REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0021.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein 0th-order structure; origin of gene; origin of protein; origin of genetic code; GNC primeval genetic code hypothesis; SNS primitive genetic code hypothesis
Online: 3 December 2019 (11:10:12 CET)
Understanding the mechanism, how entirely new (EntNew) gene/protein or the first ancestral gene/protein of a family was created, should be one of the most important issues in the biological sciences. However, the mechanism is totally unknown still now. On the other hand, it is well known that mature protein is generally rigid and one catalytic center exists on the protein. Creation of such a mature EntNew gene/protein should be, of course, carried out through random process, because it cannot be designed in advance. However, the EntNew gene/protein never be created by random polymerization of the respective monomeric units, because of the extraordinary large sequence diversities of ~10180 and ~10130, respectively. Protein 0th-order structure or a specific amino acid composition, in which immature but water-soluble protein can be produced even through random process, holds the key for solving the difficult problem. As it was fragmentally described in the previous papers how and where EntNew gene/protein was created, I describe in detail in this review three processes generating EntNew gene/protein with some flexibility under three genetic codes, the universal genetic code, SNS primitive code and GNC primeval code, and discuss why the mature gene/protein could be created through the processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0661.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein structure; hierarchy; protein sequence; ANIS method; supersecondary structure.
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:11:39 CEST)
Most non-infectious diseases are associated with dysfunction of proteins or protein complexes. Аssociation between sequence and structure is analyzed since a long time, and analysis of sequence organization in domains and motifs is actual research area. A mathematical method is proposed here to identify the hierarchical organization of protein sequences. The method is based on pentapeptide as a unit of protein sequences. This method was applied on a non-homologous dataset of protein sequences. The analysis revealed 11 hierarchical levels of protein sequence organization, showing the relationship of these multiple fragments of sequences. Using different examples, we illustrated how the fragments of the spatial structure of protein correspond to the elements of the hierarchical structure of the protein sequence. A hierarchical structure is observed in the protein sequence. This methodology is an interesting basis for mathematically based classification of elements of spatial organization of proteins. Elements of the hierarchical structure of different levels of the hierarchy can be used for biotechnological and medical problems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1723.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: molecular tweezers; cation-pi interactions; intrinsic disorder, protein-protein interactions; hydrophobic interaction chromatography, monoclonal antibody production; protein aggregation; protein refolding; arginine methyltransferases; post-translational modification
Online: 27 October 2023 (05:51:26 CEST)
Arginine shows Jekyll and Hyde behavior in several respects. It participates in protein folding via ionic and H-bonds and cation-pi interactions; the charge and hydrophobicity of its side chain makes it a disorder-promoting amino acid. Its methylation in histones; RNA binding proteins; chaperones regulates several cellular processes. The arginine-centric modifications are important in oncogenesis and as biomarkers in several cardiovascular diseases. The cross-links involving arginine in collagen and cornea are involved in pathogenesis of tissues but have also been useful in tissue engineering and wound-dressing materials. Arginine is a part of active site of several enzymes such as GTPases, peroxidases, and sulfotransferases. Its metabolic importance is obvious as it is involved in production of urea, NO, ornithine and citrulline. It can form unusual functional structures such as molecular tweezers in vitro and sprockets which engage DNA chains as part of histones in vivo. It has been used in design of cell-penetrating peptides as drugs. Arginine has been used as an excipient in both solid and injectable drug formulations; its role in suppressing opalescence due to liquid-liquid phase separation is particularly very promising. It has been known as a suppressor of protein aggregation during protein refolding. It has proved its usefulness in protein bioseparation processes like ion-exchange, hydrophobic and affinity chromatographies. Arginine is an amino acid, whose importance in biological sciences and biotechnology continues to grow in diverse ways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0369.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: cell biology; protein sorting; nuclear translocation; protein domain; WAC
Online: 22 February 2023 (02:37:35 CET)
Dysfunction of the WW domain-containing adaptor with coiled-coil, WAC, gene underlies a rare autosomal dominant disorder, DeSanto-Shinawi syndrome (DESSH). DESSH is associated with facial dysmorphia, hypotonia, and cognitive alterations, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism. How the WAC protein localizes and functions in neural cells is critical to understanding its role during development. To understand the genotype-phenotype role of WAC, we developed a knowledgebase of WAC expression, evolution, human genomics, and structural/motif analysis combined with human protein domain deletions to assess how conserved domains guide cellular distribution. Then assessed in a cell type implicated in DESSH, cortical GABAergic neurons. WAC contains conserved charged amino acids, phosphorylation signals, and enriched nuclear motifs, suggesting a role in cellular signaling and gene transcription. Human DESSH variants are found within these regions. We also discovered and tested a nuclear localaization domain that impacts the cellular distribution of the protein. These data provide new insights into the potential roles of this critical developmental gene, establishing a platform to assess further translational studies, including the screening of missense genetic variants in WAC. Moreover, these studies are essential for understanding the role of human WAC variants in more diverse neurological phenotypes, including autism spectrum disorder.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0133.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Cartesian Coordinate System; Spherical Coordinate System; Equilibrium Atomic Bond Length; Protein Structure Description; Protein Structure Tree-decomposition
Online: 12 January 2020 (17:23:18 CET)
To date, Cartesian (x, y, z) coordinate system (CCS) has been the default approach to geometrically specify atomic spatial positions in protein structures since the launch of Protein Data Bank (PDB) in 1971. To this end, this paper proposes a local spherical coordinate system (SCS) approach as an alternative to the default approach and a previously reported global SCS approach. The local SCS approach here requires only two parameters (θ and φ), instead of x, y and z as required by the default CCS approach. Essentially, CCS and SCS are like the two sides of one coin, i.e., geometric coordinate system for three-dimensional position specification. Therefore, this paper furthermore argues that it is time to flip the coin over, and have a look at the other side of the coin, e.g., the local SCS approach, which possesses an intrinsically lower degree of descriptional complexity than that of the default CCS approach, and constitutes a potentially useful alternative perspective for all protein structural research field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: adsorbed vaccines, identity, protein conformation, particle sizing, FTIR, SEM, Fluorescence
Online: 16 August 2018 (12:54:59 CEST)
1) Background: Traditionally, complex biological products such as vaccines presented unique challenges to implementation of even rudimentary characterization packages; thus, the product was defined almost exclusively by its manufacturing process. The advances in technology and analytical tools allowed the application of more comprehensive characterization packages for products such as adsorbed combination vaccines, which contain several antigens in a single formulation to protect against more than one disease, and may contain adjuvants and excipients. Aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) is a well-established adjuvant for enhancing the uptake of vaccines and to induce robust immunity against pathogens. During manufacturing, adjuvant is mixed with protein antigens which may in turn impact their higher order structure and stability. 2) Methods: To study the structural changes of protein antigens after adsorption several analytical tools including DLS, FTIR, Fluorescence, LD, and SEM were used. 3) Results: the AlPO4 adjuvant suspension consists of small submicron particles that form a continuous porous surface. Secondary structure alpha-helix and beta-sheet content of DT and TT increased after adsorption to AlPO4 adjuvant, whereas no significant changes were noted for other protein antigens. Interactions were noted between AlPO4 adjuvant and DT, TT, and FHA. 4) Conclusions: here we report for the first time the use of SEM for the visualization of adsorbed multivalent vaccine components. A unique signature profile detected for each multivalent vaccine by FTIR can be used as a lean in-process test to verify vaccine product composition and identity prior to filling.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0492.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: glideosome-associated connector; protein; crystallography; structure
Online: 30 December 2021 (17:13:26 CET)
A model for parasitic motility has been proposed in which parasite filamentous actin (F-actin) is attached to surface adhesins by a large component of the glideosome, known as the glideosome-associated connector protein (GAC). This large 286 kDa protein interacts at the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane with the phosphatidic acid-enriched inner leaflet and cytosolic tails of surface adhesins to connect them to the parasite actomyosin system. GAC is observed initially to the conoid at the apical pole and re-localised with the glideosome to the basal pole in gliding parasite. GAC presumably functions in force transmission to surface adhesins in the plasma membrane and not in force generation. Proper connection between F-actin and the adhesins is as important for motility and invasion as motor operation itself. This notion highlights the need for new structural information on GAC interactions, which has eluded the field since its discovery. We have obtained crystals that diffracted to 2.6-2.9 Å for full-length GAC from Toxoplasma gondii in native and selenomethionine-labelled forms. These crystals belong to space group P212121, cell dimensions are roughly a=119 Å, b=123Å, c=221Å, α=90, β=90, γ=90 with 1 molecule per asymmetric unit, suggesting a more compact conformation than previously proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0097.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Protein structure and dynamics; Molecular structure and modeling; Protein and macromolecules; Computational methods and bioinformatics; Computer-based teaching tools; Learning materials and teaching tools; Multimedia teaching tools
Online: 7 February 2020 (11:42:09 CET)
Biomolecular structure drives function, and computational capabilities have progressed such that the prediction and computational design of biomolecular structures is increasingly feasible. Because computational biophysics attracts students from many different backgrounds and with different levels of resources, teaching the subject can be challenging. One strategy to teach diverse learners is with interactive multimedia material that promotes self-paced, active learning. We have created a hands-on education strategy with a set of fifteen modules that teach topics in biomolecular structure and design, from fundamentals of conformational sampling and energy evaluation to applications like protein docking, antibody design, and RNA structure prediction. Our modules are based on PyRosetta, a Python library that encapsulates all computational modules and methods in the Rosetta software package. The workshop-style modules are implemented as Jupyter Notebooks that can be executed in the Google Colaboratory, allowing learners access with just a web browser. The digital format of Jupyter Notebooks allows us to embed images, molecular visualization movies, and interactive coding exercises. This multimodal approach may better reach students from different disciplines and experience levels as well as attract more researchers from smaller labs and cognate backgrounds to leverage PyRosetta in their science and engineering research. All materials are freely available at https://github.com/RosettaCommons/PyRosetta.notebooks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0124.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: intrinsically disordered protein; IDP; protein-protein interaction; mutual synergistic folding; coupled folding and binding; structural analysis; structure-based classification; fold recognition
Online: 11 October 2019 (04:00:32 CEST)
Intrinsically disordered proteins mediate crucial biological functions through their interactions with other proteins. Mutual synergistic folding (MSF) occurs when all interacting proteins are disordered, folding into a stable structure in the course of the complex formation. In these cases, the folding and binding processes occur in parallel, lending the resulting structures uniquely heterogeneous features. Currently there are no dedicated classification approaches that would take into account the particular biological and biophysical properties of MSF complexes. Here we present a scalable clustering-based classification scheme, built on redundancy-filtered features that describe the sequence and structure properties of the complexes, and the role of the interaction, which is directly responsible for structure formation. Using this approach, we define six major types of MSF complexes, corresponding to biologically meaningful groups. Hence, the presented method also shows that differences in binding strength, subcellular localization, and regulation are encoded in the sequence and structural properties of proteins. While current structure classification methods can also handle complex structures, we show that the developed scheme is fundamentally different, and since it takes into account defining features of MSF complexes, it serves as a better representation of structures arising through this specific interaction mode.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0097.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Prolyl endoprotease; prolyl oligopeptidase; protease; protein engineering; proteolytic enzyme; proteomics; therapeutics
Online: 11 April 2022 (11:21:44 CEST)
Proteases or peptidases are hydrolases that catalyze the breakdown of polypeptide chains into smaller peptide subunits. Proteases exist in all life forms, including archaea, bacteria, protozoa, insects, animals, and plants, due to their vital functions in cellular processing and regulation. There are several classes of proteases in the MEROPS database based on their catalytic mecha-nisms. This review focuses on the post-proline cleaving enzymes (PPCEs), especially the prolyl endoprotease/oligopeptidase (PEP/POP). To date, most PPCEs studied are of microbial and ani-mal origins. Recently, there are reports of new plant PPCEs. The most common PEP/POP are members of the S9 family that comprise two conserved domains. The substrate-limiting β-propeller domain prevents unwanted digestion, while the α/β hydrolase catalyzes reaction at the carboxyl-terminal of proline residues. PPCEs have diverse applications, are widely used in the beer brewing industry, and have potential as therapeutic agents for Alzheimer’s disease and celiac disease by targeting proline-rich substrates. Protein engineering via mutagenesis has been performed to improve heat resistance, pepsin-resistant capability, specificity, and protein turno-ver of PPCEs for pharmacological applications. This is the first comprehensive review to cover the biotechnological applications of PPCEs and discuss the unique prolyl cleaving activity of dif-ferent enzymes based on the recent structure-function studies from diverse taxa.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0321.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; mutations; cancer drivers; precision medicine; protein structure; personalized medicine; cancer therapies; genetic signatures
Online: 16 August 2021 (11:15:11 CEST)
Cancer is fundamentally a disease of perturbed genes. Although many mutations can be marked in the genome of a cancer or transformed cell, the initiation and progression were shown to be driven by only a few mutational events viz. driver mutations that progressively govern and execute the functional impacts. The driver mutations are thus believed to dictate and dysregulate the subsequent cellular proliferative function/decisions thereby producing a cancerous state. Therefore, identifying the driver events from the genomic alterations in a patient’s cancer cell gained large attention recently for designing better targeting therapies towards paving way for the precision cancer medicine. With rolling advancements in high-throughput omics technologies, analysis of genetic variations and gene expression profiles for cancer patients has become a routine clinical practice. However, it is anticipated that protein structural alterations resulting from such driver mutations can provide more direct and clinically relevant evidence of disease states than genetic signatures alone. This review comprehensively discusses various aspects and approaches that have been developed for the prediction of cancer drivers using genetic signatures and protein structures, and their potential application in developing precision cancer therapies.Keywords:
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0238.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Immunoinformatics; Molecular dynamics simulation; mutation; SARS-CoV-2; Spike protein; Virus structure
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:57:03 CEST)
It has been more than a year since the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was found. This coronavirus has infected more than 110 million people worldwide by the end of February, 2021, and several virulent as well as more spreadable mutant forms of SARS-CoV-2 have emerged subsequently. In the latter group, three variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P1 lineages, have been reported. Using computer simulation, the present paper investigates the structural differences between the wild type SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and its Asn501Tyr (N501Y) mutant variant. Time-based structural changes between the receptor binding domains of these two species are also examined. The N501Y mutation is common to all the three aforesaid mutant variants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0144.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Molecular docking; molecular dynamics; pharmacophore; molecular modeling; XIAP protein; protein inhibitor; anticancer activity
Online: 9 June 2022 (11:08:29 CEST)
Herein, we are proposing two chalcone molecules, (E)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(p-tolyl) prop-2-en-1-one and (E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one, based on the anticancer bioactive molecule Xanthohumol, which are suitable for further in vitro and in vivo studies. Their ability to create stable complexes with the antiapoptotic X-linked IAP (XIAP) protein makes them promising anticancer agents. The calculations were based on ligand-based and structure-based virtual screening combined for the pharmacophore built. Additionally, the structures passed Lipinski's rule for drug use, and their reactivity was confirmed using density functional theory studies. The candidates were chosen between 10639400 compounds, and the docking protocols were evaluated using molecular dynamics simulations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0741.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Proteins, Protein Science; Structure validation; Ramachandran Plot; Complementarity Plot
Online: 14 November 2023 (17:02:04 CET)
A picture is worth a thousand words. Many branches of Science have been historically benefited with plots and visual analyses (lately, image processing and deep learning) alongside with traditional number crunching. In Molecular Biophysics, one such problem is the structure validation problem in proteins which stands with a history of plot-tools being effectively serving the complex problem to its complete resolution. Spanning across six decades, validation of protein structures (from experimental to modeled) dates back to the legendary Ramachandran Plot (with its never ending growth and modern-day applications) to the relatively recent innovation of the Complementarity Plot (CP), establishing the dual nature of complementarity as the physical basis of both binding and folding of proteins. Lately, CP has been extended to serve as a trustworthy free energy predictor utilizing supervised learning in the form of a comprehensive web-server (EnCPdock: https://www.scinetmol.in/EnCPdock/) that can be directly used in the design of protein interfaces. The commentary recapitulate the history of structure validation with a special emphasis on plot tools, highlighting key features and important discoveries worth re-visiting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1094.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Monocyte; Spike protein; Morphology.
Online: 28 April 2023 (03:29:08 CEST)
Background: This study investigated the biological effects on circulating monocytes after challenge with SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike protein. Methods: Whole blood collected form seven ostensibly healthy healthcare workers was incubated for 15 min with 2 and 20 ng/mL recombinant spike protein of Ancestral, Alpha, Delta and Omicron variants. Samples were analyzed with Sysmex XN and DI-60 analyzers. Results: Cellular complexity (i.e., presence of granules, vacuoles and other cytoplasmic inclusions) increased in all samples challenged with the recombinant spike protein of Ancestral, Alpha and Delta variants, but not in those containing Omicron. The cellular content of nucleic acids was constantly decreased in most samples, achieving statistical significance in those containing 20 ng/mL of Alpha and Delta recombinant spike proteins. The heterogeneity of monocyte volumes significantly increased in all samples, achieving statistical significance in those containing 20 ng/mL of recombinant spike protein of Ancestral, Alpha and Delta variants. The monocyte morphological abnormalities after spike protein challenge included dysmorphia, granulation, intense vacuolization, platelet phagocytosis, development of aberrant nuclei and cytoplasmic extrusions. Conclusions: The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein triggers important monocyte morphological abnormalities, more evident in cells challenged with spike protein of the more clinically severe Alpha and Delta variants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0013.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Rett Syndrome; intrinsically disordered region; phylogenetic profile analysis; post-transcriptional modification; methyl-CpG-binding protein 2; cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5; forkhead box protein G1
Online: 1 July 2019 (11:59:56 CEST)
Rett syndrome (RTT) is mainly caused by mutations in methyl CpG-binding protein 2, cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5, or forkhead box protein G1. These RTT-causing proteins harbor an intrinsically disordered region (IDR) whose conformation exhibits spatiotemporal heterogeneity, which not only confer versatility to the protein, but also implicates them in diseases. The IDR generally evolves more rapidly than an ordered structure. In this study, we examined the relationship between pathogenic RTT-associated point mutations in RTT-causing proteins and the evolutionary dynamics of sequence features including structural order–disorder, phosphorylation sites, and evolutionary rates. We also analyzed the molecular properties and evolution of proteins that interact with RTT-causing proteins in terms of phylogenetic profiles, tissue specificity, subcellular localization, expression level, and functions. The results indicate that constrained IDRs may function by forming contacts with other regions in the protein sequence causing pathogenic missense mutations likely to arise in the rapidly evolving IDR and affect molecular networks, leading to disease. The results also provide novel insights into the genetic basis for RTT and the evolution of the neocortex in higher vertebrates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0445.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: non-canonical amino acids; genetic code expansion; crystal structure; tRNA; cell-free protein synthesis
Online: 27 February 2023 (06:27:04 CET)
Pairs of pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) and tRNAPyl from Methanosarcina mazei and Methanosarcina barkeri are widely used for site-specific incorporations of non-canonical amino acids into proteins (genetic code expansion). Previously, we achieved full productivity of cell-free protein synthesis for bulky non-canonical amino acids, including Ne-((((E)-cyclooct-2-en-1-yl)oxy)carbonyl)-L-lysine (TCO*Lys), by using Methanomethylophilus alvus PylRS with structure-based mutations in and around the amino acid binding pocket (first-layer and second-layer mutations, respectively). Recently, the PylRS•tRNAPyl pair from a methanogenic archaeon ISO4-G1 was used for genetic code expansion. In the present study, we determined the crystal structure of the methanogenic archaeon ISO4-G1 PylRS (ISO4-G1 PylRS) and compared it with those of structure-known PylRSs. Based on the ISO4-G1 PylRS structure, we attempted the site-specific incorporation of Ne-(p-ethynylbenzyloxycarbonyl)-L-lysine (pEtZLys) into proteins, but it was much less efficient than that of TCO*Lys with M. alvus PylRS mutants. Thus, the first-layer mutations (Y125A and M128L) of ISO4-G1 PylRS, with no additional second-layer mutations, increased the protein productivity with pEtZLys up to 578% of that with TCO*Lys, at high enzyme concentrations in the cell-free protein synthesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0232.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein function, mtORF, Stylophora, thermal adaptation, disordered amino acids residues, pocilloporid corals, a transmembrane protein, pocilloporid corals.
Online: 23 January 2019 (08:58:41 CET)
More than a decade ago, a new mitochondrial Open Reading Frame (mtORF) was discovered in corals of the family Pocilloporidae, which turn out to be an effective barcode gene for these corals. However, its function remains unknown. Recently, this gene revealed the existence of a hybrid Stylophora lineage (RS_LinA) inhabiting in sympatry along the environmental gradient of the Red Sea (18.5°C to 33.9°C) with its parental species (RS_LinB). Furthermore, in RS_LinB, the mtORF uncovered phylogeographic patterns that were strongly correlated with environmental variations. This was similar to the patterns unraveled by hsp70, suggesting that mtORF too might be involved in thermal adaptation. Here we used computational approaches to characterize the mtORF and to identify its potential role. Results showed that this gene encodes a transmembrane protein (0.97<P< 1.00) involved in transport (0.80<P< 0.87), regulation of metabolic processes (0.70<P<0.85), and likely in the cell-surface receptor signaling pathway (0.56<P<0.80). Predicted protein functions differed among Stylophora lineages and interestingly, in RS_LinB only, the protein was intrinsically disordered and displayed domains involved in cellular complexes and stress response (0.0001< P <0.001). These characteristics, exclusive of an endemic lineage adapted to extreme environmental fluctuations, support a role of the mtORF in stress response, speciation and adaptation.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0304.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Ab Initio modelling; three-dimensional structure; proton-sensing G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR); GPR151
Online: 20 March 2020 (04:25:00 CET)
Protein is the proteios building block of life. Evolutionarily, its sequence is not as conserved as its structure, making it more reasonable for protein structure, instead of protein sequence, to be the descriptor of protein function. Yet, in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database, the number of experimentally identified protein sequences is in great excess of that of experimentally determined protein structures inside the almost-half-a-century old Protein Data Bank (PDB). For instance, GPR151 is an proton-sensing G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) originally identified as homologous to galanin receptors. As of March 19, 2020, GPR151’s structure has not been experimentally determined and deposited in PDB yet. Thus, an ab initio modelling approach was employed here to build a three-dimensional structure of GPR151. Overall, the ab initio GPR151 model presented herein constitutes the first structural hypothesis of GPR151 to be experimentally tested in future with previously published, currently ongoing and future GPR151 studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0554.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; ORF10; Co-mutations; Intrinsic Protein Disorder; Ubiquitin Ligase Complex
Online: 26 July 2021 (09:07:38 CEST)
The devastating impact of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on public health, caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has made fighting of the COVID-19 pandemic is a top priority in medical research and pharmaceutical development. Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 mutations is essential for the comprehension of SARS-CoV-2 variant diversity and their impact on virulence and pathogenicity. The SARS-CoV-2 open reading frame 10 (ORF10) protein interacts with multiple human proteins CUL2, ELOB, ELOC, MAP7D1, PPT1, RBX1, THTPA, TIMM8B, and ZYG11B expressed in the lung tissues. Mutations and co-mutations in the emerging SARS-CoV-2 ORF10 variants are expected to impact the severity of the virus and its associated consequences. In this article, We highlight 128 single mutations and 35 co-mutations in the unique SARS-CoV-2 ORF10 variants in this article. The possible predicted effects of these mutations and co-mutations on the secondary structure of ORF10 variants and host protein interactomes are presented. The findings highlight the possible effects of mutations and co-mutations on the emerging 140 ORF10 unique variants from secondary structure and intrinsic protein disorder perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0403.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Molecular evolution; Substitution matrix; Amino acid exchangeability; Models of sequence evolution; Protein evolution; Archaea; Bacteria
Online: 21 December 2022 (13:06:09 CET)
The factors that determine the relative rates of amino acid substitution during protein evolution are complex and they are known to vary among taxa. We estimated relative exchangeabilities for pairs of amino acids from clades spread across the tree of life and assessed the historical signal in the distances among these clade-specific models. We trained these models separately on collections of arbitrarily selected protein alignments and on ribosomal protein alignments. In both cases we found a clear separation between the models trained using multiple sequence alignments from bacterial clades and the models trained on archaeal and eukaryotic data. We assessed the predictive power of our novel clade-specific models of sequence evolution by asking whether fit to the models could be used to identify the source of multiple sequence alignments. Model fit was generally able to classify protein alignments correctly at the level of domain (bacterial versus archaeal), but the accuracy of classification at finer scales was much lower. The only exceptions to this were the relatively high classification accuracy for two archaeal lineages: Halobacteriaceae and Thermoprotei. Genomic GC content had a modest impact on relative exchangeabilities despite having a large impact on amino acid frequencies. Relative exchangeabilities involving aromatic residues exhibited the largest differences among models. There were a small number of exchangeabilities that exhibited large differences in comparisons among major clades and between generalized models and ribosomal protein models. Taken as a whole, these results reveal that a small number of relative exchangeabilities are responsible for much of the structure of the “model space” for protein sequence evolution. If we look beyond the information that these clade-specific models reveal about protein evolution the models themselves are likely to be useful tools for phylogenomic inference across the tree of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0384.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: cell envelope protease; subtilase; lactic acid bacteria; protein structure; AlphaFold 2 models; extracellular proteolysis
Online: 4 August 2023 (10:37:53 CEST)
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have an extracellular proteolytic system that includes a multi-domain, cell envelope protease (CEP) with a subtilisin homologous protease domain. These CEPs have different proteolytic activities despite having similar protein sequences. Structural characterization has previously been limited to CEP homologs of dairy and human derived LAB strains, excluding CEPs of plant derived LAB strains. CEP structures are a challenge to determine experimentally due to their large size and attachment to the cell envelope. This study aims to clarify the prevalence and structural diversity of CEPs by using the structure prediction software AlphaFold 2. Domain boundaries are clarified based on a comparative analysis of 21 three-dimensional structures, revealing novel domain architectures of CEP homologs that are not necessarily restricted to specific LAB species or ecological niches. The C-terminal flanking region of the protease domain is divided into fibronectin type-III-like domains with various structural traits. The analysis also emphasizes the existence of two distinct domains for cell envelope attachment that are preceded by an intrinsically disordered cell wall spanning domain. The domain variants and their combinations provide CEPs with different stability, proteolytic activity and potentially adhesive properties, making CEPs targets for steering proteolytic activity with relevance for both food development and human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0535.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 RNA Secondary Structure; Spike Protein; Furin; TMPRSS2
Online: 30 April 2020 (14:13:36 CEST)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has claimed nearly 180,000 lives and continues to spread. There are currently no approved medications or vaccines for this new coronavirus. Studies have shown that the positive RNA genome of SARS-CoV-2 contains unique features, including a 12-base sequence inserted between the two subunits of viral receptor protein Spike. This inserted sequence facilitates the cleavage of Spike by the cellular proteases Furin and TMPRSS2, leading to the fusion of virus and host cell membranes. Current studies are mostly focused on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein and its interacting cellular proteins ACE2, Furin, and TMPRSS2. RNA structural studies are limited and little is known about the potential impact of the 12-base sequence insert on the secondary structure of SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA and/or its transcripts. Here, by using local and global RNA secondary structure predictions, we show that the novel 12-base insert of SARS-CoV-2 genome likely induces a major RNA secondary structure change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0739.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Protein Unfolding 2; Cytochrome c’ 3; Small-Angle Neutron Scattering 4; Open-bundle structure
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:59:40 CEST)
The open-bundle structure of cytochrome c’ as an unfolding intermediate was determined by small-angle neutron scattering experiment (SANS). The four-α-helix bundle structure of Cyt c’ at neutral pH was transited to an open-bundle structure (at pD ~13), which is a joint-clubs consisting of four clubs (α-helices) connected by short loops. The compactly folded structure of Cyt c’ (radius of gyration, Rg = 18 Å for the Cyt c’ dimer) at neutral or mildly alkaline pD transitioned to a remarkably larger “open-bundle” structure at pD ~13 (Rg = 25 Å for the Cyt c’ monomer). Cyt c’ adopts an unstructured random coil structure at pD = 1.7 (Rg = 25 Å for the Cyt c’ monomer). Numerical partial scattering function analysis (joint-clubs) and ab initio modelling gave structures similar to the “open-bundle”, which retains the α-helices but loses the bundle structure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0131.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: single nucleotide polymorphism; docking; molecular dynamics; in-silico studies; protein dynamics; missense; prediction algorithm; mutation
Online: 10 December 2019 (07:56:43 CET)
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are associated with diseases and drug response variabilities in humans. Elucidating the damaging and disease-associated SNPs using wet-laboratory approaches can be challenging and resource-demanding due to the large number of SNPs in the human genome. Due to the growth in the field of computational biology and bioinformatics, algorithms have been developed to help screen and filter out the most deleterious SNPs that are worth considering for wet-laboratory studies. Here we review the existing in-silico based methods used to predict and characterize the effects of SNPs on protein structure and function. This cutting-edge approach will facilitate the search for novel therapeutics, help understand the etiology of diseases and fast-track the personalized medicine agenda.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0399.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: inositide; phosphoinositide; 5-phosphatase; INPP5K; SKIP; phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate; congenital muscular dystrophy; cataract; intellectual disability; insulin signaling; insulin resistance; endoplasmic reticulum; endoplasmic reticulum stress; unfolded protein response
Online: 17 September 2020 (11:19:10 CEST)
INPP5K (Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatase K, or SKIP (for Skeletal muscle and Kidney enriched Inositol Phosphatase) is a member of the phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases family. Its protein structure is comprised of a N-terminal catalytic domain which hydrolyses both PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, followed by a SKICH domain at the C-terminus which is responsible for protein-protein interactions and subcellular localization of INPP5K. Strikingly, INPP5K is mostly concentrated in the endoplasmic reticulum, although it is also detected at the plasma membrane, in the cytosol and the nucleus. Recently, mutations in INPP5K have been detected in patients with a rare form of autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy with cataract, short stature and intellectual disability. INPP5K functions extend from control of insulin signaling, endoplasmic reticulum stress response and structural integrity, myoblast differentiation, cytoskeleton organization, cell adhesion and migration, renal osmoregulation, to cancer. The goal of this review is thus to summarize and comment recent and less recent data in the literature on INPP5K, in particular on the structure, expression, intracellular localization, interactions and functions of this specific member of the 5-phosphatases family.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0319.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cytokine; S100 protein; S100P; protein–protein interaction
Online: 21 September 2022 (09:45:39 CEST)
S100 proteins are multifunctional calcium-binding proteins of vertebrates that act intracellularly, extracellularly, or both, and are engaged in the progression of many socially significant diseases. Their extracellular action is typically mediated by the recognition of specific receptor proteins. Besides, recent studies indicate the ability of some S100 proteins to affect cytokine signaling through direct interaction with cytokines. S100P was shown to be the S100 protein most actively involved in interactions with some of four-helical cytokines. To assess selectivity of S100P protein binding to four-helical cytokines, we have probed interaction of Ca2+-bound recombinant human S100P with a panel of 32 four-helical human cytokines covering all structural families of this fold, using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. 22 cytokines from all families of four-helical cytokines are S100P binders with the equilibrium dissociation constants, Kd, ranging from 1 nM to 3 µM (below the Kd value for the S100P complex with the V domain of its conventional receptor, receptor for advanced glycation end products, RAGE). Molecular docking and mutagenesis studies revealed the presence in the S100P molecule of a cytokine-binding site, which overlaps with the RAGE-binding site. Since S100 binding to four-helical cytokines inhibits their signaling in some cases, the revealed ability of S100P protein to interact with ca 71% of the four-helical cytokines indicates that S100P may serve as a poorly selective inhibitor of their action.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0222.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: myelin; myelination; development; peripheral neuropathies; protein folding; transmembrane protein; protein-membrane interaction; protein-protein interaction
Online: 13 May 2020 (04:51:20 CEST)
Myelin protein zero (P0), a type I transmembrane protein, is the most abundant protein in peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin – the lipid-rich, periodic structure that concentrically encloses long axonal segments. Schwann cells, the myelinating glia of the PNS, express P0 throughout their development until the formation of mature myelin. In the intramyelinic compartment, the immunoglobulin-like domain of P0 bridges apposing membranes together via homophilic adhesion, forming a dense, macroscopic ultrastructure known as the intraperiod line. The C-terminal tail of P0 adheres apposing membranes together in the narrow cytoplasmic compartment of compact myelin, much like myelin basic protein (MBP). In mouse models, the absence of P0, unlike that of MBP or P2, severely disturbs the formation of myelin. Therefore, P0 is the executive molecule of PNS myelin maturation. How and when is P0 trafficked and modified to enable myelin compaction, and how disease mutations that give rise to incurable peripheral neuropathies alter the function of P0, are currently open questions. The potential mechanisms of P0 function in myelination are discussed, providing a foundation for the understanding of mature myelin development and how it derails in peripheral neuropathies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Baroenzymology; Cryoenzymology; Intrinsic disorder; Intrinsically disordered proteins; Macromolecular crowding; Nanomaterials; Partially folded intermediate; Protein denaturation; Protein engineering; Protein flexibility; Protein folding; Protein function; Protein stability; Protein structure; Protein refolding; Protein unfolding
Online: 3 January 2023 (06:48:30 CET)
Transition between the unfolded and native states of the ordered globular proteins is accompanied by accumulation of several intermediates, such as pre-molten globule, wet molten globule, and dry molten globule. Structurally equivalent conformations can serve as native functional states of intrinsically disordered proteins. This overview captures the characteristics and importance of these molten globules in both structured and intrinsically disordered proteins. It also discusses examples of engineered molten globules. The formation of these intermediates under the conditions of macromolecular crowding and their interactions with nanomaterials are also reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0390.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: protein structure; relative solvent accessibility; secondary structure; phylogeny; models of sequence evolution; gene tree-species tree discordance; incomplete lineage sorting; Ctenophora; Porifera
Online: 19 January 2021 (16:46:25 CET)
Despite the long history of using protein sequences to infer the tree of life the potential for different parts of protein structures to retain historical signal remains unclear. We propose that it might be possible to improve analyses of phylogenomic datasets by incorporating information about protein structure; we test this idea using the position of the root of Metazoa (animals) as a model system. We examined the distribution of “strongly decisive” sites (alignment positions that support a specific tree topology) in a dataset comprising >1,500 proteins and almost 100 taxa. The proportion of each class of strongly decisive sites in different structural environments was very sensitive to the model used to analyze the data when a limited number of taxa were used but they were stable when taxa were added. As long as enough taxa were analyzed, sites in all structural environments supported the same topology (ctenophores sister to other animals) regardless of whether standard tree searches or decisive sites were used to select the optimal tree. However, the use of decisive sites revealed a difference between the support for minority topologies for sites in different structural environments; buried sites and sites in sheet and coil environments exhibited equal support for the minority topologies whereas solvent exposed and helix sites had unequal numbers of sites supporting the minority topologies. Given the plausible trees equal support for minority topologies is consistent with discordance among gene trees, making it possible the relatively slowly evolving buried (and sheet and coil) sites are giving an accurate picture of the true species tree as well as the amount of conflict among gene trees. Alternatively, the apparent support could reflect currently uncharacterized processes of molecular evolution. Regardless, it is clear that analyses of the deepest branches in the animal tree of life using sites in different structural environments are associated with a subtle data type effect that results in distinct phylogenetic signals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0355.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: rice protein; spirulina protein; pea protein; soy protein; plant-based diet; thermal properties; rheological properties; protein processing
Online: 6 November 2023 (13:48:26 CET)
Reducing meat consumption is better for the environment. Unfortunately, commercial plant-based meat substitutes are often more expensive than meat and thus have not seen widespread adoption. This paper analyzes commercially-available spirulina, soy, pea, and brown rice protein isolates characteristics to provide data for non-meat protein cost reductions. Thermal and rheological properties, viscosity, density, and particle size distribution are analyzed for further study on alternative protein-based food processing. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis produced dry amorphous-shaped curves and paste curves with a more distinct endothermic peak. Extracted linear temperature ranges for processing in food production for spirulina was 70-90ºC; soy protein was 87-116ºC; pea protein was 67-77ºC; and brown rice protein was 87-97ºC. Viscosity analysis determined each protein material was shear-thinning and that viscosity increased with decreased water concentration, with rice being an exception to the latter trend. The obtained viscosity range for spirulina was 15,100-78,000cP; soy protein was 3,200-80,000cP; pea protein was 1,400-32,700cP; and brown rice protein was 600-3,500cP. The results indicate that extrusion is a viable method for further processing of the protein isolates as this technique has a large temperature operating range and variable screw speed. Data provided here can be used to make single or multi-component protein substitutes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0376.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: myelin; intrinsically disordered protein; multiple sclerosis; peripheral neuropathies; myelination; protein folding; protein-membrane interaction; protein-protein interaction
Online: 31 January 2020 (04:55:04 CET)
Myelin ensheathes selected axonal segments within the nervous system, resulting primarily in nerve impulse acceleration, as well as mechanical and trophic support for neurons. In the central and peripheral nervous systems, various proteins that contribute to the formation and stability of myelin are present, which also harbour pathophysiological roles in myelin disease. Many myelin proteins share common attributes, including small size, high hydrophobicity, multifunctionality, longevity, and intrinsic disorder. With recent advances in protein biophysical characterization and bioinformatics, it has become evident that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are abundant in myelin, and their flexible nature enables multifunctionality. Here, we review known myelin IDPs, their conservation, molecular characteristics and functions, and their disease relevance, along with open questions and speculations. We place emphasis on classifying the molecular details of IDPs in myelin and correlate these with their various functions, including susceptibility to post-translational modifications, function in protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions, as well as their role as extended entropic chains. We discuss how myelin pathology can relate to IDPs and which molecular factors are potentially involved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0531.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Rabies; intrinsic disorder; intrinsically disordered protein; intrinsically disordered protein region; protein-protein interaction
Online: 31 August 2022 (03:47:31 CEST)
Rabies is a neurological disease that causes between 40,000 and 70,000 deaths every year. Once a rabies patient has become symptomatic, there is no effective treatment for the illness, and in unvaccinated individuals, the case-fatality rate of rabies is close to 100%. French scientists Louis Pasteur and Émile Roux developed the first vaccine for rabies in 1885. If administered before the virus reaches the brain, the modern rabies vaccine imparts long-lasting immunity to the virus and saves more than 250,000 people every year. However, the rabies virus can suppress the host’s immune response once it has entered the cells of the brain, making death likely. This study aims to make use of disorder-based proteomics and bioinformatics to determine the impact that intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs) in the proteome of the rabies virus have on the infectivity and lethality of the disease. This study uses the proteome of Rabies Lyssavirus (RABV) strain Pasteur Vaccins (PV), one of the best understood strains due to its use in the first rabies vaccine, as a model. The study suggests that the high levels of intrinsic disorder in the phosphoprotein (P-protein) and nucleoprotein (N-protein) allow them to participate in creation of the Negri bodies and help this virus suppress the antiviral immune response in the host cells. Additionally, the study suggests that there is a link between disorder in the matrix (M) protein and the modulation of viral transcription. The disordered regions in the M protein have a possible role in initiating viral budding within the cell. Furthermore, we checked the prevalence of functional disorder in a set of 37 host proteins directly involved in the interaction with the RABV proteins. The hope is that these new insights will aid in the development of treatments for rabies that are effective after infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2030.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cytokine; EF-hand; S100 protein; S100A6; protein–protein interaction
Online: 28 July 2023 (12:40:50 CEST)
S100 is a family of over 20 structurally homologous, but functionally diverse regulatory (calcium/zinc)-binding proteins of vertebrates. The involvement of S100 proteins in numerous vital (patho)physiological processes is mediated by their interaction with various (intra/extra)cellular protein partners, including cell surface receptors. Furthermore, recent studies revealed the ability of specific S100 proteins to affect cell signaling via direct interaction with cytokines. Previously, we have revealed binding of ca. 71% of the four-helical cytokines by S100P protein due to the presence in its molecule of a cytokine-binding site, which overlaps with the binding site for S100P receptor. Here we show that another S100 protein, S100A6 (pairwise sequence identity with S100P of 35%), specifically binds numerous four-helical cytokines. We have studied affinity of recombinant forms of 35 human four-helical cytokines covering all structural families of this fold to Ca2+-loaded recombinant human S100A6, using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. S100A6 recognizes 26 of the cytokines from all families of this fold with the equilibrium dissociation constants ranging from 0.3 nM to 12 µM. Overall, S100A6 interacts with ca. 73% of the four-helical cytokines studied to date with selectivity equivalent to that for S100P protein, with the differences limited to binding of Interleukin-2 and Oncostatin-M. The molecular docking study evidences presence in S100A6 molecule of a cytokine-binding site, analogous to that found in S100P. The findings argue the presence in some of the promiscuous members of S100 family of a site specific to a wide range of the four-helical cytokines. This unique feature of the S100 proteins potentially allows them to serve as universal inhibitors of signaling of the four-helical cytokines, which could be of value for reduction of severity of the disorders accompanied by excessive release of the cytokines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1412.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Protein fortification; whey protein concentrate; isolated soy protein; Biscuits
Online: 19 May 2023 (08:34:32 CEST)
The main objective of this study is to compare and investigate the proximate, sensory parameters of the biscuits fortified with (1) whey protein concentrate (WPC), (2) isolated soy protein (ISP) at various proportions as a source of protein enrichment. The fortified biscuits were analysed for sensory and proximate analysis. The study evaluated and compared the effect of fortifying whey protein concentrate and isolated soy protein at various proportions T0 control (0%), T1 (5%), T2 (10%), T3 (15%), T4 (20%). The protein content in both WPC and ISP samples tends to increase, but much higher in WPC formulated biscuits. At 20% WPC the protein content peaked to 29.11%, other nutritional components such as fat, ash, fibre and moisture content of WPC samples increased significantly, whereas no such significant changes were observed and only linear increase of protein content were in ISP fortified samples. The sensory analysis of ISP fortified samples were acceptable up to 10% proportion, exceeding 10% showed unacceptable results, on comparison WPC biscuits were acceptable at all proportions, more desirable at 20% WPC. Conclusively, fortifying biscuits with either WPC or ISP might be a source of protein without any significant effect on the quality of biscuits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0198.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: magnetoreception; cryptochrome; G protein α-subunit; protein-protein interaction
Online: 14 June 2022 (08:37:43 CEST)
Background: Night-migratory birds sense the Earth´s magnetic field by an unknown molecular mechanism. Theoretical and experimental evidence support the hypothesis that light-induced formation of a radical-pair in European robin cryptochrome 4a, ErCry4a, is the primary signalling step in the retina of the bird. In the present work, we investigated a possible route of cryptochrome signalling involving the α-subunit of the cone specific heterotrimeric G protein from European robin. Methods: Protein-protein interaction studies include surface plasmon resonance, pulldown affinity binding and Förster resonance energy transfer. Results: Surface plasmon resonance studies showed direct interaction revealing high to moderate affinity for binding of non-myristoylated and myristoylated G protein to ErCry4a, respectively. Pulldown affinity experiments confirmed this complex formation in solution. We validated these in vitro data by monitoring the interaction between ErCry4a and G protein in a transiently transfected neuroretinal cell line using Förster resonance energy transfer. Conclusions: Our results suggest that ErCry4a and the G protein also interact in vivo and might constitute the first biochemical signalling step in radical-pair-based magnetoreception.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0602.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SFTSV; Viral protein; Protein-protein interaction; In-vitro and in-silico; Nonstructural protein(NSs)
Online: 8 August 2023 (04:26:30 CEST)
The non-structural protein (NS) and nucleoprotein (NP) of the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) encoded by the S segment are crucial for viral pathogenesis. They reside in viroplasm-like structures (VLS), but their interaction and their significance in viral propagation remain unclear. Here, we investigated the significance of the association between NS and NP during viral infection through in-silico and in-vitro analyses. Through in-silico analysis, three possible binding sites were predicted, at NSs1-32, NSs56-82, and NSs207-237. Rationally, three mutant NSs were developed by site-directed mutagenesis and tested for NP interaction by co-immunoprecipitation. NSsW61Y failed to interact with the nucleoprotein, which was substantiated by the conformational changes observed in the structural analyses. Additionally, molecular docking analysis corroborated that the NSW61Y mutant protein does not interact well compared to wild-type NS. Over-expression of wild-type NS in HeLa cells increased the SFTSV replication by five folds, but NSsW61Y exhibited 1.9-folds less viral replication than wild-type. We demonstrated that the W61Y alteration was implicated in the reduction of NS-NP interaction and viral replication. Thus, the present study identified a critical NS site, which could be targeted for development of therapeutic regimens against SFTSV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Posttranslational modifications (PTMs); Protein tyrosine sulfation (PTS); Protein–protein interaction
Online: 3 November 2020 (14:36:25 CET)
Protein tyrosine sulfation (PTS), a vital post-translational modification, facilitates protein–protein interactions and regulates many physiological and pathological responses. Monitoring PTS has been difficult owing to the instability of sulfated proteins and the lack of a suitable method for detecting the protein sulfate ester. In this study, we combined an in situ PTS system with an ultra-high-sensitivity polysilicon nanowire field-effect transistor (pSNWFET)-based sensor to directly monitor PTS formation. A peptide containing the tyrosine sulfation site of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (PSGL)-1 was immobilized onto the surface of the pSNWFET by using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde as linker molecules. A coupled enzyme sulfation system consisting of tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase and phenol sulfotransferase was used to catalyze PTS of the immobilized PSGL-1 peptide. Enzyme-catalyzed sulfation of the immobilized peptide was readily observed through the shift of the drain current–gate voltage curves of the pSNWFET before and after PTS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to describe in situ PTS and its direct observation by using semiconductor devices. We expect that this approach can be developed as a next generation biochip for biomedical research and industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0052.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: protein–protein interaction networks; protein function module; simplified swarm optimization
Online: 15 February 2017 (10:17:35 CET)
Proteomics research has become one of the most important topics in the fields of life science and natural science. At present, research on protein–protein interaction networks (PPINs) mainly focuses on detecting protein complexes or function modules. However, existing approaches are either ineffective or incomplete. In this paper, we investigate function module detection mechanisms in PPIN, including open databases, existing detection algorithms and recent solutions. After that, we describe the proposed solution based on simplified swarm optimization (SSO) algorithm and gene ontology knowledge. The proposed solution implements SSO algorithm for clustering proteins with similar function, and imports biological gene ontology knowledge for further identifying function complexes and improving detection accuracy. Furthermore, we use four different categories of species dataset for experiment: Fruitfly, Mouse, Scere, and Human. The testing and analysis result show that the proposed solution is feasible, efficient and could achieve a higher accuracy of prediction than existing approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0159.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant PII protein; protein-protein interaction; PII foci; BiFC; FRET/FLIM; plastidic protein degradation; cpUPR
Online: 8 November 2021 (15:30:44 CET)
The PII protein is an evolutionary highly conserved regulatory protein from bacteria to higher plants. In bacteria it modulates the activity of several enzymes, transporters and regulatory factors by interacting with them and thereby regulating important metabolic hubs like carbon/nitrogen homeostasis. More than two decades ago the PII protein was characterized for the first time in plants, but its physiological role is still not sufficiently resolved. To gain more insights into the function of this protein, we investigated the interaction behaviour of AtPII with candidate proteins by BiFC and FRET/FLIM in planta and with GFP/RFP traps in vitro. In the course of these studies we found that AtPII interacts in chloroplasts with itself as well as with known interactors like NAGK in dot-like aggregates, which we named PII foci. In these novel protein aggregates AtPII interacts also with yet unknown partners, which are known to be involved in plastidic protein degradation. Further studies revealed that the C-terminal part of AtPII is crucial for the formation of PII foci. Altogether, the presented results indicate a novel mode of interaction for PII proteins with other proteins in plants, which may be a new starting point for the elucidation of physiological functions of PII proteins in plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0034.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Hemopexin; Hemoglobin; protein-protein binding; hemin
Online: 2 March 2022 (06:56:02 CET)
Abstract: Background: Hemopexin (Hx) is a plasma glycoprotein that scavenges heme (Fe(III) protoporphyrin IX), Hx have important implication in hemolytic disorders and hemorrhagic condition because the release of hemoglobin increase labile heme, which is potentially toxic producing oxidative stress. Hx has been considered for therapeutic use and diagnostics. In this work, we analyzed and mapped interaction sequences of Hx with hemin and hemoglobin (2) Methods: Spot-synthesis technique was used to map human hemopexin (P02790) binding to hemin and human hemoglobin, a library of 15 amino acid peptides with a 10-amino acid overlap was designed to represent the entire coding region (aa 1-462) of hemopexin and synthesized onto cellulose membranes. In silico approach was performed to analyze amino acid frequency in identified interaction regions, and molecular docking was applied for protein-protein interaction (3) Results: Seven linear peptide sequences in Hx were identified to bind hemin (H1-H7), and five were described for Hb (Hb1-Hb5) interaction, with just two sequences shared between hemin and Hb. Amino acid composition of identified sequences demonstrated that Histidine residues are relevant for heme binding, H105, H293, H373, H400, H429, and H462 was distributed in H1-H7 peptide sequences, but other residues may also play an important role. Molecular docking analysis demonstrated Hx association with the β-chain of Hb, with several hot spot amino acids that coordinated interaction. (4) Conclusions: This study highlights new insights on Hx-hemin binding motifs and protein-protein interactions with Hb. Binding sequences and identified specific peptides can be used for therapeutic purposes and diagnostics, as hemopexin is under investigation to treat different diseases, and there is an urgent need for diagnostics of labile heme for monitoring hemolysis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0309.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: tuberculosis; Mycobacterium; protein-protein interactions; virulence
Online: 29 August 2019 (08:46:44 CEST)
Studies on Protein-Protein interactions (PPI) can be helpful for the annotation of unknown protein function and for the understanding of cellular processes, such as specific virulence mechanisms developed by bacterial pathogens. In that context, several methods have been extensively used in recent years for the characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPI to further decipher TB pathogenesis. This review aims at compiling the most striking results based on in vivo methods (yeast and bacterial two-hybrid systems, protein complementation assays) for the specific study of PPI in mycobacteria. Moreover, newly developed methods, such as in-cell native mass resonance and proximity-dependent biotinylation identification, will have a deep impact on future mycobacterial research, as they are able to perform dynamic (transient interactions) and integrative (multiprotein complexes) analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0313.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cytokine; Tumor necrosis factor; S100 protein; protein–protein interaction; inflammatory diseases
Online: 16 November 2022 (13:12:59 CET)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors (anti-TNFs) represent a cornerstone of the treatment of various immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and are among the most commercially successful therapeutic agents. Knowledge of TNF binding partners is critical for identification of the factors able to affect clinical efficacy of the anti-TNFs. Here we report that among eighteen representatives of the multifunctional S100 protein family only S100A11, S100A12 and S100A13 interact with the soluble form of TNF (sTNF) in vitro. The lowest equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) for the complexes with monomeric sTNF determined using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy range from 2 nM to 28 nM. The apparent Kd values for the complexes of multimeric sTNF with S100A11/A12 estimated from fluorimetric titrations are 0.1-0.3 µM. S100A12/A13 suppress the cytotoxic activity of sTNF against Huh-7 cells, as evidenced by the MTT assay. Structural modeling indicates that the sTNF-S100 interactions may interfere with the sTNF recognition by the therapeutic anti-TNFs. Bioinformatic analysis reveals dysregulation of TNF and S100A11/A12/A13 in numerous disorders. Overall, we have shown a novel potential regulatory role of the extracellular forms of specific S100 proteins that may affect efficacy of anti-TNF treatment in various diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0065.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: memory formation; moonlighting protein; protein-protein interaction; astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle
Online: 5 May 2020 (06:09:47 CEST)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a molecular basis of memory formation. Here, we demonstrate that LTP critically depends on muscle fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase 2 (Fbp2) – a glyconeogenic enzyme and moonlighting protein protecting mitochondria against stress. We show that LTP induction regulates Fbp2 association with neuronal mitochondria and Camk2, and that the Fbp2-Camk2 interaction correlates with Camk2 autophosphorylation. Silencing of Fbp2 expression or simultaneous inhibition and tetramerization of the enzyme with a synthetic effector mimicking the action of physiological inhibitors (NAD+ and AMP) abolishes Camk2 autoactivation and blocks formation of the early phase of LTP and expression of the late phase LTP markers. Astrocyte-derived lactate reduces NAD+/NADH ratio in neurons and thus, diminishes the pool of tetrameric and increases the fraction of dimeric Fbp2. We therefore hypothesize that this NAD+-level-dependent increase of the Fbp2 dimer/tetramer ratio might be a crucial mechanism in which astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle stimulates LTP formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0281.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: protein structural dynamics; NQO1; ligand binding; protein stability; allostery; protein degradation
Online: 24 October 2019 (15:41:46 CEST)
Human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a multi-functional protein whose alteration is associated with cancer, Parkinson´s and Alzheimer´s diseases. NQO1 displays a remarkable functional chemistry, capable of binding different functional ligands that modulate its activity, stability and interaction with proteins and nucleic acids. Our understanding on this functional chemistry is limited by the difficulty of obtaining structural and dynamic information on many of these states. Herein, we have used hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass-spectrometry (HDXMS) to investigate the structural dynamics of NQO1 in three ligation states: without ligands (NQO1apo), with FAD (NQO1holo) and with FAD and the inhibitor dicoumarol (NQO1dic). We show that NQO1apo has a minimally stable folded core holding the protein dimer and with FAD and dicoumarol ligand binding sites populating binding non-competent conformations. Binding of FAD significantly decreases protein dynamics and stabilizes the FAD and dicoumarol binding sites as well as the monomer:monomer interface. Dicoumarol binding further stabilizes all three functional sites, a result not previously anticipated by available crystallographic models. Our work provides an experimental perspective into the communication of stability effects through the NQO1 dimer, valuable to understand at the molecular level the effects of disease-associated variants, post-translation modifications and ligand binding cooperativity in NQO1.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae; protein purification; protein labelling; seleno-methionine; DNA-protein interactions
Online: 20 May 2019 (10:03:26 CEST)
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an pathogenic and opportunistic Gram-positive bacteria that is the leading cause of community acquired respiratory diseases, varying from mild- to deathly- infections. Appearance of antibiotic resistant isolates has prompted the search for novel targets. One of the most promising approaches is the structure-based knowledge of possible targets in conjunction to rational design and docking of inhibitors of the chosen targets. A useful technique to help solving protein structures is to label them with a heavy atom, like selenium, that facilitates tracing of the some of the amino acid residues. We have chosen two pneumococcal DNA-binding proteins, namely the relaxase domain of MobM protein from plasmid pMV158, and the RelB-RelE antitoxin-toxin protein complex. Through the update of a previous protocol  that uses seleno-L-methionine, we could achieve 100% labelling of the proteins. Furthermore, the labelled proteins retained full activity as judged from relaxation of supercoiled plasmid DNA and from gel-retardation assays.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0012.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: surface functionalization; biosensor functionalization; protein immobilization; protein structure analysis; protein immobilization
Online: 1 March 2018 (16:43:35 CET)
Proteins play a major role in biosensors in which they provide catalytic activity and specificity in molecular recognition. The immobilization process is however far from straightforward as it often affects the protein functionality. An extensive interaction of the protein with the surface or a significant surface crowding can lead to changes in the mobility and conformation of the protein structure. This review will provide an insight of how the analysis of the physico-chemical features of the protein surface features before the immobilization process can help to identify the optimal immobilization approach to preserve the functionality of the protein when on the surface of the biosensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0189.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: protein; plant-based protein; whey protein; essential amino acids; leucine, healthy men
Online: 16 November 2019 (00:58:01 CET)
This study assessed bio-equivalence of high-quality, plant-based protein blends versus Whey Protein Isolate (WPI) in healthy, resistance-trained men. The primary endpoint was incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of blood essential Amino Acids (eAAs) 4 hours after consumption of each product. Cmax and Tmax of blood leucine were secondary outcomes. Subjects (n=18) consumed three plant-based protein blends and WPI (control). Analysis of Variance model was used to assess for bio-equivalence of total sum of blood eAA concentrations. The total blood eAA iAUC ratios of the three blends were: [90% CI]: #1: 0.66 [0.58-0.76]; #2: 0.71 [0.62-0.82]; #3: 0.60 [0.52-0.69], not completely within the pre-defined equivalence range [0.80-1.25], indicative of 30-40% lower iAUC versus WPI. Leucine Cmax of the three blends was not equivalent to WPI, #1: 0.70 [0.67-0.73]; #2: 0.72 [0.68-0.75]; #3: 0.65 [0.62 – 0.68], indicative of a 28-35% lower response. Leucine Tmax for two blends were similar to WPI (#1: 0.94 [0.73-1.18]; #2: 1.56 [1.28-1.92]; #3: 1.19 [0.95-1.48]). The plant-based protein blends were not bio-equivalent. However, blood leucine kinetic data across the blends approximately doubled from fasting concentrations whereas blood Tmax data across two blends was similar to WPI. This suggests evidence of rapid hyperleucinemia, which correlates with a protein’s anabolic potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1362.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: AAPH; Protein oxidation; Myofibrillar protein; Gel properties
Online: 18 August 2023 (11:47:21 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical properties and gel-forming capacity of duck myofibrillar proteins under the effects of 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-mediated oxidation. Duck myofibrillar proteins were extracted and treated with different concentrations of AAPH solutions (0, 1, 3, 5, 10 mmol/L) and then analysed for carbonyl content, dynamic rheology, protein profiles and gel-forming properties (colour, water holding capacity, hardness, protein profile, microstructure). The results showed that with increasing AAPH concentration, the carbonyl content of protein showed an increasing trend (p < 0.05); SDS-PAGE pattern results indicated that moderate oxidation (3 mmol/L AAPH) induced myosin aggregation via covalent bonds including disulfide, enhanced protein-protein, and thus improved protein-water interactions and gel strength of DMPs heat-induced gels. However, high oxidation (5 and 10 mmol/L AAPH) led to partial degradation of myosin heavy chain (MHC), as evidenced by lower storage modulus and irregular microstructure, which significantly reduced gelation ability. These results suggest that the internal relationship between alkanoperoxy radical-induced oxidation should be taken into account in the processing of duck meat, as mild protein oxidation is conducive to improving gel quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0003.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein engineering; creation of an entirely new protein; pluripotency of an immature protein; GC-NSF(a) hypothesis; protein 0th-order structure; origin of protein
Online: 1 March 2021 (12:41:07 CET)
Proteins having a variety of functions play many essential roles in maintaining various life activities in organisms. Various methods, by which new protein functions can be artificially produced, have progressed rapidly upon development in recombinant DNA technology and effective screening techniques. However, the obtainable scope of the new functions has been restricted in a narrow range, because only functions of presently existing proteins can be used. On the other hand, it has been considered that it would be impossible to create an entirely new protein, which does not show any meaningful homology with any other amino acid sequences of previously existing proteins. The reason is because one amino acid sequence for a protein cannot be selected out from an extraordinary large amino acid sequence diversity as ~10130. As a matter of course, it is impossible to design an amino acid sequence of a protein in advance and a gene encoding the protein cannot be also formed through random process. Nevertheless, extant organisms have generated a variety of entirely new proteins in some way to make full use of them. This means that extant organisms have equipped a mechanism with which entirely new proteins can be produced under the present core life system composed of protein, tRNA (genetic code) and gene. In this article, first I introduce the mechanism, with which entirely new proteins are created in extant organisms, and further propose a novel strategy for application of the mechanism to protein engineering through creation of entirely new proteins, which could contribute to development of various industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0267.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: myofibrillar protein; sulfhydryl-blocking agent; disulfide bond; protein-stabilized emulsions; interface protein membrane
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:21:59 CEST)
To investigate the role of sulfhydryl groups and disulfide bonds in different protein-stabilized emulsions, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) was used as sulfhydryl-blocking agent to be added in the emulsion. The addition of NEM to block the sulfhydryl groups resulted in a reduction of the content of disulfide bonds formation, which enabled destruction of the internal structure of the protein molecule, and then decreased the restriction of protein membrane on the oil droplets. Furthermore, with NEM content increasing in the emulsion, a reduction of protein emulsifying activity and emulsion stability also occurred. At the same time, the intermolecular interaction of the protein on the oil droplet interface membrane was destroyed, and the emulsion droplet size increased with the NEM content in the emulsion. Although NEM blocking sulfhydryl groups not to form disulfide bonds has similar effects on three types of protein emulsion, the degree of myofibrillar protein (MP), egg-white protein isolate (EPI), and soybean protein isolate (SPI) as emulsifier had a subtle difference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein-protein interactions; PDZ domains; choanoflagellates; evolution; target selectivity; protein-peptide interactions; signaling
Online: 15 September 2021 (12:25:01 CEST)
Choanoflagellates are single-celled eukaryotes with complex signaling pathways. They are considered the closest non-metazoan ancestors to mammals and other metazoans, and form multicellular-like states called rosettes. The choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis contains over 150 PDZ domains, an important peptide-binding domain in all three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya). Therefore, an understanding of PDZ domain signaling pathways in choanoflagellates may provide insight into the origins of multicellularity. PDZ domains recognize the C-terminus of target proteins and regulate signaling and trafficking pathways, as well as cellular adhesion. Here, we developed a computational program, Domain Analysis and Motif Matcher (DAMM), that predicts target specificity in choanoflagellate PDZ domains by analyzing peptide-binding cleft sequence identity as compared to human PDZ domains. We used this program, protein biochemistry, fluorescence polarization, and structural analyses to characterize the specificity of A9UPE9_MONBE, a M. brevicollis PDZ domain-containing protein with no homology to any metazoan protein, finding that its PDZ domain is most similar to those of the DLG family. We then identified two endogenous sequences that bind A9UPE9 PDZ with <100 M affinity, a value commonly considered the threshold for cellular PDZ-peptide interactions. Taken together, this approach can be used to predict cellular targets of previously uncharacterized PDZ domains in choanoflagellates and other organisms. Our data contributes to investigations into choanoflagellate signaling and how it informs metazoan evolution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0339.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: neurodegeneration, glucose metabolism, enzyme catalysis, protein-protein interaction, hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry, protein cross-linking, protein assembly, molecular modeling
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:19:30 CEST)
The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHc) is a key enzyme in the TCA cycle and represents one of the major regulators of mitochondrial metabolism through NADH and reactive oxygen species levels. The OGDHc impacts cell metabolic and cell signaling pathways through the coupling of 2-oxoglutarate metabolism to gene transcription related to tumor cell proliferation and aging. DHTKD1 is a gene encoding 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase (E1a), which functions in the L-lysine degradation pathway. The potentially damaging variants in DHTKD1 have been associated to the (neuro) pathogenesis of several diseases. Evidence was obtained for the formation of a hybrid complex between the OGDHc and E1a, suggesting a potential cross talk between the two metabolic pathways and raising fundamental questions about their assembly. Here we reviewed the recent findings and advances in understanding of protein-protein interactions in OGDHc and 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase complex (OADHc), an understanding that will create a scaffold to help design approaches to mitigate the effects of diseases associated with dysfunction of the TCA cycle or lysine degradation. A combination of biochemical, biophysical and structural approaches such as chemical cross-linking MS and cryo-EM appears particularly promising to provide vital information for the assembly of 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes, their function and regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0195.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: artificial intelligence; protein structure; protein modeling; nanobody; antibody
Online: 11 April 2023 (05:13:24 CEST)
The number of applications for nanobodies is steadily expanding, positioning these molecules as fast-growing biologic products in the biotechnology market. Several of their applications require protein engineering, which in turn would greatly benefit from having a reliable structural model of the nanobody of interest. However, as with antibodies, structural modeling of nanobodies is still a challenge. With the rise of artificial intelligence (AI), several methods have been developed in recent years that attempt to solve the problem of protein modeling. In this study, we have compared the performance in nanobody modeling of several state-of-the-art AI-based programs, either designed for general protein modeling, such as AlphaFold2, OmegaFold, ESMFold and Yang-Server, or specifically designed for antibody modeling, such as IgFold, and Nanonet. While all these programs performed rather well in constructing the nanobody framework and CDRs 1 and 2, modeling of CDR3 sill represents a big challenge. Interestingly, tailoring an AI method for antibody modeling does not necessarily translate into better results for nanobodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0384.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Silybum Marianum; Molecular Docking; Parp Protein; 4UND protein
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:14:01 CEST)
Silybum Marianum, is a plant belonging to the family Asteraceae. For many centuries it has been used a natural remedy for many diseases like Liver and Biliary tract diseases. It is effective as an anti-oxidant and is used in a variety of diseases. This study was conducted to check the effects of Silybum Marianum on PARP protein (4UND protein).The Molecular Docking techniques was chosen to check the effects of different chemical constituents of Silybum marianum on DNA damaging protein. For this purpose, different PARP inhibitor drugs were taken as standard. The Molecular Docking of the chemical constituents of Silybum marianum was performed using 4UND protein with the help of PyRx software along with BIOVIA Drug Discovery studio software. The result of molecular docking showed that some of the chemical constituent have higher binding affinity than standard PARP inhibitor drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0161.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein splicing; intein; crystal structure; hyperthermophile; protein engineering
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:29:29 CEST)
Inteins are prevalent among extremophiles. Mini-inteins with robust splicing properties are of particular interest for biotechnological applications due to their small size. However, biochemical and structural characterization has still been limited to a small number of inteins, and only a few inteins serve as widely used tools in protein engineering approaches. We determined the crystal structure of a naturally-occurring Pol-II mini-intein from Pyrococcus horikoshii and compared it with two other natural mini-inteins from Pyrococcus horikoshii. Despite the similar sizes, the comparison revealed distinct differences in insertions and deletions, implying specific evolutionary pathways from distinct ancestral origins. Our studies suggest that sporadically distributed mini-inteins might be more promising for further protein engineering applications than the highly conserved mini-inteins. Structural investigations of more inteins could guide the shortest path to finding novel robust mini-inteins suitable for protein engineering purposes.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: astrocytes; calcineurin; GLAST; protein synthesis; protein degradation; proteostasis
Online: 15 March 2020 (01:39:55 CET)
Alterations in the expression of glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) have been associated with several neuropathological conditions including Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy. However, the mechanisms by which GLAST expression is altered are poorly understood. Here we used a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches coupled with quantitative PCR and Western blot to investigate the mechanism of the regulation of GLAST expression by a Ca2+/calmodulin-activated phosphatase calcineurin (CaN). We show that treatment of cultured hippocampal mouse and fetal human astrocytes with a CaN inhibitor FK506 resulted in a dynamic modulation of GLAST protein expression, being downregulated after 24-48 h, but upregulated after 7 days of continuous FK506 (200 nM) treatment. Protein synthesis, as assessed by puromycin incorporation in neo-synthesized polypeptides, was inhibited already after 1 h of FK506 treatment, while the use of a proteasome inhibitor MG132 (1 μM) shows that GLAST protein degradation was only suppressed after 7 days of FK506 treatment. In astrocytes with constitutive genetic ablation of CaN both protein synthesis and degradation were significantly inhibited. Taken together, our data suggest that, in cultured astrocytes, CaN controls GLAST expression at a posttranscriptional level through regulation of GLAST protein synthesis and degradation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0140.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein crystallization; protein sample qualification; JAXA PCG; microgravity
Online: 15 December 2019 (13:43:29 CET)
We summarize how to obtain protein crystals from which better diffraction images can be obtained. In particular, we describe in detail the quality evaluation of the protein sample, the crystallization methods and crystallization conditions, the flash-cooling protection of the crystal, and the crystallization under a microgravity environment.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: conformation of protein; albumin protein; non-gaussian chain
Online: 7 August 2019 (09:59:10 CEST)
We study a conformation of an albumin protein in the temperature range of 300K-315K, i.e. in the physiological range of temperature. Using simulations we calculate values of two backbone angles, that carry most of information about positioning of the protein chain in a conformational space. Given these, we calculate energy components of such protein. Further, using the Flory theory we determine the temperature in which investigated albumin chain model is closest to the free joined chain model. Near the Flory temperature, we study energy components and the conformational entropy, both derived from two angles that reflect most of the chain dynamics in a conformational space. We show that the conformational entropy is an oscillating function of time in considered range of temperature. Our finding is that, the only regular oscillation pattern appears near the Flory temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0386.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: gelatinized starch; maltose-binding protein; microplate based assay; protein-protein interaction; dissociation constant determination
Online: 22 February 2023 (14:53:42 CET)
The detection and quantification of protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is a crucial technique that often involves the use of recombinant proteins with fusion-protein tags, such as maltose-binding protein (MBP) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). In this study, we improved the cohesive and sticky properties of gelatinized starch by supplementing it with agarose, resulting in a harder gel that could coat the bottom of a microtiter plate. The resulting gelatinized starch/agarose mixture allowed for the efficient immobilization of MBP-tagged proteins on the coated plates, enabling the use of indirect ELISA-like PPI assays. By using the enzymatic activity of GST as an indicator, we succeeded in determining the dissociation constants between MBP-tagged and GST-tagged proteins on 96-well microtiter plates and a microplate reader without any expensive specialized equipment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0346.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: G-protein-coupled-receptors; GPCRs; Membrane protein; Protein-lipid interactions; Cholesterol; Class C GPCRs
Online: 19 January 2023 (06:32:01 CET)
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), one of the largest superfamilies of cell-surface receptors, are heptahelical integral membrane proteins that play critical roles in virtually every organ system. G-protein-coupled receptors operate in membranes rich in cholesterol, with an imbalance in cholesterol level within the vicinity of GPCR transmembrane domains affecting the structure and/or function of many GPCRs, a phenomenon that has been linked to several diseases. These effects of cholesterol could result in indirect changes by altering the mechanical properties of the lipid environment or direct changes by binding to specific sites on the protein. There are a number of studies and reviews on how cholesterol modulates class A GPCRs, however, this area of study is yet to be explored for class C GPCRs, which are characterized by a large extracellular region and often form constitutive dimers. This review highlights specific sites of interaction, functions, and structural dynamics involved in the cholesterol recognition of the class C GPCRs. We summarize recent data from some typical family members to explain the effects of membrane cholesterol on the structural features and functions of Class C GPCRs and speculate on their corresponding therapeutic potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0355.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: developmental delay; de novo mutation; protein-protein interaction; PPI interface; protein in-teractome; PsymuKB
Online: 19 August 2022 (04:50:42 CEST)
Mutations, especially those at the protein-protein interaction (PPI) interface, have been associated with various diseases. Meanwhile, though de novo mutations (DNMs) have been proven important in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as developmental delay (DD), the relationship between PPI interface DMNs and DD has not been well studied. Here we curated developmental delay DNM datasets from the PsyMuKB database and showed that DD patients showed a higher rate and deleteriousness in DNM missense on the PPI interface than sibling control. Next, we identified 302 DD-related PsychiPPIs, defined as PPI harboring a statistically significant number of DNM missenses at their interface, and 42 DD candidate genes from PsychiPPI. We then observed that PsychiPPIs preferentially affected hub proteins in the human protein interactome network. When analyzing DD candidate genes using gene ontology and gene spatio-expression, we found that PsychiPPI genes carrying PPI interface mutations, such as FGFR3 and ALOX5, were enriched in development-related pathways and the development of the neocortex, and cerebellar cortex, suggesting their potential involvement in the etiology of DD. Our results demonstrated that DD patients carried an excess burden of PPI-truncating DNM, which could be used to efficiently search for disease-related genes and mutations in large-scale sequencing studies. In conclusion, our comprehensive study indicated the significant role of PPI interface DNMs in developmental delay pathogenicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0318.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; three-finger toxins; acetylcholine binding protein; protein – protein docking; computational modeling
Online: 14 August 2020 (09:57:35 CEST)
Three finger toxins (3FTX) are a group of peptides that affect multiple receptor types. One group of proteins affected by 3FTX are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Structural information on how neurotoxins interact with nAChR is limited and are confined to a small group of neurotoxins. Therefore, in silico methods are valuable in understanding the interactions between 3FTX and different nAChR subtypes, but there are no established protocols to model 3FTX – nAChR interactions. We developed a homology modeling and protein docking protocol to address this issue and tested its success on three different systems. First, neurotoxin peptides co-crystallized with acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) were re-docked to assess whether Rosetta protein – protein docking can reproduce the native poses. Second, experimental data on peptide binding to AChBP was used to test whether the docking protocol can qualitatively distinguish AChBP-binders from non-binders. Finally, we docked eight peptides with known α7 and muscle-type nAChR binding properties to test whether the protocol can explain the differential activities of the peptides at the two receptor subtypes. Overall, our docking protocol succeeded in predicting both qualitative and specific aspects of 3FTX binding to nAChR and shed light on some unknown aspects of 3FTX binding to different receptor subtypes.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0126.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein-protein interaction; protein-peptide interaction; triglycine; substrate binding site; peptide; inhibitor; Proteinase K
Online: 11 August 2019 (08:37:08 CEST)
Various peptides or non-structural amino acids are recognized by their specific target proteins and perform biological role in various pathways in vivo. Understanding the interactions between target protein and peptides (or non-structural amino acids) provides key information on the molecular interactions, which can be potentially translated to the development of novel drugs. However, it is experimentally challenging to determine the crystal structure of protein-peptide complexes. To obtain structural information on substrate recognition of peptide-recognizing enzyme, X-ray crystallographic studies were performed using triglycine (Gly-Gly-Gly) as main-chain of peptide. The crystal structure of Parengyodontium album Proteinase K in complex with triglcyine was determined at 1.4 Å resolution. Two different bound conformations of triglycine were observed at the substrate recognition site. The triglycine backbone forms stable interactions with β5-α4 and α5-β6 loops of main-chain. One of the triglycine-binding conformations was identical with the binding mode of a peptide-based inhibitor from a previously reported crystal structure of Proteinase K. Triglycine has potential application X-ray crystallography to identify substrate recognition sites in peptide binding enzymes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0015.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: fusion proteins; protein therapeutics; ricin; pokeweed antiviral protein; protein engineering; immunotoxins; ribosome-inactivating proteins.
Online: 1 May 2017 (10:51:21 CEST)
Fusion protein therapeutics engineering is advancing to meet the need for novel medicine. Herein, we further characterize the development of novel RTA & PAP-S1 antiviral fusion proteins. In brief, RTA/PAP-S1 and PAP-S1/RTA fusion proteins were produced in both cell free and E. coli in vivo expression systems, purified by His-tag affinity chromatography, and protein synthesis inhibitory activity assayed by comparison to the production of a control protein, CalmL3. Results showed that the RTA/PAP-S1 fusion protein is amenable to standardized production and purification and has both increased potency and less toxicity compared to either RTA or PAP-S1 alone. Thus, this research highlights the developmental potential of novel fusion proteins with reduced cytotoxic risk and increased potency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0539.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Protein-Protein Interaction; Medical Diagnostic; Cell Imaging and Signaling; Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence; Protein dynamics.
Online: 7 August 2023 (11:50:41 CEST)
Live cell imaging is a powerful technique to study the dynamics and mechanics of various biological molecules like proteins, organelles, DNA, and RNA. With the rapid evolution of optical microscopy, our understanding of how these molecules is implicated in the cells’ most critical physiological roles deepens. Here in this review, we focus on how spatiotemporal nanoscale live cell imaging on a single molecule level allows for profound contributions towards new discoveries in life science. This review will start by summarizing how single molecule tracking has been used to analyze membrane dynamics, receptor ligand interactions, protein-protein interactions, inner- and extracellular transport, gene expression/transcription, and whole organelle tracking. We then move on to how current authors are trying to improve single molecule tracking and overcome current limitations by offering new ways in labeling protein of interests, multi-channel/color detection, improvements in time laps imaging, and new methods and programs to analyze colocalization and movement of targets. We later discuss how single molecule tracking can be a beneficial tool used for medical diagnosis. Finally wrapping up with limitation and future perspective of single molecule tracking and total internal refection microscopy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0168.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: heat shock proteins; co-chaperones; protein quality control; protein folding; protein degradation; cardioprotection; neuroprotection; cancer
Online: 11 October 2021 (14:38:49 CEST)
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a family of molecular chaperones that regulate essential protein refolding and triage decisions to maintaining protein homeostasis. Numerous co-chaperone proteins directly interact and modify the function of HSPs, and these interactions impact the outcome of protein triage, impacting everything from structural proteins to cell signaling mediators. The chaperone/co-chaperone machinery protects against various stressors to ensuring cellular function in the face of stress. However, coding mutations, expression changes, and post-translational modifications of the chaperone/co-chaperone machinery can alter the cellular stress response. Importantly, these dysfunctions appear to contribute to numerous human diseases. Therapeutic targeting of chaperones is an attractive but challenging approach due to the vast functions of HSPs, likely contributing to the off-target effects of these therapies. Current efforts focus on targeting co-chaperones to develop precise treatments for numerous diseases caused by defects in protein quality control. This review focuses on the recent developments regarding selected HSP70/HSP90 co-chaperones, focusing on cardioprotection, neuroprotection, and cancer. We also discuss therapeutic approaches that highlight both the utility and challenges of targeting co-chaperones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0476.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: arrestin; structure-function; GPCR; receptor binding; protein-protein interactions
Online: 18 April 2023 (04:02:29 CEST)
Arrestin-1, or visual arrestin, exhibits an exquisite selectivity for light-activated phosphorylated rhodopsin (P-Rh*) over its other functional forms. That selectivity is believed to be mediated by two well-established structural elements in the arrestin-1 molecule, the activation sensor detecting the active conformation of rhodopsin and the phosphorylation sensor responsive to the rhodopsin phosphorylation, which only active phosphorylated rhodopsin can engage simultaneously. However, in the crystal structure of the arrestin-1-rhodopsin complex there are arrestin-1 residues located close to rhodopsin, which do not belong to either sensor. Here we tested by site-directed mutagenesis the functional role of these residues in wild type arrestin-1 using direct binding assay to P-Rh* and light-activated unphosphorylated rhodopsin (Rh*). We found that many mutations either enhanced the binding only to Rh* or increased the binding to Rh* much more than to P-Rh*. The data suggest that the native residues in these positions act as binding suppressors, specifically inhibiting the arrestin-1 binding to Rh* and thereby increasing arrestin-1 selectivity for P-Rh*. This calls for the modification of a widely accepted model of the arrestin-receptor interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0435.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika virus; ZIKV; the Numb protein; the Capsid protein
Online: 17 April 2023 (09:49:56 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and causes an infection that is associated with neurological manifestations, including microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome. The mechanism of ZIKV-mediated neuropathogenesis is not well understood. In this study, we discovered that ZIKV induces the degradation of the Numb protein, which plays a crucial role in neurogenesis by allowing asymmetric cell division during embryonic development. Our data show that ZIKV reduced the Numb protein level in a time- and dose-dependent manner. However, ZIKV infection appears to have minimal effect on the Numb transcript. Treatment of ZIKV-infected cells with a proteasome inhibitor restores the Numb protein level, which suggests the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In addition, ZIKV infection shortens the half-life of the Numb protein. Among the ZIKV proteins, the capsid protein significantly reduces the Numb protein level. Immunoprecipitation of the Numb protein co-precipitates the capsid protein, indicating the interaction between these two proteins. These results provide insights into the ZIKV-cell interaction that might contribute to its impact on neurogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Stroke; Periodontitis; Periodontal disease; protein-protein network interaction; Bioinformatics
Online: 1 February 2021 (16:45:13 CET)
The clinical interaction between stroke and periodontitis has been consistently studied and confirmed. Hence, forecasting potentially new protein interactions in this association using bioinformatic strategies presents potential interest. In this exploratory study, we conducted a protein-protein network interaction (PPI) search with documented encoded proteins for both stroke and periodontitis. Genes of interest were collected via GWAS database. The STRING database was used to predict the PPI networks, first in a sensitivity purpose (confidence cut-off of 0.7), and then with a highest confidence cut-off (0.9). Genes over-representation was inspected in the final network. As a result, we foresee a prospective protein network of interaction between stroke and periodontitis. Inflammation, pro-coagulant/pro-thrombotic state and ultimately atheroma plaque rupture is the main biological mechanism derived from the network. These pilot results may pave the way to future molecular and therapeutic studies to further comprehend the mechanisms between these two conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0126.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: CCNB1; BUB1B; TTK; lung cancer; protein‑protein interaction network
Online: 10 June 2020 (05:12:20 CEST)
Lung cancer predominates in cancer-related deaths worldwide, with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) being a common histological subtype of lung cancer. The aim at this study was to search for biomarkers associated with the progression and prognosis of LUAD. We have integrated the expression profiles of 1174 lung cancer patients from five GEO datasets (GSE18842, GSE19804, GSE30219, GSE40791 and GSE68465) and identified a set of differentially expressed genes. Functional enrichment analysis showed that these genes are closely related to the progression of LUAD, such as cell cycle, mitosis and adhesion. Cytoscape software was used to establish a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network to analyze important modules using Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE), and finally CCNB1, BUB1B and TTK were selected for further study. The study found that compared with non-tumor lung tissue, CCNB1, BUB1B and TTK are highly expressed in LUAD. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that CCNB1, BUB1B and TTK were negatively correlated with the overall survival and disease-free survival of patients. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) demonstrated that for the samples of any hub gene highly expressed, most of the functional gene sets enriched in cell cycle. In summary, CCNB1, BUB1B and TTK can be used as biomarkers of poor prognosis of LUAD. The high expression of CCNB1, BUB1B and TTK can accelerate the progression of LUAD and lead to shorter survival, suggesting that they may be potential targets for treatment in LUAD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0026.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; Spike protein; Nucleocapsid protein; MSA
Online: 3 May 2020 (06:27:36 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 is a novel and highly pathogenic coronavirus, which was first diagnosed in Wuhan city, China, in 2019, and spread to 185 countries and territories, and as of April 29, 2020, more than 3.11 million cases were recorded, and more than 217,000 people were killed. Despite all worldwide efforts, there is currently no vaccine, any drugs available to protect people against deadly SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The world urgently needs a SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus vaccine or effective antiviral drugs to relieve the human suffering associated with the pandemic that kills thousands of people every day. The SARS-CoV-2 genome encode a non-structural proteins named as ORF1a/b, and structural proteins such as spike (S) glycoprotein, nucleocapsid protein (N), small envelop protein (E) and matrix protein (M). A number of studies have been shown that CoV spike (S) glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein (N) could be promising targets for vaccine, antibodies and therapeutic drug development to combat with deadly, pandemic SARS-CoV-2. Purposes of the present paper is the sequence analysis and amino acid variations of structural proteins deduced from novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 strains, isolated in different countries. Multiple sequence alignment of S, N and E proteins from four different coronavirus species, are also described. It is expected that the data from these studies will be very useful for the the designing and development of vaccines, antibodies and therapeutic agents that can be used to combat with the highly pathogenic SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0078.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ZIKV; protein-protein interaction; non-structural viral proteins; network
Online: 7 September 2019 (00:18:39 CEST)
The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus and can be transmitted through an infected mosquito bite or through human-to-human interaction by sexual activity, blood transfusion, breastfeeding or perinatal exposure. After the 2015-2016 outbreak in Brazil, a strong link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly emerged. ZIKV specifically targets human neural progenitor cells, suggesting that proteins encoded by ZIKV bind and inactivate host cell proteins leading to microcephaly. Here, we present a systematic annotation of interactions between human proteins and the seven non-structural ZIKV proteins corresponding to a Brazilian isolate. The interaction network was generated by combining tandem-affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry with yeast two-hybrid screens. We identified 150 human proteins, involved in distinct biological processes, as interactors to ZIKV non-structural proteins. Our interacting network is composed of proteins that have been previously associated with microcephaly in human genetic disorders and/or animal models. This study builds on previously published interacting networks of ZIKV and genes related to autosomal recessive primary microcephaly to generate a catalog of human cellular targets of ZIKV proteins implicated in processes related to microcephaly in humans. Collectively, this data can be used as a resource for future characterization of ZIKV infection biology and help create a basis for the discovery of drugs which may disrupt the interaction and reduce the health damage to the fetus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0096.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: AgrA protein; biofilm; MRSA; quorum sensing; SarA protein; swarming
Online: 7 August 2019 (10:29:04 CEST)
Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an opportunistic pathogen and a predominant cause of life-threatening nosocomial infections. Drug resistance in S. aureus is attributed to production of biofilm, which is controlled largely by bacterial quorum sensing (QS) systems. Methodology: In vitro analysis of biofilm inhibition assay was performed using crystal violet staining assay, swarming motility, light microscopy and growth curve analyses. Identification of the major constituents of I. verum fruit extract was performed by GC-MS. Ligand-protein interaction was analyzed by molecular docking investigations. Results: The methanol extract of I. verum inhibited the growth of MRSA at the concentration of 4.8 mg/ml. At the sub-inhibitory concentration (2.4mg/ml), the extract showed significant reduction in biofilmogenesis. Light microscopy analysis confirmed the antibiofilm activity as well as the efficacy in disturbing biofilm architecture. A reduced swarming motility was observed at the lowest concentration of 2.4mg/ml. GC-MS analysis revealed anethol (AL) as the major constituent. The molecular docking analysis attributes the antibiofilm activity to an active ligand AL, which strongly interacted with the active site residues of AgrA and SarA proteins of S. aureus. Conclusion: We report the activities of I. verum to be immensely interfering with QS system and biofilm formation in MRSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0223.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: animal protein; plant protein; elderly; obesity; glomerular filtration rate
Online: 27 March 2018 (11:23:20 CEST)
Controversy exists on whether animal and plant proteins influence obesity differently. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between total, animal, and plant protein intake with the obesity index and renal function in Korean adults. Study participants included Korean adults aged 60 years or older from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013-2014. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. One-day 24-hour recall data were used to estimate the daily total, animal, and plant protein intake. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated by using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. General linear modellings were used to assess the relationships between protein intake, BMI and WC. The mean age was 69.2 ± 0.2 years, 44.2% were male. The total daily protein intake was 1.1 ± 0.02 g/kg/d and 0.9 ± 0.02 g/kg/d for males and females, respectively. Only one third of protein intake was from animal sources. In males, BMI (p < 0.001, p = 0.016, p < 0.001 respectively) and WC (p < 0.001, p = 0.010, p < 0.001, respectively) decreased as daily intake of plant protein (g/kg/d), animal protein (g/kg/d) and total protein (g/kg/d) increased. Similar associations were shown in Korean female. GFR was not associated with protein intake regardless of protein source in both sexes. In Korean adults aged 60 years or older, the protein intake was associated with a favorable obesity index without decrease in renal function. The effect was similar in both male and females, with both animal and plant proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0343.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: 14-3-3; interactome; protein-protein interaction; mitochondria; metabolism; protein quality control; homeostasis; left ventricule; network
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:54:49 CEST)
Rationale: The 14-3-3 protein family is known to interact with many proteins in non-cardiac cell types to regulate multiple signaling pathways, particularly those relating to energy and protein homeostasis; and the 14-3-3 network is a therapeutic target of critical metabolic and proteostatic signaling in cancer and neurological diseases. Although the heart is critically sensitive to nutrient and energy alterations, and multiple signaling pathways coordinate to maintain the cardiac cell homeostasis, neither the structure of cardiac 14-3-3 protein interactome, nor potential functional roles of 14-3-3 protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in heart has been explored. Objective: To establish the comprehensive landscape and characterize the functional role of cardiac 14-3-3 PPIs. Methods and Results: We evaluated both RNA expression and protein abundance of 14-3-3 isoforms in mouse heart, followed by co-immunoprecipitation of 14-3-3 proteins and mass spectrometry in left ventricle. We identified 52 proteins comprising the cardiac 14-3-3 interactome. Multiple bioinformatic analyses indicated that more than half of the proteins bound to 14-3-3 are related to mitochondria; and the deduced functions of the mitochondrial 14-3-3 network are to regulate cardiac ATP production via interactions with mitochondrial inner membrane proteins, especially those in mitochondrial complex I. Binding to ribosomal proteins, 14-3-3 proteins likely coordinate protein synthesis and protein quality control. Localizations of 14-3-3 proteins to mitochondria and ribosome were validated via immunofluorescence assays. The deduced function of cardiac 14-3-3 PPIs is to regulate cardiac metabolic homeostasis and proteostasis. Conclusions: Thus, the cardiac 14-3-3 interactome may be a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular metabolic and proteostatic disease states, as it already is in cancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0027.v1
Online: 5 April 2022 (12:02:35 CEST)
Protein Contact Network (PCN) is an emerging paradigm for modelling protein structure. A common approach to interpreting such data is through network-based analyses. It has been shown that clustering analysis may discover allostery in PCN. Nevertheless Network Embedding has shown good performances in discovering hidden communities and structures in network. In this work, we compare some approaches for graph embedding with respect to some classical clustering approaches for annotating protein structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0206.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Protein complexes; Docking
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:24:06 CET)
Interactome depicts the arrangement of all atomic communications in cells, particularly with regards to protein-protein collaborations. We look at different strategies for foreseeing protein-protein collaborations utilizing grouping and structure data. A definitive objective of those methodologies is to introduce the total approach for the programmed choice of communication accomplices utilizing their amino corrosive arrangements as well as three dimensional structures, whenever known. The proposed approval of the hypothetical strategies utilizing test information would be a superior appraisal of their exactness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0035.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: GM-CSF; S100A4; S100A6; S100P; protein–protein interaction; cell viability
Online: 13 November 2023 (08:40:41 CET)
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a pleiotropic myelopoietic growth factor and proinflammatory cytokine, clinically used for multiple indications and serving as a promising target for treatment of many disorders, including cancer, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, asthma, COVID-19. We have previously shown that dimeric Ca2+-bound forms of S100A6 and S100P proteins, members of the multifunctional S100 protein family, are specific to GM-CSF. To probe selectivity of these interactions, the affinity of recombinant human GM-CSF to dimeric Ca2+-loaded forms of 18 recombinant human S100 proteins was studied by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Of them, only S100A4 protein specifically binds to GM-CSF with equilibrium dissociation constant, Kd, values of 0.3-2 μM, as confirmed by intrinsic fluorescence and chemical crosslinking data. Calcium removal prevents S100A4 binding to GM-CSF, whereas monomerization of S100A4/A6/P proteins disrupts S100A4/A6 interaction with GM-CSF and induces a slight decrease in S100P affinity for GM-CSF. Structural modelling indicates the presence in the GM-CSF molecule of a conserved S100A4/A6/P-binding site, consisting of the residues from its termini, helices I and III, some of which are involved in the interaction with GM-CSF receptors. The predicted involvement of the ‘hinge’ region and F89 residue of S100P in GM-CSF recognition was confirmed by mutagenesis. Examination of S100A4/A6/P ability to affect GM-CSF signaling showed that S100A4/A6 inhibit GM-CSF/S100-induced suppression of viability of monocytic THP-1 cells. The ability of the S100 proteins to modulate GM-CSF activity is relevant to progression of various neoplasms and other diseases, according to bioinformatics analysis. The direct regulation of GM-CSF signaling by extracellular forms of the S100 proteins should be taken into account in the clinical use of GM-CSF and development of the therapeutic interventions targeting GM-CSF or its receptors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1908.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction; DNA polymerases; Intra-protein interactions; Protein satbility
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:46:21 CEST)
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a widely used technique in the biosciences and has become increasingly popular in recent years. One of the key elements of this technique is the use of a DNA polymerase that is heat-stable and retains fidelity during the process. To this end, archaeal Fam-ily-B DNA polymerases are preferred due to their high thermostability and fidelity. In particular, the DNA polymerase from Thermus aquaticus (Taq DNApol) is widely utilized in PCR procedures. In this work, a novel in-silico structure-based methodology was employed to examine the most heat-tolerant DNA polymerase available. In spite of this, Thermococcus kodakarensis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus DNApol are more stable and heat-tolerant DNApols due to their high number of intra-protein interactions. Variations in the content of polar amino acids also played a significant role in the increase in heat stability. A further factor contributing to the stability of proteins is the stabilization of helix in secondary structure through the use of charged amino acids. DNApol from these organisms has been shown to be suitable for use in PCR, as well as in other biological processes able to withstand high temperatures. In this study, it has been demonstrated that im-provements in PCR performance can be easily obtained by blending elements from closely related archaeal polymerases, a strategy that may, in the future, be extended to other archaeal polymer-ases. This approach allowed for a comprehensive analysis of the enzyme's thermal stability and fidelity, leading to an improved understanding of the polymerase's properties and potential ap-plications
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Juvenile hormone; Juvenile hormone binding protein; Silk protein; Bombyx mori
Online: 30 May 2023 (03:41:29 CEST)
Production of silkworm silk is the most economically important traits in the silk industry. Silk protein synthesis is regulated by juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E). Therefore, it is important to understand the genetic regulation of silk production is thus a priority. JH binding protein (JHBP) transports JH from the hemolymph to target organs and cells and protects JH. In a previous study, we identified 41 genes containing a JHBP domain in the Bombyx mori genome. Only one JHBP gene, that is, BmJHBPd2, is highly expressed in the posterior silk gland (PSG) and its function remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the expression levels of BmJHBPd2 and the major silk protein genes in the high silk-producing practical strain 872 (S872) and the low silk-producing local strain Dazao. Our results have shown that BmJHBPd2 was more highly expressed in S872, than in the Dazao strain, which is consistent with the expression pattern of fibroin genes. A subcellular localization assay indicated that BmJHBPd2 is located in the cytoplasm. In vitro hormone induction experiments showed that BmJHBPd2 was upregulated by treatment with juvenile hormone analogue (JHA). BmKr-h1 upregulation was significantly inhibited by overexpression of BmJHBPd2 at the cell level when induced by JHA. However, overexpression of BmJHBPd2 in the posterior silk gland by transgenic methods led to the inhibition of the expression of the silk fibroin gene, resulting in a reduction in silk yield. Further investigation has shown that in the BmJHBPd2OE individual, the key transcription factor Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) of the JH signaling pathway was inhibited, and 20E signaling pathway genes, such as broad complex (Brc), E74A, and ultraspiracle protein(USP), were upregulated. Our results have indicated that BmJHBPd2 plays an important role in the JH signaling pathway and was important for silk protein synthesis. Furthermore, our findings have helped to elucidate the mechanisms by which JH regulates silk protein synthesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: stroke; inflammation; neuro-immune; cytokines; hemostasis; coagulation; protein-protein interactions
Online: 3 September 2021 (15:11:00 CEST)
This study used established biomarkers of death due to ischemic stroke (IS) and performed network, enrichment, and annotation analysis. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis revealed that the backbone of the highly connective network of IS death consisted of IL6, ALB, TNF, SERPINE1, VWF, VCAM1, TGFB1, and SELE. Cluster analysis revealed immune and hemostasis subnetworks, which were strongly interconnected through the major switches ALB and VWF. Enrichment analysis revealed that the PPI immune subnetwork of death due to IS was highly associated with TLR2/4, TNF, JAK-STAT, NOD, IL10, IL13, IL4, and TGF-β1/SMAD pathways. The top biological and molecular functions and pathways enriched in the hemostasis network of death due IS were platelet degranulation and activation, the intrinsic pathway of fibrin clot formation, the urokinase-type plasminogen activator pathway, post-translational protein phosphorylation, integrin cell surface interactions, and the proteoglycan-integrin-extra cellular matrix complex (ECM). Regulation Explorer analysis of transcriptional factors shows: a) that NFKB1, RELA and SP1 were the major regulating actors of the PPI network; and b) hsa-mir-26-5p and hsa-16-5p were the major regulating microRNA actors. In conclusion, prevention of death due to IS should consider that current IS treatments may be improved by targeting VWF, VEGFA, proteoglycan-integrin-ECM complex, NFKB/RELA and SP1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0543.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HSPA5; GRP78; BiP; HCV E2; protein-protein docking; structural bioinformatics
Online: 27 October 2020 (09:11:13 CET)
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is the main causative factor for liver cirrhosis and the development of liver cancer, with a confirmed ~ 180 million infections worldwide. E2 is an HCV structural protein responsible for virus entry to the host cell. Heat Shock Protein A5 (HSPA5), also termed BiP and GRP78, is the master regulator of the unfolded protein response mechanism, where it mainly localizes in the lumen of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) in normal conditions. Under the stress of HCV infection or carcinogenesis, HSPA5 is upregulated. Consequently, HSPA5 escapes the ER retention localization and translocates to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. Pep42, a cyclic peptide that was reported to target explicitly cell-surface HSPA5 in vivo. Owing to the high sequence and structural conservation between the C554-C566 region of HCV E2 and the Pep42, then we propose that the HCV E2 C554-C566 region could be the recognition site. The motivation of this work is to predict the possible binding mode between HCV E2 and HSPA5 by implementing molecular docking to test such proposed binding. Docking results reveal the high potent binding of the HCV E2 C554-C566 region to HSPA5 substrate-binding domain β (SBDβ). Moreover, the full-length HCV E2 also exhibits high binding potency to HSPA5 SBDβ. Defining the binding mode between HCV E2 and HSPA5 is of significance, so one can interfere with such binding and reducing the viral infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0050.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Periodontitis; Periodontal disease; protein-protein network interaction; Bioinformatics
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:13:12 CEST)
Recent studies supported a clinical association between Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and periodontitis. Hence, investigating possible protein interactions between these two conditions is of interest. In this study, we conducted a protein-protein network interaction analysis with recognized genes encoding proteins for PD and periodontitis. Genes of interest were collected via GWAS database. Then, we conducted a protein interaction analysis using STRING database, with a highest confidence cut-off of 0.9. Our protein network casted a comprehensive analysis of potential protein-protein interactions between PD and periodontitis. This analysis may underpin valuable information for new candidate molecular mechanisms between PD and periodontitis and may serve new potential targets for research purposes. These results should be carefully interpreted giving the limitations of this approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0010.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: skeletal muscle; muscle protein synthesis; muscle protein breakdown; serum; hydrolysate
Online: 1 March 2020 (11:52:27 CET)
In this study we used a recently developed ex vivo-in vitro model to assess the effect of feeding older adults a casein protein hydrolysate (CPH) compared with non-bioactive non-essential amino acid (NEAA) supplement on Muscle Protein Synthesis (MPS) and Breakdown (MPB). Serum from six healthy older males following overnight fast and 60 min postprandial ingestion of CPH or NEAA (0.33 g.kg-1 body mass) was used to condition C2C12 myotube media. CPH-fed serum significantly increased MPS compared to fasted serum. In addition, CPH-fed serum induced myotube growth and markedly suppressed atrogin-1, but not MuRF1, expression. Comparatively, no change in MPS, myotube growth and gene expression was observed following NEAA-fed serum treatment. CPH-fed serum from older adults stimulated de novo MPS, suppressed markers of protein breakdown and resulted in myotube growth, indicating a potential role for CPH as a dietary protein source to prevent age-related sarcopenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0414.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: endoplasmic reticulum; lipid droplets; peroxisomes; PEX3; protein targeting; membrane protein insertion; protein translocation; label-free quantitative mass spectrometry; differential protein abundance analysis; Zellweger syndrome
Online: 23 November 2021 (09:23:16 CET)
Protein import into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the first step in the biogenesis of about 10,000 different soluble and membrane proteins in humans. It involves co- or post-translational targeting of precursor polypeptides to the ER and their subsequent membrane insertion or translocation. So far, three pathways for ER targeting of precursor polypeptides plus four pathways for ER targeting of mRNAs were described. Typically, these pathways deliver their substrates to the Sec61 polypeptide-conducting channel in the ER membrane. Next, the precursor polypeptides are inserted into the ER membrane or translocated into the ER lumen, which may involve auxiliary translocation components, such as the TRAP and Sec62/Sec63 complexes, or auxiliary membrane protein insertases, such as EMC and the TMCO1 complex. Recently, the PEX19/PEX3-dependent pathway, which has a well-known function in targeting and inserting various peroxisomal membrane proteins into pre-existent peroxisomal membranes, was also found to act in targeting and, putatively, inserting monotopic hairpin proteins into the ER. These either remain in the ER as resident ER membrane proteins or are pinched off from the ER as components of new lipid droplets. Therefore, the question arose if this pathway may play a more general role in ER protein targeting, i.e. represents a fourth pathway for ER targeting of precursor polypeptides. Thus, we addressed the client spectrum of the PEX19/PEX3-dependent pathway in both PEX3-depleted HeLa cells and PEX3-deficient Zellweger patient fibroblasts by an established approach, which involves label-free quantitative mass spectrometry of the total proteome of depleted or deficient cells and differential protein abundance analysis. The negatively affected proteins included twelve peroxisomal proteins and two hairpin proteins of the ER, thus confirming two previously identified classes of putative PEX19/PEX3-clients in human cells. Interestingly, fourteen collagen-related proteins with signal peptides or N-terminal transmembrane helices and belonging to the secretory pathway were also negatively affected by PEX3-deficiency, which may suggest compromised collagen biogenesis as a hitherto unknown contributor to organ failures in the respective Zellweger patients.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: pangolin; intrinsic; disorder; protein; nucleocapsid; Nipah; virulence; viral protein; protein structure; protein function; shell; covid; coronavirus; ebola; vaccine; immune; antibody; shell; nucleoprotein; matrix; attenuate
Online: 28 June 2020 (09:16:27 CEST)
A model to predict the relative levels of respiratory and fecal-oral transmission potentials of coronaviruses (CoVs) by measuring the percentage of protein intrinsic disorder (PID) of the M (Membrane) and N (nucleoprotein) proteins in their outer and inner shells, respectively, was built before the MERS-CoV outbreak. Application of this model to the 2003 SARS-CoV indicated that this virus with MPID = 8.6% and NPID = 50.2% falls into group B, which consists of CoVs with intermediate levels of both fecal-oral and respiratory transmission potentials. Further validation of the model came with MERS-CoV (MPID = 9%, NPID = 44%) and SARS-CoV-2 (MPID = 5.5%, NPID = 48%) falling into the groups C and B, respectively. Group C contains CoVs with higher fecal-oral but lower respiratory transmission potentials. Unlike SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 with MPID = 5.5% has one of the hardest outer shells among CoVs. This shell hardness is believed to be responsible for high viral loads in the mucus and saliva making it more contagious than SARS-CoV. The hard shell is able to resist the anti-microbial enzymes in body fluids. Further searches have found that high rigidity of outer shell is characteristic for the CoVs of burrowing animals, such as rabbits (MPID = 5.6%) and pangolins (MPID = 5-6%), which are in contact with the buried feces. A closer inspection of pangolin-CoVs from 2017-19 reveals that these animals provided a unique window of opportunity for the entry of an attenuated SARS-CoV-2 precursor into the human population in 2017 or earlier, with the subsequent slow and silent spread as a mild cold that followed by its mutations into the current more virulent form. Evidence of this lies in the similarity of shell disorder and genetic proximity of the pangolin-CoVs to SARS-CoV-2 (~90%). A 2017 pangolin-CoV strain shows evidence of higher levels of attenuation and higher fecal-oral transmission associated with lower human infectivity via having lower NPID (44.8%). Our shell disorder analysis also revealed that lower inner shell disorder is associated with the lesser virulence in a variety of viruses.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: intrinsic; disorder; protein; nucleocapsid; Nipah; virulence; viral protein; protein structure; protein function, shell; covid; coronavirus; ebola; vaccine; immune; antibody; shell; nucleocapsid; nucleoprotein; matrix; attenuate;
Online: 7 May 2020 (10:04:51 CEST)
A model that predicts levels of coronavirus (CoV) respiratory/fecal-oral transmission potentials based on the outer shell hardness has been built using neural network (artificial intelligence, AI) analysis of the percentage of disorder (PID) in the nucleocapsid, N, and membrane, M, proteins of the inner and outer viral shells, respectively. Based mainly on the PID of N, SARS-CoV-2 is categorized as having intermediate levels of both respiratory and fecal oral transmission potential. Related to this, other studies have found strong positive correlations between virulence and inner shell disorder among numerous viruses, including Nipah, Ebola, and Dengue viruses. There is some evidence that this is also true for SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, which have N PIDs of 48% and 50%, and are characterized by case-fatality rates of 7.1% and 10.9%, respectively. The link between levels of respiratory transmission and virulence lies in viral load of body fluids and organ respectively. A virus can be infectious via respiratory modes only if the viral loads in saliva and mucus exceed certain minima. Likewise, a person may die, if the viral load is too high especially in viral organs. Inner shell proteins of viruses play important roles in the replication of viruses, and structural disorder enhances these roles by providing greater efficiency in protein-protein/DNA/RNA/lipid binding. This paper outlines a novel strategy in attenuating viruses involving comparison of disorder patterns of inner shells of related viruses to identify residues and regions that could be ideal for mutation. The M protein of SARS-CoV-2 has one of the lowest M PID values (6%) in its family, and therefore this virus has one of the hardest outer shells, which makes it resistant to antimicrobial enzymes in body fluid. While this is likely responsible for its contagiousness, the risks of creating an attenuated virus with a more disordered M are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0457.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Covid-19; desmosine; dp-ucMGP; elastic fibers; factor II; matrix Gla protein; PIVKA-II; protein S; vitamin K; vitamin K antagonist
Online: 29 May 2020 (04:16:20 CEST)
Background: A significant proportion of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients develops respiratory failure. Thromboembolism is also prevalent in coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Vitamin K plays a role in coagulation and possibly also in lung diseases. We therefore hypothesized that vitamin K is implicated in Covid-19 pathogenesis. Methods: 134 Covid-19 patients and 184 controls were included. Inactive vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein (i.e.dp-ucMGP) and prothrombin (i.e. PIVKA-II) were measured, which are inversely related to respectively extrahepatic and hepatic vitamin K status. Desmosine was measured to quantify elastic fiber degradation. Lung involvement and arterial calcifications severity were assessed by computed tomography. Results Dp-ucMGP was elevated in Covid-19 patients compared to controls (P=0.001). Higher dp-ucMGP was found in Covid-19 patients with poor compared to better outcomes (P=0.002). PIVKA-II was normal in 81.8%, mildly elevated in 14.0% and moderately elevated in 4.1% of Covid-19 patients not using vitamin K antagonists. Dp-ucMGP in Covid-19 patients was correlated with desmosine (P<0.001), thoracic aortic calcification (P<0.001) but not with pneumonia severity. Conclusions: Extrahepatic vitamin K status was severely reduced in Covid-19 patients, as reflected by elevated inactive MGP, and related to poor outcome. Procoagulant prothrombin activity remained preserved in the majority of Covid-19 patients, which is compatible with the increased thrombogenicity that is frequently observed in severe Covid-19. Impaired MGP activation was linked to accelerated elastic fiber degradation and premorbid vascular calcifications. A trial should assess whether increasing MGP and protein S activity by vitamin K administration improves Covid-19 outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1859.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: RNA virus; negeviruses; SP24 protein; taxonomy; membrane-embedded protein; virus evolution
Online: 30 October 2023 (08:42:49 CET)
This paper describes new horizons in the diversity and taxonomy of negev-like viruses encoding the membrane-embedded SP24 protein. First, our data extend the known host range of SP24-encoding negev-like viruses to include brown algae, fungi, green plants, the phylum Entoprocta, the phylum Mollusca, and vertebrates. Second, our phylogenetic analysis suggests that the evolution of the SP24 gene family may have involved frequent events of inter-order virus genome shuffling. Third, the identification of 2-3 copies of SP24 protein genes in some virus RNAs shows that virus genomes may have acquired additional SP24 genes during the evolutionary process due to duplications or new acquisition steps. Forth, the broad host specificity of some SP24-encoded viruses may be related to an important adaptive role of SP24. Fifth, insect and nematode genomes may acquire viral SP24 genes by putative horizontal transfer from negev-like viruses known to infect species of both taxa.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0516.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: exercise; intracellular signals; nutrition; protein foods; protein synthesis; sarcopenia; skeletal muscle.
Online: 8 August 2023 (05:02:08 CEST)
The development of sarcopenia in the elderly is associated to many potential factors and/or processes, that impair the renovation and the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass and strength as ageing progresses. Among them, a defect by skeletal muscle to respond to anabolic stimuli is to be considered. Common anabolic stimuli/signals in skeletal muscle are hormones (insulin, growth hormones, IGF-1, androgens, β-agonists such epinephrine), substrates (amino acids as protein precursors on top, but also glucose and fat, as source of energy), metabolites (such as β-agonists and HMB), some cytokines, various biochemical/ intracellular mediators), physical exercise, neurogenic and immune-modulating factors, etc. Each of them may exhibit a reduced effect upon skeletal muscle as ageing progresses. In this review article, we will concisely overview the effects of anabolic signals on muscle metabolism, as well as currently available evidence of a resistance, at skeletal muscle level, to any of the above-mentioned anabolic factors, from both in vitro and in vivo studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; ovarian cancer; PARP inhibitors; Alu repeats; protein-protein interactions
Online: 13 February 2023 (07:54:35 CET)
Two related tumor suppressor genes, Brca1 and Brca2, attract a lot of attention from both fundamental and clinical points of view. Oncogenic hereditary mutations in these genes are firmly linked to the early onset of breast and ovarian cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms that drive extensive mutagenesis in these genes are not known. In this review we hypothesize that one of the potential mechanisms behind this phenomenon can be mediated by Alu mobile genomic elements. Linking mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to the general mechanism(s) of genome stability and DNA repair is critical to ensure the rationalized choice of anti-cancer therapy. Accordingly, we review the literature available on mechanisms of DNA damage repair where these proteins are involved in and how the inactivating mutations in these genes (BRCAness) can be exploited in anti-cancer therapy. We also propose a hypothesis that explains why breast and ovarian epithelial tissues are preferentially susceptible to mutations in BRCA genes. Finally, we discuss perspectives of novel therapeutic approaches for treating BRCAness cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0232.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Protein electron transfer; tunneling; protein dynamics; electrowetting; Stokes-shift dy-namics
Online: 14 November 2022 (02:52:47 CET)
Electron can tunnel between cofactor molecules positioned along biological electron transport chains up to the distance of ≃20 Å on the millisecond time scale of enzymatic turnover. This tunneling range mostly determines the design of biological energy chains facilitating cross-membrane transport of electrons. Tunneling distance and cofactors’ redox potentials become main physical parameters of this design. The protein identity, flexibility, or dynamics are missing from this picture assigning universal charge-transport properties to all proteins. This paradigm is challenged by dynamical models of electron transfer showing that the hopping rate is constant within the crossover distance R*≃12 Å, followed with an exponential tunneling falloff at longer distances. In this view, energy chains for electron transport are best designed by placing redox cofactors near the crossover distance R*. Protein flexibility and dynamics affect the magnitude of the maximum hopping rate within the crossover radius. Protein charge transport is not driven by universal parameters anymore and protein identity matters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0394.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Modularity; Protein-to-protein interaction networks; Spectral characterization; Tree of life
Online: 17 May 2021 (16:56:57 CEST)
Modularity and organizational hierarchy are important concepts in understanding the structure and evolution of interactions in complex biological systems. In this work, we introduce and use a spectral characterization measure (Spectral Entropy) to quantify modularity in protein-to-protein interaction (PPI) networks in species across the tree of life. We evaluated the relation between the size of a PPI network and its (Spectral Entropy-based) modularity, and found a sigmoidal response between the two. We also found significant differences in the distribution of Spectral Entropy values among the three domains of life (Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryotes). To explore further correlations with biological traits, we focused solely on bacterial PPI networks, which are the most numerous among the three domains and had associated trait metadata, and investigated how modularity impacts or is impacted by growth, aerobicity, selection and location on the tree of life. We found no relation between maximal growth rate and Spectral Entropy, but a strong dependence between G-C content (a proxy for selection) and Spectral Entropy. We also discovered that Spectral Entropy is negatively affected by phylogenetic placement (evolutionary distance from the last universal common ancestor). The general nature of the Spectral Entropy measure of hierarchical modularity in networks suggests that it will be useful in other settings where structural properties of real-world networks are being compared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0560.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: HCMV; protein-protein interactions; small molecules; ppUL44; PAP; pUL54; antivirals; screening
Online: 23 November 2020 (08:29:23 CET)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a leading cause of severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals, including AIDS and transplanted patients, and in congenitally infected newborns. The utility of available drugs is limited by poor bioavailability, toxicity, and emergence of resistant strains. Therefore, it is crucial to identify new targets of therapeutic intervention. Among the latter, viral protein-protein interactions are becoming increasingly attractive. Since dimerization of HCMV DNA polymerase processivity factor ppUL44 plays an essential role in the viral life cycle being required for oriLyt-dependent DNA replication, we performed an in silico screening and selected 18 small molecules (SMs) potentially interfering with ppUL44 homodimerization. Antiviral assays using recombinant HCMV TB40-UL83-YFP in the presence of the selected SMs led to the identification of four active compounds. The most active one, B3, also efficiently inhibited AD169 in plaque reduction assays and impaired replication of an AD169-GFP reporter virus and its ganciclovir-resistant counterpart to a similar extent. As assessed by Western blotting experiments, treatment of infected cells with B3 specifically reduced viral gene expression starting from 48 h post infection, consistent with activity on viral DNA synthesis. Therefore, inhibition of ppUL44 dimerization could represent a new class of HCMV inhibitors, complementary to those targeting the DNA polymerase catalytic subunit or the viral terminase complex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0558.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: COVID-19; protein protein interactions; virtual screening; docking; molecular dynamics; zinc
Online: 2 September 2020 (09:48:48 CEST)
The outbreak of COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, continues to affect millions of people around the world. The absence of a globally distributed effective treatment makes the exploration of new mechanisms of action a key step to address this situation. Stabilization of non-native Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) of the nucleocapsid protein of MERS-CoV has been reported as a valid strategy to inhibit viral replication. In this study, the applicability of this unexplored mechanism of action against SARS-CoV-2 is analyzed. During our research, we were able to find three inducible interfaces of SARS-CoV-2 N protein NTD, compare them to the previously reported MERS-CoV stabilized dimers, and identify those residues that are responsible for their formation. A drug discovery protocol implemented consisting of docking, molecular dynamics and MM-GBSA enabled us to find several compounds that might be able to exploit this mechanism of action. In addition, a common catechin skeleton was found among many of these molecules, which might be useful for further drug design. We consider that our findings could motivate future research in the fields of drug discovery and design towards the exploitation of this previously unexplored mechanism of action against COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Lung cancer; biomarker; gene ontology; protein-protein interaction networks; survival analysis
Online: 5 May 2020 (12:28:25 CEST)
Objective: The aim of study is to find key genes and enriched pathways associated with lung cancer. Participants and Methods: Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) data of 54674 genes based on stage, tumor and status of lung cancer was taken from 66 patients of African American (AAs) origin. 2392 DEGs were found based on stage, 13502 DEGs were found based on tumor, 2927 DEGs were found based on status having p value (p<0.05). Results: Total 33 common DEGs were found from stage, tumor and status of lung cancer. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis was performed and 49 significant pathways were obtained, out of which 10 pathways were found to be exclusively involved in lung cancer development. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis found 69 nodes and 324 edges and identified 10 hub genes based on their highest degrees. Module analysis of PPI found that ‘Viral carcinogenesis’, ‘pathways in cancer’, ‘notch signaling pathway’, ‘AMPK signaling pathways’ had a close association with lung cancer. Conclusion: These identified DEGs regulate other genes which play important role in growth of lung cancer. The key genes and enriched pathways identified can thus help in better identification and prediction of lung cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0745.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: urolthiasis; children; protein biomarkers
Online: 11 October 2023 (14:12:37 CEST)
Urolithiasis is an increasingly common clinical problem worldwide. The formation of stones is a combination of metabolic status, environmental factors, family history and many other aspects. It’s important to find new ways to quickly detect and assess urolithiasis because it causes sudden, severe pain and often comes back. One way to do this is by exploring new biomarkers. Current advances in proteomic studies provide a great opportunity for breakthroughs in this field. The study focuses on protein biomarkers and their connection to kidney damage and inflammation during urolithiasis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0190.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: laccase; xenobiotics; protein engineering
Online: 10 March 2023 (09:10:48 CET)
Industrialization, intensive farming, rapid population growth and urbanization are the source of a large number of pollutants entering the environment. The current concentration of xenobiotics released into the environment exceeds its natural ability to decompose them. Enzymatic degradation of pollutants seems to be an environmentally friendly process. Due to the wide spectrum of substrate specificity, from inorganic compounds to high molecular weight organic compounds such as PAH or dyes, as well as favorable biochemical properties, laccase has been used in the biological removal of xenobiotics from the environment. It is important to understand the degradation mechanisms of pollutants and to evaluate the final products in terms of their toxicity. The laccase oxidizes the substrates with the simultaneous reduction of molecular oxygen to water, which is the purest reaction co-substrate. That is why it is called a green biocatalyst. The trend is an increase in the production of enzymes related to the intensive development of industry, bioremediation or synthetic chemistry. This leads to the search for laccases with greater activity and stability under extreme conditions. The potential of laccases to degrade xenobiotics can be promoted by improving enzymatic catalytic characterization using protein engineering and other genetic engineering methods.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Bioinformatics; Proteomics; Protein Evolution
Online: 17 September 2021 (11:49:04 CEST)
In 1984, Susumu Ohno hypothesized that the nylon-degrading enzyme NylB arose de novo via a frameshift mutation within a hypothetical precursor protein (PR.C). However, Ohno never tested his hypothesis or provided supporting biological evidence. For decades, Ohno’s famous frame-shift hypothesis has been uncritically accepted as the correct explanation for the origin of NylB and has been used to illustrate how simple it is for a totally new enzyme to arise spontaneously. In this paper we test Ohno’s hypothesis in light of data not available in 1984. We searched multiple protein databases and found that the NylB protein is widely occurring, has thousands of homologs, and is found in diverse organisms and diverse habitats. Conserved domain searches showed that the NylB sequence is homologous to beta lactamases - a family of highly conserved enzymes. However, our searches showed that there is no evidence for the existence of Ohno’s hypothetical PR.C protein, nor any credible homolog. Our results effectively falsify Ohno's frameshift hypothesis. We extended this analysis to other nylonases and found all the nylonases we examined had large numbers of homologs throughout the biosphere. This falsifies the long-held assumption that all nylonases evolved after the invention of nylon in 1935.