ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0318.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; three-finger toxins; acetylcholine binding protein; protein – protein docking; computational modeling
Online: 14 August 2020 (09:57:35 CEST)
Three finger toxins (3FTX) are a group of peptides that affect multiple receptor types. One group of proteins affected by 3FTX are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Structural information on how neurotoxins interact with nAChR is limited and are confined to a small group of neurotoxins. Therefore, in silico methods are valuable in understanding the interactions between 3FTX and different nAChR subtypes, but there are no established protocols to model 3FTX – nAChR interactions. We developed a homology modeling and protein docking protocol to address this issue and tested its success on three different systems. First, neurotoxin peptides co-crystallized with acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) were re-docked to assess whether Rosetta protein – protein docking can reproduce the native poses. Second, experimental data on peptide binding to AChBP was used to test whether the docking protocol can qualitatively distinguish AChBP-binders from non-binders. Finally, we docked eight peptides with known α7 and muscle-type nAChR binding properties to test whether the protocol can explain the differential activities of the peptides at the two receptor subtypes. Overall, our docking protocol succeeded in predicting both qualitative and specific aspects of 3FTX binding to nAChR and shed light on some unknown aspects of 3FTX binding to different receptor subtypes.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0282.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Penicillamine; spike protein; docking
Online: 16 April 2020 (15:44:39 CEST)
Purpose: Pandemic Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has emerger centered from wuhan, China. Structurally homologous spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 receptor is taxonomically homologous with SARS-Cov and SARS associated bat coronavirus. Still now scientists are trying to find out proper vaccine and treatments for this disease. Methods: Systematically we modeled and compared the structure of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein along with Bat Cov, Bat SARS Cov and SARS Cov Urbani. S1 and S2 unit of the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) are attached with ACE2 and furin, here we docked 5 Ca+ chelating drugs with these two proteins. Results: Structural comparison with all these spike proteins revealed that less significant but not negligible difference exists among them. Inserted stable nucleotide sequences and corresponding surface exposed peptidal region may be considered as epitope. Docking result with Toxicokinetics and half life of Penicillamine can effectly inhibit the attachment site of spike protein of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Conclusions: Docking summery and the pharmacokinetics with toxicokinetics index recommend that Penicillamine can able to inhibit the infection of SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1412.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Protein fortification; whey protein concentrate; isolated soy protein; Biscuits
Online: 19 May 2023 (08:34:32 CEST)
The main objective of this study is to compare and investigate the proximate, sensory parameters of the biscuits fortified with (1) whey protein concentrate (WPC), (2) isolated soy protein (ISP) at various proportions as a source of protein enrichment. The fortified biscuits were analysed for sensory and proximate analysis. The study evaluated and compared the effect of fortifying whey protein concentrate and isolated soy protein at various proportions T0 control (0%), T1 (5%), T2 (10%), T3 (15%), T4 (20%). The protein content in both WPC and ISP samples tends to increase, but much higher in WPC formulated biscuits. At 20% WPC the protein content peaked to 29.11%, other nutritional components such as fat, ash, fibre and moisture content of WPC samples increased significantly, whereas no such significant changes were observed and only linear increase of protein content were in ISP fortified samples. The sensory analysis of ISP fortified samples were acceptable up to 10% proportion, exceeding 10% showed unacceptable results, on comparison WPC biscuits were acceptable at all proportions, more desirable at 20% WPC. Conclusively, fortifying biscuits with either WPC or ISP might be a source of protein without any significant effect on the quality of biscuits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0052.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: protein–protein interaction networks; protein function module; simplified swarm optimization
Online: 15 February 2017 (10:17:35 CET)
Proteomics research has become one of the most important topics in the fields of life science and natural science. At present, research on protein–protein interaction networks (PPINs) mainly focuses on detecting protein complexes or function modules. However, existing approaches are either ineffective or incomplete. In this paper, we investigate function module detection mechanisms in PPIN, including open databases, existing detection algorithms and recent solutions. After that, we describe the proposed solution based on simplified swarm optimization (SSO) algorithm and gene ontology knowledge. The proposed solution implements SSO algorithm for clustering proteins with similar function, and imports biological gene ontology knowledge for further identifying function complexes and improving detection accuracy. Furthermore, we use four different categories of species dataset for experiment: Fruitfly, Mouse, Scere, and Human. The testing and analysis result show that the proposed solution is feasible, efficient and could achieve a higher accuracy of prediction than existing approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0384.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Silybum Marianum; Molecular Docking; Parp Protein; 4UND protein
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:14:01 CEST)
Silybum Marianum, is a plant belonging to the family Asteraceae. For many centuries it has been used a natural remedy for many diseases like Liver and Biliary tract diseases. It is effective as an anti-oxidant and is used in a variety of diseases. This study was conducted to check the effects of Silybum Marianum on PARP protein (4UND protein).The Molecular Docking techniques was chosen to check the effects of different chemical constituents of Silybum marianum on DNA damaging protein. For this purpose, different PARP inhibitor drugs were taken as standard. The Molecular Docking of the chemical constituents of Silybum marianum was performed using 4UND protein with the help of PyRx software along with BIOVIA Drug Discovery studio software. The result of molecular docking showed that some of the chemical constituent have higher binding affinity than standard PARP inhibitor drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0222.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: myelin; myelination; development; peripheral neuropathies; protein folding; transmembrane protein; protein-membrane interaction; protein-protein interaction
Online: 13 May 2020 (04:51:20 CEST)
Myelin protein zero (P0), a type I transmembrane protein, is the most abundant protein in peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin – the lipid-rich, periodic structure that concentrically encloses long axonal segments. Schwann cells, the myelinating glia of the PNS, express P0 throughout their development until the formation of mature myelin. In the intramyelinic compartment, the immunoglobulin-like domain of P0 bridges apposing membranes together via homophilic adhesion, forming a dense, macroscopic ultrastructure known as the intraperiod line. The C-terminal tail of P0 adheres apposing membranes together in the narrow cytoplasmic compartment of compact myelin, much like myelin basic protein (MBP). In mouse models, the absence of P0, unlike that of MBP or P2, severely disturbs the formation of myelin. Therefore, P0 is the executive molecule of PNS myelin maturation. How and when is P0 trafficked and modified to enable myelin compaction, and how disease mutations that give rise to incurable peripheral neuropathies alter the function of P0, are currently open questions. The potential mechanisms of P0 function in myelination are discussed, providing a foundation for the understanding of mature myelin development and how it derails in peripheral neuropathies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0309.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: tuberculosis; Mycobacterium; protein-protein interactions; virulence
Online: 29 August 2019 (08:46:44 CEST)
Studies on Protein-Protein interactions (PPI) can be helpful for the annotation of unknown protein function and for the understanding of cellular processes, such as specific virulence mechanisms developed by bacterial pathogens. In that context, several methods have been extensively used in recent years for the characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPI to further decipher TB pathogenesis. This review aims at compiling the most striking results based on in vivo methods (yeast and bacterial two-hybrid systems, protein complementation assays) for the specific study of PPI in mycobacteria. Moreover, newly developed methods, such as in-cell native mass resonance and proximity-dependent biotinylation identification, will have a deep impact on future mycobacterial research, as they are able to perform dynamic (transient interactions) and integrative (multiprotein complexes) analyses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0012.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: surface functionalization; biosensor functionalization; protein immobilization; protein structure analysis; protein immobilization
Online: 1 March 2018 (16:43:35 CET)
Proteins play a major role in biosensors in which they provide catalytic activity and specificity in molecular recognition. The immobilization process is however far from straightforward as it often affects the protein functionality. An extensive interaction of the protein with the surface or a significant surface crowding can lead to changes in the mobility and conformation of the protein structure. This review will provide an insight of how the analysis of the physico-chemical features of the protein surface features before the immobilization process can help to identify the optimal immobilization approach to preserve the functionality of the protein when on the surface of the biosensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0010.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: skeletal muscle; muscle protein synthesis; muscle protein breakdown; serum; hydrolysate
Online: 1 March 2020 (11:52:27 CET)
In this study we used a recently developed ex vivo-in vitro model to assess the effect of feeding older adults a casein protein hydrolysate (CPH) compared with non-bioactive non-essential amino acid (NEAA) supplement on Muscle Protein Synthesis (MPS) and Breakdown (MPB). Serum from six healthy older males following overnight fast and 60 min postprandial ingestion of CPH or NEAA (0.33 g.kg-1 body mass) was used to condition C2C12 myotube media. CPH-fed serum significantly increased MPS compared to fasted serum. In addition, CPH-fed serum induced myotube growth and markedly suppressed atrogin-1, but not MuRF1, expression. Comparatively, no change in MPS, myotube growth and gene expression was observed following NEAA-fed serum treatment. CPH-fed serum from older adults stimulated de novo MPS, suppressed markers of protein breakdown and resulted in myotube growth, indicating a potential role for CPH as a dietary protein source to prevent age-related sarcopenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0091.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: apoptosis; cyclosaplin; molecular docking; protein kinases; Sandalwood
Online: 11 June 2019 (09:45:07 CEST)
Natural products from plants such as, chemopreventive agents attract huge attention because of their low toxicity and high specificity. The rational drug design in combination with structure based modeling and rapid screening methods offer significant potential for identifying and developing lead anticancer molecules. Thus, the molecular docking method plays an important role in screening a large set of molecules based on their free binding energies and proposes structural hypotheses of how the molecules can inhibit the target. Several peptide based therapeutics have been developed to combat several health disorders including cancers, metabolic disorders, heart-related, and infectious diseases. Despite the discovery of hundreds of such therapeutic peptides however, only few peptide-based drugs have made it to the market. Moreover, until date the activities of cyclic peptides towards molecular targets such as protein kinases, proteases, and apoptosis related proteins have never been explored. In this study we explore the in silico kinase and protease inhibitor potentials of cyclosaplin as well as study the interactions of cyclosaplin with other cancer-related proteins. Previously, the structure of cyclosaplin was elucidated by molecular modeling associated with dynamics that was used in the current study. Docking studies showed strong affinity of cyclosaplin towards cancer-related proteins. The binding affinity closer to 10 indicated efficient binding. Cyclosaplin showed strong binding affinities towards protein kinases such as EGFR, VEGFR2, PKB and p38 indicating its potential role in protein kinase inhibition. Moreover, it displayed strong binding affinity to apoptosis related proteins and revealed the possible role of cyclosaplin in apoptotic cell death. The protein-ligand interactions using LigPlot displayed some similar interactions between cyclosaplin and peptide-based ligands especially in case of protein kinases and a few apoptosis related proteins. Thus, the in silico analyses gave an insight of cyclosaplin as a potential apoptosis inducer and protein kinase inhibitor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0661.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein structure; hierarchy; protein sequence; ANIS method; supersecondary structure.
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:11:39 CEST)
Most non-infectious diseases are associated with dysfunction of proteins or protein complexes. Аssociation between sequence and structure is analyzed since a long time, and analysis of sequence organization in domains and motifs is actual research area. A mathematical method is proposed here to identify the hierarchical organization of protein sequences. The method is based on pentapeptide as a unit of protein sequences. This method was applied on a non-homologous dataset of protein sequences. The analysis revealed 11 hierarchical levels of protein sequence organization, showing the relationship of these multiple fragments of sequences. Using different examples, we illustrated how the fragments of the spatial structure of protein correspond to the elements of the hierarchical structure of the protein sequence. A hierarchical structure is observed in the protein sequence. This methodology is an interesting basis for mathematically based classification of elements of spatial organization of proteins. Elements of the hierarchical structure of different levels of the hierarchy can be used for biotechnological and medical problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2030.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cytokine; EF-hand; S100 protein; S100A6; protein–protein interaction
Online: 28 July 2023 (12:40:50 CEST)
S100 is a family of over 20 structurally homologous, but functionally diverse regulatory (calcium/zinc)-binding proteins of vertebrates. The involvement of S100 proteins in numerous vital (patho)physiological processes is mediated by their interaction with various (intra/extra)cellular protein partners, including cell surface receptors. Furthermore, recent studies revealed the ability of specific S100 proteins to affect cell signaling via direct interaction with cytokines. Previously, we have revealed binding of ca. 71% of the four-helical cytokines by S100P protein due to the presence in its molecule of a cytokine-binding site, which overlaps with the binding site for S100P receptor. Here we show that another S100 protein, S100A6 (pairwise sequence identity with S100P of 35%), specifically binds numerous four-helical cytokines. We have studied affinity of recombinant forms of 35 human four-helical cytokines covering all structural families of this fold to Ca2+-loaded recombinant human S100A6, using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. S100A6 recognizes 26 of the cytokines from all families of this fold with the equilibrium dissociation constants ranging from 0.3 nM to 12 µM. Overall, S100A6 interacts with ca. 73% of the four-helical cytokines studied to date with selectivity equivalent to that for S100P protein, with the differences limited to binding of Interleukin-2 and Oncostatin-M. The molecular docking study evidences presence in S100A6 molecule of a cytokine-binding site, analogous to that found in S100P. The findings argue the presence in some of the promiscuous members of S100 family of a site specific to a wide range of the four-helical cytokines. This unique feature of the S100 proteins potentially allows them to serve as universal inhibitors of signaling of the four-helical cytokines, which could be of value for reduction of severity of the disorders accompanied by excessive release of the cytokines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0558.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: COVID-19; protein protein interactions; virtual screening; docking; molecular dynamics; zinc
Online: 2 September 2020 (09:48:48 CEST)
The outbreak of COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, continues to affect millions of people around the world. The absence of a globally distributed effective treatment makes the exploration of new mechanisms of action a key step to address this situation. Stabilization of non-native Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) of the nucleocapsid protein of MERS-CoV has been reported as a valid strategy to inhibit viral replication. In this study, the applicability of this unexplored mechanism of action against SARS-CoV-2 is analyzed. During our research, we were able to find three inducible interfaces of SARS-CoV-2 N protein NTD, compare them to the previously reported MERS-CoV stabilized dimers, and identify those residues that are responsible for their formation. A drug discovery protocol implemented consisting of docking, molecular dynamics and MM-GBSA enabled us to find several compounds that might be able to exploit this mechanism of action. In addition, a common catechin skeleton was found among many of these molecules, which might be useful for further drug design. We consider that our findings could motivate future research in the fields of drug discovery and design towards the exploitation of this previously unexplored mechanism of action against COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0355.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: developmental delay; de novo mutation; protein-protein interaction; PPI interface; protein in-teractome; PsymuKB
Online: 19 August 2022 (04:50:42 CEST)
Mutations, especially those at the protein-protein interaction (PPI) interface, have been associated with various diseases. Meanwhile, though de novo mutations (DNMs) have been proven important in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as developmental delay (DD), the relationship between PPI interface DMNs and DD has not been well studied. Here we curated developmental delay DNM datasets from the PsyMuKB database and showed that DD patients showed a higher rate and deleteriousness in DNM missense on the PPI interface than sibling control. Next, we identified 302 DD-related PsychiPPIs, defined as PPI harboring a statistically significant number of DNM missenses at their interface, and 42 DD candidate genes from PsychiPPI. We then observed that PsychiPPIs preferentially affected hub proteins in the human protein interactome network. When analyzing DD candidate genes using gene ontology and gene spatio-expression, we found that PsychiPPI genes carrying PPI interface mutations, such as FGFR3 and ALOX5, were enriched in development-related pathways and the development of the neocortex, and cerebellar cortex, suggesting their potential involvement in the etiology of DD. Our results demonstrated that DD patients carried an excess burden of PPI-truncating DNM, which could be used to efficiently search for disease-related genes and mutations in large-scale sequencing studies. In conclusion, our comprehensive study indicated the significant role of PPI interface DNMs in developmental delay pathogenicity.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0147.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: position-specific visualization; experimentally uncharted territories; membrane protein structure; protein data bank
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:53:46 CET)
As of today, there is not any direct report yet of the degree to which missing residues exist for experimentally determined membrane protein (MP) structures, which constitute more than half of current drug targets. With a chain- and position-specific visualisation and a statistical analysis of all MP structures inside PDB (as of September 25, 2019), this article argues that the experimentally uncharted territories (EUTs, i.e., consisting of missing residues) within PDB are pluggable and should be plugged with an experimental data-driven hybrid approach, and calls for continued development of MP structural determination with less and less EUTs, in light of MPs' crucial role in biological and biomedical research, both fundamental and pharmaceutical.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0339.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: neurodegeneration, glucose metabolism, enzyme catalysis, protein-protein interaction, hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry, protein cross-linking, protein assembly, molecular modeling
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:19:30 CEST)
The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHc) is a key enzyme in the TCA cycle and represents one of the major regulators of mitochondrial metabolism through NADH and reactive oxygen species levels. The OGDHc impacts cell metabolic and cell signaling pathways through the coupling of 2-oxoglutarate metabolism to gene transcription related to tumor cell proliferation and aging. DHTKD1 is a gene encoding 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase (E1a), which functions in the L-lysine degradation pathway. The potentially damaging variants in DHTKD1 have been associated to the (neuro) pathogenesis of several diseases. Evidence was obtained for the formation of a hybrid complex between the OGDHc and E1a, suggesting a potential cross talk between the two metabolic pathways and raising fundamental questions about their assembly. Here we reviewed the recent findings and advances in understanding of protein-protein interactions in OGDHc and 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase complex (OADHc), an understanding that will create a scaffold to help design approaches to mitigate the effects of diseases associated with dysfunction of the TCA cycle or lysine degradation. A combination of biochemical, biophysical and structural approaches such as chemical cross-linking MS and cryo-EM appears particularly promising to provide vital information for the assembly of 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes, their function and regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0355.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: rice protein; spirulina protein; pea protein; soy protein; plant-based diet; thermal properties; rheological properties; protein processing
Online: 6 November 2023 (13:48:26 CET)
Reducing meat consumption is better for the environment. Unfortunately, commercial plant-based meat substitutes are often more expensive than meat and thus have not seen widespread adoption. This paper analyzes commercially-available spirulina, soy, pea, and brown rice protein isolates characteristics to provide data for non-meat protein cost reductions. Thermal and rheological properties, viscosity, density, and particle size distribution are analyzed for further study on alternative protein-based food processing. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis produced dry amorphous-shaped curves and paste curves with a more distinct endothermic peak. Extracted linear temperature ranges for processing in food production for spirulina was 70-90ºC; soy protein was 87-116ºC; pea protein was 67-77ºC; and brown rice protein was 87-97ºC. Viscosity analysis determined each protein material was shear-thinning and that viscosity increased with decreased water concentration, with rice being an exception to the latter trend. The obtained viscosity range for spirulina was 15,100-78,000cP; soy protein was 3,200-80,000cP; pea protein was 1,400-32,700cP; and brown rice protein was 600-3,500cP. The results indicate that extrusion is a viable method for further processing of the protein isolates as this technique has a large temperature operating range and variable screw speed. Data provided here can be used to make single or multi-component protein substitutes.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0704.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: protein-protein interaction inhibitor; rule of five; rule of four; QEPPI; molecular generation; virtual chemical library
Online: 30 June 2023 (08:50:24 CEST)
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are associated with various diseases; hence, they are important targets in drug discovery. However, the physicochemical empirical properties of PPI-targeted drugs are distinct from those of conventional small molecule oral pharmaceuticals, which adhere to the ”rule of five (RO5).” Therefore, developing PPI-targeted drugs using conventional methods, such as molecular generation models, is difficult. In this study, we propose a molecule generation model based on deep reinforcement learning, specialized for generating PPI inhibitors. By introducing a scoring function that can represent the properties of PPI inhibitors, we successfully generated potential PPI inhibitor compounds. The generated virtual compounds possess the desired properties for PPI inhibitors, and show similarity to commercially available PPI libraries. These generated virtual compounds are freely available as a virtual library.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: conformation of protein; albumin protein; non-gaussian chain
Online: 7 August 2019 (09:59:10 CEST)
We study a conformation of an albumin protein in the temperature range of 300K-315K, i.e. in the physiological range of temperature. Using simulations we calculate values of two backbone angles, that carry most of information about positioning of the protein chain in a conformational space. Given these, we calculate energy components of such protein. Further, using the Flory theory we determine the temperature in which investigated albumin chain model is closest to the free joined chain model. Near the Flory temperature, we study energy components and the conformational entropy, both derived from two angles that reflect most of the chain dynamics in a conformational space. We show that the conformational entropy is an oscillating function of time in considered range of temperature. Our finding is that, the only regular oscillation pattern appears near the Flory temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0319.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cytokine; S100 protein; S100P; protein–protein interaction
Online: 21 September 2022 (09:45:39 CEST)
S100 proteins are multifunctional calcium-binding proteins of vertebrates that act intracellularly, extracellularly, or both, and are engaged in the progression of many socially significant diseases. Their extracellular action is typically mediated by the recognition of specific receptor proteins. Besides, recent studies indicate the ability of some S100 proteins to affect cytokine signaling through direct interaction with cytokines. S100P was shown to be the S100 protein most actively involved in interactions with some of four-helical cytokines. To assess selectivity of S100P protein binding to four-helical cytokines, we have probed interaction of Ca2+-bound recombinant human S100P with a panel of 32 four-helical human cytokines covering all structural families of this fold, using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. 22 cytokines from all families of four-helical cytokines are S100P binders with the equilibrium dissociation constants, Kd, ranging from 1 nM to 3 µM (below the Kd value for the S100P complex with the V domain of its conventional receptor, receptor for advanced glycation end products, RAGE). Molecular docking and mutagenesis studies revealed the presence in the S100P molecule of a cytokine-binding site, which overlaps with the RAGE-binding site. Since S100 binding to four-helical cytokines inhibits their signaling in some cases, the revealed ability of S100P protein to interact with ca 71% of the four-helical cytokines indicates that S100P may serve as a poorly selective inhibitor of their action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0198.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: magnetoreception; cryptochrome; G protein α-subunit; protein-protein interaction
Online: 14 June 2022 (08:37:43 CEST)
Background: Night-migratory birds sense the Earth´s magnetic field by an unknown molecular mechanism. Theoretical and experimental evidence support the hypothesis that light-induced formation of a radical-pair in European robin cryptochrome 4a, ErCry4a, is the primary signalling step in the retina of the bird. In the present work, we investigated a possible route of cryptochrome signalling involving the α-subunit of the cone specific heterotrimeric G protein from European robin. Methods: Protein-protein interaction studies include surface plasmon resonance, pulldown affinity binding and Förster resonance energy transfer. Results: Surface plasmon resonance studies showed direct interaction revealing high to moderate affinity for binding of non-myristoylated and myristoylated G protein to ErCry4a, respectively. Pulldown affinity experiments confirmed this complex formation in solution. We validated these in vitro data by monitoring the interaction between ErCry4a and G protein in a transiently transfected neuroretinal cell line using Förster resonance energy transfer. Conclusions: Our results suggest that ErCry4a and the G protein also interact in vivo and might constitute the first biochemical signalling step in radical-pair-based magnetoreception.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: stroke; inflammation; neuro-immune; cytokines; hemostasis; coagulation; protein-protein interactions
Online: 3 September 2021 (15:11:00 CEST)
This study used established biomarkers of death due to ischemic stroke (IS) and performed network, enrichment, and annotation analysis. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis revealed that the backbone of the highly connective network of IS death consisted of IL6, ALB, TNF, SERPINE1, VWF, VCAM1, TGFB1, and SELE. Cluster analysis revealed immune and hemostasis subnetworks, which were strongly interconnected through the major switches ALB and VWF. Enrichment analysis revealed that the PPI immune subnetwork of death due to IS was highly associated with TLR2/4, TNF, JAK-STAT, NOD, IL10, IL13, IL4, and TGF-β1/SMAD pathways. The top biological and molecular functions and pathways enriched in the hemostasis network of death due IS were platelet degranulation and activation, the intrinsic pathway of fibrin clot formation, the urokinase-type plasminogen activator pathway, post-translational protein phosphorylation, integrin cell surface interactions, and the proteoglycan-integrin-extra cellular matrix complex (ECM). Regulation Explorer analysis of transcriptional factors shows: a) that NFKB1, RELA and SP1 were the major regulating actors of the PPI network; and b) hsa-mir-26-5p and hsa-16-5p were the major regulating microRNA actors. In conclusion, prevention of death due to IS should consider that current IS treatments may be improved by targeting VWF, VEGFA, proteoglycan-integrin-ECM complex, NFKB/RELA and SP1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0015.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: fusion proteins; protein therapeutics; ricin; pokeweed antiviral protein; protein engineering; immunotoxins; ribosome-inactivating proteins.
Online: 1 May 2017 (10:51:21 CEST)
Fusion protein therapeutics engineering is advancing to meet the need for novel medicine. Herein, we further characterize the development of novel RTA & PAP-S1 antiviral fusion proteins. In brief, RTA/PAP-S1 and PAP-S1/RTA fusion proteins were produced in both cell free and E. coli in vivo expression systems, purified by His-tag affinity chromatography, and protein synthesis inhibitory activity assayed by comparison to the production of a control protein, CalmL3. Results showed that the RTA/PAP-S1 fusion protein is amenable to standardized production and purification and has both increased potency and less toxicity compared to either RTA or PAP-S1 alone. Thus, this research highlights the developmental potential of novel fusion proteins with reduced cytotoxic risk and increased potency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0027.v1
Online: 5 April 2022 (12:02:35 CEST)
Protein Contact Network (PCN) is an emerging paradigm for modelling protein structure. A common approach to interpreting such data is through network-based analyses. It has been shown that clustering analysis may discover allostery in PCN. Nevertheless Network Embedding has shown good performances in discovering hidden communities and structures in network. In this work, we compare some approaches for graph embedding with respect to some classical clustering approaches for annotating protein structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0192.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: soy protein isolate; protein hydrolysate; soy protein peptides; physical load; food efficacy and safety; NMR blood test; blood metabolites; forced swimming
Online: 14 September 2022 (04:57:19 CEST)
Peptides of hydrolysates of food proteins are an easily digestible source of amino acids necessary for the body to adapt to physical stress. Commercially significant hydrolysates include whey protein, casein, and other animal proteins. Hydrolysates of plant proteins are gaining popularity, but they are less common, then animal ones. Soy protein isolate is promising for obtaining the hydrolysates due to its affordable price and balanced amino acid profile. However, there are no direct studies showing an improvement in the result of physical activity when eating soy protein isolate hydrolysate (SPIH). In this work, for the first time, the study was conducted on the safety and efficacy of SPIH during physical load on model animals (rats). It was shown that the hydrolysate did not lead to pathological changes in the viscera, food intake, and weight of animals did not differ from the control group (animals consumed whey protein). Under physical load rats enteral fed SPIH showed a tendency to adapt more quickly to physical stress than the control group and the group of animals that was fed by free amino acids. The metabolites of animal blood serum were studied by NMR spectroscopy. It was shown that by the 95th minute after feeding in the group of rats receiving SPIH, the difference of proteinogenic amino acids concentrations in blood between individuals was significantly less than in the groups receiving whey protein or a mixture of amino acids. In other words, individual biochemical and physiological characteristics of individuals did not affect the assimilation of amino acids of hydrolysate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0071.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: biosensor; S-layer protein; crystalline 2D protein lattice; lipid membrane platform; linking matrix; bioreceptor; biomimetics
Online: 9 March 2018 (12:10:28 CET)
The present Feature Paper highlights the application of bacterial surface (S-) layer proteins as versatile components for the fabrication of biosensors. One technologically relevant feature of S‑layer proteins is their ability to self-assemble on many surfaces and interfaces to form a crystalline 2D protein lattice. The S-layer lattice on the surface of a biosensor becomes part of the interface architecture, linking the bioreceptor to the transducer interface, which may cause signal amplification. The S-layer lattice as ultrathin, highly porous structure with functional groups in a well-defined special distribution and orientation and an overall anti-fouling characteristics can significantly raise the limit in terms of variety and ease of bioreceptor immobilization, compactness of bioreceptor molecule arrangement, sensitivity, specificity, and detection limit for many types of biosensors. The present paper discusses and summarizes examples for the successful implementation of S-layer lattices on biosensor surfaces in order to give a comprehensive overview on the application potential of these bioinspired S-layer protein-based biosensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0189.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: protein; plant-based protein; whey protein; essential amino acids; leucine, healthy men
Online: 16 November 2019 (00:58:01 CET)
This study assessed bio-equivalence of high-quality, plant-based protein blends versus Whey Protein Isolate (WPI) in healthy, resistance-trained men. The primary endpoint was incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of blood essential Amino Acids (eAAs) 4 hours after consumption of each product. Cmax and Tmax of blood leucine were secondary outcomes. Subjects (n=18) consumed three plant-based protein blends and WPI (control). Analysis of Variance model was used to assess for bio-equivalence of total sum of blood eAA concentrations. The total blood eAA iAUC ratios of the three blends were: [90% CI]: #1: 0.66 [0.58-0.76]; #2: 0.71 [0.62-0.82]; #3: 0.60 [0.52-0.69], not completely within the pre-defined equivalence range [0.80-1.25], indicative of 30-40% lower iAUC versus WPI. Leucine Cmax of the three blends was not equivalent to WPI, #1: 0.70 [0.67-0.73]; #2: 0.72 [0.68-0.75]; #3: 0.65 [0.62 – 0.68], indicative of a 28-35% lower response. Leucine Tmax for two blends were similar to WPI (#1: 0.94 [0.73-1.18]; #2: 1.56 [1.28-1.92]; #3: 1.19 [0.95-1.48]). The plant-based protein blends were not bio-equivalent. However, blood leucine kinetic data across the blends approximately doubled from fasting concentrations whereas blood Tmax data across two blends was similar to WPI. This suggests evidence of rapid hyperleucinemia, which correlates with a protein’s anabolic potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0017.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein-protein interactions; interactome; congenital heart disease; developmental disorder; hypoplastic left heart syndrome; web application
Online: 1 February 2022 (16:00:59 CET)
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a severe congenital heart disease (CHD) affecting 1 in 5,000 newborns. We constructed the interactome of 74 HLHS-associated genes identified from a large-scale mouse mutagenesis screen, augmenting it with 408 novel protein-protein interactions (PPIs) using our High-precision Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction (HiPPIP) model. The interactome is available on a webserver with advanced search capabilities (http://severus.dbmi.pitt.edu/wiki-HLHS). 364 genes including 73 novel interactors were differentially regulated in tissues/iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes of HLHS patients. Novel PPIs facilitated the identification of TOR signaling and endoplasmic reticulum stress modules. 60.5% of the interactome consisted of housekeeping genes that may harbor large-effect mutations and drive HLHS etiology but show limited transmission. Network proximity of diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and liver carcinoma-associated genes to HLHS genes suggested a mechanistic basis for their comorbidity with HLHS. Interactome genes showed tissue-specificity for sites of extracardiac anomalies (placenta, liver and brain). The HLHS interactome shared significant overlaps with the interactomes of ciliopathy and microcephaly-associated genes, with the shared genes respectively enriched for genes involved in intellectual disability and/or developmental delay, and neuronal death pathways. This supported the increased burden of ciliopathy variants and prevalence of neurological abnormalities observed among HLHS patients with developmental delay and microcephaly respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0140.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein crystallization; protein sample qualification; JAXA PCG; microgravity
Online: 15 December 2019 (13:43:29 CET)
We summarize how to obtain protein crystals from which better diffraction images can be obtained. In particular, we describe in detail the quality evaluation of the protein sample, the crystallization methods and crystallization conditions, the flash-cooling protection of the crystal, and the crystallization under a microgravity environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0414.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: endoplasmic reticulum; lipid droplets; peroxisomes; PEX3; protein targeting; membrane protein insertion; protein translocation; label-free quantitative mass spectrometry; differential protein abundance analysis; Zellweger syndrome
Online: 23 November 2021 (09:23:16 CET)
Protein import into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the first step in the biogenesis of about 10,000 different soluble and membrane proteins in humans. It involves co- or post-translational targeting of precursor polypeptides to the ER and their subsequent membrane insertion or translocation. So far, three pathways for ER targeting of precursor polypeptides plus four pathways for ER targeting of mRNAs were described. Typically, these pathways deliver their substrates to the Sec61 polypeptide-conducting channel in the ER membrane. Next, the precursor polypeptides are inserted into the ER membrane or translocated into the ER lumen, which may involve auxiliary translocation components, such as the TRAP and Sec62/Sec63 complexes, or auxiliary membrane protein insertases, such as EMC and the TMCO1 complex. Recently, the PEX19/PEX3-dependent pathway, which has a well-known function in targeting and inserting various peroxisomal membrane proteins into pre-existent peroxisomal membranes, was also found to act in targeting and, putatively, inserting monotopic hairpin proteins into the ER. These either remain in the ER as resident ER membrane proteins or are pinched off from the ER as components of new lipid droplets. Therefore, the question arose if this pathway may play a more general role in ER protein targeting, i.e. represents a fourth pathway for ER targeting of precursor polypeptides. Thus, we addressed the client spectrum of the PEX19/PEX3-dependent pathway in both PEX3-depleted HeLa cells and PEX3-deficient Zellweger patient fibroblasts by an established approach, which involves label-free quantitative mass spectrometry of the total proteome of depleted or deficient cells and differential protein abundance analysis. The negatively affected proteins included twelve peroxisomal proteins and two hairpin proteins of the ER, thus confirming two previously identified classes of putative PEX19/PEX3-clients in human cells. Interestingly, fourteen collagen-related proteins with signal peptides or N-terminal transmembrane helices and belonging to the secretory pathway were also negatively affected by PEX3-deficiency, which may suggest compromised collagen biogenesis as a hitherto unknown contributor to organ failures in the respective Zellweger patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0386.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: gelatinized starch; maltose-binding protein; microplate based assay; protein-protein interaction; dissociation constant determination
Online: 22 February 2023 (14:53:42 CET)
The detection and quantification of protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is a crucial technique that often involves the use of recombinant proteins with fusion-protein tags, such as maltose-binding protein (MBP) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). In this study, we improved the cohesive and sticky properties of gelatinized starch by supplementing it with agarose, resulting in a harder gel that could coat the bottom of a microtiter plate. The resulting gelatinized starch/agarose mixture allowed for the efficient immobilization of MBP-tagged proteins on the coated plates, enabling the use of indirect ELISA-like PPI assays. By using the enzymatic activity of GST as an indicator, we succeeded in determining the dissociation constants between MBP-tagged and GST-tagged proteins on 96-well microtiter plates and a microplate reader without any expensive specialized equipment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0393.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: poxviruses; protein kinase R; evolution; translational regulation; eIF2
Online: 30 May 2022 (10:42:41 CEST)
Crocodilepox virus (CRV) belongs to the Poxviridae family and mainly infects hatchling and juvenile Nile crocodiles. Most poxviruses encode inhibitors of the host antiviral protein kinase R (PKR), which is activated by viral double-stranded (ds) RNA formed during virus replication, resulting in the phosphorylation of eIF2 and subsequent shutdown of general mRNA translation. Because CRV lacks orthologs of known poxviral PKR inhibitors, we experimentally characterized one candidate (CRV157), which contains a predicted dsRNA-binding domain. Bioinformatic analyses indicated that CRV157 evolved independently from other poxvirus PKR inhibitors. CRV157 bound to dsRNA, co-localized with PKR in the cytosol, and inhibited PKR from various species. To analyze whether CRV157 could inhibit PKR in the context of a poxvirus infection, we constructed recombinant vaccinia virus strains that contain either CRV157 or a mutant CRV157 deficient in dsRNA binding in a strain that lacks PKR inhibitors. The presence of wild type CRV157 rescued vaccinia virus replication, while the CRV157 mutant did not. The ability of CRV157 to inhibit PKR correlated with virus replication and eIF2alpha phosphorylation. The independent evolution of CRV157 demonstrates that poxvirus PKR inhibitors evolved from a diverse set of ancestral genes in an example of convergent evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0159.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant PII protein; protein-protein interaction; PII foci; BiFC; FRET/FLIM; plastidic protein degradation; cpUPR
Online: 8 November 2021 (15:30:44 CET)
The PII protein is an evolutionary highly conserved regulatory protein from bacteria to higher plants. In bacteria it modulates the activity of several enzymes, transporters and regulatory factors by interacting with them and thereby regulating important metabolic hubs like carbon/nitrogen homeostasis. More than two decades ago the PII protein was characterized for the first time in plants, but its physiological role is still not sufficiently resolved. To gain more insights into the function of this protein, we investigated the interaction behaviour of AtPII with candidate proteins by BiFC and FRET/FLIM in planta and with GFP/RFP traps in vitro. In the course of these studies we found that AtPII interacts in chloroplasts with itself as well as with known interactors like NAGK in dot-like aggregates, which we named PII foci. In these novel protein aggregates AtPII interacts also with yet unknown partners, which are known to be involved in plastidic protein degradation. Further studies revealed that the C-terminal part of AtPII is crucial for the formation of PII foci. Altogether, the presented results indicate a novel mode of interaction for PII proteins with other proteins in plants, which may be a new starting point for the elucidation of physiological functions of PII proteins in plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0159.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: electrophoresis; protein; mechanical treatment; quantification
Online: 6 July 2021 (14:54:12 CEST)
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is widely used for studying proteins and protein-containing objects. However, it is employed most frequently as a qualitative method rather than a quantitative one. In this paper, we show the feasibility of routine digital image acquisition and mathematical processing of electrophoregrams for protein quantification. Both the well-studied model protein molecules (bovine serum albumin) and more complex real-world protein-based products (casein-containing isolate for sports nutrition), which were subjected to mechanical activation in a planetary ball mill to obtain samples characterized by different protein denaturation degrees, were used as study objects. Protein quantification in the mechanically activated samples was carried out. The degree of destruction of individual protein was shown to be higher compared to that of protein-containing mixture after mechanical treatment for an identical amount of time. The methodological approach used in this study can serve as guidance for other researchers who would like to use electrophoresis for protein quantification both in individual form and in protein mixtures. The findings prove that photographic imaging of gels followed by mathematical data processing can be applied for analyzing the electrophoretic data.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0606.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: protein-DNA interactions; facilitated diffusion; protein target search; discrete-state stochastic models
Online: 31 July 2018 (05:39:04 CEST)
Protein-DNA interactions are critical for the successful functioning of all natural systems. The key role in these interactions is played by processes of protein search for specific sites on DNA. Although it has been studied for many years, only recently microscopic aspects of these processes became more clear. In this work, we present a review on current theoretical understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the protein target search. A comprehensive discrete-state stochastic method to explain the dynamics of the protein search phenomena is introduced and explained. Our theoretical approach utilizes a first-passage analysis and it takes into account the most relevant physical-chemical processes. It is able to describe many fascinating features of the protein search, including unusually high effective association rates, high selectivity and specificity, and the robustness in the presence of crowders and sequence heterogeneity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0050.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Periodontitis; Periodontal disease; protein-protein network interaction; Bioinformatics
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:13:12 CEST)
Recent studies supported a clinical association between Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and periodontitis. Hence, investigating possible protein interactions between these two conditions is of interest. In this study, we conducted a protein-protein network interaction analysis with recognized genes encoding proteins for PD and periodontitis. Genes of interest were collected via GWAS database. Then, we conducted a protein interaction analysis using STRING database, with a highest confidence cut-off of 0.9. Our protein network casted a comprehensive analysis of potential protein-protein interactions between PD and periodontitis. This analysis may underpin valuable information for new candidate molecular mechanisms between PD and periodontitis and may serve new potential targets for research purposes. These results should be carefully interpreted giving the limitations of this approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0674.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: osteoarthritis; articular cartilage; degeneration; regeneration; therapeutic protein; growth factor; protein production platform; protein packaging cell line; transforming growth factor β (TGF-β); GP2-293 cells; TissueGene-C
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:16:51 CEST)
This review article focuses on the current state-of-the-art in the area of cellular and molecular biotechnology for over-production of clinically relevant therapeutic and anabolic growth factors. We discuss how the currently available tools and emerging technologies can be used for the regenerative treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Transfected protein packaging cell lines such as GP-293 cells may be used as “cellular factories” for large-scale production of therapeutic proteins and pro-anabolic growth factors, particularly in the context of cartilage regeneration. However, when irradiated with gamma or x-rays, these cells lose their capacity for replication, which actually makes them safe for use as a live cell component of intra-articular injections. This innovation is already here, in the form of TissueGene-C, a new biological drug which consists of normal allogeneic primary chondrocytes combined with transduced GP2-293 cells that overexpress the growth factor transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). TissueGene-C has revolutionized the concept of cell therapy, allowing drug companies to develop live cells as biological drug delivery systems for direct intra-articular injection of growth factors whose half-lives are in the order of minutes. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss the potential for new innovations in regenerative medicine for degenerative diseases of synovial joints using mammalian protein production platforms, specifically protein packaging cell lines, for over-producing growth factors for cartilage tissue regeneration and give recent examples. Mammalian protein production platforms that incorporate protein packaging eukaryotic cell lines are superior to prokaryotic bacterial expression systems and are likely to have a significant impact on the development of new humanized biological growth factor therapies for treating focal cartilage defects and more generally for the treatment of degenerative joint diseases such as OA, especially when injected directly into the joint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1250.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: chronology; early evolution; flexibility; intrinsically disordered region; loop prototype; molecular function; protein evolution; protein structure; structural domain
Online: 19 September 2023 (11:22:42 CEST)
Intrinsic disorder accounts for the flexibility of protein loops, molecular building blocks that are largely responsible for the processes and molecular functions of the living world. While loops likely represent early structural forms that served as intermediates in the emergence of protein structural domains, their origin and evolution remains poorly understood. Here, we conduct a phylogenomic survey of disorder in loop prototypes sourced from the ArchDB classification. Tracing prototypes associated with protein fold families along an evolutionary chronology revealed ancient prototypes tended to be more disordered than their derived counterparts, with ordered prototypes developing later in evolution. This highlights the central evolutionary role of disorder and flexibility. While mean disorder increased with time, a minority of ordered prototypes exist that emerged early in evolutionary history, possibly driven by the need to preserve specific molecular functions. We also revealed percolation of evolutionary constraints from higher to lower levels of organization. Percolation resulted in trade-offs between flexibility and rigidity that impacted prototype structure and geometry. Our findings provide a deep evolutionary view of the link between structure, disorder, flexibility and function, as well as insights into the evolutionary role of intrinsic disorder in loops and their contribution to protein structure and function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0343.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: 14-3-3; interactome; protein-protein interaction; mitochondria; metabolism; protein quality control; homeostasis; left ventricule; network
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:54:49 CEST)
Rationale: The 14-3-3 protein family is known to interact with many proteins in non-cardiac cell types to regulate multiple signaling pathways, particularly those relating to energy and protein homeostasis; and the 14-3-3 network is a therapeutic target of critical metabolic and proteostatic signaling in cancer and neurological diseases. Although the heart is critically sensitive to nutrient and energy alterations, and multiple signaling pathways coordinate to maintain the cardiac cell homeostasis, neither the structure of cardiac 14-3-3 protein interactome, nor potential functional roles of 14-3-3 protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in heart has been explored. Objective: To establish the comprehensive landscape and characterize the functional role of cardiac 14-3-3 PPIs. Methods and Results: We evaluated both RNA expression and protein abundance of 14-3-3 isoforms in mouse heart, followed by co-immunoprecipitation of 14-3-3 proteins and mass spectrometry in left ventricle. We identified 52 proteins comprising the cardiac 14-3-3 interactome. Multiple bioinformatic analyses indicated that more than half of the proteins bound to 14-3-3 are related to mitochondria; and the deduced functions of the mitochondrial 14-3-3 network are to regulate cardiac ATP production via interactions with mitochondrial inner membrane proteins, especially those in mitochondrial complex I. Binding to ribosomal proteins, 14-3-3 proteins likely coordinate protein synthesis and protein quality control. Localizations of 14-3-3 proteins to mitochondria and ribosome were validated via immunofluorescence assays. The deduced function of cardiac 14-3-3 PPIs is to regulate cardiac metabolic homeostasis and proteostasis. Conclusions: Thus, the cardiac 14-3-3 interactome may be a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular metabolic and proteostatic disease states, as it already is in cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0588.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: protein palmitoylation; apoptosis; autophagy; ferroptosis; pyroptosis
Online: 9 November 2023 (07:43:38 CET)
In this comprehensive survey, we delve into the multifaceted role of palmitoylation across vari-ous cell death modalities in the oncological context. From its intricate correlations with tumor-igenesis, steered by the DHHC family, to the counter-process of depalmitoylation mediated by enzymes like PPT1. Innovations in detection methodologies have paralleled our growing under-standing, transitioning from rudimentary techniques to sophisticated modern methods. Central to our discourse are agents like GNS561 and DC661, promising heralds in palmitoylation-targeted cancer therapy. Collectively, this review accentuates palmitoylation's transformative potential in oncology, foreshadowing groundbreaking therapeutic strategies and deepening our molecular comprehension of cancer dynamics.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: molecular graphics; protein visualization; software tools; virtual reality
Online: 12 January 2020 (16:26:54 CET)
Molecular visualisation is fundamental in the current scientific literature, textbooks and dissemination materials, forming an essential support for presenting results, reasoning on and formulating hypotheses related to molecular structure. Visual exploration has become easily accessible on a broad variety of platforms thanks to advanced software tools that render a great service to the scientific community. These tools are often developed across disciplines bridging computer science, biology and chemistry. Here we first describe a few Swiss Army knives geared towards protein visualisation for everyday use with an existing large user base, then focus on more specialised tools for peculiar needs that are not yet as broadly known. Our selection is by no means exhaustive, but reflects a diverse snapshot of scenarios that we consider informative for the reader. We end with an account of future trends and perspectives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0176.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: DNA nanotechnology; Protein Nanotechnology; Self-assembly; Bionanomaterials
Online: 5 March 2021 (09:13:43 CET)
Proteins and DNA exhibit key physical chemical properties that make them advantageous for building nanostructures with outstanding features. Both DNA and protein nanotechnology have growth notably and proved to be fertile disciplines. The combination of both types of nanotechnologies is helpful to overcome the individual weaknesses and limitations of each one, paving the way for the continuing diversification of the structural nanotechnologies. Recent studies have implemented a synergistic combination of both biomolecules to assemble unique and sophisticate protein-DNA nanostructures. These hybrid nanostructures are highly programmable and display remarkable features that create new opportunities to build in the nanoscale. This review focuses on the strategies deployed to create hybrid protein-DNA nanostructures. Here, we will discuss strategies such as polymerization, spatial directing and organizing, coating, rigidizing or folding DNA into particular shapes or moving parts. The enrichment of structural DNA nanotechnology by incorporating protein nanotechnology has been clearly demonstrated and still shows a large potential to create useful and advanced materials with cell-like properties or dynamic systems. It can be expected that structural protein-DNA nanotechnology will open new avenues in the fabrication of nano-assemblies with unique functional applications and enrich the toolbox of bionanotechnology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0171.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: protein-protein interaction network; GPx; glutathione peroxidases genes; ciliate protists; copper; metals; antioxidant system; free-radicals; ROS; reactive oxygen species
Online: 8 September 2020 (04:59:18 CEST)
Glutathione peroxidases (GPxs) form a broad family of antioxidant proteins essential for maintaining redox homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. In this study, we used an integrative approach that combines bioinformatics, molecular biology, and biochemistry to investigate the role of GPxs in reactive oxygen species detoxification in the unicellular eukaryotic model organism Tetrahymena thermophila. Both phylogenetic and mechanistic empirical model analyses provided indications about the evolutionary relationships among the GPXs of Tetrahymena and the orthologous enzymes of phylogenetically related species. In-silico gene characterization and text mining were used to predict the functional relationships between GPxs and other physiologically-relevant processes. The GPx genes contain conserved transcriptional regulatory elements in the promoter region, which suggest that transcription is under tight control of specialized signaling pathways. The bioinformatic findings were next experimentally validated by studying the time course of copper (Cu)-dependent regulation of gene transcription and enzymatic activity. Results emphasize the role of GPxs in the detoxification pathways that, by complex regulation of Cu-dependent GPx gene expression, enables Tetrahymena to survive in high Cu concentrations and the associated redox environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1362.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: AAPH; Protein oxidation; Myofibrillar protein; Gel properties
Online: 18 August 2023 (11:47:21 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical properties and gel-forming capacity of duck myofibrillar proteins under the effects of 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-mediated oxidation. Duck myofibrillar proteins were extracted and treated with different concentrations of AAPH solutions (0, 1, 3, 5, 10 mmol/L) and then analysed for carbonyl content, dynamic rheology, protein profiles and gel-forming properties (colour, water holding capacity, hardness, protein profile, microstructure). The results showed that with increasing AAPH concentration, the carbonyl content of protein showed an increasing trend (p < 0.05); SDS-PAGE pattern results indicated that moderate oxidation (3 mmol/L AAPH) induced myosin aggregation via covalent bonds including disulfide, enhanced protein-protein, and thus improved protein-water interactions and gel strength of DMPs heat-induced gels. However, high oxidation (5 and 10 mmol/L AAPH) led to partial degradation of myosin heavy chain (MHC), as evidenced by lower storage modulus and irregular microstructure, which significantly reduced gelation ability. These results suggest that the internal relationship between alkanoperoxy radical-induced oxidation should be taken into account in the processing of duck meat, as mild protein oxidation is conducive to improving gel quality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1406.v1
Online: 20 July 2023 (09:38:36 CEST)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a liver metabolism-associated steatohepatitis caused by non-alcoholic factors. NAFLD is currently the most prevalent liver disease in the world, affecting one-fourth of the world's population, and its prevalence increases with age. There are no approved drugs specifically for the treatment of NAFLD, and one important reason hindering drug development is the lack of effective biomarkers. C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, has been linked to NAFLD and aging in recent studies. Coincidentally, hepatocytes are responsible for the major CRP production, and the levels of CRP increase with age. Therefore, CRP is not only a potential marker, but also acts as a key factor driving liver aging and NAFLD. Herein, we reviewed the biological function and production mechanism of CRP and the relationship between CRP and NAFLD. We also comprehensively described the potential molecular mechanisms of CRP-mediated signaling in aging-associated NAFLD. Finally, we proposed possible therapeutic approaches based on the mechanism of CRP signaling in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. We hope this study can provide new insights into the development of aging associated NAFLD biomarkers and suggest that modulation of CRP signaling is a potential therapeutic target.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0435.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika virus; ZIKV; the Numb protein; the Capsid protein
Online: 17 April 2023 (09:49:56 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and causes an infection that is associated with neurological manifestations, including microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome. The mechanism of ZIKV-mediated neuropathogenesis is not well understood. In this study, we discovered that ZIKV induces the degradation of the Numb protein, which plays a crucial role in neurogenesis by allowing asymmetric cell division during embryonic development. Our data show that ZIKV reduced the Numb protein level in a time- and dose-dependent manner. However, ZIKV infection appears to have minimal effect on the Numb transcript. Treatment of ZIKV-infected cells with a proteasome inhibitor restores the Numb protein level, which suggests the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In addition, ZIKV infection shortens the half-life of the Numb protein. Among the ZIKV proteins, the capsid protein significantly reduces the Numb protein level. Immunoprecipitation of the Numb protein co-precipitates the capsid protein, indicating the interaction between these two proteins. These results provide insights into the ZIKV-cell interaction that might contribute to its impact on neurogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Stroke; Periodontitis; Periodontal disease; protein-protein network interaction; Bioinformatics
Online: 1 February 2021 (16:45:13 CET)
The clinical interaction between stroke and periodontitis has been consistently studied and confirmed. Hence, forecasting potentially new protein interactions in this association using bioinformatic strategies presents potential interest. In this exploratory study, we conducted a protein-protein network interaction (PPI) search with documented encoded proteins for both stroke and periodontitis. Genes of interest were collected via GWAS database. The STRING database was used to predict the PPI networks, first in a sensitivity purpose (confidence cut-off of 0.7), and then with a highest confidence cut-off (0.9). Genes over-representation was inspected in the final network. As a result, we foresee a prospective protein network of interaction between stroke and periodontitis. Inflammation, pro-coagulant/pro-thrombotic state and ultimately atheroma plaque rupture is the main biological mechanism derived from the network. These pilot results may pave the way to future molecular and therapeutic studies to further comprehend the mechanisms between these two conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0021.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein 0th-order structure; origin of gene; origin of protein; origin of genetic code; GNC primeval genetic code hypothesis; SNS primitive genetic code hypothesis
Online: 3 December 2019 (11:10:12 CET)
Understanding the mechanism, how entirely new (EntNew) gene/protein or the first ancestral gene/protein of a family was created, should be one of the most important issues in the biological sciences. However, the mechanism is totally unknown still now. On the other hand, it is well known that mature protein is generally rigid and one catalytic center exists on the protein. Creation of such a mature EntNew gene/protein should be, of course, carried out through random process, because it cannot be designed in advance. However, the EntNew gene/protein never be created by random polymerization of the respective monomeric units, because of the extraordinary large sequence diversities of ~10180 and ~10130, respectively. Protein 0th-order structure or a specific amino acid composition, in which immature but water-soluble protein can be produced even through random process, holds the key for solving the difficult problem. As it was fragmentally described in the previous papers how and where EntNew gene/protein was created, I describe in detail in this review three processes generating EntNew gene/protein with some flexibility under three genetic codes, the universal genetic code, SNS primitive code and GNC primeval code, and discuss why the mature gene/protein could be created through the processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0250.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: prebiotic chemistry; protein synthesis; hairpin RNA
Online: 22 April 2019 (12:11:21 CEST)
A model of the early RNA world is proposed. Nearly self-complementary sequences that could adopt double-stranded, smallhairpin-like (shRNA), structures would be selected for due to their greater hydrolytic stability. These would be phosphorylated attheir 5' ends. We suppose that dehydrating conditions arise (perhaps intermittently) in the early environment allowing amino acidsto condense with these RNA molecules. The resulting phosphate-amino acid anhydrides would play the role of early, charged,tRNAs. A crude genetic code could emerge owing to the greater resistance of some amino acid-shRNA pairings to hydrolysisrelative to others. Early on there is no division of labor between mRNAs and tRNAs; the same molecules perform both functions.But the first systems would have encoded little in the way of protein sequence information. Rather they would have served as catalysts for the random polymerization of amino acids. It is speculated that the selective advantage inhering in such systems lay intheir ability to supply raw materials for the formation of coacervates within which the various molecules essential to proto-lifecould be concentrated. This would greatly facilitate the necessary chemistries. The evolution of homochiral protein and RNA populations is discussed. An appealing feature of this model is its ability to explain the transition from phosphorylated amino acids to the 3' ester-linked aminoacyl-tRNAs employed by modern life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0267.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: myofibrillar protein; sulfhydryl-blocking agent; disulfide bond; protein-stabilized emulsions; interface protein membrane
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:21:59 CEST)
To investigate the role of sulfhydryl groups and disulfide bonds in different protein-stabilized emulsions, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) was used as sulfhydryl-blocking agent to be added in the emulsion. The addition of NEM to block the sulfhydryl groups resulted in a reduction of the content of disulfide bonds formation, which enabled destruction of the internal structure of the protein molecule, and then decreased the restriction of protein membrane on the oil droplets. Furthermore, with NEM content increasing in the emulsion, a reduction of protein emulsifying activity and emulsion stability also occurred. At the same time, the intermolecular interaction of the protein on the oil droplet interface membrane was destroyed, and the emulsion droplet size increased with the NEM content in the emulsion. Although NEM blocking sulfhydryl groups not to form disulfide bonds has similar effects on three types of protein emulsion, the degree of myofibrillar protein (MP), egg-white protein isolate (EPI), and soybean protein isolate (SPI) as emulsifier had a subtle difference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle; Conditionally disordered protein; Intrinsically disordered protein; photosynthesis regulation.
Online: 2 April 2021 (11:23:04 CEST)
In the chloroplast, Calvin-Benson-Bassham enzymes are active in the reducing environment imposed in the light via the electrons from the photosystems. In the dark these enzymes are inhibited, and this regulation is mainly mediated via oxidation of key regulatory cysteine residues. CP12 is a small protein that plays a role in this regulation with four cysteine residues that undergo a redox transition. Using amide-proton exchange with solvent measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass-spectrometry, we confirmed that reduced CP12 is intrinsically disordered. Using real-time NMR, we showed that the oxidation of the two disulfide bridges are simultaneous. In oxidized CP12, the C23-C31 pair is in a region that undergoes a conformational exchange in the NMR-intermediate timescale. The C66-C75 pair is in the C-terminus that folds into a stable helical turn. We confirmed that these structural states exist in a physiologically relevant environment that is, in cell extract from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Consistent with these structural equilibria, the reduction is slower for the C66-C75 pair compared to the C23-C31 pair. Finally, the redox mid-potentials for the two cysteine pairs differ and are similar to those found for phosphoribulokinase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, that we relate to the regulatory role of CP12.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0168.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: heat shock proteins; co-chaperones; protein quality control; protein folding; protein degradation; cardioprotection; neuroprotection; cancer
Online: 11 October 2021 (14:38:49 CEST)
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a family of molecular chaperones that regulate essential protein refolding and triage decisions to maintaining protein homeostasis. Numerous co-chaperone proteins directly interact and modify the function of HSPs, and these interactions impact the outcome of protein triage, impacting everything from structural proteins to cell signaling mediators. The chaperone/co-chaperone machinery protects against various stressors to ensuring cellular function in the face of stress. However, coding mutations, expression changes, and post-translational modifications of the chaperone/co-chaperone machinery can alter the cellular stress response. Importantly, these dysfunctions appear to contribute to numerous human diseases. Therapeutic targeting of chaperones is an attractive but challenging approach due to the vast functions of HSPs, likely contributing to the off-target effects of these therapies. Current efforts focus on targeting co-chaperones to develop precise treatments for numerous diseases caused by defects in protein quality control. This review focuses on the recent developments regarding selected HSP70/HSP90 co-chaperones, focusing on cardioprotection, neuroprotection, and cancer. We also discuss therapeutic approaches that highlight both the utility and challenges of targeting co-chaperones.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0176.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mitochondria; proteolysis; protein half-life; ubiquitin
Online: 27 November 2017 (09:18:27 CET)
The mitochondrial network is a dynamic organization within eukaryotic cells that participates in a variety of essential cellular processes, such as ATP synthesis, central metabolism, apoptosis and inflammation. The mitochondrial network is balanced between rates of fusion and fission that respond to pathophysiologic signals to coordinate appropriate mitochondrial processes. Mitochondrial fusion and fission are regulated by proteins that either reside or translocate to the inner or outer mitochondrial membranes or are soluble in the inter-membrane space. Mitochondrial fission and fusion are performed by GTPases on the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes with the assistance of other mitochondrial proteins. Due to the essential nature of mitochondrial function for cellular homeostasis regulation of mitochondrial dynamics is under strict control. Some of the mechanisms used to regulate the function of these proteins are post-translational proteolysis and/or turnover and this review will discuss these mechanisms required for correct mitochondrial network organization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0170.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: RNA world; [GADV]-protein world; GADV hypothesis; origin of life; protein 0th-order structure; origin of protein; origin of genetic code; origin of gene
Online: 25 December 2017 (08:08:37 CET)
All life on Earth uses three integrated molecular systems in which genetic information contained in DNA base sequences is transmitted to ribosomes by RNA and a genetic code, then translated into the amino acid sequences of structural and catalytic proteins. Therefore, the most important point for understanding the origin of life is to determine how such systems could emerge from random processes on the early Earth. In this review, two alternatives are compared: the RNA world hypothesis and the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis. [GADV] refers to four amino acids, Gly [G], Ala [A], Asp [D] and Val [V] that are conserved in the amino acid sequences of many common proteins. Here I will argue that the origins of the three primary processes required for life to begin can be better explained by the GADV hypothesis than the RNA world hypothesis. The GADV hypothesis also incorporates a conversion process by which random polymers can evolve into proteins with ordered sequences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0572.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: muscle; circRNA; RNA binding protein; molecular interactions; function
Online: 25 February 2021 (10:09:04 CET)
Muscle is one of the most critical organs for mammals, which governs multiple movement and physiological functions. Circular RNA (circRNA) is a kind of novel endogenous RNA without 5'-Caps and 3'-poly(A) structures formed by pre-mRNA's back-splicing. RNA binding proteins (RBPs) control the production and degradation of circRNA, help nucleus-cytoplasm transport and locate circRNA, and regulate circRNA translation. Therefore, circRNAs and the chaperoned RBPs play critical roles in muscle growth, development, and disease progression. In this review, we systematically characterize the possible molecular mechanism of circRNA-protein interactions. Also, we summarize the latest researches on circRNA-protein interactions in muscle development and diseases. Besides, we provide several valid prediction methods and experimental verification approaches. Our review reveals the importance of circRNAs and their protein chaperones and provides a reference for further study in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0267.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Caenorhabditis elegans; proteostasis; bacteria; neurodegenerative diseases; protein aggregates; protein conformational disease; butyrate; aminoglycoside; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Online: 18 March 2022 (09:21:45 CET)
Neurodegenerative protein conformational diseases are characterized by misfolding and aggregation of metastable proteins encoded within the host genome. The host is also home to thousands of proteins encoded within exogenous genomes harbored by bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Yet, their contributions to host protein-folding homeostasis, or proteostasis, remain elusive. Recent studies, including our previous work, suggest that bacterial products contribute to toxic aggregation of endogenous host proteins. We refer to these products as bacteria-derived protein aggregates (BDPAs). Furthermore, antibiotics were recently associated with increased risk for neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis possibly by virtue of altering the composition of the human gut microbiota. Other studies have shown a negative correlation between disease progression and antibiotic administration, supporting their protective effect against neurodegenerative diseases. These contradicting studies emphasize the complexity of the human gut microbiota, the gut-brain axis, and the effect of antibiotics. Here, we further our understanding of bacteria’s effect on host protein folding using the model Caenorhabditis elegans. We employed genetic and chemical methods to demonstrate that the proteotoxic effect of bacteria on host protein folding correlates with the presence of BDPAs. Furthermore, the abundance and proteotoxicity of BDPAs are influenced by gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic that induces protein misfolding, and by butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid that we previously found to affect host protein aggregation and the associated toxicity. Collectively, these results increase our understanding of host-bacteria interactions in the context of protein conformational diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0602.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SFTSV; Viral protein; Protein-protein interaction; In-vitro and in-silico; Nonstructural protein(NSs)
Online: 8 August 2023 (04:26:30 CEST)
The non-structural protein (NS) and nucleoprotein (NP) of the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) encoded by the S segment are crucial for viral pathogenesis. They reside in viroplasm-like structures (VLS), but their interaction and their significance in viral propagation remain unclear. Here, we investigated the significance of the association between NS and NP during viral infection through in-silico and in-vitro analyses. Through in-silico analysis, three possible binding sites were predicted, at NSs1-32, NSs56-82, and NSs207-237. Rationally, three mutant NSs were developed by site-directed mutagenesis and tested for NP interaction by co-immunoprecipitation. NSsW61Y failed to interact with the nucleoprotein, which was substantiated by the conformational changes observed in the structural analyses. Additionally, molecular docking analysis corroborated that the NSW61Y mutant protein does not interact well compared to wild-type NS. Over-expression of wild-type NS in HeLa cells increased the SFTSV replication by five folds, but NSsW61Y exhibited 1.9-folds less viral replication than wild-type. We demonstrated that the W61Y alteration was implicated in the reduction of NS-NP interaction and viral replication. Thus, the present study identified a critical NS site, which could be targeted for development of therapeutic regimens against SFTSV.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0745.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: urolthiasis; children; protein biomarkers
Online: 11 October 2023 (14:12:37 CEST)
Urolithiasis is an increasingly common clinical problem worldwide. The formation of stones is a combination of metabolic status, environmental factors, family history and many other aspects. It’s important to find new ways to quickly detect and assess urolithiasis because it causes sudden, severe pain and often comes back. One way to do this is by exploring new biomarkers. Current advances in proteomic studies provide a great opportunity for breakthroughs in this field. The study focuses on protein biomarkers and their connection to kidney damage and inflammation during urolithiasis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0516.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Plant-dominant diet; low-protein diet; dietary protein intake; glomerular hyperfiltration; CKD prevention; uremia
Online: 31 May 2020 (21:22:42 CEST)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects >10% of the adult population. Each year approximately 120,000 Americans develop end-stage kideny disease and initiate dialysis, which is costly and associated with functional impairments, worse health-related quality of life, and high early-mortality rates exceeding 20% in the first year. Recent declarations by the World Kidney Day and the U.S. Government Executive Order seek to implement strategies that reduce the burden of kidney failure by slowing CKD progression and controlling uremia without dialysis. Pragmatic dietary interventions may have a role in improving CKD outcomes and preventing or delaying dialysis initiation. Evidence suggests that a patient-centered plant-dominant low-protein diet (PLADO) of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day comprised of >50% plant-based sources, administered by dietitians trained in non-dialysis CKD care, can be promising. The scientific premise of the PLADO is based on the observations that high protein diets with high meat intake are not only associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk but also higher CKD incidence and faster CKD progression due to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. Meat intake increases production of nitrogenous end-products, worsens uremia, and may increase the risk of hyperkalemia, given constipation from the typical low fiber intake. Plant-dominant, fiber-rich, low-protein diet may lead to favorable alterations in the gut microbiome, which can modulate uremic toxin generation and slow CKD progression, along with reducing cardiovascular risk in CKD patients. PLADO is a heart-healthy, safe, flexible, and feasible diet that could be the centerpiece of a conservative and preservative CKD-management strategy that challenges the prevailing dialysis-centered paradigm.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0055.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: plasma membrane; spontaneous curvature; Helfrich energy; area difference elastic model; protein crowding; Deviatoric curvature
Online: 4 September 2018 (05:13:10 CEST)
In order to alter and adjust the shape of the membrane, cells harness various mechanisms of curvature generation. Many of these curvature generation mechanisms rely on the interactions between peripheral membrane proteins, integral membrane proteins, and lipids in the bilayer membrane. One of the challenges in modeling these processes is identifying the suitable constitutive relationships that describe the membrane free energy that includes protein distribution and curvature generation capability. Here, we review some of the commonly used continuum elastic membrane models that have been developed for this purpose and discuss their applications. Finally, we address some fundamental challenges that future theoretical methods need to overcome in order to push the boundaries of current model applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0061.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Targeted Protein Silencing (TPS); Targeted Protein Degradation (TPD); dTAG; FKBP12; von Hippel-Lindau (VHL); degron; deGradFP; Anchor-Away; Nanobody; Nano-Grad
Online: 2 November 2020 (15:59:46 CET)
Targeted Protein Silencing (TPS) is an elegant approach to investigate protein function and its role in the cellular landscape, overcoming limitations of genetic perturbation strategies. In contrast to CRISPR/Cas9 and RNA interference, these systems act in a reversible manner and reduce off-target effects. Several TPS have been developed and wisely improved, including compartment delocalization tools and protein degradation systems. In this review, we focus on Anchor-Away, deGradFP, auxin inducible degron (AID) and dTAG technologies, and discuss their recent applications and advances. Finally, we propose Nano-Grad, a novel nanobody-based protein degradation tool to specifically proteolyze endogenous tag-free target protein.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: astrocytes; calcineurin; GLAST; protein synthesis; protein degradation; proteostasis
Online: 15 March 2020 (01:39:55 CET)
Alterations in the expression of glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) have been associated with several neuropathological conditions including Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy. However, the mechanisms by which GLAST expression is altered are poorly understood. Here we used a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches coupled with quantitative PCR and Western blot to investigate the mechanism of the regulation of GLAST expression by a Ca2+/calmodulin-activated phosphatase calcineurin (CaN). We show that treatment of cultured hippocampal mouse and fetal human astrocytes with a CaN inhibitor FK506 resulted in a dynamic modulation of GLAST protein expression, being downregulated after 24-48 h, but upregulated after 7 days of continuous FK506 (200 nM) treatment. Protein synthesis, as assessed by puromycin incorporation in neo-synthesized polypeptides, was inhibited already after 1 h of FK506 treatment, while the use of a proteasome inhibitor MG132 (1 μM) shows that GLAST protein degradation was only suppressed after 7 days of FK506 treatment. In astrocytes with constitutive genetic ablation of CaN both protein synthesis and degradation were significantly inhibited. Taken together, our data suggest that, in cultured astrocytes, CaN controls GLAST expression at a posttranscriptional level through regulation of GLAST protein synthesis and degradation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0234.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: osteoarthritis; articular cartilage; degeneration; regeneration; therapeutic protein; growth factor; protein production platform; protein packaging cell line; transforming growth factor β (TGF-β); GP2-293 cells
Online: 23 August 2019 (03:33:49 CEST)
This article focuses on the current state-of-the-art in the area of cellular and molecular biotechnology for over-production of clinically relevant therapeutic growth factors and how the technology can be used for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Transfected and irradiated protein packaging cell lines may be used as “cellular factories” for large-scale production of therapeutic proteins and pro-anabolic growth factors, particularly in the context of cartilage matrix regeneration. We discuss the potential for new innovations in regenerative medicine for degenerative diseases of synovial joints using mammalian protein production platforms, specifically protein packaging cell lines, for over-producing growth factors for cartilage tissue regeneration and give recent examples. Mammalian protein production platforms that incorporate protein packaging cell lines are superior to bacterial expression systems and are likely to have a significant impact on the development of new biological therapies for treating focal cartilage defects and more generally for the treatment of degenerative joint diseases such as OA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0394.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Modularity; Protein-to-protein interaction networks; Spectral characterization; Tree of life
Online: 17 May 2021 (16:56:57 CEST)
Modularity and organizational hierarchy are important concepts in understanding the structure and evolution of interactions in complex biological systems. In this work, we introduce and use a spectral characterization measure (Spectral Entropy) to quantify modularity in protein-to-protein interaction (PPI) networks in species across the tree of life. We evaluated the relation between the size of a PPI network and its (Spectral Entropy-based) modularity, and found a sigmoidal response between the two. We also found significant differences in the distribution of Spectral Entropy values among the three domains of life (Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryotes). To explore further correlations with biological traits, we focused solely on bacterial PPI networks, which are the most numerous among the three domains and had associated trait metadata, and investigated how modularity impacts or is impacted by growth, aerobicity, selection and location on the tree of life. We found no relation between maximal growth rate and Spectral Entropy, but a strong dependence between G-C content (a proxy for selection) and Spectral Entropy. We also discovered that Spectral Entropy is negatively affected by phylogenetic placement (evolutionary distance from the last universal common ancestor). The general nature of the Spectral Entropy measure of hierarchical modularity in networks suggests that it will be useful in other settings where structural properties of real-world networks are being compared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0369.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: cell biology; protein sorting; nuclear translocation; protein domain; WAC
Online: 22 February 2023 (02:37:35 CET)
Dysfunction of the WW domain-containing adaptor with coiled-coil, WAC, gene underlies a rare autosomal dominant disorder, DeSanto-Shinawi syndrome (DESSH). DESSH is associated with facial dysmorphia, hypotonia, and cognitive alterations, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism. How the WAC protein localizes and functions in neural cells is critical to understanding its role during development. To understand the genotype-phenotype role of WAC, we developed a knowledgebase of WAC expression, evolution, human genomics, and structural/motif analysis combined with human protein domain deletions to assess how conserved domains guide cellular distribution. Then assessed in a cell type implicated in DESSH, cortical GABAergic neurons. WAC contains conserved charged amino acids, phosphorylation signals, and enriched nuclear motifs, suggesting a role in cellular signaling and gene transcription. Human DESSH variants are found within these regions. We also discovered and tested a nuclear localaization domain that impacts the cellular distribution of the protein. These data provide new insights into the potential roles of this critical developmental gene, establishing a platform to assess further translational studies, including the screening of missense genetic variants in WAC. Moreover, these studies are essential for understanding the role of human WAC variants in more diverse neurological phenotypes, including autism spectrum disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0202.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: pasta; salmon powder; glycaemic index; protein digestibility; polyphenols; antioxidant activity; bioaccessibility
Online: 17 December 2018 (15:59:54 CET)
This research focussed on utilisation of salmon protein and lipid to manipulate pasta glycaemic index and protein digestibility. Salmon fish (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) powder (SFP) supplemented pasta flour at the from 5% to 20% (w/w). Inclusion of SFP lead to a significant reduction in starch digestibility and hence the potential glycaemic values of pasta (experimental pasta being up to 143% lower than control values). SFP addition to pasta increased the release of phenolic compounds from pasta during both a gastric digestion (179%) and pancreatic digestion ( 133%) in comparison to the control sample. At the same time, the antioxidant activity of the digested pasta was increased by up to 263% (gastric) and 190% (pancreatic) in comparison to durum wheat pasta alone. Interestingly, although protein levels increased with incorporation of SFP, the digestibility values of the protein decreased from 86.41% for the control pasta to 81.95% for 20% SFP pasta. This may indicate that there are interactions between phenolic and protein in the pasta samples which affect overall protein digestibility levels.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0133.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Cartesian Coordinate System; Spherical Coordinate System; Equilibrium Atomic Bond Length; Protein Structure Description; Protein Structure Tree-decomposition
Online: 12 January 2020 (17:23:18 CET)
To date, Cartesian (x, y, z) coordinate system (CCS) has been the default approach to geometrically specify atomic spatial positions in protein structures since the launch of Protein Data Bank (PDB) in 1971. To this end, this paper proposes a local spherical coordinate system (SCS) approach as an alternative to the default approach and a previously reported global SCS approach. The local SCS approach here requires only two parameters (θ and φ), instead of x, y and z as required by the default CCS approach. Essentially, CCS and SCS are like the two sides of one coin, i.e., geometric coordinate system for three-dimensional position specification. Therefore, this paper furthermore argues that it is time to flip the coin over, and have a look at the other side of the coin, e.g., the local SCS approach, which possesses an intrinsically lower degree of descriptional complexity than that of the default CCS approach, and constitutes a potentially useful alternative perspective for all protein structural research field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0531.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: A.thaliana; HaloTag; RNA-binding proteins; RNA pulldown assay; RNA-protein complexes; cold shock domain protein
Online: 23 July 2021 (09:32:28 CEST)
Study of RNA-protein interactions and identification of RNA targets are among the key aspects of understanding the RNA biology. Currently, various methods are available to investigate these interactions, in particular, RNA pulldown assay. In the present paper, a method based on the HaloTag technology is presented that is called Halo-RPD (HaloTag RNA PullDown). The proposed protocol uses plants with stable fusion protein expression and the MagneBeads magnetic beads to capture RNA-protein complexes directly from the cytoplasmic lysate of transgenic A. thaliana plants. The key stages described in the paper are as follows: 1) preparation of the magnetic beads 2) tissue homogenization and collection of control samples 3) precipitation and wash of RNA-protein complexes; 4) evaluation of protein binding efficacy; 5) RNA isolation; 6) analysis of the obtained RNA. Recommendations for better NGS assay designs are provided.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0193.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: coarse-grained; CABS model; MC simulations; statistical force fields; disordered protein; protein structure
Online: 17 December 2018 (10:54:32 CET)
The description of protein disordered states is important for understanding protein folding mechanisms and their functions. In this short review, we briefly describe a simulation approach to modeling disordered protein interactions and unfolded states of globular proteins. It is based on the CABS coarse-grained protein model that uses a Monte Carlo (MC) sampling scheme and a knowledge-based statistical force field. We review several case studies showing that description of protein disordered states resulting from CABS simulations is consistent with experimental data. The case studies comprise investigations of protein-peptide binding and protein folding processes. The CABS model has been recently made available as the simulation engine of multiscale modeling tools enabling studies of protein-peptide docking and protein flexibility. Those tools offer customization of the modeling process, driving the conformational search using distance restraints, reconstruction of selected models to all-atom resolution and studies of large protein systems in a reasonable computational time. Therefore, CABS can be combined in integrative modeling pipelines incorporating experimental data and other modeling tools of various resolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1183.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Saliva; IgA; BSP30; PIGR; odorant protein; mucin
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:34:16 CEST)
Cows produce saliva in very large quantities to lubricate and facilitate food processing. Estimates indicate an amount of 50-150 liter per day. Human saliva has previously been found to contain numerous antibacterial components, such as lysozyme, histatins, members of the S-100 family and lactoferrin to limit pathogen colonization. Cows are dependent of a complex microbial community in their digestive system for food digestion. We wondered how this would influence the content of their saliva. We therefore sampled saliva from five humans and both nose secretions and saliva from six cows and separated the saliva on SDS-PAGE gradient gels and analyzed the major protein bands by LC-MS/MS. The cow saliva was found to be dominated by a few major proteins only, the carbonic anhydrase 6, a pH stabilizing enzyme, and the short palate, lung and nasal epithelium carcinoma-associated protein 2A (SPLUNC2A), also named bovine salivary protein 30kDa (BSP30). This latter protein has been proposed to play a role in local antibacterial response by binding bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and inhibit bacterial growth, but may instead according to more recent data instead have primarily surfactant activity. Numerous peptide fragments of mucin-5B were also detected in the MS analysis. However, mucins stain poorly by the gel staining solution and they are large and have difficult to enter regular gels why their presence easily are overseen. Interestingly, no major band on gel was detected representing any of the antibacterial proteins indicating that cows may produce them at very low levels not to harm the microbial flora of their digestive system. The nose secretions of the cows primarily contained the odorant protein, a protein thought to be involved in enhancing the sensing of smell by the olfactory receptors to enhance the possibility to quickly sense potential poisonous food components. High levels of secretory IgA was also found in one sample of cow mouth drippings indicating a strong upregulation during an infection. The human saliva we more complex containing both secretory IgA, amylase, carbonic anhydrase 6, lysozyme, histatins and a number of other less abundant proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0846.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Eimeria tenella; recombinant EtROP27 protein; expression changes; immunoprotective
Online: 13 October 2023 (07:49:42 CEST)
Eimeria tenella rhoptry protein has the properties of a protective antigen. EtROP27 is a pathogenic related gene detected by transcriptome, but its expression pattern, immunogenicity and potency have been unknown. Therefore, a gene segment of EtROP27 was amplified and transplanted to pET28a prokaryotic vector for recombinant protein expression and purified to generate polyclonal antibody. Then, RT-PCR, Western blotting were performed to know the expression pattern of EtROP27. Subsequently, animal experiments were conducted to evaluate the immunoprotective effect of the recombinant protein using different immunizing doses (50, 100, 150 μg). The results showed that the expression of EtROP27 gradually increased with the prolongation of infection time, reaching the highest level after 96 hours and then decreased. And EtROP27 was a natural antigen of coccidia which can stimulate the body to produce high levels of IgY. As recombinant protein vaccines, the immune protection evaluation tests of EtROP27 showed that the average weight gain rate of the immune challenge groups were significantly higher than that of the infection control group. The average lesion scores were significantly lower than that of the control group. The oocyst excretion decreased by 81.25%, 86.21%, 80.01% and the anticoccidial index were 159.45, 171.47, 166.75. EtROP27 is a promising candidate antigen gene for development of coccidiosis vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0634.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: deubiquitinase; envelope protein; USP38; virus infection; Zika virus
Online: 28 July 2021 (17:02:36 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, and its infection may cause severe neurodegenerative diseases. The outbreak of ZIKV in 2015 in South American has caused severe human congenital and neurologic disorders. Thus, it is vitally important to figure out inner mechanism of ZIKV infection. Here, our data suggested that the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 38 (USP38) played an important role in host resistance to ZIKV infection, during which ZIKV infection did not affect USP38 expression. Mechanistically, USP38 bound to ZIKV envelope (E) protein through its C-terminal domain and attenuated its K48-linked and K63-linked polyubiquitination, thereby repressed the infection of ZIKV. In addition, we found that the deubiquitinase activity of USP38 was essential to inhibit ZIKV infection, and the mutant that lacked the deubiquitinase activity of USP38 lost ability to inhibit the infection. In conclusion, we found a novel host protein USP38 against ZIKV infection, and this may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment and prevention of ZIKV infection.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Bioinformatics; Proteomics; Protein Evolution
Online: 17 September 2021 (11:49:04 CEST)
In 1984, Susumu Ohno hypothesized that the nylon-degrading enzyme NylB arose de novo via a frameshift mutation within a hypothetical precursor protein (PR.C). However, Ohno never tested his hypothesis or provided supporting biological evidence. For decades, Ohno’s famous frame-shift hypothesis has been uncritically accepted as the correct explanation for the origin of NylB and has been used to illustrate how simple it is for a totally new enzyme to arise spontaneously. In this paper we test Ohno’s hypothesis in light of data not available in 1984. We searched multiple protein databases and found that the NylB protein is widely occurring, has thousands of homologs, and is found in diverse organisms and diverse habitats. Conserved domain searches showed that the NylB sequence is homologous to beta lactamases - a family of highly conserved enzymes. However, our searches showed that there is no evidence for the existence of Ohno’s hypothetical PR.C protein, nor any credible homolog. Our results effectively falsify Ohno's frameshift hypothesis. We extended this analysis to other nylonases and found all the nylonases we examined had large numbers of homologs throughout the biosphere. This falsifies the long-held assumption that all nylonases evolved after the invention of nylon in 1935.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mostly studied human protein structure; human diseases; biophysics
Online: 16 October 2020 (12:11:04 CEST)
Of the roughly 20,000 canonical human protein sequences, as of September 15, 2020, 6,937 proteins have had their full or partial, medium- to high-resolution structures determined by x-ray crystallography or other methods. Which of these proteins dominate the Protein Data Bank (the PDB) and why? In this paper, we list the 273 top human protein structures based on the number of their PDB entries. This set of proteins accounts for more than 40% of all available human PDB entries and represent past trends as well as current status for protein structural biology. We briefly discuss the relationship which some of the prominent protein structures have with protein research as a whole and mention their relevance to human diseases. The top-10 soluble and membrane proteins are all well-known (most of their first structures being deposited more than 30 years ago). Overall, there is no dramatic change in recent trends in the PDB. Remarkably, the number of structure depositions has grown nearly exponentially over the last 10 or more years (with a doubling time of 7 yrs for proteins from all organisms). Growth in human protein structures is slightly faster (at 5.9 yrs, while E.Coli and Mouse+Rat protein structures accumulate more slowly, Zebrafish protein structures are growing most, at a doubling every 3.7 years, albeit starting from only approx. 100 structure entries in 2010). The information may be informative to senior scientists but also inspire researchers who are new to protein science, providing the year 2020 snap-shot for the state of protein structural biology.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Covid-19; proteins; normal-modes; protein-drug interactions; chloroquine; ivermectin; remdesivir; sofosbuvir; boceprevir; α-difluoromethylornithine (DMFO)
Online: 11 August 2020 (04:09:43 CEST)
We report the results of our study of approved drugs as potential treatments for COVID 19, based on the application of various bioinformatics predictive methods. The drugs studied include chloroquine, ivermectin, remdesivir, sofosbuvir, boceprevir, and α-difluoromethylornithine (DMFO). Our results indicate that these small molecules selectively bind to stable, kinetically active residues and residues adjoining them on the surface of proteins and inside protein pockets, and that some prefer hydrophobic over other active sites. Our approach is not restricted to viruses and can facilitate rational drug design, as well as improve our understanding of molecular interactions, in general.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0498.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: single cell protein; probiotic; actinomycetes; fermentation optimization
Online: 28 April 2020 (10:49:09 CEST)
Single cell proteins are the dead dried cells of microorganisms or purified protein isolated from microorganism’s cell culture, used as a food supplement to humans’ food and animals feed. World suffer from malnutrition particularly developing countries, due to rapid increase in population, increased the demand for protein and nutrients requirement. Bacteria is potential microorganism for SCP production due to high protein content, fast generation time, bio-active secondary metabolites production and can grow on various substrates. Actinobacteria species and strain have capability to produce biological active compounds, produced about two-thirds of antibiotics available in the market, actively used as antibiotics, antiprotozoal, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, anticholesterol, antihelminth and immunosuppressant. Actinomycetes can be used as probiotic as well as single cell protein that will deal with antibiotic as well as protein source.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0188.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: tRNA modification; protein aggregation
Online: 17 January 2020 (10:20:39 CET)
regulating translational speed and accuracy. Threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t6A37) and 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-thiouridine (mcm5s2U34) are critical ASL modifications that have been linked to several human diseases. The model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is viable despite the absence of both modifications, growth is however greatly impaired. The major observed consequence is a subsequent increase in protein aggregates and aberrant morphology. Proteomic analysis of the t6A-deficient strain revealed a global mistranslation leading to protein aggregation without regard to physicochemical properties or t6A-dependent or biased codon usage in parent genes. However, loss of sua5 led to increased expression of soluble proteins for mitochondrial function, protein quality processing/trafficking, oxidative stress response, and energy homeostasis. These results point to a global function for t6A in protein homeostasis very similar to mcm5/s2U modifications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1903.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Fasting; autophagy; long-COVID; post-vaccination syndrome; spike protein; mitochondria; mitophagy
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:33:46 CEST)
Fasting, a practice with historical roots in various cultures, has recently garnered significant interest in the field of medicine. In this article, we delve into the mechanisms underlying fasting-induced autophagy and its therapeutic applications for spike protein associated pathology. We explore the therapeutic potential of fasting on spike protein-related pathology and the role of interventions to upregulate autophagy, including compounds like spermidine, resveratrol, rapamycin, and metformin. In conclusion, fasting, coupled with an understanding of its nuances, holds promise as a therapeutic intervention for spike protein related diseases; with broad implications for human health. This review presents the therapeutic possibility of using autophagy to treat spike protein related diseases, and details the interventions to deploy this therapeutic modality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0391.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: small ORF encoded polypeptides (SEPs); riboproteogenomics; bacterial pathogens; protein tagging; proteomics
Online: 23 February 2023 (01:25:52 CET)
The ever-growing repertoire of genomic techniques continues to expand our understanding of true diversity and richness of prokaryotic genomes. Riboproteogenomics laid the foundation for dynamic studies of previously overlooked genomic elements. Most strikingly, bacterial genomes were revealed to harbour robust repertoires of small open reading frames (sORFs) encoding a diverse and broadly expressed range of small proteins, or sORF-encoded polypeptides (SEPs). In recent years, continuous efforts led to great improvements in annotation and characterization of such proteins, yet many challenges remain to fully understand the pervasive nature of small proteins and their impact on bacterial biology. In this work we review recent developments in the dynamic field of bacterial genome reannotation, catalogue important biological roles carried out by small proteins and identify challenges obstructing the way to full understanding of these elusive proteins.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: ALS; protein misfolding; RGNEF; microtubuli
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:00:04 CEST)
The Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RGNEF) protein encoded by the ARHGEF28 gene has been implicated in the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Biochemical and pathological studies have shown that RGNEF is a component of the hallmark neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in ALS-affected neurons. Additionally, a heterozygous mutation in ARHGEF28 has been identified in a number of familial ALS (fALS) cases that may give rise to one of two truncated variants of the protein. Little is known about the normal biological function of RGNEF or how it contributes to ALS pathogenesis. To further explore RGNEF biology we have established and characterized a yeast model and characterized RGNEF expression in several mammalian cell lines. We demonstrate that RGNEF is toxic when overexpressed and forms inclusions. We also found that the fALS-associated mutation in ARGHEF28 gives rise to an inclusion-forming and toxic protein. Additionally, through unbiased screening using the split-ubiquitin system, we have identified RGNEF interacting proteins, including two ALS-associated proteins. Functional characterization of other RGNEF interactors identified in our screen suggest that RGNEF functions as a microtubule regulator. Our findings indicate that RGNEF misfolding and toxicity may cause impairment of the microtubule network and contribute to ALS pathogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2131.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: virus infection; virome; microbiota; pathophysiology; immunology; protein-homeostasis-system hypothesis
Online: 1 August 2023 (02:48:42 CEST)
The etiological agent of various viral diseases has been identified, and clinical characteristics and complications of each disease are well known. In general, a viral disease appears as acute systemic inflammatory disease, but after acute infection, some patients remain asymptomatic carriers or suffer chronic viral diseases, suggesting that the phenomena are unavoidable processes for viruses’ coexistence with their hosts as virome in microbiota of human species. Although each viral disease has been described as having different pathophysiology, the host's control systems, including immune systems, against the insults from any viral infections, have the same components in previously healthy hosts. Therefore, considering the characteristics of the life cycle of viruses being dependent on the host cell and the same immune components of the host, it is reasonable assumption that there is a common immune mechanism to respond to the insults from all viral diseases. The authors discuss on the characteristics of virus infection and unresolved issues in viral diseases and propose a rationale of early immune modulators for acute insults from viral diseases based on our clinical experiences and the protein-homeostasis-system hypothesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0255.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: spray dry; protein; encapsulation; formulation; excipient; core-shell; EISA
Online: 17 March 2022 (12:19:43 CET)
The encapsulation of proteins into core-shell structures is a widely utilised strategy for controlling protein stability, delivery and release. Despite the recognised utility of these microstructures, however, core-shell fabrication routes are often too costly or poorly scalable to allow for industrial translation. Furthermore, many scalable routes rely upon emulsion-techniques implicating denaturing or environmentally harmful organic solvents. Herein, we investigate core-shell protein encapsulation through single-feed, aqueous spray drying: a cheap, industrially ubiquitous particle-formation technology in the absence of organic solvents. We show that an excipient’s preference for the surface of the spray dried particle is well-predicted by its hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) under relevant feed buffer conditions (pH and ionic strength) and that the predictive power of Dh is improved when measured at the spray dryer outlet temperature compared to room temperature (R2 = 0.64 vs. 0.59). Lastly, we leverage these findings to propose an adaptable design framework for fabricating core-shell protein encapsulates by single-feed aqueous spray drying.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0072.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Envelope protein; SARS-CoV2; COVID-19; Non-synonymous mutations
Online: 7 June 2020 (09:20:25 CEST)
In the NCBI database, as on June 6, 2020, total number of available complete genome sequences of SARS-CoV2 across the world is 3617. The envelope protein of SARS-CoV2 possesses several non-synonymous mutations over the transmembrane domain and (C)-terminus in 0.414\% of these 3617 genomes. The C-terminus motif DLLV has been changed to DFLV and YLLV in the proteins QJR88103 (Australia: Victoria) and QKI36831 (China: Guangzhou) respectively, which might affect the binding of this motif with the host protein PALS1.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0067.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Calcium; Actomyosin Kinetics; Myosin Binding Protein-C; Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Online: 7 October 2019 (12:12:35 CEST)
In an attempt to correct misunderstandings this article brings together the observations on Calcium, Myosin Binding Protein-C and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in the basic function of cardiac muscle. A finding of many years ago is reiterated in a novel enzyme kinetic format with defined rate limiting step which makes CaATP the apparent substrate of the actomyosin cross-bridge. The relationship of these kinetics to recent observations on disruption of myosin binding protein-C is described along with how this bears on the understanding of the related cardiomyopathies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0512.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.); PARP protein; 4UND protein; molecular docking; PyRx; BIOVIA drug discovery
Online: 26 August 2021 (16:15:06 CEST)
Oyster mushroom( Pleurotus ostreatus) is belong to the group of healthy foods, as they contain high levels of proteins, vitamins and different classes of compounds, it is discovered that oyster mushrooms could play a key role in maintaining good health. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.) Class Basidiomycetes and Family Agaricaceae are widely known as ‘dhingri’ in India. Pleurotus Ostreatus have several medicinal properties including ; anti-arthritic , antitumor, immune modulatory , antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antigenotoxic, hypo-cholesterolaemic, antihyperglycaemic antihypertensive, antiplatelet aggregating, antiviral and antimicrobial activities.. In this paper studied that effects of chemical constituents of oyster mushroom(Pleurotus sp.) on DNA damaging protein which analyzed its activity of PARP inhibiting or vice – versa.For this analysis we choose the molecular docking technique to check the effects of different chemical constituents of oyster mushroom(Pleurotus sp.) on DNA damaging protein and compare their results to PARP inhibitory drugs which taken as standard . We perform the molecular docking in between chemical constituents of oyster mushroom(Pleurotus sp.) and 4UND protein compare to performance of molecular docking in between standard PARP inhibitory drugs and 4UND protein with the help of PyRx and BIOVIA Discovery studio software.The analysis of molecular docking shows that some chemical constituents of oyster mushroom(Pleurotus sp.) having more binding affinity than standard PARP inhibitory drugs .The Rutin shows better binding affinity than PARP inhibitory drugs on the same protein.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1827.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: Pseudomonas syringae; methyl‐accepting chemotaxis protein; Caenorhabditis elegans; receptor protein; nematicidal activity
Online: 29 August 2023 (04:14:35 CEST)
The conventional phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae has been identified several significant virulence determinants against Caenorhabditis elegans, but their mechanisms of action remain elusive. Here, we report the nematicidal activity and action receptor of a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP03) of a wild-type P. syringae MB03 against C. elegans. Purified MCP03 exhibited significant nematicidal toxicity against C. elegans, with a half-lethal concentration of 124.4 μg mL1, and detrimental effects on the growth and brood size of C. elegans. Additionally, MCP03-treated worms showed severe pathological destruction of the intestine and ovary, and depressed wrinkles of the cuticle. Through yeast two-hybrid assays, we identified a subunit of a COP9 signalosome, namely CSN-5, functionated as an action receptor of MCP03. In vitro pull-down and in vivo co-localization assays verified the binding interaction between MCP03 and CSN-5. RNA interference assays confirmed that MCP03 acts on CSN-5 to adversely affect the brood size, growth, and cuticle integrity of C. elegans. Following MCP03 infection, the expression of several genes relative to reproduction, growth, and cuticle formation, such as kgb-1, unc-98, and col-117, were significantly downregulated, which implicated the pathological changes of MCP03-treated nematodes. Thus, this study demonstrates that MCP03 acted on the receptor protein CSN-5 causing lethality and detrimental effects on the fertility, growth, and morphogenesis of C. elegans, which will provide new insights into the signaling pathways and mechanism underlying the nematicidal action of MCP03 towards C. elegans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0223.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: animal protein; plant protein; elderly; obesity; glomerular filtration rate
Online: 27 March 2018 (11:23:20 CEST)
Controversy exists on whether animal and plant proteins influence obesity differently. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between total, animal, and plant protein intake with the obesity index and renal function in Korean adults. Study participants included Korean adults aged 60 years or older from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013-2014. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. One-day 24-hour recall data were used to estimate the daily total, animal, and plant protein intake. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated by using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. General linear modellings were used to assess the relationships between protein intake, BMI and WC. The mean age was 69.2 ± 0.2 years, 44.2% were male. The total daily protein intake was 1.1 ± 0.02 g/kg/d and 0.9 ± 0.02 g/kg/d for males and females, respectively. Only one third of protein intake was from animal sources. In males, BMI (p < 0.001, p = 0.016, p < 0.001 respectively) and WC (p < 0.001, p = 0.010, p < 0.001, respectively) decreased as daily intake of plant protein (g/kg/d), animal protein (g/kg/d) and total protein (g/kg/d) increased. Similar associations were shown in Korean female. GFR was not associated with protein intake regardless of protein source in both sexes. In Korean adults aged 60 years or older, the protein intake was associated with a favorable obesity index without decrease in renal function. The effect was similar in both male and females, with both animal and plant proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: amino acids; protein kinetics; fatty acids
Online: 20 February 2020 (05:27:15 CET)
Wild game consumption has been associated with health benefits, but the influence on protein metabolism remains unknown. We compared the feeding-induced response to 2 oz of free-range reindeer (FR) versus commercial beef (CB) using stable isotope methodology. Seven male and female participants (age: 38±12 years; body mass index: 24±3 kg/m2) completed two studies using a randomized, crossover design in which they ingested 2 oz of FR or CB. L-[ring 2H5]phenylalanine & L-[ring 2H2]tyrosine were delivered via primed, continuous intravenous infusion. Blood samples were collected during the basal period and following consumption of FR or CB. Feeding-induced changes in whole body protein synthesis (PS), protein breakdown (PB), and net protein balance (NB) were determined via analysis of plasma samples for phenyalanine and tyrosine enrichment by gas chromatography mass spectrometry; plasma essential amino acid concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Plasma post-prandial essential amino acid (EAA) concentrations were higher with the ingestion of FR compared to CB (P=0.02). The acute feeding-induced response in PS was not different in either trial, but PB was reduced with the ingestion of FR compared to CB (P<0.0001). The difference in PB contributed to a superior level of NB (P<0.0001). When protein kinetics were normalized relative to the amino acids ingested, PB/EAAs and total amino acids ingested were reduced (P<0.01 and 0.001, respectively) in FR compared to CB; contributing to greater NB/total amino acid ingested (P<0.0001) between FR and CB. We conclude that the nutrient profiles of FR may have a more favorable benefit on protein metabolism compared to CB. These data support the potential health benefits of wild game in the preservation of whole-body protein.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0840.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Vaccine adverse event; Covid-19; spike protein; diagnosis
Online: 29 August 2023 (09:18:30 CEST)
Delineating the epidemic of vaccine injury from the coterminous condition long covid is a challenging prospect, but one with many implications not just for treatment, but also has important legal considerations for settlements of vaccine injury. The shared etiological factor of the spike protein in both vaccine injury and long covid make differentiation difficult, and while treatment is largely similar between vaccine injury and long covid, there are important distinctions. Furthermore, diagnostics are important for monitoring treatment progress and assessing the extent of subclinical vaccine injury in population having received a covid-19 vaccine. The development of rigorous diagnostics is an important step towards the recognition of both long covid and vaccine injury, as those suffering these conditions have faced immense challenges in having their conditions recognized, treated, and compensated by insurance companies or national health services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0558.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Cerebrospinal fluid; Total protein; Reference interval; Older population; Japanese healthy volunteer
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:38:05 CEST)
The concentration of cerebrospinal fluid total protein (CSF-TP) is important for the diagnosis of neurological emergencies. Recently, some Western studies have shown that the current upper reference limit of CSF-TP is quite low for older patients. However, little is reported about the concentration of CSF-TP in older Asian population. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the CSF-TP concentrations in Japanese healthy older volunteers. CSF samples in 69 healthy Japanese volunteers (age range: 55–73 years) were collected by lumbar puncture, and the data of CSF were retrospectively analyzed. The mean (standard deviation) CSF-TP was 41.7 (12.3) mg/dL. The older group (≥ 65 years old) had higher CSF-TP concentration than the younger group (55–64 years old). The 2.5th percentile and 97.5th percentile of CSF-TP were estimated as 22.5 and 73.2 mg/dL, respectively, which were higher than the current reference range in Japan (10–40 mg/dL).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0483.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Filtration; Flux density function; Protein crystals
Online: 20 May 2021 (11:07:11 CEST)
Development and engineering of protein crystals regarding mechanical stability and crystallizability occurs on a small scale. Later in the process chain of industrial production however, filtration properties are important to separate the crystals from mother liquor. Many protein crystals are sensitive to mechanical stress which is why it is important to know the filtration behavior early on. In this study we analyze settling and filtration behavior of isometric, rod-like and needle shaped lysozyme and rod-like alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) crystals on a small scale using an optical analytical centrifuge. Needle shaped lysozyme and rod-like ADH crystals show compressible material behavior. With the results from settling and filtration experiments the flux density function is calculated and modeled which can be used to describe the whole settling and permeation process in dependency of the solids volume fraction. This is also an issue for simulations of industrial processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0487.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Plant proteins; legumes; protein digestibility; germination; peptidomics; proteomics
Online: 27 January 2023 (06:14:36 CET)
Legume seed protein is an important source of nutrition, but it is less digestible than animal protein. Poor protein digestibility in legume seeds and seedlings may partly reflect defences against herbivores. Protein changes during germination typically increase proteolysis and digestibility, by lowering the levels of anti-nutrient protease inhibitors, activating proteases, and breaking down storage proteins (including allergens). Germinating legume sprouts also show striking increases in free amino acids (especially asparagine), but their roles in host defence or other processes are not known. While the net effect of germination is generally to increase the digestibility of legume seed proteins, the extent of improvement in digestibility is species and strain dependent. Further research is needed to highlight which changes contribute the most to improved digestibility of sprouted seeds. Such knowledge could guide the selection of varieties that are more digestible, and also guide the development of food preparations that are more digestible, potentially combining germination with other factors altering digestibility, such as heating and fermentation. Techniques to characterize the shifts in protein make-up, activity and degradation during germination need to draw on traditional analytical approaches, complemented by proteomic and peptidomic analysis of mass spectrometry identified peptide breakdown products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0363.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Ebola virus; filovirus; lipid binding; matrix protein; VP24
Online: 17 July 2020 (06:00:08 CEST)
Viral protein 24 (VP24) from Ebola virus (EBOV) was first recognized as a minor matrix protein that associates with cellular membranes. However, more recent studies shed light on its roles in inhibiting viral genome transcription and replication, facilitating nucleocapsid assembly and transport, and interfering with immune responses in host cells through downregulation of interferon (IFN)-activated genes. Thus, whether VP24 is a peripheral protein with lipid binding ability for matrix layer recruitment has not been explored. Here we examined the lipid binding ability of VP24 with a number of lipid binding assays. The results indicated that VP24 lacked the ability to associate with lipids tested regardless of VP24 posttranslational modifications. We further demonstrate that the presence of the EBOV major matrix protein VP40 did not promote VP24 membrane association in vitro or in cells. Further, no protein-protein interactions between VP24 and VP40 were detected by co-immunoprecipitation. Confocal imaging and cellular membrane fractionation analyses in human cells suggested VP24 did not specifically localize at the plasma membrane inner leaflet. Overall, we provide evidence that EBOV VP24 is not a lipid binding protein and its presence in the viral matrix layer is likely not dependent on direct lipid interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0124.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: intrinsically disordered protein; IDP; protein-protein interaction; mutual synergistic folding; coupled folding and binding; structural analysis; structure-based classification; fold recognition
Online: 11 October 2019 (04:00:32 CEST)
Intrinsically disordered proteins mediate crucial biological functions through their interactions with other proteins. Mutual synergistic folding (MSF) occurs when all interacting proteins are disordered, folding into a stable structure in the course of the complex formation. In these cases, the folding and binding processes occur in parallel, lending the resulting structures uniquely heterogeneous features. Currently there are no dedicated classification approaches that would take into account the particular biological and biophysical properties of MSF complexes. Here we present a scalable clustering-based classification scheme, built on redundancy-filtered features that describe the sequence and structure properties of the complexes, and the role of the interaction, which is directly responsible for structure formation. Using this approach, we define six major types of MSF complexes, corresponding to biologically meaningful groups. Hence, the presented method also shows that differences in binding strength, subcellular localization, and regulation are encoded in the sequence and structural properties of proteins. While current structure classification methods can also handle complex structures, we show that the developed scheme is fundamentally different, and since it takes into account defining features of MSF complexes, it serves as a better representation of structures arising through this specific interaction mode.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0620.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: gene-first; protein-first; replicator-first; metabolism-first; origin of life; [GADV]-protein world hypothesis; GADV hypothesis; RNA world hypothesis
Online: 30 November 2018 (07:33:15 CET)
The origin of life has not been solved as yet, in spit of the time passage more than thirty years from publication of RNA world hypothesis by W. Gilbert (1986), which is based on the “gene/replicator--first” theory. On the contrary, I have proposed [GADV]-protein world hypothesis (GADV hypothesis), assuming that life emerged from [GADV]-protein world, which is grounded on the “protein/metabolism-first” theory. However, two weak points of protein world hypothesis, (i) protein cannot be produced without gene, and (ii) protein cannot be self-replicated, have been frequently pointed out by supporters of RNA world hypothesis. Then, I examined whether the two weak points could be overcome by GADV hypothesis or not. From the results, it was confirmed that (i) [GADV]-protein could be pseudo-replicated in the absence of gene owing to protein 0th-order structure or [GADV]-amino acids, and (ii) the replication ability is not always required from the beginning but it is sufficient to acquire it at some time point until the emergence of life. Thus, it was concluded that life emerged as [GADV]-protein world hypothesis, which is grounded on the “protein/metabolism-first” theory, expects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0054.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Chagas Disease; surface proteins; disperse protein family; Trypanosoma cruzi
Online: 3 February 2023 (03:11:08 CET)
Abstract Chaga´s disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infections is included in the group of neglected diseases, and efforts to develop new therapeutic or immunoprevention approaches have not been successful. After the publication of the T. cruzi genome, the number of molecular and biochemical studies on this parasite have increased considerably, many of which are focused on families of variant-surface-proteins, especially the trans-sialidases, mucins and mucin-associated proteins. The disperse gene protein 1 family (DGF-1) is one of the most abundant families in the T. cruzi genome, however, the large gene size, high copy numbers, and low antibody titers detected in infected humans make it an unattractive study target. Here, we argue that the DGF-1 gene family although not being the most obvious participant of the host-parasite immunological gamble, where T. cruzi appears to have the upper hand, it may play an important role in more basic host-parasite interactions that deserve further examination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0280.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Thaumatin, sweet protein, molecular farming, natural sweeteners
Online: 11 December 2020 (12:56:40 CET)
There are currently worldwide efforts to reduce sugar intake due to the various adverse health effects linked with the overconsumption of sugars. Artificial sweeteners have been used as an alternative to nutritive sugars in numerous applications; however, their long-term effects on human health remain controversial. This led to a shift in consumer preference towards non-caloric sweeteners from natural sources. Thaumatins are a class of intensely sweet proteins found in arils of the fruits of the West-African plant Thaumatococcus danielli. Thaumatins’ current production method through aqueous extraction from this plant and uncertainty of the harvest from tropical rainforests limits its supply while the demand is increasing. Despite successful recombinant expression of the protein in several organisms, no large-scale bioproduction facilities exist. We present preliminary process design, process simulation, and economic analysis for a large-scale (50 metric tons/year) production of thaumatin II variant by several different molecular farming platforms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Fasting; autophagy; long-COVID; post-vaccination syndrome; spike protein; mitochondria; mitophagy
Online: 19 June 2023 (07:39:57 CEST)
Fasting, a practice with historical roots in various cultures, has recently garnered significant interest in the field of medicine. In this article, we delve into the mechanisms underlying fasting-induced autophagy and its therapeutic applications for spike protein associated pathology. We explore the therapeutic potential of fasting on spike protein-related pathology. Additionally, we discuss factors that affect fasting, such as duration, type (dry vs. water), and the role of specific compounds like spermidine, resveratrol, rapamycin, and metformin. Furthermore, we analyse the interactions between fasting and other practices such as exercise, and highlight important considerations regarding participant characteristics, including pregnancy, breastfeeding, medication interactions, and metabolic disorders. In conclusion, fasting, coupled with an understanding of its nuances, holds promise as a therapeutic intervention with broad implications for human health.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0665.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; envelop protein; mutations; transmembrane domain; triple cysteine motif
Online: 30 August 2020 (11:50:59 CEST)
The ongoing mutations in the structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 is the major impediment for prevention and control of the COVID-19 disease. The envelope (E) protein of SARS-CoV-2 is a structural protein existing in both monomeric and homopentameric forms, associated with a multitude of functions including virus assembly, replication, dissemination, release of virions, infection, pathogenesis, and immune response stimulation. In the present study, 81,818 high quality E protein sequences retrieving from the GISAID were subjected to mutational analyses. Our analysis revealed that only 0.012 % (982/81818) stains possessed amino acid (aa) substitutions in 63 sites of the genome while 58.77% mutations in the primary structure of nucleotides in 134 sites. We found the V25A mutation in the transmembrane domain which is a key factor for the homopentameric conformation of E protein. We also observed a triple cysteine motif harboring mutations (L39M, A41S, A41V, C43F, C43R, C43S, C44Y, N45R) which may hinder the binding of E protein with spike glycoprotein. These results therefore suggest the continuous monitoring of each structural protein of SARS-CoV-2 since the number of genome sequences from across the world are continuously increasing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1102.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Alfalfa; Plant Growth Vigor; Alphafold; Protein 3D Structure; Association Study
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:32:22 CEST)
Plant breeding aims to develop elite crop varieties appropriate for various environments with higher quality and quantity of production. Researchers use quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and association studies to identify regions in the genome responsible for the variation of the quantitative traits of interest. However, mapped regions do not always translate to functional proteins, which makes it challenging to identify genes associated with traits of interest. The biological functions of proteins are strongly dependent on their 3D structure. Alternatively, if proteins can be directly linked with the phenotypes, the effect of mutations on phenotypic changes can be assessed. Innovation of deep learning models in biology opens new avenues of exploration. AlphaFold is an AI system that predicts the 3D structure of a protein from its amino acid sequence with near experimental accuracy and was used in this study. Point mutations with a significant influence on the 3D structure of a protein can capture the effect on phenotypes through association study, and this provides insights into the regions that are of functional importance. In the current study, 534 plants were selected based on plant vigor, and 154 missense variants that change amino acid sequences, including 5 significant hits from previous study, were included. The changes in protein 3D structure were assessed by association with the phenotype. The analysis identified five significant associations, four of which were also identified in previous study of SNPs GWAS, however, a new fifth association was also identified which was annotated as disease resistance gene in Medicago truncatula. This study helps to associate SNPs that could be missed by GWAS due to stringent Bonferroni corrected p-values by providing a more robust filter for SNPs using features from predicted protein 3D structures.