energy; mushroom spent compost, renewable energy; biochar; biomass valorization; torrefaction; activation energy; fuel properties; proximate analysis; carbon sequestration
Online: 18 July 2019 (10:00:34 CEST)
Poland is the 3rdproducer of mushrooms in the world. Mushroom production in Poland accounts for nearly 25% of the total production in the EU, and it is still growing. One type of waste generated during mushroom production is mushroom spent compost (MSC), with a 5:1 (MSC: mushrooms) production rate. We investigated valorizing the MSC to produce fuel via torrefaction (‘roasting’, a.k.a. low-temperature pyrolysis). Specifically, we developed models for the MSC torrefaction kinetics using thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and the effects of torrefaction temperature (200~300 °C) and process duration time (20~60 min) on the resulting biochar (fuel) properties. The estimated activation energy value of MSC torrefaction was 22.3 kJ.mol-1. The highest higher heating value(HHV) = 17.9 MJ.kg-1d.m. was found for 280 °C (60 min torrefaction time). The temperature of torrefaction significantly (p<0.05) increased the HHVfor constant process duration. The torrefaction duration time significantly (p<0.05) increased the HHVfor 220 °C and decreased HHVfor 300 °C. The highest mass yield 98.5% was found for 220 °C (60 min), while the highest energy yield was found for 280 °C (60 min). In addition, estimations of the value (€132.3·Mg-1d.m. or 27.7 €·Mg-1w.m) and quantity of resulting biochar (from torrefied MSC with 65.3% moisture content) were made based on the 280°C (60 min) torrefaction variant, assuming the price of commercially available coal fuel. We have shown a concept for an alternative utilization of abundant biowaste (MSC). The initial economic evaluation showed that MSC torrefaction might be profitable. This research provides a basis for alternative use of an abundant biowaste and can help charting improved, sustainable mushroom production.