ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0198.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: magnetoreception; cryptochrome; G protein α-subunit; protein-protein interaction
Online: 14 June 2022 (08:37:43 CEST)
Background: Night-migratory birds sense the Earth´s magnetic field by an unknown molecular mechanism. Theoretical and experimental evidence support the hypothesis that light-induced formation of a radical-pair in European robin cryptochrome 4a, ErCry4a, is the primary signalling step in the retina of the bird. In the present work, we investigated a possible route of cryptochrome signalling involving the α-subunit of the cone specific heterotrimeric G protein from European robin. Methods: Protein-protein interaction studies include surface plasmon resonance, pulldown affinity binding and Förster resonance energy transfer. Results: Surface plasmon resonance studies showed direct interaction revealing high to moderate affinity for binding of non-myristoylated and myristoylated G protein to ErCry4a, respectively. Pulldown affinity experiments confirmed this complex formation in solution. We validated these in vitro data by monitoring the interaction between ErCry4a and G protein in a transiently transfected neuroretinal cell line using Förster resonance energy transfer. Conclusions: Our results suggest that ErCry4a and the G protein also interact in vivo and might constitute the first biochemical signalling step in radical-pair-based magnetoreception.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1859.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: RNA virus; negeviruses; SP24 protein; taxonomy; membrane-embedded protein; virus evolution
Online: 30 October 2023 (08:42:49 CET)
This paper describes new horizons in the diversity and taxonomy of negev-like viruses encoding the membrane-embedded SP24 protein. First, our data extend the known host range of SP24-encoding negev-like viruses to include brown algae, fungi, green plants, the phylum Entoprocta, the phylum Mollusca, and vertebrates. Second, our phylogenetic analysis suggests that the evolution of the SP24 gene family may have involved frequent events of inter-order virus genome shuffling. Third, the identification of 2-3 copies of SP24 protein genes in some virus RNAs shows that virus genomes may have acquired additional SP24 genes during the evolutionary process due to duplications or new acquisition steps. Forth, the broad host specificity of some SP24-encoded viruses may be related to an important adaptive role of SP24. Fifth, insect and nematode genomes may acquire viral SP24 genes by putative horizontal transfer from negev-like viruses known to infect species of both taxa.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0304.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Ab Initio modelling; three-dimensional structure; proton-sensing G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR); GPR151
Online: 20 March 2020 (04:25:00 CET)
Protein is the proteios building block of life. Evolutionarily, its sequence is not as conserved as its structure, making it more reasonable for protein structure, instead of protein sequence, to be the descriptor of protein function. Yet, in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database, the number of experimentally identified protein sequences is in great excess of that of experimentally determined protein structures inside the almost-half-a-century old Protein Data Bank (PDB). For instance, GPR151 is an proton-sensing G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) originally identified as homologous to galanin receptors. As of March 19, 2020, GPR151’s structure has not been experimentally determined and deposited in PDB yet. Thus, an ab initio modelling approach was employed here to build a three-dimensional structure of GPR151. Overall, the ab initio GPR151 model presented herein constitutes the first structural hypothesis of GPR151 to be experimentally tested in future with previously published, currently ongoing and future GPR151 studies.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: AARS; deacylation; label-free; nanopore; current blockade; protein sequencing
Online: 18 August 2020 (05:03:02 CEST)
A label-free four-step procedure to identify amino acids (AAs) is described. In Step 1 molecules of AA, a tRNA, the related tRNA synthetase (AARS), and ATP are confined in a cavity to enable charging of tRNA. In Step 2 the tRNA, charged or uncharged, is separated from the other reactants (ATP, AARS, and possibly AMP and free AAs). In Step 3 the separated tRNA is subjected to non-enzymatic deacylation to dissociate the AA if tRNA is charged. In Step 4 the products are transferred to an electrolytic cell with a nanopore, where a current blockade occurs if and only if there is a dissociated AA. If a blockade is observed AA is immediately known, identification is unambiguous because of tRNA superspecificity. The exact blockade size need not be known (for any AA) in Step 4 so there is no need to distinguish among different AAs. This is unlike other nanopore-based methods, which are crucially dependent on precise blockade level measurements. The procedure is done in parallel with N (20 ≤ N ≤ 61) copies of AA, N reservoir-cavities, and N pairs of e-cells each with a different tRNA, related AARS, and ATP. At least one of the tRNAs gets charged. Assuming no charging errors, if N1 tRNAs get charged in Step 1 and at least one of N2 (≤ N1) charged tRNAs is deacylated in Step 3, then with N1N2 tRNA molecules entering Step 1 AA can be identified with probability 1.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0318.v4
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein sequencing; single molecule; nanopore; tRNA; amino acyl tRNA synthetase; codon; optical tag
Online: 18 February 2020 (11:50:29 CET)
Single molecule de novo protein sequencing based on the 'superspecificity' of amino-acyl tRNA synthetases (aaRS) is proposed. An unfolded protein molecule is threaded through a nanopore in an electrolytic cell (e-cell) to expose the terminal residue in the e-cell's trans chamber. After the residue is cleaved with an exopeptidase, a set of tRNAs, their aaRSs, and ATP are added to trans. An aaRS charges a cognate tRNA molecule with the residue. The charged tRNA (along with the other reactants) is transferred to an extended e-cell with N (20 ≤ N ≤ 61) pores in N individual cis chambers and a single trans chamber. Each pore holds an RNA molecule ending in a unique codon that is exposed in trans. The charged tRNA's anticodon base-pairs with the terminal codon of an RNA. If tRNAs and residues are fluorescently tagged with two different colors, the residue can be identified from the observed position of the resulting color pair. As charging is 'superspecific' identification is unambiguous. The protein molecule in the first e-cell is advanced by one residue and the process repeated. In this approach there is no need for precise pore current or optical intensity measurements. Potential implementation issues are discussed. Other possibilities, including one in which the terminal residue is cleaved after charging, are also examined.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0009.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: G-protein-coupled receptor; allosteric site; allosteric modulator; pepducin; heterotrimeric G-protein; autoantibody; thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor; luteinizing hormone receptor; proteinase-activated receptor; chemokine receptor
Online: 1 February 2023 (10:54:07 CET)
A separate group consists of compounds that are able to simultaneously interact with both orthosteric and allosteric sites, which are classified as bitopic GPCR ligands [74, 76-81]. They have two pharmacophores, one of which binds with high affinity to the orthosteric site, while the other, with lower affinity, binds to the allosteric site. If these sites are spatially separated in the receptor, then the pharmacophores in the bitopic ligand must be connected with a flexible linker, the length of which exactly corresponds to the distance between the orthosteric and allosteric sites. At the same time, it is important that the linker does not significantly affect the conformational rearrangements in the receptor caused by its activation by orthosteric and (or) allosteric agonists [74, 79].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0300.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: adipose tissue; adipogenesis; G-protein-coupled receptors; thermogenesis; obesity; metabolic syndrome
Online: 16 November 2022 (08:52:57 CET)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are expressed essentially on all cells, facilitating cellular responses to external stimuli, and are involved in nearly every biological process. Several members of this family play significant roles in the regulation of adipogenesis and adipose me-tabolism. However, the expression and functional significance of a vast number of GPCRs in adipose tissue are unknown. We used a high-throughput RT-PCR panel to determine the expres-sion of the entire repertoire of non-sensory GPCRs in mouse white, and brown adipose tissue and assess changes in their expression during adipogenic differentiation of murine adipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1. In addition, the expression of GPCRs in subcutaneous adipose tissues from lean, obese, and diabetic human subjects was evaluated by re-analyzing RNA-sequencing data. We detected a total of 292 and 271 GPCRs in mouse white and brown adipose tissue, respectively. There is a significant overlap in the expression of GPCRs between the two adipose tissue depots but several GPCRs are specifically expressed in one of the two tissue types. Adipogenic differ-entiation of 3T3-L1 cells had a profound impact on the expression of several GPCRs. RNA se-quencing of subcutaneous adipose from healthy human subjects detected 255 GPCRs and obesity significantly changed the expression of several GPCRs in adipose tissue. Finally, we report sev-eral highly expressed GPCRs with no known role in adipose biology whose expression was sig-nificantly altered during adipogenic differentiation and/or in the diseased human subjects. These GPCRs could play an important role in adipose metabolism and serve as a valuable translational resource for obesity and metabolic research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0502.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: platelet linked particles; megakaryocyte; G protein coupled recepto
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:07:34 CEST)
In this study, we reported that novel single-chain fusion-proteins linked thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor (TP) to a selected G-protein α-subunit q (SC-TP-Gαq), or s (SC-TP-Gαs) could be stably expressed in megakaryocytes (MK). We tested the MK-released platelet-linked particles (PLPs) to be used as a vehicle to deliver the over-expressed SC-TP-Gαq), or s (SC-TP-Gαs) to regulate human platelet function. To understand how the single-chain TP-Gα fusion proteins could regulate opposite platelet activities by an identical ligand TXA2, we used dual-binding domains linked to different signaling pathways within a single polypeptide chain using a 3D structural model. The immature MKs were cultured and transfected with cDNAs constructed from structural models of the individual SC-TP-Gαq and SC-TP-Gαs, respectively. After transient expression was identified, the immature MKs stably expressing SC-TP-Gαq or SC-TP-Gαs (stable cell lines) were selected. The stable cell lines were induced into mature MKs which released PLPs. Western blot analysis confirmed that the released PLPs were carrying the recombinant SC-TP-Gαq or SC-TP-Gαs. Flow cytometry analysis showed the PLPs carrying SC-TP-Gαq were able to perform the activity by promoting platelet aggregation. In contrast, PLPs carrying SC-TP-Gαs reversed Gq to Gs signaling to inhibit platelet aggregation. This is the first time demonstrating that SC-TP-Gαq and SC-TP-Gαs were successfully overexpressed in MK cells and released as PLPs with proper folding. This bio-engineering led to the formation of two sets of biologically active PLP forms, which mediate calcium and cAMP signaling, respectively. As a result, these PLPs are able to bind to identical endogenous TXA2 with opposite activities, inhibiting and promoting platelet aggregation as required for therapeutic process.The results also demonstrated the nucleus-free PLPs could be used to deliver recombinant membrane-bound GPCRs to regulate cellular activity in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0343.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: 14-3-3; interactome; protein-protein interaction; mitochondria; metabolism; protein quality control; homeostasis; left ventricule; network
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:54:49 CEST)
Rationale: The 14-3-3 protein family is known to interact with many proteins in non-cardiac cell types to regulate multiple signaling pathways, particularly those relating to energy and protein homeostasis; and the 14-3-3 network is a therapeutic target of critical metabolic and proteostatic signaling in cancer and neurological diseases. Although the heart is critically sensitive to nutrient and energy alterations, and multiple signaling pathways coordinate to maintain the cardiac cell homeostasis, neither the structure of cardiac 14-3-3 protein interactome, nor potential functional roles of 14-3-3 protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in heart has been explored. Objective: To establish the comprehensive landscape and characterize the functional role of cardiac 14-3-3 PPIs. Methods and Results: We evaluated both RNA expression and protein abundance of 14-3-3 isoforms in mouse heart, followed by co-immunoprecipitation of 14-3-3 proteins and mass spectrometry in left ventricle. We identified 52 proteins comprising the cardiac 14-3-3 interactome. Multiple bioinformatic analyses indicated that more than half of the proteins bound to 14-3-3 are related to mitochondria; and the deduced functions of the mitochondrial 14-3-3 network are to regulate cardiac ATP production via interactions with mitochondrial inner membrane proteins, especially those in mitochondrial complex I. Binding to ribosomal proteins, 14-3-3 proteins likely coordinate protein synthesis and protein quality control. Localizations of 14-3-3 proteins to mitochondria and ribosome were validated via immunofluorescence assays. The deduced function of cardiac 14-3-3 PPIs is to regulate cardiac metabolic homeostasis and proteostasis. Conclusions: Thus, the cardiac 14-3-3 interactome may be a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular metabolic and proteostatic disease states, as it already is in cancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0332.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein determination; soft protein corona; hard protein corona; covalent immobilization; supernatant method; gold nanoparticles; latex polymer particles; gold sodium chloride method; amino acid analysis; aromatic amino acid analysis; AAAA; acid hydrolysis
Online: 24 March 2022 (14:32:48 CET)
Protein immobilization for the functionalization of particles is used in various applications, including biosensors, lateral-flow immunoassays (LFIA), bead-based assays, and others. Common methods for the quantification of bound protein are measuring protein in the supernatant before and after coating and calculating the difference. This popular approach has the potential for a significant overestimation of the amount of immobilized protein since layers not directly bound to the surface (soft protein corona) are usually lost during washing and handling. Only the layer directly bound to the surface (hard corona) can be used in subsequent assays. A simplified amino acid analysis method based on acidic hydrolysis and RP-HPLC-FLD of tyrosine and phenylalanine (aromatic amino acid analysis, AAAA) is proposed to directly quantify protein bound to the surface of gold nano- and latex microparticles. The results are compared with indirect methods such as colorimetric protein assays, such as Bradford, bicinchoninic acid (BCA), as well as AAAA of the supernatant. For both particle types, these indirect quantification techniques show a protein overestimation of up to 1700% compared to the direct AAAA measurements. In addition, protein coating on latex particles was performed both passively through adsorption and covalently through EDC/sulfo-NHS chemistry. Our results showed no difference between the immobilization methodologies. This finding suggests that usual protein determination methods are no unambiguous proof of a covalent conjugation on particles or beads.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0661.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein structure; hierarchy; protein sequence; ANIS method; supersecondary structure.
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:11:39 CEST)
Most non-infectious diseases are associated with dysfunction of proteins or protein complexes. Аssociation between sequence and structure is analyzed since a long time, and analysis of sequence organization in domains and motifs is actual research area. A mathematical method is proposed here to identify the hierarchical organization of protein sequences. The method is based on pentapeptide as a unit of protein sequences. This method was applied on a non-homologous dataset of protein sequences. The analysis revealed 11 hierarchical levels of protein sequence organization, showing the relationship of these multiple fragments of sequences. Using different examples, we illustrated how the fragments of the spatial structure of protein correspond to the elements of the hierarchical structure of the protein sequence. A hierarchical structure is observed in the protein sequence. This methodology is an interesting basis for mathematically based classification of elements of spatial organization of proteins. Elements of the hierarchical structure of different levels of the hierarchy can be used for biotechnological and medical problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0780.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: soluble Human Leukocyte Antigen-G; placental protein-13; serum; amniotic fluid; sonography
Online: 13 October 2023 (08:18:52 CEST)
Introduction: An increasing body of evidence shows the significant role of the angiogenic factor levels in screening of pregnancy outcome. Purpose: To examine the potential relationship between concentrations of placental protein 13 (PP13) and soluble Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (sHLA-G) in maternal serum and amniotic fluid at 16-23 weeks of gestation and the sonographic features of pregnancy as well as pregnancy outcome. Materials and methods: PP13 and sHLA-G in serum and amniotic fluid, and fetal biometrical data and placental volume and perfusion indices were determined in 71 euploid, singleton pregnancies. Results: The serum sHLA-G level correlated negatively with serum PP13 level (r = -0.186, p<0.001) and positively with sHLA-G level in the amniotic fluid (r = 0.662, p<0.001). Significant correlation was found between serum sHLA-G level and placental volume (r = 0.142, p<0.05) and between amniotic sHLA-G level and placental perfusion (r = -0.450, p<0.001). A low amniotic PP13 level significantly predicted the birth weight (r = -0.102, p<0.05), the duration of pregnancy (r = -0.155, p<0.05), and the fetal abdominal circumference (r=-0.098, p<0.05). Conclusions: PP13 assayed in amniotic fluid might be a potential marker of fetal growth and sHLA-G can be an adjunct modality reflecting placental sonographic parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0414.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: endoplasmic reticulum; lipid droplets; peroxisomes; PEX3; protein targeting; membrane protein insertion; protein translocation; label-free quantitative mass spectrometry; differential protein abundance analysis; Zellweger syndrome
Online: 23 November 2021 (09:23:16 CET)
Protein import into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the first step in the biogenesis of about 10,000 different soluble and membrane proteins in humans. It involves co- or post-translational targeting of precursor polypeptides to the ER and their subsequent membrane insertion or translocation. So far, three pathways for ER targeting of precursor polypeptides plus four pathways for ER targeting of mRNAs were described. Typically, these pathways deliver their substrates to the Sec61 polypeptide-conducting channel in the ER membrane. Next, the precursor polypeptides are inserted into the ER membrane or translocated into the ER lumen, which may involve auxiliary translocation components, such as the TRAP and Sec62/Sec63 complexes, or auxiliary membrane protein insertases, such as EMC and the TMCO1 complex. Recently, the PEX19/PEX3-dependent pathway, which has a well-known function in targeting and inserting various peroxisomal membrane proteins into pre-existent peroxisomal membranes, was also found to act in targeting and, putatively, inserting monotopic hairpin proteins into the ER. These either remain in the ER as resident ER membrane proteins or are pinched off from the ER as components of new lipid droplets. Therefore, the question arose if this pathway may play a more general role in ER protein targeting, i.e. represents a fourth pathway for ER targeting of precursor polypeptides. Thus, we addressed the client spectrum of the PEX19/PEX3-dependent pathway in both PEX3-depleted HeLa cells and PEX3-deficient Zellweger patient fibroblasts by an established approach, which involves label-free quantitative mass spectrometry of the total proteome of depleted or deficient cells and differential protein abundance analysis. The negatively affected proteins included twelve peroxisomal proteins and two hairpin proteins of the ER, thus confirming two previously identified classes of putative PEX19/PEX3-clients in human cells. Interestingly, fourteen collagen-related proteins with signal peptides or N-terminal transmembrane helices and belonging to the secretory pathway were also negatively affected by PEX3-deficiency, which may suggest compromised collagen biogenesis as a hitherto unknown contributor to organ failures in the respective Zellweger patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0064.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Overlapping genes; overlapping coding sequences; overlapping reading frames; 9 kDa protein; erythroparvovirus; tetraparvovirus; Y region; Y coding sequence; PLA2
Online: 15 September 2023 (11:31:52 CEST)
Viruses frequently contain overlapping genes, which encode functionally unrelated proteins from the same DNA or RNA region but in different reading frames. Yet overlapping genes are often overlooked during genome annotation, in particular in DNA viruses. Here we looked for the presence of overlapping genes likely to encode a functional protein in human parvovirus B19 (genus erythroparvovirus), using an experimentally validated software, Synplot2. Synplot2 detected an open reading frame, X, conserved in all erythroparvoviruses, which overlaps the VP1 capsid gene, and is under highly significant selection pressure. In a related virus, human parvovirus (genus tetraparvovirus), Synplot2 also detected an open reading frame under highly significant selection pressure, ARF1, which overlaps the VP1 gene. X and ARF1 have exactly the same location (both overlap the region of VP1 encoding the phospholipase A2 domain), and encode proteins with similar predicted properties, such as a transmembrane region, strongly suggesting that they are homologous. These findings provide compelling evidence that the X protein must be expressed and functional. It is probably translated either from a polycistronic mRNA by a non-canonical mechanism, or from an unmapped monocistronic mRNA. Finally, we also discovered proteins predicted to be expressed from a frame overlapping VP1 in other species related to parvovirus B19: porcine parvovirus 2 (Z protein) and bovine parvovirus 3 (X-like protein).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: adeno-associated virus; protein sequence analysis; overlapping genes; amino acid depletion; cysteine depletion; tyrosine depletion; capsid design; membrane-binding amphipathic helix
Online: 17 February 2020 (02:42:39 CET)
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs, genus dependoparvovirus) are promising gene therapy vectors. In strains AAV1-12, the capsid gene VP1 encodes a recently discovered protein, MAAP, in an overlapping frame. MAAP binds the cell membrane by an unknown mechanism. We discovered that MAAP is also encoded in bovine AAV and in porcine AAVs (which have shown promise for gene transfer into muscle tissues), in which it is probably translated from a non-canonical start codon. MAAP is predicted to be mostly disordered except for a predicted C-terminal, membrane-binding amphipathic α-helix. MAAP has a highly unusual composition. In particular, it lacks internal methionines, and is devoid of tyrosines in most strains. Unexpectedly, we discovered that the N-terminus of VP1 also lacks several amino acids. In all AAVs that encode MAAP, the first 200 aas of VP1 are devoid of internal methionines, probably owing to a selection against ATG codons that could prevent translation of MAAP and of capsid isoforms (VP2, VP3). The N-terminus of VP1 also lacks cysteines, likely to avoid the formation of disulfide bridges when it becomes exposed outside of the capsid during post-endocytic trafficking. Finally, the region common to VP1 and VP2 lacks tyrosine in the vast majority of AAVs that encode MAAP. Avoiding these "forbidden" aas in MAAP and VP1 when creating recombinant AAV capsids might increase the efficiency of capsid design. Conversely, the presence of "forbidden" aas in some rare strains probably indicates that they have unusual properties that could help us understand the viral cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0569.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: amino acid analysis; AAA; protein hydrolysis; metrology; traceability; reference materials; internal standards; calibration
Online: 30 November 2022 (09:17:12 CET)
qNMR is a valuable technique for metrological studies due to the uniformity of its signal response for all chemical species of an isotope of interest, which enables compound-independent calibration. However, protein quantification remained challenging as large molecules produce wide, low-intensity signals that reduce the already low sensitivity. Combining qNMR with the hydrolysis of protein samples into amino acids circumvents many of these issues and facilitates the use of NMR spectroscopy for absolute protein and peptide quantification.In this work, different conditions have been tested for quantifying aromatic amino acids and proteins. First, we examined the pH-based signal shifts in the aromatic region. The preferable pH depends on the selection of the amino acids for quantification and which internal standard substance should be used to avoid peak overlap. Several aromatic compounds, such as terephthalic acid, sulfoisophthalic acid, and benzene tricarboxylic acid, have been applied as internal standards. The quantification of amino acids from an amino acid standard, as well as from a certified reference material (bovine serum albumin), was performed. Using the first two suggested internal standards, recovery was ~ 97 % for histidine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine at a concentration of approximately 1 mM in solution. Acidic hydrolysis of a certified reference material (CRM) of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and subsequent quantification of Phe and Tyr yielded recoveries of 98 ± 2 and 88 ± 4 %, respectively, at a protein concentration of 16 g/L or 250 µM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0389.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: adverse remodeling; aldosterone; cardiac myocyte; crosstalk; G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR); GPCR-kinase (GRK); heart failure; inflammation; mineralocorticoid receptor; myocardial infarction; oxidative stress; signal transduction
Online: 16 November 2018 (07:54:04 CET)
The mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone regulates sodium and potassium homeostasis but also adversely modulates the maladaptive process of cardiac adverse remodeling post-myocardial infarction. Through activation of its mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a classic steroid hormone receptor/transcription factor, aldosterone promotes inflammation and fibrosis of the heart, the vasculature, and the kidneys. This is why MR antagonists reduce morbidity and mortality of heart disease patients and are part of the mainstay pharmacotherapy of advanced human heart failure. A plethora of animal studies using cell type–specific targeting of the MR gene have established the importance of MR signaling and function in cardiac myocytes, vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, renal cells, and macrophages. In terms of its signaling properties, the MR is distinct from nuclear receptors in that it has, in reality, two physiological hormonal agonists: not only aldosterone but also cortisol. In fact, in several tissues, including in the myocardium, cortisol is the primary hormone activating the MR. There is a considerable amount of evidence indicating that the effects of the MR in each tissue expressing it depend on tissue- and ligand-specific engagement of molecular co-regulators that either activate or suppress its transcriptional activity. Identification of these co-regulators for every ligand that interacts with the MR in the heart (and in other tissues) is of utmost importance therapeutically, since it can not only help elucidate fully the pathophysiological ramifications of the cardiac MR`s actions but also help design and develop novel better MR antagonist drugs for heart disease therapy. Among the various proteins the MR interacts with are molecules involved in cardiac G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. This results in a significant amount of crosstalk between GPCRs and the MR, which can affect the latter`s activity dramatically in the heart and in other cardiovascular tissues. This review summarizes the current experimental evidence for this GPCR-MR crosstalk in the heart and discusses its pathophysiological implications for cardiac adverse remodeling as well as for heart disease therapy. Novel findings revealing non-conventional roles of GPCR signaling molecules, specifically of GPCR-kinase (GRK)-5, in cardiac MR regulation are also highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0298.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Heterodimeric G protein coupled receptor; saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; differential scanning calorimetry; circular dichroism; intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy
Online: 17 August 2018 (11:15:39 CEST)
Taste signaling is a complex process that is linked to obesity and its associated metabolic syndromes. The sweet taste is mediated through a heterodimeric G protein coupled receptor (GPRC) in a species-specific manner and at multi-tissue specific levels. The sweet receptor recognizes a large number of ligands with structural and functional diversities to modulate different amplitudes of downstream signaling pathway(s). The human sweet-taste receptor has been extremely difficult to study by biophysical methods due to inadequate methods for producing large homogeneous quantities of the taste-receptor protein and a lack of reliable in vitro assays to precisely measure productive ligand binding modes leading to activity upon their interactions with the receptor protein. We report a multimodal high throughput assays to monitor ligand binding, receptor stability and conformational changes to model the molecular interactions between ligand-receptor. We applied saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (STD-NMR) complemented by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy (IF) to characterize binding interactions. Our method using complementary NMR and biophysical analysis is advantageous to study the mechanism of ligand binding and signaling processes in other GPCRs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0478.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antibacterial proteins; encapsulating protein; high molecular-weight bacteriocins; insect patho-genic bacterium; phage tail-like protein; purification methods
Online: 29 August 2022 (09:00:10 CEST)
Brevibacillus laterosporus (Bl) is a Gram-positive and spore-forming bacterium belonging to the Brevibacillus brevis phylogenetic cluster. Globally, insect pathogenic strains of the bacterium have been isolated, characterised, and some activities patented. Two isolates, Bl 1821L and Bl 1951, exhibiting pathogenicity against the diamondback moth and mosquitoes, are under development as a biopesticide in New Zealand. However, due to the suspected activity of putative antibacterial proteins (ABPs), the endemic isolates often grow erratically. Various purification methods including size exclusion chromatography, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, polyethylene glycol precipitation, and ammonium sulphate precipitation employed in this study enabled the isolation of two putative antibacterial proteins of ~30 kD and ~48 kD from Bl 1821L and one putative antibacterial protein of ~30 kD from Bl 1951. Purification of the uninduced cultures of Bl 1821L and Bl 1951 also yielded the protein bands of ~30 kD and ~48 kD on SDS-PAGE which indicated their spontaneous induction. Disc diffusion assay was used to determine the antagonistic activities of the putative ABPs. Subsequent transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination of purified putative antibacterial protein-containing solution showed the presence of encapsulin (~30 kD) and polysheath (~48 kD) like structures. Although only the ~30 kD protein was purified from Bl 1951, both structures were seen in this strain under TEM. Furthermore, while assessing the antibacterial activity of some fractions of Bl 1951 against Bl 1821L in size exclusion chromatography method, population of Bl 1821L persister cells was noted. Overall, this work added a wealth of knowledge for the purification of the HMW proteins (bacteriocins) of the Gram-positive bacteria including Bl.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0205.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: antibody coating; proximity-enhanced reaction; immunoglobulins; IgG; protein A; protein G; bio-interaction; immunoprecipitation; pull-down assay; immunocapture; stabilization; yield; regeneration; nanoparticles; microparticles; biochips; immunosensor; photochemical crosslinker; click chemistry; herceptin; trastuzumab
Online: 18 April 2019 (07:55:11 CEST)
Crosslinking of proteins for their irreversible immobilization on surfaces is a proven and popular method. However, many protocols lead to random orientation and the formation of undefined or even inactive by-products. Most concepts to obtain a more targeted conjugation or immobilization requires the recombinant modification of at least one binding partner, which is often impractical or prohibitively expensive. Here a novel method is presented, which is based on the chemical preactivation of Protein A or G with selected conventional crosslinkers. In a second step, the antibody is added, which is subsequently crosslinked in the Fc part. This leads to an oriented and covalent immobilization of the immunoglobulin with a very high yield. Protocols for Protein A and Protein G with murine and human IgG are presented. This method may be useful for the preparation of columns for affinity chromatography, immunoprecipitation, antibodies conjugated to magnetic particles, permanent and oriented immobilization of antibodies in biosensor systems, microarrays, microtitration plates or any other system, where the loss of antibodies needs to be avoided, and maximum binding capacity is desired. This method is directly applicable even to antibodies in crude cell culture supernatants, raw sera or protein-stabilized antibody preparations without any purification nor enrichment of the IgG. This new method delivered much higher signals as a traditional method and, hence, seems to be preferable in many applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0326.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: 2019-nCoV; 3CLpro protein; Cat's Claw; Uncaria tomentosa; Molecular Modeling
Online: 28 June 2020 (09:05:54 CEST)
COVID-19 is a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Presently, there is no effective treatment for COVID-19. As part of the worldwide efforts to find efficient therapies and preventions, it has been reported the crystalline structure of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease Mpro (also called 3CLpro) bound to a synthetic inhibitor which represents a major druggable target. The druggability of Mpro could be used for discovering drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019. It was carried out a multi-level computational study to evaluate the potential anti-viral properties of the components of the medicinal herb Uncaria tomentosa (Cat´s claw) focusing on the inhibition of Mpro. The in-silico approach starts with protein-ligand docking of 26 Cat’s claw key components followed by ligand pathway calculations, molecular dynamics simulations and MM-GBSA calculation of the free energy of binding for the best docked candidates. The structural bioinformatics approaches led to the identification of three bioactive compounds of Uncaria tomentosa (Speciophylline, Cadambine and Proanthocyanidin B2) with potential therapeutic effects by strong interaction with 3CLpro. Additionally, in silico drug-likeness indices for these components were calculated and show good predicted therapeutic profiles of these phytochemicals. Our findings suggest the potential effectiveness of Cat's claw as complementary and/or alternative medicine for COVID-19 treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0413.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: silver nanoparticles; nanosilver; endocytosis; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; inflammation; wound healing; hypoxia; mitochondria; endoplasmic reticulum stress; unfolded protein response; autophagy; apoptosis; angiogenesis; epigenetics; genotoxicity; cancer; anti-cancer
Online: 28 May 2018 (15:51:12 CEST)
Nanosilver plays an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, and is becoming increasingly used for applications in nanomedicine. Nanosilver ranges in size from one to one hundred nanometers. Smaller particles more readily enter cells and interact with the cellular components. The exposure dose, particle size, coating, and aggregation state of the nanosilver, as well as the cell type or organism that it is tested on, all have a large determining factor on the effect and potential toxicity of nanosilver. A high exposure dose to nanosilver alters the cellular stress responses and initiates cascades of signaling that can eventually trigger organelle autophagy and apoptosis. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the effects of nanosilver on cellular metabolic function and response to stress. Both the causative effects of nanosilver on oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and hypoxic stress, as well as the effects of nanosilver on the responses to such stresses, are outlined. The interactions and effects of nanosilver on cellular uptake, oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species), inflammation, hypoxic response, mitochondrial function, endoplasmic reticulum function and the unfolded protein response, autophagy and apoptosis, angiogenesis, epigenetics, genotoxicity, and cancer development and tumorigenesis, as well as other pathway alterations are examined in this review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0642.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: copper; mercury; cadmium; oxidative stress; protein carbonylation; translation factors; oxidative stress biomarkers
Online: 26 September 2020 (14:46:39 CEST)
The impact of metals bioaccumulation on marine organisms is under investigation. This study was designed to determine the association of oxidative stress in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis induced by seawater enriched with trace metals with protein synthesis. Mussels were exposed to 40 μg/L Cu, 30 μg/L Hg, or 100 μg/L Cd for 5 and 15 days, and the pollution effect was evaluated by measuring established oxidative biomarkers. The results showed damage on the protein synthesis machine integrity and specifically, on translation factors and ribosomal proteins expression and modifications. Exposure of mussels to all metals caused oxidative damage that was milder in the cases of Cu and Hg, and more pronounced for Cd. However, after prolonged exposure of mussels to Cd (15 days), the effects receded. These changes that perturb protein biosynthesis can serve as a great tool for elucidating the mechanisms of toxicity and could be integrated in biomonitoring programs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0606.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: alcoholic fatty liver; adenosine monophosphate activated kinase; sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor , oxidative stress; cytochrome P450 2E1
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:38:13 CEST)
Alcohol effects on hepatic lipid metabolism through various mechanisms, leading synergistically to an accumulation of fatty acids (FA) and triglycerides. Obesity, as well as, the dietary fat [saturated fatty acids (FA) versus poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)] may modulate the hepatic fat. Alcohol inhibits adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK). AMPK activates peroxisome proliferators activated receptor a (PPARα) and leads to a decreased activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SRABP1c). The inhibition of AMPK, and thus of PPARα results in an inhibition of FAs oxidation. This ß-oxidation is further reduced due to mitochondrial damage induced through cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) driven oxidative stress. Furthermore, the synthesis of FAs is stimulated through an activation of SHREP1. In addition, alcohol consumption leads to a reduced production of adiponectin in adipocytes due to oxidative stress and to an increased mobilization of FAs from adipose tissue and from the gut as chylomicrons. On the other side, the secretion of FAs via very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) from the liver is inhibited by alcohol. Alcohol also affects signal pathways such as early growth response 1 (Egr-1) associated with the expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF), and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) a key regulator of autophagy. Both have influence the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver. Alcohol-induced gut dysbiosis is contributing to the severity of ALD by increasing metabolism of ethanol in the gut and promoting intestinal dysfunction. Moreover, pathogen associated molecular paterns (PAMPS) via specific Toll-like receptors (TLR) bacterial overgrowth is leading to the translocation of bacteria. Endotoxins, and toxic ethanol metabolites enter the enterohepatic circulation reaching the liver, inducing the activation of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NFB) pathway. Pro-inflammatory cytokines released in the process contribute to inflammation and fibrosis. In addition, cellular apoptosis is inhibited in the favor of necrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0096.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: aluminum oxide; sapphire; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; nickel chelate; EDTAD; protein affinity enrichment; hexaHis-Tag; his6; 6xHis; his8; bioseparation; IMAC purification; immunocapture; enrichment; affinity chromatography; solid phase; carrier; material; corundum; nickel; recombinant protein; Escherichia coli; bacterial lysates; protein A/G; cytoplasm
Online: 6 April 2023 (12:37:55 CEST)
Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) is a popular and valuable method for the affinity purification of polyhistidine-tagged recombinant proteins. However, it often shows practical limitations, which might require cumbersome optimizations, additional polishing, and enrichment steps. Here, we present functionalized corundum particles for the efficient, economical, and fast purification of recombinant proteins in a column-free format. The corundum surface is first derivatized with the amino silane APTES, then EDTA dianhydride, and subsequently loaded with nickel ions. The Kaiser test, well-known in solid-phase peptide synthesis, was used to monitor amino silanization and the reaction with EDTA dianhydride. In addition, ICP-MS was performed to quantify the metal-binding capacity. His-tagged protein A/G (PAG), mixed with bovine serum albumin (BSA), was used as a test system. The PAG binding capacity was around 3 mg protein per gram of corundum. Cytoplasm obtained from different E. coli strains was examined as an example of a complex matrix. The imidazole concentration was varied in the loading and washing buffers. As expected, higher imidazole concentrations during loading are usually beneficial when higher purities are desired. Even when higher sample volumes, such as one liter, were used, recombinant protein down to a concentration of 1 µg/mL could be isolated selectively. Comparing the corundum material with standard Ni-NTA agarose beads indicated higher purities of proteins isolated using corundum. His6-MBP-mSA2, a fusion protein consisting of monomeric streptavidin and maltose-binding protein in the cytoplasm of E. coli, was purified successfully. To show that this method is also suitable for mammalian cell culture supernatants, purification of the SARS-CoV-2-S-RBD His8 expressed in human Expi293F cells was performed. The material cost of the nickel-loaded corundum material (without regeneration) is estimated to be less than 30 cents for 1 gram of functionalized support or 10 cents per milligram of isolated protein. Another advantage of the novel system is the corundum particles' extremely high physical and chemical stability. The new material should be applicable in small laboratories and large-scale industrial applications. In summary, we could show that this new material is an efficient, robust, and cost-effective purification platform for the purification of His-tagged proteins, even in challenging, complex matrices and large sample volumes of low product concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0494.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Latent membrane protein 1; Epstein-Barr virus; Herpesvirus; Proteomics; Mass spectrometry; interactions; signaling; extracellular vesicles; exosomes; CD63; Tetraspanin
Online: 22 February 2021 (16:27:27 CET)
Abstract Tetraspanin CD63 is a cluster of cell surface proteins with four transmembrane domains which associates with tetraspanin-enriched microdomains and typically localizes to late endosomes and lysosomes. CD63 plays an important role in cellular trafficking of different proteins, EV cargo sorting and vesicles formation. We have preciously shown that CD63 is important in LMP1 trafficking to EVs and this also affects LMP1 mediated intracellular signaling including MAPK/ERK, NF-κB and mTOR activation. Using the BioID combined with mass spectrometry, we sought to define the broad CD63 interactome and how LMP1 modulates this network of interacting proteins. We identified a total of 1600 total proteins as proximal interacting newtwork of proteins to CD63. Biological process enrichment analysis revealed significant involvement in signal transduction, cell communication, protein metabolism and transportation. The CD63 only interactome was enriched in Rab GTPases, SNARE proteins and sorting nexins while adding LMP1 into the interactome increased presence of signaling and ribosomal proteins. Our results showed that LMP1 alters the CD63 interactome, shifting the network of proteins enrichment from protein localization and vesicle mediated transportation to metabolic processes and translation. We also show that LMP1 interacts with mTor, Nedd4L and PP2A indicating formation of a multiprotein complex with CD63 thereby potentially regulating LMP1 dependent mTor signaling. Collectively, the comprehensive analysis of CD63 proximal interacting proteins provides insights into network of partners required for endocytic trafficking, extracellular vesicle cargo sorting, formation and secretion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: glycosylation, glycoengineering, biologic, therapeutic protein, gene therapy, cell-based therapy, monoclonal antibody
Online: 3 March 2023 (10:43:51 CET)
Over recent decades, therapeutic proteins have had widespread success in treating a myriad of diseases. Glycosylation, a near universal feature of this class of drugs, is a critical quality attribute that significantly influences the physical properties, safety profile and biological activity of therapeutic proteins. Optimizing protein glycosylation, therefore, offers an important avenue to developing more efficacious therapies. In this review, we discuss specific examples of how variations in glycan structure and glycoengineering impacts the stability, safety, and clinical efficacy of protein-based drugs that are already in the market as well as those that are still in preclinical development. We also highlight the impact of glycosylation on next generation biologics such as T cell-based cancer therapy and gene therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0217.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Paramyxoviridae; virulence factor; overlapping genes; protein structure; viral evolutio
Online: 12 January 2023 (08:50:26 CET)
The protein C is a small viral protein encoded in an overlapping frame of the P gene in the sub-family Orthoparamyxovirinae. This protein, expressed by alternative translation initiation, is a virulence factor that regulates viral transcription, replication and production of defective interfering RNA, interferes with the host-cell innate immunity systems and supports assembly of viral particles and budding. We expressed and purified full-length and an N-terminally truncated C protein from Tupaia paramyxovirus (TupV) C protein (genus Narmovirus). We solved the crystal structure of the C-terminal part of TupV C protein at a resolution of 2.4 Å and found that it is structurally similar to Sendai virus C protein, suggesting that despite undetectable sequence conservation, these proteins are homologous. We characterized both truncated and full-length proteins by SEC-MALLS and SEC-SAXS and described their solution structures by ensemble models. We established a minireplicon assay for the related Nipah virus (NiV) and showed that TupV C inhibited the expression of NiV minigenome in a concentration-dependent manner as efficiently as NiV C protein. A previous study found that the Orthoparamyxovirinae C proteins former two clusters without detectable sequence similarity, raising the question of whether they were homologous or instead had originated independently. Since TupV C and SeV C are representative of these two clusters, our discovery that they have a similar structure indi-cates that all Orthoparamyxovirine C proteins are homologous. Our results also imply that, strik-ingly, a STAT1-binding site is encoded by exactly the same RNA region of the P/C gene across Paramyxovirinae, but in different reading frames (P or C) depending on which cluster they belong to.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0480.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: In-field; Spectroscopy; Image analysis; Machine Learning; Protein; Grain size.; Grain colour
Online: 28 March 2023 (09:39:53 CEST)
This review focuses on developments that quantify grain quality with a range of spectral sensors in an on-farm setting. If the application of sensor technologies were expanded and adopted on-farm, growers could identify the impact and manage the harvesting operation to meet a range of quality targets and provide an economic advantage to the farming enterprise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0319.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cytokine; S100 protein; S100P; protein–protein interaction
Online: 21 September 2022 (09:45:39 CEST)
S100 proteins are multifunctional calcium-binding proteins of vertebrates that act intracellularly, extracellularly, or both, and are engaged in the progression of many socially significant diseases. Their extracellular action is typically mediated by the recognition of specific receptor proteins. Besides, recent studies indicate the ability of some S100 proteins to affect cytokine signaling through direct interaction with cytokines. S100P was shown to be the S100 protein most actively involved in interactions with some of four-helical cytokines. To assess selectivity of S100P protein binding to four-helical cytokines, we have probed interaction of Ca2+-bound recombinant human S100P with a panel of 32 four-helical human cytokines covering all structural families of this fold, using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. 22 cytokines from all families of four-helical cytokines are S100P binders with the equilibrium dissociation constants, Kd, ranging from 1 nM to 3 µM (below the Kd value for the S100P complex with the V domain of its conventional receptor, receptor for advanced glycation end products, RAGE). Molecular docking and mutagenesis studies revealed the presence in the S100P molecule of a cytokine-binding site, which overlaps with the RAGE-binding site. Since S100 binding to four-helical cytokines inhibits their signaling in some cases, the revealed ability of S100P protein to interact with ca 71% of the four-helical cytokines indicates that S100P may serve as a poorly selective inhibitor of their action.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Angiotensin II; Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; COVID-19; Brain; Dementia; Furin; Neurological disorders; SARS-CoV-2; Spike protein.
Online: 31 October 2023 (14:53:01 CET)
Neurological disorders have been reported to occur in a large number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, suggesting that this disease may also exert long-term adverse neurological consequences. COVID-19 occurs due to the infection by a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The membrane fusion protein of SARS-CoV-2, the spike protein, binds to its human host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), to initiate membrane fusion between the virus and host cell. The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 contains the furin protease recognition site and its cleavage enhances the infectivity of this virus. The binding of SARS-CoV-2 to the ACE2 receptor has been shown to downregulate ACE2, thereby increasing the levels of pathogenic angiotensin II (Ang II). The furin protease cleaves between S1 subunit of the spike protein with the binding domain toward ACE2 and S2 subunit with transmembrane domain that anchors to the viral membrane, and this activity releases the S1 subunit into the blood circulation. The released S1 subunit of the spike protein would also bind to and downregulate ACE2, in turn, increasing the level of Ang II. Considering that a viral particle contains a number of the spike protein molecules, furin-dependent cleavage would release a large number of free S1 proteins each of which can downregulate ACE2, while the infection with a viral particle only affects one ACE2 molecule. Therefore, the furin-dependent release of S1 protein would dramatically amplify the ability to downregulate ACE2 and produce Ang II. We hypothesize that this amplification mechanism that the virus possesses, but not the infection per se, is the major driving force behind the neurological disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0222.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: myelin; myelination; development; peripheral neuropathies; protein folding; transmembrane protein; protein-membrane interaction; protein-protein interaction
Online: 13 May 2020 (04:51:20 CEST)
Myelin protein zero (P0), a type I transmembrane protein, is the most abundant protein in peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin – the lipid-rich, periodic structure that concentrically encloses long axonal segments. Schwann cells, the myelinating glia of the PNS, express P0 throughout their development until the formation of mature myelin. In the intramyelinic compartment, the immunoglobulin-like domain of P0 bridges apposing membranes together via homophilic adhesion, forming a dense, macroscopic ultrastructure known as the intraperiod line. The C-terminal tail of P0 adheres apposing membranes together in the narrow cytoplasmic compartment of compact myelin, much like myelin basic protein (MBP). In mouse models, the absence of P0, unlike that of MBP or P2, severely disturbs the formation of myelin. Therefore, P0 is the executive molecule of PNS myelin maturation. How and when is P0 trafficked and modified to enable myelin compaction, and how disease mutations that give rise to incurable peripheral neuropathies alter the function of P0, are currently open questions. The potential mechanisms of P0 function in myelination are discussed, providing a foundation for the understanding of mature myelin development and how it derails in peripheral neuropathies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Baroenzymology; Cryoenzymology; Intrinsic disorder; Intrinsically disordered proteins; Macromolecular crowding; Nanomaterials; Partially folded intermediate; Protein denaturation; Protein engineering; Protein flexibility; Protein folding; Protein function; Protein stability; Protein structure; Protein refolding; Protein unfolding
Online: 3 January 2023 (06:48:30 CET)
Transition between the unfolded and native states of the ordered globular proteins is accompanied by accumulation of several intermediates, such as pre-molten globule, wet molten globule, and dry molten globule. Structurally equivalent conformations can serve as native functional states of intrinsically disordered proteins. This overview captures the characteristics and importance of these molten globules in both structured and intrinsically disordered proteins. It also discusses examples of engineered molten globules. The formation of these intermediates under the conditions of macromolecular crowding and their interactions with nanomaterials are also reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0298.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Affinity chromatography; matrix; solid support; resin; support materials; glass filter; glass frit; high-pressure; HPLC; FPLC; antibodies; immunoglobulins; purification; downstream processing; protein purification; preparative; analytical; separation; clean-up; automation
Online: 11 March 2021 (08:37:01 CET)
A novel stationary phase for affinity separations is presented. This material is based on sintered borosilicate glass readily available as semi-finished filter plates with defined porosity and surface area. The material shows fast binding kinetics and excellent long-term stability under real application conditions due to lacking macropores and high mechanical rigidity. The glass surface can be easily modified with standard organosilane chemistry to immobilize selective binders or other molecules used for biointeraction. In this paper, the manufacturing of the columns and their respective column holders by 3D printing is shown in detail. The model system protein A/IgG was chosen as an example to examine the properties of such monolithic columns under realistic application conditions. Several specifications, such as (dynamic) IgG capacity, pressure stability, long-term performance, productivity, non-specific binding, and peak shape, are presented. It could be shown that due to the very high separation speed, 250 mg antibody per hour and column can be collected, which surpasses the productivity of most standard columns of the same size. The total IgG capacity of the shown columns is around 4 mg (5.5 mg/mL), which is sufficient for most tasks in research laboratories. The cycle time of an IgG separation can be less than 1 minute. Due to the glass material's excellent pressure resistance, these columns are compatible with standard HPLC systems. This is usually not the case with standard affinity columns, limited to manual use or application in low-pressure systems. The use of a standard HPLC system also improves the ability for automation, which enables the purification of hundreds of cell supernatants in one day. The sharp peak shape of the elution leads to an enrichment effect, which might increase the concentration of IgG by a factor of 3. The final concentration of IgG can be around 7.5 mg/mL without the need for an additional nanofiltration step. The purity of the IgG was > 95% in one step and nearly 99% with a second polishing run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0355.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: rice protein; spirulina protein; pea protein; soy protein; plant-based diet; thermal properties; rheological properties; protein processing
Online: 6 November 2023 (13:48:26 CET)
Reducing meat consumption is better for the environment. Unfortunately, commercial plant-based meat substitutes are often more expensive than meat and thus have not seen widespread adoption. This paper analyzes commercially-available spirulina, soy, pea, and brown rice protein isolates characteristics to provide data for non-meat protein cost reductions. Thermal and rheological properties, viscosity, density, and particle size distribution are analyzed for further study on alternative protein-based food processing. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis produced dry amorphous-shaped curves and paste curves with a more distinct endothermic peak. Extracted linear temperature ranges for processing in food production for spirulina was 70-90ºC; soy protein was 87-116ºC; pea protein was 67-77ºC; and brown rice protein was 87-97ºC. Viscosity analysis determined each protein material was shear-thinning and that viscosity increased with decreased water concentration, with rice being an exception to the latter trend. The obtained viscosity range for spirulina was 15,100-78,000cP; soy protein was 3,200-80,000cP; pea protein was 1,400-32,700cP; and brown rice protein was 600-3,500cP. The results indicate that extrusion is a viable method for further processing of the protein isolates as this technique has a large temperature operating range and variable screw speed. Data provided here can be used to make single or multi-component protein substitutes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0376.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: myelin; intrinsically disordered protein; multiple sclerosis; peripheral neuropathies; myelination; protein folding; protein-membrane interaction; protein-protein interaction
Online: 31 January 2020 (04:55:04 CET)
Myelin ensheathes selected axonal segments within the nervous system, resulting primarily in nerve impulse acceleration, as well as mechanical and trophic support for neurons. In the central and peripheral nervous systems, various proteins that contribute to the formation and stability of myelin are present, which also harbour pathophysiological roles in myelin disease. Many myelin proteins share common attributes, including small size, high hydrophobicity, multifunctionality, longevity, and intrinsic disorder. With recent advances in protein biophysical characterization and bioinformatics, it has become evident that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are abundant in myelin, and their flexible nature enables multifunctionality. Here, we review known myelin IDPs, their conservation, molecular characteristics and functions, and their disease relevance, along with open questions and speculations. We place emphasis on classifying the molecular details of IDPs in myelin and correlate these with their various functions, including susceptibility to post-translational modifications, function in protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions, as well as their role as extended entropic chains. We discuss how myelin pathology can relate to IDPs and which molecular factors are potentially involved.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0313.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: diagnosis; distribution; emaraviruses; forest trees; Fimoviridae; genome organization; phylogenetic relations; protein domains; symptomatology; transmission
Online: 20 October 2022 (14:09:37 CEST)
: Emaravirus (Order Bunyavirales; Family Fimoviridae) is a genus comprising over 20 emerging plant viruses with a worldwide distribution and economic impact. Emaraviruses infect a variety of host plants and have especially become prevalent in important long-living woody plants. These viruses are enveloped, with a segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome and are transmitted by eriophyid mites or mechanical transmission. Emaraviruses have four core genome segments encoding an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, a glycoprotein precursor, a nucleocapsid protein, and a movement protein. They also have additional genome segments, whose number varies widely. We report here that the proteins encoded by these segments form three main homology groups: a homolog of the sadwavirus Glu2 Pro glutamic protease; a protein involved in pathogenicity, which we named “ABC”; and a protein of unknown function, which we named “P55”. The distribution of these proteins parallels the emaravirus phylogeny and suggests, with other analyses, that emaraviruses should be split into at least two genera. Reliable diagnosis systems are urgently needed to detect emaraviruses, assess their economic and ecological importance, and take appropriate measures to prevent their spread (such as routine testing, hygiene measures, and control of mite vectors). Additional research needs include understanding the function of emaravirus proteins, breeding resistant plants and clarifying transmission modes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: AT-hook motif nuclear protein 18; AHL18; At3G60870; Arabidopsis; Lateral root development; Root apical meristem; Cell proliferation
Online: 4 March 2020 (04:40:34 CET)
The AT-HOOK MOTIF NUCLEAR LOCALIZED PROTEIN (AHL) gene family encodes embryophyte-specific nuclear proteins with DNA binding activity. They modulate gene expression and affect various developmental processes in plants. We identify AHL18 (At3G60870) as a developmental modulator of root system architecture and growth. AHL18 regulates the length of the proliferation domain and number of dividing cells in the root apical meristem and thereby, cell production. Both primary root growth and lateral root development respond according to AHL18 transcription level. The ahl18 knock-out plants show reduced root systems due to a shorter primary root and a lower number of lateral roots. This change results from a higher number of arrested and non-developing lateral root primordia (LRP) rather than from decreased initiation. Overexpression of AHL18 results in a more extensive root system, longer primary roots, and increased density of lateral root initiation events. Formation of lateral roots is affected during the initiation of LRP and later development. AHL18 regulate root apical meristem activity, lateral root initiation and emergence, which is in accord with localization of its expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0531.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Rabies; intrinsic disorder; intrinsically disordered protein; intrinsically disordered protein region; protein-protein interaction
Online: 31 August 2022 (03:47:31 CEST)
Rabies is a neurological disease that causes between 40,000 and 70,000 deaths every year. Once a rabies patient has become symptomatic, there is no effective treatment for the illness, and in unvaccinated individuals, the case-fatality rate of rabies is close to 100%. French scientists Louis Pasteur and Émile Roux developed the first vaccine for rabies in 1885. If administered before the virus reaches the brain, the modern rabies vaccine imparts long-lasting immunity to the virus and saves more than 250,000 people every year. However, the rabies virus can suppress the host’s immune response once it has entered the cells of the brain, making death likely. This study aims to make use of disorder-based proteomics and bioinformatics to determine the impact that intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs) in the proteome of the rabies virus have on the infectivity and lethality of the disease. This study uses the proteome of Rabies Lyssavirus (RABV) strain Pasteur Vaccins (PV), one of the best understood strains due to its use in the first rabies vaccine, as a model. The study suggests that the high levels of intrinsic disorder in the phosphoprotein (P-protein) and nucleoprotein (N-protein) allow them to participate in creation of the Negri bodies and help this virus suppress the antiviral immune response in the host cells. Additionally, the study suggests that there is a link between disorder in the matrix (M) protein and the modulation of viral transcription. The disordered regions in the M protein have a possible role in initiating viral budding within the cell. Furthermore, we checked the prevalence of functional disorder in a set of 37 host proteins directly involved in the interaction with the RABV proteins. The hope is that these new insights will aid in the development of treatments for rabies that are effective after infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2030.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cytokine; EF-hand; S100 protein; S100A6; protein–protein interaction
Online: 28 July 2023 (12:40:50 CEST)
S100 is a family of over 20 structurally homologous, but functionally diverse regulatory (calcium/zinc)-binding proteins of vertebrates. The involvement of S100 proteins in numerous vital (patho)physiological processes is mediated by their interaction with various (intra/extra)cellular protein partners, including cell surface receptors. Furthermore, recent studies revealed the ability of specific S100 proteins to affect cell signaling via direct interaction with cytokines. Previously, we have revealed binding of ca. 71% of the four-helical cytokines by S100P protein due to the presence in its molecule of a cytokine-binding site, which overlaps with the binding site for S100P receptor. Here we show that another S100 protein, S100A6 (pairwise sequence identity with S100P of 35%), specifically binds numerous four-helical cytokines. We have studied affinity of recombinant forms of 35 human four-helical cytokines covering all structural families of this fold to Ca2+-loaded recombinant human S100A6, using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. S100A6 recognizes 26 of the cytokines from all families of this fold with the equilibrium dissociation constants ranging from 0.3 nM to 12 µM. Overall, S100A6 interacts with ca. 73% of the four-helical cytokines studied to date with selectivity equivalent to that for S100P protein, with the differences limited to binding of Interleukin-2 and Oncostatin-M. The molecular docking study evidences presence in S100A6 molecule of a cytokine-binding site, analogous to that found in S100P. The findings argue the presence in some of the promiscuous members of S100 family of a site specific to a wide range of the four-helical cytokines. This unique feature of the S100 proteins potentially allows them to serve as universal inhibitors of signaling of the four-helical cytokines, which could be of value for reduction of severity of the disorders accompanied by excessive release of the cytokines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1412.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Protein fortification; whey protein concentrate; isolated soy protein; Biscuits
Online: 19 May 2023 (08:34:32 CEST)
The main objective of this study is to compare and investigate the proximate, sensory parameters of the biscuits fortified with (1) whey protein concentrate (WPC), (2) isolated soy protein (ISP) at various proportions as a source of protein enrichment. The fortified biscuits were analysed for sensory and proximate analysis. The study evaluated and compared the effect of fortifying whey protein concentrate and isolated soy protein at various proportions T0 control (0%), T1 (5%), T2 (10%), T3 (15%), T4 (20%). The protein content in both WPC and ISP samples tends to increase, but much higher in WPC formulated biscuits. At 20% WPC the protein content peaked to 29.11%, other nutritional components such as fat, ash, fibre and moisture content of WPC samples increased significantly, whereas no such significant changes were observed and only linear increase of protein content were in ISP fortified samples. The sensory analysis of ISP fortified samples were acceptable up to 10% proportion, exceeding 10% showed unacceptable results, on comparison WPC biscuits were acceptable at all proportions, more desirable at 20% WPC. Conclusively, fortifying biscuits with either WPC or ISP might be a source of protein without any significant effect on the quality of biscuits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0602.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SFTSV; Viral protein; Protein-protein interaction; In-vitro and in-silico; Nonstructural protein(NSs)
Online: 8 August 2023 (04:26:30 CEST)
The non-structural protein (NS) and nucleoprotein (NP) of the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) encoded by the S segment are crucial for viral pathogenesis. They reside in viroplasm-like structures (VLS), but their interaction and their significance in viral propagation remain unclear. Here, we investigated the significance of the association between NS and NP during viral infection through in-silico and in-vitro analyses. Through in-silico analysis, three possible binding sites were predicted, at NSs1-32, NSs56-82, and NSs207-237. Rationally, three mutant NSs were developed by site-directed mutagenesis and tested for NP interaction by co-immunoprecipitation. NSsW61Y failed to interact with the nucleoprotein, which was substantiated by the conformational changes observed in the structural analyses. Additionally, molecular docking analysis corroborated that the NSW61Y mutant protein does not interact well compared to wild-type NS. Over-expression of wild-type NS in HeLa cells increased the SFTSV replication by five folds, but NSsW61Y exhibited 1.9-folds less viral replication than wild-type. We demonstrated that the W61Y alteration was implicated in the reduction of NS-NP interaction and viral replication. Thus, the present study identified a critical NS site, which could be targeted for development of therapeutic regimens against SFTSV.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0444.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Avenanthramide; AKT-Protein kinase B; Alzheimer's disease; Parkinson's disease; oxidative stress; neuroprotection
Online: 7 August 2023 (02:28:52 CEST)
Avenanthramides (Avns) and its derivatives, a group of polyphenolic compounds found abundantly in Oats (Avena sativa Linn.) have emerged as a promising candidate for neuroprotection due to their immense anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), characterized by progressive degeneration of neurons, present a significant global health burden with limited therapeutic options. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling pathway plays a crucial role in cell survival, growth, and metabolism, making it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Dysregulation of PI3K signalling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various NDDs including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Avns has been shown to modulate PI3K/AKT signalling, leading to increased neuronal survival, reduced oxidative stress, and improved cognitive function. This review explores the potential of Avns polyphenols, as modulators of the PI3K signalling pathway focusing on their beneficial effects against NDDs. Further, we outlined the need for clinical exploration to elucidate the specific mechanisms of Avns action on the PI3K/AKT pathway and its potential interactions with other signalling cascades involved in neurodegeneration. Based on the available literature using relevant keywords from Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science, our review emphasizes the potential of Avns as a therapeutic strategy for NDDs and warrants further investigation and clinical exploration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Posttranslational modifications (PTMs); Protein tyrosine sulfation (PTS); Protein–protein interaction
Online: 3 November 2020 (14:36:25 CET)
Protein tyrosine sulfation (PTS), a vital post-translational modification, facilitates protein–protein interactions and regulates many physiological and pathological responses. Monitoring PTS has been difficult owing to the instability of sulfated proteins and the lack of a suitable method for detecting the protein sulfate ester. In this study, we combined an in situ PTS system with an ultra-high-sensitivity polysilicon nanowire field-effect transistor (pSNWFET)-based sensor to directly monitor PTS formation. A peptide containing the tyrosine sulfation site of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (PSGL)-1 was immobilized onto the surface of the pSNWFET by using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde as linker molecules. A coupled enzyme sulfation system consisting of tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase and phenol sulfotransferase was used to catalyze PTS of the immobilized PSGL-1 peptide. Enzyme-catalyzed sulfation of the immobilized peptide was readily observed through the shift of the drain current–gate voltage curves of the pSNWFET before and after PTS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to describe in situ PTS and its direct observation by using semiconductor devices. We expect that this approach can be developed as a next generation biochip for biomedical research and industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0052.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: protein–protein interaction networks; protein function module; simplified swarm optimization
Online: 15 February 2017 (10:17:35 CET)
Proteomics research has become one of the most important topics in the fields of life science and natural science. At present, research on protein–protein interaction networks (PPINs) mainly focuses on detecting protein complexes or function modules. However, existing approaches are either ineffective or incomplete. In this paper, we investigate function module detection mechanisms in PPIN, including open databases, existing detection algorithms and recent solutions. After that, we describe the proposed solution based on simplified swarm optimization (SSO) algorithm and gene ontology knowledge. The proposed solution implements SSO algorithm for clustering proteins with similar function, and imports biological gene ontology knowledge for further identifying function complexes and improving detection accuracy. Furthermore, we use four different categories of species dataset for experiment: Fruitfly, Mouse, Scere, and Human. The testing and analysis result show that the proposed solution is feasible, efficient and could achieve a higher accuracy of prediction than existing approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0159.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant PII protein; protein-protein interaction; PII foci; BiFC; FRET/FLIM; plastidic protein degradation; cpUPR
Online: 8 November 2021 (15:30:44 CET)
The PII protein is an evolutionary highly conserved regulatory protein from bacteria to higher plants. In bacteria it modulates the activity of several enzymes, transporters and regulatory factors by interacting with them and thereby regulating important metabolic hubs like carbon/nitrogen homeostasis. More than two decades ago the PII protein was characterized for the first time in plants, but its physiological role is still not sufficiently resolved. To gain more insights into the function of this protein, we investigated the interaction behaviour of AtPII with candidate proteins by BiFC and FRET/FLIM in planta and with GFP/RFP traps in vitro. In the course of these studies we found that AtPII interacts in chloroplasts with itself as well as with known interactors like NAGK in dot-like aggregates, which we named PII foci. In these novel protein aggregates AtPII interacts also with yet unknown partners, which are known to be involved in plastidic protein degradation. Further studies revealed that the C-terminal part of AtPII is crucial for the formation of PII foci. Altogether, the presented results indicate a novel mode of interaction for PII proteins with other proteins in plants, which may be a new starting point for the elucidation of physiological functions of PII proteins in plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0034.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Hemopexin; Hemoglobin; protein-protein binding; hemin
Online: 2 March 2022 (06:56:02 CET)
Abstract: Background: Hemopexin (Hx) is a plasma glycoprotein that scavenges heme (Fe(III) protoporphyrin IX), Hx have important implication in hemolytic disorders and hemorrhagic condition because the release of hemoglobin increase labile heme, which is potentially toxic producing oxidative stress. Hx has been considered for therapeutic use and diagnostics. In this work, we analyzed and mapped interaction sequences of Hx with hemin and hemoglobin (2) Methods: Spot-synthesis technique was used to map human hemopexin (P02790) binding to hemin and human hemoglobin, a library of 15 amino acid peptides with a 10-amino acid overlap was designed to represent the entire coding region (aa 1-462) of hemopexin and synthesized onto cellulose membranes. In silico approach was performed to analyze amino acid frequency in identified interaction regions, and molecular docking was applied for protein-protein interaction (3) Results: Seven linear peptide sequences in Hx were identified to bind hemin (H1-H7), and five were described for Hb (Hb1-Hb5) interaction, with just two sequences shared between hemin and Hb. Amino acid composition of identified sequences demonstrated that Histidine residues are relevant for heme binding, H105, H293, H373, H400, H429, and H462 was distributed in H1-H7 peptide sequences, but other residues may also play an important role. Molecular docking analysis demonstrated Hx association with the β-chain of Hb, with several hot spot amino acids that coordinated interaction. (4) Conclusions: This study highlights new insights on Hx-hemin binding motifs and protein-protein interactions with Hb. Binding sequences and identified specific peptides can be used for therapeutic purposes and diagnostics, as hemopexin is under investigation to treat different diseases, and there is an urgent need for diagnostics of labile heme for monitoring hemolysis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0309.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: tuberculosis; Mycobacterium; protein-protein interactions; virulence
Online: 29 August 2019 (08:46:44 CEST)
Studies on Protein-Protein interactions (PPI) can be helpful for the annotation of unknown protein function and for the understanding of cellular processes, such as specific virulence mechanisms developed by bacterial pathogens. In that context, several methods have been extensively used in recent years for the characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPI to further decipher TB pathogenesis. This review aims at compiling the most striking results based on in vivo methods (yeast and bacterial two-hybrid systems, protein complementation assays) for the specific study of PPI in mycobacteria. Moreover, newly developed methods, such as in-cell native mass resonance and proximity-dependent biotinylation identification, will have a deep impact on future mycobacterial research, as they are able to perform dynamic (transient interactions) and integrative (multiprotein complexes) analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0313.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cytokine; Tumor necrosis factor; S100 protein; protein–protein interaction; inflammatory diseases
Online: 16 November 2022 (13:12:59 CET)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors (anti-TNFs) represent a cornerstone of the treatment of various immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and are among the most commercially successful therapeutic agents. Knowledge of TNF binding partners is critical for identification of the factors able to affect clinical efficacy of the anti-TNFs. Here we report that among eighteen representatives of the multifunctional S100 protein family only S100A11, S100A12 and S100A13 interact with the soluble form of TNF (sTNF) in vitro. The lowest equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) for the complexes with monomeric sTNF determined using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy range from 2 nM to 28 nM. The apparent Kd values for the complexes of multimeric sTNF with S100A11/A12 estimated from fluorimetric titrations are 0.1-0.3 µM. S100A12/A13 suppress the cytotoxic activity of sTNF against Huh-7 cells, as evidenced by the MTT assay. Structural modeling indicates that the sTNF-S100 interactions may interfere with the sTNF recognition by the therapeutic anti-TNFs. Bioinformatic analysis reveals dysregulation of TNF and S100A11/A12/A13 in numerous disorders. Overall, we have shown a novel potential regulatory role of the extracellular forms of specific S100 proteins that may affect efficacy of anti-TNF treatment in various diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0065.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: memory formation; moonlighting protein; protein-protein interaction; astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle
Online: 5 May 2020 (06:09:47 CEST)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a molecular basis of memory formation. Here, we demonstrate that LTP critically depends on muscle fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase 2 (Fbp2) – a glyconeogenic enzyme and moonlighting protein protecting mitochondria against stress. We show that LTP induction regulates Fbp2 association with neuronal mitochondria and Camk2, and that the Fbp2-Camk2 interaction correlates with Camk2 autophosphorylation. Silencing of Fbp2 expression or simultaneous inhibition and tetramerization of the enzyme with a synthetic effector mimicking the action of physiological inhibitors (NAD+ and AMP) abolishes Camk2 autoactivation and blocks formation of the early phase of LTP and expression of the late phase LTP markers. Astrocyte-derived lactate reduces NAD+/NADH ratio in neurons and thus, diminishes the pool of tetrameric and increases the fraction of dimeric Fbp2. We therefore hypothesize that this NAD+-level-dependent increase of the Fbp2 dimer/tetramer ratio might be a crucial mechanism in which astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle stimulates LTP formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0281.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: protein structural dynamics; NQO1; ligand binding; protein stability; allostery; protein degradation
Online: 24 October 2019 (15:41:46 CEST)
Human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a multi-functional protein whose alteration is associated with cancer, Parkinson´s and Alzheimer´s diseases. NQO1 displays a remarkable functional chemistry, capable of binding different functional ligands that modulate its activity, stability and interaction with proteins and nucleic acids. Our understanding on this functional chemistry is limited by the difficulty of obtaining structural and dynamic information on many of these states. Herein, we have used hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass-spectrometry (HDXMS) to investigate the structural dynamics of NQO1 in three ligation states: without ligands (NQO1apo), with FAD (NQO1holo) and with FAD and the inhibitor dicoumarol (NQO1dic). We show that NQO1apo has a minimally stable folded core holding the protein dimer and with FAD and dicoumarol ligand binding sites populating binding non-competent conformations. Binding of FAD significantly decreases protein dynamics and stabilizes the FAD and dicoumarol binding sites as well as the monomer:monomer interface. Dicoumarol binding further stabilizes all three functional sites, a result not previously anticipated by available crystallographic models. Our work provides an experimental perspective into the communication of stability effects through the NQO1 dimer, valuable to understand at the molecular level the effects of disease-associated variants, post-translation modifications and ligand binding cooperativity in NQO1.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae; protein purification; protein labelling; seleno-methionine; DNA-protein interactions
Online: 20 May 2019 (10:03:26 CEST)
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an pathogenic and opportunistic Gram-positive bacteria that is the leading cause of community acquired respiratory diseases, varying from mild- to deathly- infections. Appearance of antibiotic resistant isolates has prompted the search for novel targets. One of the most promising approaches is the structure-based knowledge of possible targets in conjunction to rational design and docking of inhibitors of the chosen targets. A useful technique to help solving protein structures is to label them with a heavy atom, like selenium, that facilitates tracing of the some of the amino acid residues. We have chosen two pneumococcal DNA-binding proteins, namely the relaxase domain of MobM protein from plasmid pMV158, and the RelB-RelE antitoxin-toxin protein complex. Through the update of a previous protocol  that uses seleno-L-methionine, we could achieve 100% labelling of the proteins. Furthermore, the labelled proteins retained full activity as judged from relaxation of supercoiled plasmid DNA and from gel-retardation assays.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0012.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: surface functionalization; biosensor functionalization; protein immobilization; protein structure analysis; protein immobilization
Online: 1 March 2018 (16:43:35 CET)
Proteins play a major role in biosensors in which they provide catalytic activity and specificity in molecular recognition. The immobilization process is however far from straightforward as it often affects the protein functionality. An extensive interaction of the protein with the surface or a significant surface crowding can lead to changes in the mobility and conformation of the protein structure. This review will provide an insight of how the analysis of the physico-chemical features of the protein surface features before the immobilization process can help to identify the optimal immobilization approach to preserve the functionality of the protein when on the surface of the biosensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0189.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: protein; plant-based protein; whey protein; essential amino acids; leucine, healthy men
Online: 16 November 2019 (00:58:01 CET)
This study assessed bio-equivalence of high-quality, plant-based protein blends versus Whey Protein Isolate (WPI) in healthy, resistance-trained men. The primary endpoint was incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of blood essential Amino Acids (eAAs) 4 hours after consumption of each product. Cmax and Tmax of blood leucine were secondary outcomes. Subjects (n=18) consumed three plant-based protein blends and WPI (control). Analysis of Variance model was used to assess for bio-equivalence of total sum of blood eAA concentrations. The total blood eAA iAUC ratios of the three blends were: [90% CI]: #1: 0.66 [0.58-0.76]; #2: 0.71 [0.62-0.82]; #3: 0.60 [0.52-0.69], not completely within the pre-defined equivalence range [0.80-1.25], indicative of 30-40% lower iAUC versus WPI. Leucine Cmax of the three blends was not equivalent to WPI, #1: 0.70 [0.67-0.73]; #2: 0.72 [0.68-0.75]; #3: 0.65 [0.62 – 0.68], indicative of a 28-35% lower response. Leucine Tmax for two blends were similar to WPI (#1: 0.94 [0.73-1.18]; #2: 1.56 [1.28-1.92]; #3: 1.19 [0.95-1.48]). The plant-based protein blends were not bio-equivalent. However, blood leucine kinetic data across the blends approximately doubled from fasting concentrations whereas blood Tmax data across two blends was similar to WPI. This suggests evidence of rapid hyperleucinemia, which correlates with a protein’s anabolic potential.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1840.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: HSP90 protein; HSC70 protein; docking study; hypericin
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:58:27 CET)
Heat Shock Proteins play a crucial role in maintaining cellular integrity during thermal stress conditions, acting as chaperones and participating in the regulation of cellular responses. The focus was to contribute valuable insights into the potential role of hypericin in modulating these heat shock proteins and its implications for anti-tumoral properties. This study employs computational methods, specifically molecular docking, to investigate the potential biological interactions between the chaperone proteins HSP90 and HSC70 and Hypericin, a natural compound recognized for its anti-tumor properties. Despite the limited existing studies in this domain, this research aims to uncover structural insights into the binding mechanisms between Hypericin and these heat shock proteins. In the docking assessments, hypericin demonstrated notable binding energy results, exhibiting a binding energy of -10.5 kcal/mol with Heat Shock Cognate 71 kDa protein and -11.2 kcal/mol with Heat Shock Protein HSP90-alpha.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1362.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: AAPH; Protein oxidation; Myofibrillar protein; Gel properties
Online: 18 August 2023 (11:47:21 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical properties and gel-forming capacity of duck myofibrillar proteins under the effects of 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-mediated oxidation. Duck myofibrillar proteins were extracted and treated with different concentrations of AAPH solutions (0, 1, 3, 5, 10 mmol/L) and then analysed for carbonyl content, dynamic rheology, protein profiles and gel-forming properties (colour, water holding capacity, hardness, protein profile, microstructure). The results showed that with increasing AAPH concentration, the carbonyl content of protein showed an increasing trend (p < 0.05); SDS-PAGE pattern results indicated that moderate oxidation (3 mmol/L AAPH) induced myosin aggregation via covalent bonds including disulfide, enhanced protein-protein, and thus improved protein-water interactions and gel strength of DMPs heat-induced gels. However, high oxidation (5 and 10 mmol/L AAPH) led to partial degradation of myosin heavy chain (MHC), as evidenced by lower storage modulus and irregular microstructure, which significantly reduced gelation ability. These results suggest that the internal relationship between alkanoperoxy radical-induced oxidation should be taken into account in the processing of duck meat, as mild protein oxidation is conducive to improving gel quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0130.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Zika virus; non-structural protein 1; site-directed mutagenesis; polyclonal antibodies; antigen-capture ELISA
Online: 5 August 2021 (09:11:41 CEST)
Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family, typically results in mild self-limited illness, but severe neurological disease occurs in a limited subset of patients. In contrast, serious outcomes commonly occur in pregnancy that affect the developing fetus, including microcephaly and other major birth defects. The genetic similarity of ZIKV to other widespread flaviviruses, such as dengue virus (DENV), presents a challenge to the development of specific ZIKV diagnostic assays. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is established for use in immunodiagnostic assays for flaviviruses. To address the cross-reactivity of ZIKV NS1 with proteins from other flaviviruses we used site-directed mutagenesis to modified putative epitopes. Goat polyclonal antibodies to variant ZIKV NS1 were affinity-purified to remove antibodies binding to the closely related NS1 protein of DENV. An antigen-capture ELISA configured with the affinity-purified polyclonal antibody showed a linear dynamic range between approximately 500 to 30 ng/mL, with a limit of detection of between 1.95 and 7.8 ng/mL. NS1 proteins from DENV, yellow fever virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus showed significantly reduced reactivity in the ZIKV antigen-capture ELISA. Refinement of approaches similar to those employed here could lead to development of ZIKV-specific immunoassays suitable for use in areas where infections with related flaviviruses are common.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0003.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein engineering; creation of an entirely new protein; pluripotency of an immature protein; GC-NSF(a) hypothesis; protein 0th-order structure; origin of protein
Online: 1 March 2021 (12:41:07 CET)
Proteins having a variety of functions play many essential roles in maintaining various life activities in organisms. Various methods, by which new protein functions can be artificially produced, have progressed rapidly upon development in recombinant DNA technology and effective screening techniques. However, the obtainable scope of the new functions has been restricted in a narrow range, because only functions of presently existing proteins can be used. On the other hand, it has been considered that it would be impossible to create an entirely new protein, which does not show any meaningful homology with any other amino acid sequences of previously existing proteins. The reason is because one amino acid sequence for a protein cannot be selected out from an extraordinary large amino acid sequence diversity as ~10130. As a matter of course, it is impossible to design an amino acid sequence of a protein in advance and a gene encoding the protein cannot be also formed through random process. Nevertheless, extant organisms have generated a variety of entirely new proteins in some way to make full use of them. This means that extant organisms have equipped a mechanism with which entirely new proteins can be produced under the present core life system composed of protein, tRNA (genetic code) and gene. In this article, first I introduce the mechanism, with which entirely new proteins are created in extant organisms, and further propose a novel strategy for application of the mechanism to protein engineering through creation of entirely new proteins, which could contribute to development of various industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0267.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: myofibrillar protein; sulfhydryl-blocking agent; disulfide bond; protein-stabilized emulsions; interface protein membrane
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:21:59 CEST)
To investigate the role of sulfhydryl groups and disulfide bonds in different protein-stabilized emulsions, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) was used as sulfhydryl-blocking agent to be added in the emulsion. The addition of NEM to block the sulfhydryl groups resulted in a reduction of the content of disulfide bonds formation, which enabled destruction of the internal structure of the protein molecule, and then decreased the restriction of protein membrane on the oil droplets. Furthermore, with NEM content increasing in the emulsion, a reduction of protein emulsifying activity and emulsion stability also occurred. At the same time, the intermolecular interaction of the protein on the oil droplet interface membrane was destroyed, and the emulsion droplet size increased with the NEM content in the emulsion. Although NEM blocking sulfhydryl groups not to form disulfide bonds has similar effects on three types of protein emulsion, the degree of myofibrillar protein (MP), egg-white protein isolate (EPI), and soybean protein isolate (SPI) as emulsifier had a subtle difference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein-protein interactions; PDZ domains; choanoflagellates; evolution; target selectivity; protein-peptide interactions; signaling
Online: 15 September 2021 (12:25:01 CEST)
Choanoflagellates are single-celled eukaryotes with complex signaling pathways. They are considered the closest non-metazoan ancestors to mammals and other metazoans, and form multicellular-like states called rosettes. The choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis contains over 150 PDZ domains, an important peptide-binding domain in all three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya). Therefore, an understanding of PDZ domain signaling pathways in choanoflagellates may provide insight into the origins of multicellularity. PDZ domains recognize the C-terminus of target proteins and regulate signaling and trafficking pathways, as well as cellular adhesion. Here, we developed a computational program, Domain Analysis and Motif Matcher (DAMM), that predicts target specificity in choanoflagellate PDZ domains by analyzing peptide-binding cleft sequence identity as compared to human PDZ domains. We used this program, protein biochemistry, fluorescence polarization, and structural analyses to characterize the specificity of A9UPE9_MONBE, a M. brevicollis PDZ domain-containing protein with no homology to any metazoan protein, finding that its PDZ domain is most similar to those of the DLG family. We then identified two endogenous sequences that bind A9UPE9 PDZ with <100 M affinity, a value commonly considered the threshold for cellular PDZ-peptide interactions. Taken together, this approach can be used to predict cellular targets of previously uncharacterized PDZ domains in choanoflagellates and other organisms. Our data contributes to investigations into choanoflagellate signaling and how it informs metazoan evolution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0339.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: neurodegeneration, glucose metabolism, enzyme catalysis, protein-protein interaction, hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry, protein cross-linking, protein assembly, molecular modeling
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:19:30 CEST)
The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHc) is a key enzyme in the TCA cycle and represents one of the major regulators of mitochondrial metabolism through NADH and reactive oxygen species levels. The OGDHc impacts cell metabolic and cell signaling pathways through the coupling of 2-oxoglutarate metabolism to gene transcription related to tumor cell proliferation and aging. DHTKD1 is a gene encoding 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase (E1a), which functions in the L-lysine degradation pathway. The potentially damaging variants in DHTKD1 have been associated to the (neuro) pathogenesis of several diseases. Evidence was obtained for the formation of a hybrid complex between the OGDHc and E1a, suggesting a potential cross talk between the two metabolic pathways and raising fundamental questions about their assembly. Here we reviewed the recent findings and advances in understanding of protein-protein interactions in OGDHc and 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase complex (OADHc), an understanding that will create a scaffold to help design approaches to mitigate the effects of diseases associated with dysfunction of the TCA cycle or lysine degradation. A combination of biochemical, biophysical and structural approaches such as chemical cross-linking MS and cryo-EM appears particularly promising to provide vital information for the assembly of 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes, their function and regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0195.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: artificial intelligence; protein structure; protein modeling; nanobody; antibody
Online: 11 April 2023 (05:13:24 CEST)
The number of applications for nanobodies is steadily expanding, positioning these molecules as fast-growing biologic products in the biotechnology market. Several of their applications require protein engineering, which in turn would greatly benefit from having a reliable structural model of the nanobody of interest. However, as with antibodies, structural modeling of nanobodies is still a challenge. With the rise of artificial intelligence (AI), several methods have been developed in recent years that attempt to solve the problem of protein modeling. In this study, we have compared the performance in nanobody modeling of several state-of-the-art AI-based programs, either designed for general protein modeling, such as AlphaFold2, OmegaFold, ESMFold and Yang-Server, or specifically designed for antibody modeling, such as IgFold, and Nanonet. While all these programs performed rather well in constructing the nanobody framework and CDRs 1 and 2, modeling of CDR3 sill represents a big challenge. Interestingly, tailoring an AI method for antibody modeling does not necessarily translate into better results for nanobodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0384.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Silybum Marianum; Molecular Docking; Parp Protein; 4UND protein
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:14:01 CEST)
Silybum Marianum, is a plant belonging to the family Asteraceae. For many centuries it has been used a natural remedy for many diseases like Liver and Biliary tract diseases. It is effective as an anti-oxidant and is used in a variety of diseases. This study was conducted to check the effects of Silybum Marianum on PARP protein (4UND protein).The Molecular Docking techniques was chosen to check the effects of different chemical constituents of Silybum marianum on DNA damaging protein. For this purpose, different PARP inhibitor drugs were taken as standard. The Molecular Docking of the chemical constituents of Silybum marianum was performed using 4UND protein with the help of PyRx software along with BIOVIA Drug Discovery studio software. The result of molecular docking showed that some of the chemical constituent have higher binding affinity than standard PARP inhibitor drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0161.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein splicing; intein; crystal structure; hyperthermophile; protein engineering
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:29:29 CEST)
Inteins are prevalent among extremophiles. Mini-inteins with robust splicing properties are of particular interest for biotechnological applications due to their small size. However, biochemical and structural characterization has still been limited to a small number of inteins, and only a few inteins serve as widely used tools in protein engineering approaches. We determined the crystal structure of a naturally-occurring Pol-II mini-intein from Pyrococcus horikoshii and compared it with two other natural mini-inteins from Pyrococcus horikoshii. Despite the similar sizes, the comparison revealed distinct differences in insertions and deletions, implying specific evolutionary pathways from distinct ancestral origins. Our studies suggest that sporadically distributed mini-inteins might be more promising for further protein engineering applications than the highly conserved mini-inteins. Structural investigations of more inteins could guide the shortest path to finding novel robust mini-inteins suitable for protein engineering purposes.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: astrocytes; calcineurin; GLAST; protein synthesis; protein degradation; proteostasis
Online: 15 March 2020 (01:39:55 CET)
Alterations in the expression of glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) have been associated with several neuropathological conditions including Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy. However, the mechanisms by which GLAST expression is altered are poorly understood. Here we used a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches coupled with quantitative PCR and Western blot to investigate the mechanism of the regulation of GLAST expression by a Ca2+/calmodulin-activated phosphatase calcineurin (CaN). We show that treatment of cultured hippocampal mouse and fetal human astrocytes with a CaN inhibitor FK506 resulted in a dynamic modulation of GLAST protein expression, being downregulated after 24-48 h, but upregulated after 7 days of continuous FK506 (200 nM) treatment. Protein synthesis, as assessed by puromycin incorporation in neo-synthesized polypeptides, was inhibited already after 1 h of FK506 treatment, while the use of a proteasome inhibitor MG132 (1 μM) shows that GLAST protein degradation was only suppressed after 7 days of FK506 treatment. In astrocytes with constitutive genetic ablation of CaN both protein synthesis and degradation were significantly inhibited. Taken together, our data suggest that, in cultured astrocytes, CaN controls GLAST expression at a posttranscriptional level through regulation of GLAST protein synthesis and degradation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0140.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein crystallization; protein sample qualification; JAXA PCG; microgravity
Online: 15 December 2019 (13:43:29 CET)
We summarize how to obtain protein crystals from which better diffraction images can be obtained. In particular, we describe in detail the quality evaluation of the protein sample, the crystallization methods and crystallization conditions, the flash-cooling protection of the crystal, and the crystallization under a microgravity environment.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: conformation of protein; albumin protein; non-gaussian chain
Online: 7 August 2019 (09:59:10 CEST)
We study a conformation of an albumin protein in the temperature range of 300K-315K, i.e. in the physiological range of temperature. Using simulations we calculate values of two backbone angles, that carry most of information about positioning of the protein chain in a conformational space. Given these, we calculate energy components of such protein. Further, using the Flory theory we determine the temperature in which investigated albumin chain model is closest to the free joined chain model. Near the Flory temperature, we study energy components and the conformational entropy, both derived from two angles that reflect most of the chain dynamics in a conformational space. We show that the conformational entropy is an oscillating function of time in considered range of temperature. Our finding is that, the only regular oscillation pattern appears near the Flory temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0386.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: gelatinized starch; maltose-binding protein; microplate based assay; protein-protein interaction; dissociation constant determination
Online: 22 February 2023 (14:53:42 CET)
The detection and quantification of protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is a crucial technique that often involves the use of recombinant proteins with fusion-protein tags, such as maltose-binding protein (MBP) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). In this study, we improved the cohesive and sticky properties of gelatinized starch by supplementing it with agarose, resulting in a harder gel that could coat the bottom of a microtiter plate. The resulting gelatinized starch/agarose mixture allowed for the efficient immobilization of MBP-tagged proteins on the coated plates, enabling the use of indirect ELISA-like PPI assays. By using the enzymatic activity of GST as an indicator, we succeeded in determining the dissociation constants between MBP-tagged and GST-tagged proteins on 96-well microtiter plates and a microplate reader without any expensive specialized equipment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0346.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: G-protein-coupled-receptors; GPCRs; Membrane protein; Protein-lipid interactions; Cholesterol; Class C GPCRs
Online: 19 January 2023 (06:32:01 CET)
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), one of the largest superfamilies of cell-surface receptors, are heptahelical integral membrane proteins that play critical roles in virtually every organ system. G-protein-coupled receptors operate in membranes rich in cholesterol, with an imbalance in cholesterol level within the vicinity of GPCR transmembrane domains affecting the structure and/or function of many GPCRs, a phenomenon that has been linked to several diseases. These effects of cholesterol could result in indirect changes by altering the mechanical properties of the lipid environment or direct changes by binding to specific sites on the protein. There are a number of studies and reviews on how cholesterol modulates class A GPCRs, however, this area of study is yet to be explored for class C GPCRs, which are characterized by a large extracellular region and often form constitutive dimers. This review highlights specific sites of interaction, functions, and structural dynamics involved in the cholesterol recognition of the class C GPCRs. We summarize recent data from some typical family members to explain the effects of membrane cholesterol on the structural features and functions of Class C GPCRs and speculate on their corresponding therapeutic potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0355.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: developmental delay; de novo mutation; protein-protein interaction; PPI interface; protein in-teractome; PsymuKB
Online: 19 August 2022 (04:50:42 CEST)
Mutations, especially those at the protein-protein interaction (PPI) interface, have been associated with various diseases. Meanwhile, though de novo mutations (DNMs) have been proven important in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as developmental delay (DD), the relationship between PPI interface DMNs and DD has not been well studied. Here we curated developmental delay DNM datasets from the PsyMuKB database and showed that DD patients showed a higher rate and deleteriousness in DNM missense on the PPI interface than sibling control. Next, we identified 302 DD-related PsychiPPIs, defined as PPI harboring a statistically significant number of DNM missenses at their interface, and 42 DD candidate genes from PsychiPPI. We then observed that PsychiPPIs preferentially affected hub proteins in the human protein interactome network. When analyzing DD candidate genes using gene ontology and gene spatio-expression, we found that PsychiPPI genes carrying PPI interface mutations, such as FGFR3 and ALOX5, were enriched in development-related pathways and the development of the neocortex, and cerebellar cortex, suggesting their potential involvement in the etiology of DD. Our results demonstrated that DD patients carried an excess burden of PPI-truncating DNM, which could be used to efficiently search for disease-related genes and mutations in large-scale sequencing studies. In conclusion, our comprehensive study indicated the significant role of PPI interface DNMs in developmental delay pathogenicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0318.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; three-finger toxins; acetylcholine binding protein; protein – protein docking; computational modeling
Online: 14 August 2020 (09:57:35 CEST)
Three finger toxins (3FTX) are a group of peptides that affect multiple receptor types. One group of proteins affected by 3FTX are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Structural information on how neurotoxins interact with nAChR is limited and are confined to a small group of neurotoxins. Therefore, in silico methods are valuable in understanding the interactions between 3FTX and different nAChR subtypes, but there are no established protocols to model 3FTX – nAChR interactions. We developed a homology modeling and protein docking protocol to address this issue and tested its success on three different systems. First, neurotoxin peptides co-crystallized with acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) were re-docked to assess whether Rosetta protein – protein docking can reproduce the native poses. Second, experimental data on peptide binding to AChBP was used to test whether the docking protocol can qualitatively distinguish AChBP-binders from non-binders. Finally, we docked eight peptides with known α7 and muscle-type nAChR binding properties to test whether the protocol can explain the differential activities of the peptides at the two receptor subtypes. Overall, our docking protocol succeeded in predicting both qualitative and specific aspects of 3FTX binding to nAChR and shed light on some unknown aspects of 3FTX binding to different receptor subtypes.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0126.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein-protein interaction; protein-peptide interaction; triglycine; substrate binding site; peptide; inhibitor; Proteinase K
Online: 11 August 2019 (08:37:08 CEST)
Various peptides or non-structural amino acids are recognized by their specific target proteins and perform biological role in various pathways in vivo. Understanding the interactions between target protein and peptides (or non-structural amino acids) provides key information on the molecular interactions, which can be potentially translated to the development of novel drugs. However, it is experimentally challenging to determine the crystal structure of protein-peptide complexes. To obtain structural information on substrate recognition of peptide-recognizing enzyme, X-ray crystallographic studies were performed using triglycine (Gly-Gly-Gly) as main-chain of peptide. The crystal structure of Parengyodontium album Proteinase K in complex with triglcyine was determined at 1.4 Å resolution. Two different bound conformations of triglycine were observed at the substrate recognition site. The triglycine backbone forms stable interactions with β5-α4 and α5-β6 loops of main-chain. One of the triglycine-binding conformations was identical with the binding mode of a peptide-based inhibitor from a previously reported crystal structure of Proteinase K. Triglycine has potential application X-ray crystallography to identify substrate recognition sites in peptide binding enzymes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0015.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: fusion proteins; protein therapeutics; ricin; pokeweed antiviral protein; protein engineering; immunotoxins; ribosome-inactivating proteins.
Online: 1 May 2017 (10:51:21 CEST)
Fusion protein therapeutics engineering is advancing to meet the need for novel medicine. Herein, we further characterize the development of novel RTA & PAP-S1 antiviral fusion proteins. In brief, RTA/PAP-S1 and PAP-S1/RTA fusion proteins were produced in both cell free and E. coli in vivo expression systems, purified by His-tag affinity chromatography, and protein synthesis inhibitory activity assayed by comparison to the production of a control protein, CalmL3. Results showed that the RTA/PAP-S1 fusion protein is amenable to standardized production and purification and has both increased potency and less toxicity compared to either RTA or PAP-S1 alone. Thus, this research highlights the developmental potential of novel fusion proteins with reduced cytotoxic risk and increased potency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: tyrosine; Locus Coeruleus; protein intake; attention; grey matter; neuroimaging; diet; healthy aging
Online: 17 April 2023 (05:00:06 CEST)
Background & aims It is documented that low protein and amino-acid dietary intake is related to poorer cognitive health and increased risk of dementia. Degradation of the neuromodulatory pathways, (comprising the cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotoninergic and noradrenergic systems) is observed in neurodegenerative diseases and impairs the proper biosynthesis of key neuromodulators from micro-nutrients and amino acids. How these micro-nutrients are linked to neuromodulatory pathways in healthy adults is less studied. The Locus Coeruleus–Noradrenergic System (LC-NA) is the earliest subcortical structure affected in Alzheimer’s disease, showing marked neurodegeneration, but is also sensitive for age-related changes. The LC-NA system is critical for supporting attention and cognitive control, functions that are enhanced both by tyrosine administration and chronic tyrosine intake. The purpose of this study was to 1) investigate whether the dietary intake of tyrosine, the key precursor for noradrenaline (NA), is related to LC integrity 2) whether LC integrity mediates the reported association between tyrosine intake and higher cognitive performance (measured with Trail Making Test – TMT), and 3) whether LC integrity relates to an objective measure of brain maintenance (BrainPAD). Methods The analyses included 398 3T MRIs of healthy participants from the Berlin Aging Study II to investigate the relationship between LC integrity and habitual dietary tyrosine intake-daily average (HD-Tyr-IDA). As a control procedure, the same analyses were repeated on other main seeds of the neuromdulatory subcortical system (Dorsal and Medial Raphe, Ventral Tegmental Area and Nucleus Basalis of Meynert). In the same way, the relationships between the five nuclei and BrainPAD were tested. Results Results show that HD-Tyr-IDA is positively associated with LC integrity. Similarly, LC integrity disproportionally relates to better brain maintenance (BrainPAD). Mediation analyses reveal that only LC, relative to the other nuclei tested, mediates the relationship between HD-Tyr-IDA I and performance in the TMT and between HD-Tyr-IDA and BrainPAD. Conclusions These findings provide the first evidence linking tyrosine intake with LC-NA system integrity and its correlation with neuropsychological performance. This study strengthens the role of diet for maintaining brain and cognitive health and supports the noradrenergic theory of cognitive reserve. Within this framework, adequate tyrosine intake might increase the resilience of LC-NA system functioning, by preventing degeneration and supporting noradrenergic metabolism required for LC function and neuropsychological performance.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography; human immunodeficiency virus; matrix protein; inositol hexaphosphate; ambient temperature
Online: 25 March 2019 (11:56:24 CET)
The Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) matrix (MA) domain is involved in the highly regulated assembly process of the virus particles that occur at the host cell’s plasma membrane. High-resolution structures of the MA domain determined using cryo X-ray crystallography have provided initial insights into the possible steps in the viral assembly process. However, these structural studies have relied on large and frozen crystals in order to reduce radiation damage caused by the intense X-rays. Here, we report the first XFEL study of the HIV-1 MA domain’s interaction with inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), a phospholipid headgroup mimic. We also describe the purification, characterization and microcrystallization of two MA crystal forms obtained in the presence of IP6. In addition, we describe the capabilities of serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to elucidate the diffraction data of MA-IP6 complex microcrystals in liquid suspension at ambient temperature. Two different microcrystal forms of MA-IP6 complex both diffracted to beyond 3.5 Å resolution, demonstrating the feasibility of using SFX to study the complexes of MA domain of HIV-1 Gag polyprotein with IP6 at near-physiological temperatures. Further optimization of the experimental and data analysis procedures will lead to better understanding of the MA domain of HIV-1 Gag and IP6 interaction at high resolution and provide basis for optimization of the lead compounds for efficient inhibition of the Gag protein recruitment to the plasma membrane prior to virion formation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0539.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Protein-Protein Interaction; Medical Diagnostic; Cell Imaging and Signaling; Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence; Protein dynamics.
Online: 7 August 2023 (11:50:41 CEST)
Live cell imaging is a powerful technique to study the dynamics and mechanics of various biological molecules like proteins, organelles, DNA, and RNA. With the rapid evolution of optical microscopy, our understanding of how these molecules is implicated in the cells’ most critical physiological roles deepens. Here in this review, we focus on how spatiotemporal nanoscale live cell imaging on a single molecule level allows for profound contributions towards new discoveries in life science. This review will start by summarizing how single molecule tracking has been used to analyze membrane dynamics, receptor ligand interactions, protein-protein interactions, inner- and extracellular transport, gene expression/transcription, and whole organelle tracking. We then move on to how current authors are trying to improve single molecule tracking and overcome current limitations by offering new ways in labeling protein of interests, multi-channel/color detection, improvements in time laps imaging, and new methods and programs to analyze colocalization and movement of targets. We later discuss how single molecule tracking can be a beneficial tool used for medical diagnosis. Finally wrapping up with limitation and future perspective of single molecule tracking and total internal refection microscopy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0168.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: heat shock proteins; co-chaperones; protein quality control; protein folding; protein degradation; cardioprotection; neuroprotection; cancer
Online: 11 October 2021 (14:38:49 CEST)
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a family of molecular chaperones that regulate essential protein refolding and triage decisions to maintaining protein homeostasis. Numerous co-chaperone proteins directly interact and modify the function of HSPs, and these interactions impact the outcome of protein triage, impacting everything from structural proteins to cell signaling mediators. The chaperone/co-chaperone machinery protects against various stressors to ensuring cellular function in the face of stress. However, coding mutations, expression changes, and post-translational modifications of the chaperone/co-chaperone machinery can alter the cellular stress response. Importantly, these dysfunctions appear to contribute to numerous human diseases. Therapeutic targeting of chaperones is an attractive but challenging approach due to the vast functions of HSPs, likely contributing to the off-target effects of these therapies. Current efforts focus on targeting co-chaperones to develop precise treatments for numerous diseases caused by defects in protein quality control. This review focuses on the recent developments regarding selected HSP70/HSP90 co-chaperones, focusing on cardioprotection, neuroprotection, and cancer. We also discuss therapeutic approaches that highlight both the utility and challenges of targeting co-chaperones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0541.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: 3D printing; biomimetic; poly (lactic acid); spheroids; bone repair; 3D printed scaffold; bone morphogenetic protein 2; biomimetic apatite.
Online: 21 December 2020 (16:48:39 CET)
This study aimed to assess the response of 3D printed PLA scaffolds biomimetically coated with apatite on human primary osteoblast spheroids and evaluate the biological response to its association with Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (rhBMP-2) in rat calvaria. PLA scaffolds were produced via 3D printing, soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution, and characterized by physical-chemical, morphological, and mechanical properties. The in vitro biological response was assessed with human primary osteoblast (HOb) spheroids. The in vivo analysis was conducted through the implantation of 3D printed PLA scaffolds either alone, covered by apatite (PLA-CaP) or PLA-CaP loaded with rhBMP-2 (PLA-CaP+rhBMP-2) on critical-sized defects (8 mm) of rat calvaria. Increased cell adhesion and in vitro release of growth factors (PDGF, bFGF, VEGF) was observed for PLA-CaP scaffolds when pre-treated with FBS. PLA-CaP+BMP2 presented higher values of newly formed bone (NFB) than other groups at all experimental periods (p<0.05), attaining 44.85% of NFB after 6 months. These findings indicate that functionalization of PLA scaffolds with biomimetic apatite can improve its biological properties in the presence of complex biological media. Its association with BMP2 may enhance bone repair, suggesting this strategy as a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0476.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: arrestin; structure-function; GPCR; receptor binding; protein-protein interactions
Online: 18 April 2023 (04:02:29 CEST)
Arrestin-1, or visual arrestin, exhibits an exquisite selectivity for light-activated phosphorylated rhodopsin (P-Rh*) over its other functional forms. That selectivity is believed to be mediated by two well-established structural elements in the arrestin-1 molecule, the activation sensor detecting the active conformation of rhodopsin and the phosphorylation sensor responsive to the rhodopsin phosphorylation, which only active phosphorylated rhodopsin can engage simultaneously. However, in the crystal structure of the arrestin-1-rhodopsin complex there are arrestin-1 residues located close to rhodopsin, which do not belong to either sensor. Here we tested by site-directed mutagenesis the functional role of these residues in wild type arrestin-1 using direct binding assay to P-Rh* and light-activated unphosphorylated rhodopsin (Rh*). We found that many mutations either enhanced the binding only to Rh* or increased the binding to Rh* much more than to P-Rh*. The data suggest that the native residues in these positions act as binding suppressors, specifically inhibiting the arrestin-1 binding to Rh* and thereby increasing arrestin-1 selectivity for P-Rh*. This calls for the modification of a widely accepted model of the arrestin-receptor interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0435.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika virus; ZIKV; the Numb protein; the Capsid protein
Online: 17 April 2023 (09:49:56 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and causes an infection that is associated with neurological manifestations, including microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome. The mechanism of ZIKV-mediated neuropathogenesis is not well understood. In this study, we discovered that ZIKV induces the degradation of the Numb protein, which plays a crucial role in neurogenesis by allowing asymmetric cell division during embryonic development. Our data show that ZIKV reduced the Numb protein level in a time- and dose-dependent manner. However, ZIKV infection appears to have minimal effect on the Numb transcript. Treatment of ZIKV-infected cells with a proteasome inhibitor restores the Numb protein level, which suggests the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In addition, ZIKV infection shortens the half-life of the Numb protein. Among the ZIKV proteins, the capsid protein significantly reduces the Numb protein level. Immunoprecipitation of the Numb protein co-precipitates the capsid protein, indicating the interaction between these two proteins. These results provide insights into the ZIKV-cell interaction that might contribute to its impact on neurogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0369.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: cell biology; protein sorting; nuclear translocation; protein domain; WAC
Online: 22 February 2023 (02:37:35 CET)
Dysfunction of the WW domain-containing adaptor with coiled-coil, WAC, gene underlies a rare autosomal dominant disorder, DeSanto-Shinawi syndrome (DESSH). DESSH is associated with facial dysmorphia, hypotonia, and cognitive alterations, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism. How the WAC protein localizes and functions in neural cells is critical to understanding its role during development. To understand the genotype-phenotype role of WAC, we developed a knowledgebase of WAC expression, evolution, human genomics, and structural/motif analysis combined with human protein domain deletions to assess how conserved domains guide cellular distribution. Then assessed in a cell type implicated in DESSH, cortical GABAergic neurons. WAC contains conserved charged amino acids, phosphorylation signals, and enriched nuclear motifs, suggesting a role in cellular signaling and gene transcription. Human DESSH variants are found within these regions. We also discovered and tested a nuclear localaization domain that impacts the cellular distribution of the protein. These data provide new insights into the potential roles of this critical developmental gene, establishing a platform to assess further translational studies, including the screening of missense genetic variants in WAC. Moreover, these studies are essential for understanding the role of human WAC variants in more diverse neurological phenotypes, including autism spectrum disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Stroke; Periodontitis; Periodontal disease; protein-protein network interaction; Bioinformatics
Online: 1 February 2021 (16:45:13 CET)
The clinical interaction between stroke and periodontitis has been consistently studied and confirmed. Hence, forecasting potentially new protein interactions in this association using bioinformatic strategies presents potential interest. In this exploratory study, we conducted a protein-protein network interaction (PPI) search with documented encoded proteins for both stroke and periodontitis. Genes of interest were collected via GWAS database. The STRING database was used to predict the PPI networks, first in a sensitivity purpose (confidence cut-off of 0.7), and then with a highest confidence cut-off (0.9). Genes over-representation was inspected in the final network. As a result, we foresee a prospective protein network of interaction between stroke and periodontitis. Inflammation, pro-coagulant/pro-thrombotic state and ultimately atheroma plaque rupture is the main biological mechanism derived from the network. These pilot results may pave the way to future molecular and therapeutic studies to further comprehend the mechanisms between these two conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0126.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: CCNB1; BUB1B; TTK; lung cancer; protein‑protein interaction network
Online: 10 June 2020 (05:12:20 CEST)
Lung cancer predominates in cancer-related deaths worldwide, with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) being a common histological subtype of lung cancer. The aim at this study was to search for biomarkers associated with the progression and prognosis of LUAD. We have integrated the expression profiles of 1174 lung cancer patients from five GEO datasets (GSE18842, GSE19804, GSE30219, GSE40791 and GSE68465) and identified a set of differentially expressed genes. Functional enrichment analysis showed that these genes are closely related to the progression of LUAD, such as cell cycle, mitosis and adhesion. Cytoscape software was used to establish a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network to analyze important modules using Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE), and finally CCNB1, BUB1B and TTK were selected for further study. The study found that compared with non-tumor lung tissue, CCNB1, BUB1B and TTK are highly expressed in LUAD. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that CCNB1, BUB1B and TTK were negatively correlated with the overall survival and disease-free survival of patients. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) demonstrated that for the samples of any hub gene highly expressed, most of the functional gene sets enriched in cell cycle. In summary, CCNB1, BUB1B and TTK can be used as biomarkers of poor prognosis of LUAD. The high expression of CCNB1, BUB1B and TTK can accelerate the progression of LUAD and lead to shorter survival, suggesting that they may be potential targets for treatment in LUAD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0026.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; Spike protein; Nucleocapsid protein; MSA
Online: 3 May 2020 (06:27:36 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 is a novel and highly pathogenic coronavirus, which was first diagnosed in Wuhan city, China, in 2019, and spread to 185 countries and territories, and as of April 29, 2020, more than 3.11 million cases were recorded, and more than 217,000 people were killed. Despite all worldwide efforts, there is currently no vaccine, any drugs available to protect people against deadly SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The world urgently needs a SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus vaccine or effective antiviral drugs to relieve the human suffering associated with the pandemic that kills thousands of people every day. The SARS-CoV-2 genome encode a non-structural proteins named as ORF1a/b, and structural proteins such as spike (S) glycoprotein, nucleocapsid protein (N), small envelop protein (E) and matrix protein (M). A number of studies have been shown that CoV spike (S) glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein (N) could be promising targets for vaccine, antibodies and therapeutic drug development to combat with deadly, pandemic SARS-CoV-2. Purposes of the present paper is the sequence analysis and amino acid variations of structural proteins deduced from novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 strains, isolated in different countries. Multiple sequence alignment of S, N and E proteins from four different coronavirus species, are also described. It is expected that the data from these studies will be very useful for the the designing and development of vaccines, antibodies and therapeutic agents that can be used to combat with the highly pathogenic SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0078.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ZIKV; protein-protein interaction; non-structural viral proteins; network
Online: 7 September 2019 (00:18:39 CEST)
The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus and can be transmitted through an infected mosquito bite or through human-to-human interaction by sexual activity, blood transfusion, breastfeeding or perinatal exposure. After the 2015-2016 outbreak in Brazil, a strong link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly emerged. ZIKV specifically targets human neural progenitor cells, suggesting that proteins encoded by ZIKV bind and inactivate host cell proteins leading to microcephaly. Here, we present a systematic annotation of interactions between human proteins and the seven non-structural ZIKV proteins corresponding to a Brazilian isolate. The interaction network was generated by combining tandem-affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry with yeast two-hybrid screens. We identified 150 human proteins, involved in distinct biological processes, as interactors to ZIKV non-structural proteins. Our interacting network is composed of proteins that have been previously associated with microcephaly in human genetic disorders and/or animal models. This study builds on previously published interacting networks of ZIKV and genes related to autosomal recessive primary microcephaly to generate a catalog of human cellular targets of ZIKV proteins implicated in processes related to microcephaly in humans. Collectively, this data can be used as a resource for future characterization of ZIKV infection biology and help create a basis for the discovery of drugs which may disrupt the interaction and reduce the health damage to the fetus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0096.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: AgrA protein; biofilm; MRSA; quorum sensing; SarA protein; swarming
Online: 7 August 2019 (10:29:04 CEST)
Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an opportunistic pathogen and a predominant cause of life-threatening nosocomial infections. Drug resistance in S. aureus is attributed to production of biofilm, which is controlled largely by bacterial quorum sensing (QS) systems. Methodology: In vitro analysis of biofilm inhibition assay was performed using crystal violet staining assay, swarming motility, light microscopy and growth curve analyses. Identification of the major constituents of I. verum fruit extract was performed by GC-MS. Ligand-protein interaction was analyzed by molecular docking investigations. Results: The methanol extract of I. verum inhibited the growth of MRSA at the concentration of 4.8 mg/ml. At the sub-inhibitory concentration (2.4mg/ml), the extract showed significant reduction in biofilmogenesis. Light microscopy analysis confirmed the antibiofilm activity as well as the efficacy in disturbing biofilm architecture. A reduced swarming motility was observed at the lowest concentration of 2.4mg/ml. GC-MS analysis revealed anethol (AL) as the major constituent. The molecular docking analysis attributes the antibiofilm activity to an active ligand AL, which strongly interacted with the active site residues of AgrA and SarA proteins of S. aureus. Conclusion: We report the activities of I. verum to be immensely interfering with QS system and biofilm formation in MRSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0223.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: animal protein; plant protein; elderly; obesity; glomerular filtration rate
Online: 27 March 2018 (11:23:20 CEST)
Controversy exists on whether animal and plant proteins influence obesity differently. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between total, animal, and plant protein intake with the obesity index and renal function in Korean adults. Study participants included Korean adults aged 60 years or older from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013-2014. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. One-day 24-hour recall data were used to estimate the daily total, animal, and plant protein intake. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated by using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. General linear modellings were used to assess the relationships between protein intake, BMI and WC. The mean age was 69.2 ± 0.2 years, 44.2% were male. The total daily protein intake was 1.1 ± 0.02 g/kg/d and 0.9 ± 0.02 g/kg/d for males and females, respectively. Only one third of protein intake was from animal sources. In males, BMI (p < 0.001, p = 0.016, p < 0.001 respectively) and WC (p < 0.001, p = 0.010, p < 0.001, respectively) decreased as daily intake of plant protein (g/kg/d), animal protein (g/kg/d) and total protein (g/kg/d) increased. Similar associations were shown in Korean female. GFR was not associated with protein intake regardless of protein source in both sexes. In Korean adults aged 60 years or older, the protein intake was associated with a favorable obesity index without decrease in renal function. The effect was similar in both male and females, with both animal and plant proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0027.v1
Online: 5 April 2022 (12:02:35 CEST)
Protein Contact Network (PCN) is an emerging paradigm for modelling protein structure. A common approach to interpreting such data is through network-based analyses. It has been shown that clustering analysis may discover allostery in PCN. Nevertheless Network Embedding has shown good performances in discovering hidden communities and structures in network. In this work, we compare some approaches for graph embedding with respect to some classical clustering approaches for annotating protein structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0206.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Protein complexes; Docking
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:24:06 CET)
Interactome depicts the arrangement of all atomic communications in cells, particularly with regards to protein-protein collaborations. We look at different strategies for foreseeing protein-protein collaborations utilizing grouping and structure data. A definitive objective of those methodologies is to introduce the total approach for the programmed choice of communication accomplices utilizing their amino corrosive arrangements as well as three dimensional structures, whenever known. The proposed approval of the hypothetical strategies utilizing test information would be a superior appraisal of their exactness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein affinity enrichment; bioseparation; immunoprecipitation; immunocapture; affinity chro-matography; solid phase; carrier; material; corundum; polyglycerol; aromatic amino acid analysis; self-assembled monolayers (SAM), periodate oxidation; reductive amination; antibodies; IgG; im-munoglobulins; glutaraldehyde; polyglycerol; hyperbranched polymer
Online: 1 August 2022 (04:42:41 CEST)
Nonporous corundum powder, known as an abrasive material in the industry, was functionalized covalently with protein binders to isolate and enrich specific proteins from complex matrices. The materials based on corundum were characterized by TEM, ESEM, BET, DLS, and zeta potential measurements. The strong Al-O-P bonds between the corundum surface and amino phosphonic acids are used to introduce functional groups for further conjugations. The common crosslinker glutaraldehyde was compared with a hyperbranched polyglycerol (PG) of around 10 kDa. The latter is oxidized with periodate to generate aldehyde groups that can covalently react with the amines of the surface and the amino groups from the protein via a reductive amination process. The amount of bound protein was quantified via aromatic amino acid analysis (AAAA). This work shows that oxidized polyglycerol can be used as an alternative to glutaraldehyde. With polyglycerol, more of the model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) could be attached to the surface under the same conditions, and lower nonspecific binding (NSB) was observed. As a proof of concept, IgG was extracted with protein A from crude human plasma. The purity of the product was examined by SDS-PAGE. A binding capacity of 1.8 mg IgG per g of corundum powder was achieved. The advantages of corundum are the very low price, extremely high physical and chemical stability, pressure resistance, favorable binding kinetics, and flexible application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0035.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: GM-CSF; S100A4; S100A6; S100P; protein–protein interaction; cell viability
Online: 13 November 2023 (08:40:41 CET)
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a pleiotropic myelopoietic growth factor and proinflammatory cytokine, clinically used for multiple indications and serving as a promising target for treatment of many disorders, including cancer, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, asthma, COVID-19. We have previously shown that dimeric Ca2+-bound forms of S100A6 and S100P proteins, members of the multifunctional S100 protein family, are specific to GM-CSF. To probe selectivity of these interactions, the affinity of recombinant human GM-CSF to dimeric Ca2+-loaded forms of 18 recombinant human S100 proteins was studied by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Of them, only S100A4 protein specifically binds to GM-CSF with equilibrium dissociation constant, Kd, values of 0.3-2 μM, as confirmed by intrinsic fluorescence and chemical crosslinking data. Calcium removal prevents S100A4 binding to GM-CSF, whereas monomerization of S100A4/A6/P proteins disrupts S100A4/A6 interaction with GM-CSF and induces a slight decrease in S100P affinity for GM-CSF. Structural modelling indicates the presence in the GM-CSF molecule of a conserved S100A4/A6/P-binding site, consisting of the residues from its termini, helices I and III, some of which are involved in the interaction with GM-CSF receptors. The predicted involvement of the ‘hinge’ region and F89 residue of S100P in GM-CSF recognition was confirmed by mutagenesis. Examination of S100A4/A6/P ability to affect GM-CSF signaling showed that S100A4/A6 inhibit GM-CSF/S100-induced suppression of viability of monocytic THP-1 cells. The ability of the S100 proteins to modulate GM-CSF activity is relevant to progression of various neoplasms and other diseases, according to bioinformatics analysis. The direct regulation of GM-CSF signaling by extracellular forms of the S100 proteins should be taken into account in the clinical use of GM-CSF and development of the therapeutic interventions targeting GM-CSF or its receptors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1908.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction; DNA polymerases; Intra-protein interactions; Protein satbility
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:46:21 CEST)
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a widely used technique in the biosciences and has become increasingly popular in recent years. One of the key elements of this technique is the use of a DNA polymerase that is heat-stable and retains fidelity during the process. To this end, archaeal Fam-ily-B DNA polymerases are preferred due to their high thermostability and fidelity. In particular, the DNA polymerase from Thermus aquaticus (Taq DNApol) is widely utilized in PCR procedures. In this work, a novel in-silico structure-based methodology was employed to examine the most heat-tolerant DNA polymerase available. In spite of this, Thermococcus kodakarensis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus DNApol are more stable and heat-tolerant DNApols due to their high number of intra-protein interactions. Variations in the content of polar amino acids also played a significant role in the increase in heat stability. A further factor contributing to the stability of proteins is the stabilization of helix in secondary structure through the use of charged amino acids. DNApol from these organisms has been shown to be suitable for use in PCR, as well as in other biological processes able to withstand high temperatures. In this study, it has been demonstrated that im-provements in PCR performance can be easily obtained by blending elements from closely related archaeal polymerases, a strategy that may, in the future, be extended to other archaeal polymer-ases. This approach allowed for a comprehensive analysis of the enzyme's thermal stability and fidelity, leading to an improved understanding of the polymerase's properties and potential ap-plications
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Juvenile hormone; Juvenile hormone binding protein; Silk protein; Bombyx mori
Online: 30 May 2023 (03:41:29 CEST)
Production of silkworm silk is the most economically important traits in the silk industry. Silk protein synthesis is regulated by juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E). Therefore, it is important to understand the genetic regulation of silk production is thus a priority. JH binding protein (JHBP) transports JH from the hemolymph to target organs and cells and protects JH. In a previous study, we identified 41 genes containing a JHBP domain in the Bombyx mori genome. Only one JHBP gene, that is, BmJHBPd2, is highly expressed in the posterior silk gland (PSG) and its function remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the expression levels of BmJHBPd2 and the major silk protein genes in the high silk-producing practical strain 872 (S872) and the low silk-producing local strain Dazao. Our results have shown that BmJHBPd2 was more highly expressed in S872, than in the Dazao strain, which is consistent with the expression pattern of fibroin genes. A subcellular localization assay indicated that BmJHBPd2 is located in the cytoplasm. In vitro hormone induction experiments showed that BmJHBPd2 was upregulated by treatment with juvenile hormone analogue (JHA). BmKr-h1 upregulation was significantly inhibited by overexpression of BmJHBPd2 at the cell level when induced by JHA. However, overexpression of BmJHBPd2 in the posterior silk gland by transgenic methods led to the inhibition of the expression of the silk fibroin gene, resulting in a reduction in silk yield. Further investigation has shown that in the BmJHBPd2OE individual, the key transcription factor Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) of the JH signaling pathway was inhibited, and 20E signaling pathway genes, such as broad complex (Brc), E74A, and ultraspiracle protein(USP), were upregulated. Our results have indicated that BmJHBPd2 plays an important role in the JH signaling pathway and was important for silk protein synthesis. Furthermore, our findings have helped to elucidate the mechanisms by which JH regulates silk protein synthesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: stroke; inflammation; neuro-immune; cytokines; hemostasis; coagulation; protein-protein interactions
Online: 3 September 2021 (15:11:00 CEST)
This study used established biomarkers of death due to ischemic stroke (IS) and performed network, enrichment, and annotation analysis. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis revealed that the backbone of the highly connective network of IS death consisted of IL6, ALB, TNF, SERPINE1, VWF, VCAM1, TGFB1, and SELE. Cluster analysis revealed immune and hemostasis subnetworks, which were strongly interconnected through the major switches ALB and VWF. Enrichment analysis revealed that the PPI immune subnetwork of death due to IS was highly associated with TLR2/4, TNF, JAK-STAT, NOD, IL10, IL13, IL4, and TGF-β1/SMAD pathways. The top biological and molecular functions and pathways enriched in the hemostasis network of death due IS were platelet degranulation and activation, the intrinsic pathway of fibrin clot formation, the urokinase-type plasminogen activator pathway, post-translational protein phosphorylation, integrin cell surface interactions, and the proteoglycan-integrin-extra cellular matrix complex (ECM). Regulation Explorer analysis of transcriptional factors shows: a) that NFKB1, RELA and SP1 were the major regulating actors of the PPI network; and b) hsa-mir-26-5p and hsa-16-5p were the major regulating microRNA actors. In conclusion, prevention of death due to IS should consider that current IS treatments may be improved by targeting VWF, VEGFA, proteoglycan-integrin-ECM complex, NFKB/RELA and SP1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0543.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HSPA5; GRP78; BiP; HCV E2; protein-protein docking; structural bioinformatics
Online: 27 October 2020 (09:11:13 CET)
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is the main causative factor for liver cirrhosis and the development of liver cancer, with a confirmed ~ 180 million infections worldwide. E2 is an HCV structural protein responsible for virus entry to the host cell. Heat Shock Protein A5 (HSPA5), also termed BiP and GRP78, is the master regulator of the unfolded protein response mechanism, where it mainly localizes in the lumen of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) in normal conditions. Under the stress of HCV infection or carcinogenesis, HSPA5 is upregulated. Consequently, HSPA5 escapes the ER retention localization and translocates to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. Pep42, a cyclic peptide that was reported to target explicitly cell-surface HSPA5 in vivo. Owing to the high sequence and structural conservation between the C554-C566 region of HCV E2 and the Pep42, then we propose that the HCV E2 C554-C566 region could be the recognition site. The motivation of this work is to predict the possible binding mode between HCV E2 and HSPA5 by implementing molecular docking to test such proposed binding. Docking results reveal the high potent binding of the HCV E2 C554-C566 region to HSPA5 substrate-binding domain β (SBDβ). Moreover, the full-length HCV E2 also exhibits high binding potency to HSPA5 SBDβ. Defining the binding mode between HCV E2 and HSPA5 is of significance, so one can interfere with such binding and reducing the viral infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0050.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Periodontitis; Periodontal disease; protein-protein network interaction; Bioinformatics
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:13:12 CEST)
Recent studies supported a clinical association between Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and periodontitis. Hence, investigating possible protein interactions between these two conditions is of interest. In this study, we conducted a protein-protein network interaction analysis with recognized genes encoding proteins for PD and periodontitis. Genes of interest were collected via GWAS database. Then, we conducted a protein interaction analysis using STRING database, with a highest confidence cut-off of 0.9. Our protein network casted a comprehensive analysis of potential protein-protein interactions between PD and periodontitis. This analysis may underpin valuable information for new candidate molecular mechanisms between PD and periodontitis and may serve new potential targets for research purposes. These results should be carefully interpreted giving the limitations of this approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0010.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: skeletal muscle; muscle protein synthesis; muscle protein breakdown; serum; hydrolysate
Online: 1 March 2020 (11:52:27 CET)
In this study we used a recently developed ex vivo-in vitro model to assess the effect of feeding older adults a casein protein hydrolysate (CPH) compared with non-bioactive non-essential amino acid (NEAA) supplement on Muscle Protein Synthesis (MPS) and Breakdown (MPB). Serum from six healthy older males following overnight fast and 60 min postprandial ingestion of CPH or NEAA (0.33 g.kg-1 body mass) was used to condition C2C12 myotube media. CPH-fed serum significantly increased MPS compared to fasted serum. In addition, CPH-fed serum induced myotube growth and markedly suppressed atrogin-1, but not MuRF1, expression. Comparatively, no change in MPS, myotube growth and gene expression was observed following NEAA-fed serum treatment. CPH-fed serum from older adults stimulated de novo MPS, suppressed markers of protein breakdown and resulted in myotube growth, indicating a potential role for CPH as a dietary protein source to prevent age-related sarcopenia.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: pangolin; intrinsic; disorder; protein; nucleocapsid; Nipah; virulence; viral protein; protein structure; protein function; shell; covid; coronavirus; ebola; vaccine; immune; antibody; shell; nucleoprotein; matrix; attenuate
Online: 28 June 2020 (09:16:27 CEST)
A model to predict the relative levels of respiratory and fecal-oral transmission potentials of coronaviruses (CoVs) by measuring the percentage of protein intrinsic disorder (PID) of the M (Membrane) and N (nucleoprotein) proteins in their outer and inner shells, respectively, was built before the MERS-CoV outbreak. Application of this model to the 2003 SARS-CoV indicated that this virus with MPID = 8.6% and NPID = 50.2% falls into group B, which consists of CoVs with intermediate levels of both fecal-oral and respiratory transmission potentials. Further validation of the model came with MERS-CoV (MPID = 9%, NPID = 44%) and SARS-CoV-2 (MPID = 5.5%, NPID = 48%) falling into the groups C and B, respectively. Group C contains CoVs with higher fecal-oral but lower respiratory transmission potentials. Unlike SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 with MPID = 5.5% has one of the hardest outer shells among CoVs. This shell hardness is believed to be responsible for high viral loads in the mucus and saliva making it more contagious than SARS-CoV. The hard shell is able to resist the anti-microbial enzymes in body fluids. Further searches have found that high rigidity of outer shell is characteristic for the CoVs of burrowing animals, such as rabbits (MPID = 5.6%) and pangolins (MPID = 5-6%), which are in contact with the buried feces. A closer inspection of pangolin-CoVs from 2017-19 reveals that these animals provided a unique window of opportunity for the entry of an attenuated SARS-CoV-2 precursor into the human population in 2017 or earlier, with the subsequent slow and silent spread as a mild cold that followed by its mutations into the current more virulent form. Evidence of this lies in the similarity of shell disorder and genetic proximity of the pangolin-CoVs to SARS-CoV-2 (~90%). A 2017 pangolin-CoV strain shows evidence of higher levels of attenuation and higher fecal-oral transmission associated with lower human infectivity via having lower NPID (44.8%). Our shell disorder analysis also revealed that lower inner shell disorder is associated with the lesser virulence in a variety of viruses.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: intrinsic; disorder; protein; nucleocapsid; Nipah; virulence; viral protein; protein structure; protein function, shell; covid; coronavirus; ebola; vaccine; immune; antibody; shell; nucleocapsid; nucleoprotein; matrix; attenuate;
Online: 7 May 2020 (10:04:51 CEST)
A model that predicts levels of coronavirus (CoV) respiratory/fecal-oral transmission potentials based on the outer shell hardness has been built using neural network (artificial intelligence, AI) analysis of the percentage of disorder (PID) in the nucleocapsid, N, and membrane, M, proteins of the inner and outer viral shells, respectively. Based mainly on the PID of N, SARS-CoV-2 is categorized as having intermediate levels of both respiratory and fecal oral transmission potential. Related to this, other studies have found strong positive correlations between virulence and inner shell disorder among numerous viruses, including Nipah, Ebola, and Dengue viruses. There is some evidence that this is also true for SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, which have N PIDs of 48% and 50%, and are characterized by case-fatality rates of 7.1% and 10.9%, respectively. The link between levels of respiratory transmission and virulence lies in viral load of body fluids and organ respectively. A virus can be infectious via respiratory modes only if the viral loads in saliva and mucus exceed certain minima. Likewise, a person may die, if the viral load is too high especially in viral organs. Inner shell proteins of viruses play important roles in the replication of viruses, and structural disorder enhances these roles by providing greater efficiency in protein-protein/DNA/RNA/lipid binding. This paper outlines a novel strategy in attenuating viruses involving comparison of disorder patterns of inner shells of related viruses to identify residues and regions that could be ideal for mutation. The M protein of SARS-CoV-2 has one of the lowest M PID values (6%) in its family, and therefore this virus has one of the hardest outer shells, which makes it resistant to antimicrobial enzymes in body fluid. While this is likely responsible for its contagiousness, the risks of creating an attenuated virus with a more disordered M are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0176.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: acute myocardial infarction (AMI); cardiac Troponin I (cTnI); chemiluminescence; biosensor; luminol; monoclonal antibody; flow injection assay; microfluidic system; monolithic column; protein expression
Online: 10 February 2023 (02:58:24 CET)
Cardiac vascular diseases, especially acute myocardial infarction (AMI), are one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Therefore cardio-specific biomarkers such as cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) play an essential role in diagnostics. In order to enable rapid and accurate measurement of cTnI with the potential of online measurements, a proof of concept of a chemiluminescence-based biosensor is presented. A flow cell was designed and combined with a sensitive CMOS camera allowing an optical readout. In addition, a microfluidic setup was established, and cTnI was determined selectively. The biomarker cTnI was expressed in E. coli, and its characterization and correct folding were investigated by different analytical methods. This recombinant cTnI was used for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), calibrated against commercially available recombinant cTnI, and applied for the biosensor measurements. Based on chemiluminescence detection, the biosensor was successfully tested, and the cTnI biomarker could be reproducibly determined in buffer, spiked blood serum, and plasma.