ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0050.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; face masks; Personal Protective Equipment; Personal Protective Material; droplet; aerosols
Online: 2 April 2021 (11:28:19 CEST)
Fabric material was coated with Viruferrin™ and tested for its inactivating properties against the pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza A viruses. A statistically significant (p<0.0001) decrease in the number of infectious virus particles exposed to Viruferrin-treated fabric when compared with the cotton control for both SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A viruses was observed. For both SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A, Viruferrin-treated fabrics experienced a > 99% virus reduction without saliva after five minutes of contact when compared to the positive control at time point 0. Furthermore, the reusability of the Viruferrin treated fabric was demonstrated by stability for up to 10 washes. The level of anti-viral (SARS-CoV-2) activity remained constant from 5 to 10 washes and demonstrated a significant difference (p<0.0001) from the unwashed untreated material. Applications for this treated fabric are far-reaching, and as a biological face covering offers not only a unique 2-way protection but also is unlikely to cause onward touch transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0279.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: burnout; risks; protective factors; nursing
Online: 21 May 2018 (13:20:40 CEST)
1) Background: Studies have shown that there is a higher risk of burnout among employees in the healthcare sector. Therefore, this study focused on “Certified Nursing Aides” (CNAs) who have shown a high prevalence of burnout, and are therefore considered an especially vulnerable group. The objective of this study was to identify the relationships between some organizational, personal and sociodemographic factors and burnout; 2) Methods: The final study sample was made up of 278 working CNAs with a mean age of 40.88 (SD=9.41). To compile the data, an ad hoc questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic information, and to collect professional and employment information, the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Adults, the Brief Questionnaire on Perceived Social Support, and The General Self-Efficacy Scale.; 3) Results: The results show that the Burnout Syndrome is significantly related negatively to all the emotional intelligence factors, self-efficacy and perceived social support. The risk of burnout is higher in younger persons and in permanently employed professionals. General self-efficacy and stress management act as protective factors against the likelihood of burnout.; and 4) Conclusions: This study suggests that organizations should urge coaching and transformational leadership training programs to promote the wellbeing and organizational commitment of workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0110.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: ADHD; Antisocial Behavior; Sense of Coherence; Protective Factors
Online: 7 September 2022 (11:03:25 CEST)
Numerous studies have established the link between ADHD and antisocial behavior, one of the most serious functional impairments caused by the disorder. However, research on protective factors that mitigate this link is still lacking. The Salutogenic Model of Health offers the “Sense of Coherence” (SOC), establishing that individuals who see their lives as logical, meaningful, and manageable are more resistant to various risk factors and diseases. The present study examines for the first time whether SOC is also a protective factor against ADHD-related different types of antisocial behaviors (severe/mild violent behavior, verbal violence, property crimes, public disorder, and drug abuse). 2260 participants aged 15-50 completed online questionnaires assessing the level of ADHD symptoms, antisocial behaviors, and SOC. An interaction between ADHD and SOC was found in predicting each type of antisocial behavior. The link between ADHD and antisocial behavior was significantly weaker for high than low SOC participants, regardless of age group. The current study found that people with high SOC are protected against the effect of ADHD on one of the most serious functional impairments, antisocial behavior. These findings suggest that SOC is a protective factor from the adverse effects of ADHD, justifying further prospective and intervention studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0588.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: thermoregulation; personal protective equipment; smart textiles; performance; productivity
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:15:51 CEST)
The exposure to extreme temperatures in workplaces involves physical hazards for workers. A poorly acclimated worker may have lower performance and vigilance and may therefore be more exposed to accidents and injuries. Due to the incompatibility of the existing standards implemented in some workplaces and the lack of thermoregulation in many protective equipment, thermal stress remains one of the most frequent physical hazards in many work sectors. However, many of these problems can be overcome with the use of smart textile technologies that enable intelligent thermoregulation in personal protective equipment. Smart textiles can detect, react and adapt to many external stimuli. Interconnected sensors and actuators that interact and react to existing risks can provide the wearer with increased safety, protection and comfort. Thus, the skills of smart protective equipment can contribute to the reduction of errors and the number and severity of accidents in the workplace, and thus promote improved performance, efficiency and productivity.This review provides an overview and opinions of authors on the current state of knowledge on these types of technologies by reviewing and discussing the state of the art of commercially available systems and the advances made in previous research works.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0482.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: nuclear accidents; decision support; protective measures, LPM, PTM, CBRN.
Online: 18 December 2020 (16:33:16 CET)
The systems ESTE are running in nuclear crisis centers at various levels of emergency preparedness and response in Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Austria, Bulgaria, and Iran (at NPP monitored by International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA). ESTE is a decision support system, running 24/7, and serves the crisis staff to propose actions to protect inhabitants against radiation in case of a nuclear accident. ESTE is also applicable as decision support system in case of a malicious act with radioactive dispersal device in an urban or industrial environment. Dispersion models implemented in ESTE are Lagrangean particle model (LPM) and Puff trajectory model (PTM). Described are models approaches as implemented in ESTE. PTM is applied in ESTE for the dispersion calculation near the point of release, up to 100 km from the point of nuclear accident. LPM for general atmospheric transport is applied for short-range, meso-scale and large-scale dispersion, up to dispersion on the global scale. Additionally, a specific micro-scale implementation of LPM is applied for urban scale dispersion modelling too. Dispersion models of ESTE are joined with radiological consequences models to calculate a complete spectrum of radiological parameters - effective doses, committed doses and dose rates by various irradiation pathways and by various radionuclides. Finally, radiation protective measures, like sheltering, iodine prophylaxis, or evacuation, evaluated on the base of predicted radiological impacts are proposed. Dispersion and radiological models of the state-of-the-art ESTE systems are described. Results of specific analyses, like number of particles applied, initial spatial distribution of the source, height of the bottom reference layer, are presented and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0609.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: agriculture; farm-worker; hazard; perception; protective-materials; risks; safety
Online: 24 November 2020 (09:50:40 CET)
Safety and health issues are growing concerns in the agricultural sector among farm-workers in South Africa. The current health pandemic arising from the corona virus has thrown these issues into the spotlight, and this study explored the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of using personal protective materials among farm-workers in the banana sector. Using a case study of 10 large farms in the lower south coast of South Africa, we utilized descriptive and inferential analysis to identify the demographic composition of farm-workers in the study area, examine their perception of specific personal protective materials, and determine the relationship between demographic characteristics and perception of personal protective materials. Farm-workers in the study area were found to be predominantly single black males aged between 36-55years, with no more than a primary education, with work experience of between 6-10 years and employed as unskilled farm-labourers. Perceived usefulness (83%) and perceived ease of use (79%) for personal protective materials was high. Respondents gender (p=0.012), marital status (p=0.029), level of education (p=0.035) and farm-work experience (p=0.008) were significant, while their age (p=0.057), population group (p=0.160) and work classification (p=0.203) were not found significant in determining perceived usefulness or perceived ease of use. Our study makes valuable contribution to the existing body of knowledge regarding farm-worker safety issues by exploring perception of personal protective materials.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0259.v1
Online: 12 July 2020 (14:48:50 CEST)
Wearable computing is a fast evolving segment of computing that includes smart watches, head mounted wearables such as Magic Leap headsets, Microsoft Hololens, and VR goggles from various vendors. In this report, we present ideas for a smart wearable device that also doubles as a virus protection device. Instead of using the filtering approach that is predominantly used by virus protection equipments such as face masks, we propose to use a computational approach where the device maintains an awareness of the real-time virus spread and use that information to steer the wearer away from the virus. As the wearable has a head enclosing design, viral infection can only happen through the air that is inhaled by the wearer. The objective of the smart wearable is to maintain a repository for clean air and switch the operating modes between stored and fresh air modes depending on the environmental conditions. It can augment this basic operating procedure by recycling the exhaled air to maximize it operating capacity (i.e., time duration for which it could supply the wearer with safe air) and by cleaning the stored air using UVC to further reduces the chance of infection. To maintain an awareness of the virus spread in the environment, the smart wearable will rely on an edge computing framework that will be distributed to cover areas frequented by people. The smart wearable will have modular design so that it can be reconfigured to add or subtract functionality that the wearer wants for a particular situation so that the design remains relevant even after the virus threat recedes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0258.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; interventions; growth curve; recovery; mortality; protective immunity
Online: 12 July 2020 (14:33:56 CEST)
COVID-19 is fast spreading around the globe in a highly contagious manner. The results from our study showed that after intervention with successive Lockdowns, there was marked decrease in the rate of COVID-19 cases, though there was sporadic volatility in number of COVID-19 cases due to some extrinsic factors. Concomitant with reduction in rate of COVID-19 there was gradual increase in doubling time of COVID-19, steady increase in number of discharged/recovered patients from COVID-19 reaching to ≥ 58% taking the entire Indian population into consideration. Another important aspect was consistent low mortality rate was accompanied by gradual increase in recovery rate of COVID-19 in the population. The possible implication of these results in the development of protective immunity in the population has been discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Covid-19; personal protective equipment; facemask; odds ratio; Malaysia
Online: 9 May 2020 (08:02:16 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 transmission has been established to occur through respiratory droplets from coughing and sneezing. Health agencies have strongly recommended the use of facemask as a precaution from cross-transmission. Objective: This study investigated the prevalence of facemask use among visitors to the hospital. This study also investigated the demographic factors contributing to unacceptable facemask practice. Setting: This prospective observational study was done among hospital visitors to a district specialist hospital during COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. Methods: Individuals entering through dedicated entry point were observed for the type, category and practice of wearing personal protective equipment. Inclusion criteria for this study were any individual's ≥ 2 years old entering the treatment facility from selected entry points. Patients were categorized into two groups of acceptable and unacceptable facemask practice. The Pearson chi-square was used to test for differences in investigated variables in the univariate setting and Binary Logistic regression model was used in the multivariate setting. Main Outcome Measure: Prevalence, acceptance practice and odds ratio of unacceptance of facemask use. Results: Among 1652 individuals included in the final analysis, 1574 (96.9%) was observed wearing facemask with 1269 (72.0%) of individuals worn medical-grade facemask. However, among them, only 1397 (88.8%) individuals' facemask practice was acceptable while the reaming 177 (11.2) individuals were perceived with unacceptable facemask practice. Male individuals, Malay ethnic and high risk age group are 1.47 times (Odds Ratio: OR=1.47; 95% CI, 1.06-2.06; p=.023), 2.18 times (OR=2.18; 95% CI, 1.55-3.08; p<.001) and 1.99 times (OR=2.18; 95% CI, 1.42 - 2.77; p<.001) more likely to exhibit unacceptable facemask practice respectively. Conclusion: Extensive use of facemasks coupled with environmental hygiene measures is a public health strategy which can help to mitigate the COVID-19 epidemic impact. However, a targeted comprehensive strategy to improve compliance to proper facemask practice among the high-risk population is needed to achieve maximal protective benefit.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0290.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: PPE; personal protective equipment; WHO; CDC; healthcare workers; COVID-19
Online: 24 June 2020 (09:13:08 CEST)
Background: The healthcare workers are exposed to dangerous pathogen agents during the outbreak of the new coronavirus COVID-19. To minimize the risk of becoming infected by this virus, healthcare workers need to wear the most appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE). Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the guidelines that the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for the Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend for the rational use of EPP to protect healthcare workers against the novel coronavirus COVID-19.Methodology: To learn how to effectively protect healthcare workers against the COVID-19, a detailed analysis and comparison of the WHO and CDC guidelines related to the proper use of personal protection equipment (PPE) in different healthcare settings was carried out. Results: The results of this study based on an analysis of PPE recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for the Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicated that the safety and protection of healthcare workers can be maximized if the guidelines suggested by these institutions are followed. In general, the WHO and CDC recommendations based on medical practices are similar, and depending on the healthcare activities and settings where the healthcare workers perform their work, suggest wearing medical/surgical facemasks, respirators, googles and face shields (eye protection), gloves, gowns and aprons. Conclusions: The protection and safety of the healthcare workers can be maximized during the outbreak of COVID-19 by following the WHO and CDC recommendations described in this study. The general guidelines offered by these institutions are similar and based on medical practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0163.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: polymer aging; swelling behavior; protective glove materials; elastomers; composites; rubber
Online: 15 April 2019 (11:29:10 CEST)
Butyl rubber-based composite (BRC) is one of the most popular materials for the fabrication of protective glove against chemical and mechanical risks. However, in many working places such as metal manufacturing or automotive mechanical services, its mechanical hazards usually appear together with metalworking fluids (MWFs). The presence of these contaminants, particularly at high temperature, could modify its properties due to the scission, the plasticization, the crosslinking of polymer network and thus led to severe modification of mechanical and physicochemical properties of material. This work aims to determine the effect of temperature and a metalworking fluid on mechanical behavior of butyl rubber composite dealing with crosslinking density, cohesion forces and elastic constant of BRC on the based on Mooney-Rivlin’s theory. The effect of temperature with and without MWFs on thermo dynamical properties and morphology of butyl membranes is also investigated. The prediction of service lifetime is then evaluated from extrapolation of Arrhenius plot at different temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: light armour; personal protective equipment; load; law enforcement; occupational tasks
Online: 24 April 2018 (09:47:48 CEST)
Policing duties may inherently be dangerous due to stab, blunt trauma and ballistic threats. The addition of individual light armour vests (ILAVs) has been suggested as a means to protect officers. However, the addition of the extra load of the ILAV may affect officer ability to conduct occupational tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine if wearing any of 3 different ILAVs (ILAV A, ILAV B, & ILAV C) affected occupational task performance when compared to that in normal station wear. A prospective, within-subjects repeated measures design was employed, using a counterbalanced randomization in which each ILAV was worn for an entire day while officers completed a variety of occupationally relevant tasks. These tasks included a victim drag, car exit and 5 meter sprint, step down and marksmanship task. Results showed that performance in each task did not vary between any of the ILAV or normal station wear conditions. There was less variability in the marksmanship task with ILAV B, however. The results suggest that none of the ILAVs used in this study were heavy enough to significantly affect task performance in the assessed tasks when compared to wearing normal station wear.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0726.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: mental health; risk factor; protective factor; refugee; asylum-seeker; sustainable intervention
Online: 27 April 2021 (14:24:31 CEST)
This systematic review followed the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement to synthesizes the existing literature with a goal to review current conceptual frameworks of mental health of forced migrants for further practice research priorities in social work. The search was done between January 2015 to January 2021. As a result, 29 studies met inclusion criteria. Medicalizing mental health issues by relying solely on the effectiveness of medicine was a controversial risk factor that negatively affected the daily life activities of refugees and reduced their willingness for seeking professional mental health services. Empowering vulnerable minorities by giving them back their power and agency to be able to speak for themselves and raise voices of trauma and recovery was the missing protective factor for sustainable mental health practice. The benefits of group-based interventions are highlighted in which communities and individuals address mental health issues as well as isolation through building collective identities and support networks. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) can add more strength to any kind of mental health intervention. Finally, the benefits of applying ecological perspective for the mental health of refugees, and its implications for a sustainable intercultural practice are discussed. Social workers in this model are the representatives of at-risk groups, thus need more agency and creativity in reflecting client’s concrete needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: socio-educational resilience; protective factors; risk factors; multilevel logistic model, simce
Online: 4 December 2019 (08:00:35 CET)
Framed in a context with an emerging economy and with a high percentage of school failure, this study aimed to identify the factors that turn students with socioeconomic disadvantages into resilient students. Two questions guided the research: Can resilience be supported in students in adverse socioeconomic situations? What factors influence building resilient students? A cross-sectional study was carried out from 2011 to 2015 in Chile, using a multilevel logistic regression model with three levels, considering the hierarchical data structure. The behavior of 63100 to 76400 sampled students was analyzed. Results show five relevant factors in building resilience: self-efficacy in language, minor aggressions and violence perceived by students, norms and values of the establishment, interest in study, and self-efficacy. Some risk factors identified were an atmosphere of less respect and trust, engagement in physical education activities and good performance in carrying them out. These results could orient educational leaders interested in supporting the educational community in order to improve the academic success of disadvantaged students.
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; mask; respirator; coronavirus; 3D Printing; N95; personal protective equipment (PPE)
Online: 11 July 2020 (04:16:17 CEST)
The COVID-19 crisis has resulted in a shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) . COVID-19 is currently the leading cause of death in the United States. Health care providers caring for COVID-19 patients or at high risk of being exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus benefit from a face shield to protect against aerosol droplets that could hit the face and minimize the chance of inadvertently touching the face with contaminated hands, and air filtration to filter out aerosolized SARS-CoV-2. Adapting commercially available full-faced snorkel masks has been proposed as an alternative to narrow the gap in PPE . Here we explore a full-faced snorkel mask with commercially available particulate filters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0229.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle networks (UAVNs); secure communication; agent-based self-protective; HIS
Online: 21 January 2020 (03:02:34 CET)
UAVNs (unmanned aerial vehicle networks) may become vulnerable to threats and attacks due to their characteristic features such as high mobility, highly dynamic network topology, and open-air wireless environments. Since previous work has focused on classical and metaheuristic-based approaches, none of these approaches have a self-adaptive approach. In this article, we examine the challenges of cyber detection methods to secure UAVNs and review exiting security schemes proposed in the current literature. Furthermore, we propose an agent-based self-protective method (ASP-UAVN) for UAVNs that is based on the Human Immune System (HIS). In ASP-UAS, the safest route from the source UAV to the destination UAV is chosen according to a self-protective system. In this method, a multi-agent system using an Artificial Immune System (AIS) is employed to detect the attacking UAV and choose the safest route. In the proposed ASP-UAVN, the route request packet (RREQ) is initially transmitted from the source UAV to the destination UAV to detect the existing routes. Then, once the route reply packet (RREP) is received, a self-protective method using agents and the knowledge base is employed to choose the safest route and detect the attacking UAVs. The method is evaluated here via extensive simulations carried out in the NS-3 environment. The experimental results of four scenarios demonstrated that the ASP-UAS increases the Packet Delivery Rate (PDR) by more than 17.4, 20.8, and 25.91%, and detection rate by more than 17.2, 23.1, and 29.3%, and decreases the Packet Loss Rate (PLR) by more than 14.4, 16.8, and 20.21%, the false-positive and false-negative rate by more than 16.5, 25.3, and 31.21% those of SUAS-HIS, SFA and BRUIDS methods, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0695.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Tourism livelihood income; prevent COVID-19; protective intention; merged model; local tourism practitioners
Online: 31 August 2020 (04:37:04 CEST)
(1) Background: This study examines the intention to behave actively prevent COVID-19 among local tourism practitioners by adopting an empirically validated norm activation model (NAM) of Schwartz and merging it with the Expectancy theory of Vroom; (2) Methods: The study aims to develops a theoretical framework for understanding the formation and predicting the change of personal protective intention to prevent COVID-19. Based on 514 valid responses from the field surveys; (3) Results: The author develops the refined model including 7 constructs and 26 observational items, and the results showed that the refined model has enjoys a better predictive accuracy of protective intention than the original NAM; and (4) Conclusions: The intention of preventing COVID-19 should needs wider public support and advocacy, and recognizing the change rule of improving behavioral intentions of preventing COVID-19 to maintain the safe tourism image of tourist attractions in Zhangjiajie is also beneﬁts for local tourism practitioners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0271.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: fungicides; insecticides; occupational health; personal protective equipment; poisoning; safety measures; training; integrated pest management
Online: 12 November 2018 (09:16:16 CET)
Misuse and poor handling of chemical pesticides in agriculture is hazardous to the health of farmers, consumers and the environment. We studied the pest and disease management practices and the type of pesticides used in four root, tuber and banana (RTB) crops in Burundi and Rwanda through in-depth interviews with a total of 811 smallholder farmers. No chemical pesticides were used in banana in either Rwanda and Burundi, whereas the use of insecticides and fungicides in potato is quite frequent. Nearly all insecticides and about one third of the fungicides used are moderately hazardous. Personal protective equipment is used by less than a half of the interviewed farmers in both countries. Reported cases of death due to self- or accidental poisoning among humans and domestic animals in the previous 12 months were substantial in both countries. Training of farmers and agrochemical retailers in safe use of pesticide and handling, and use of integrated pest management approaches to reduce pest and disease damage is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: protective structures; microclimatic monitoring; microbiological deterioration of architectural finds; Archaeological site 1a Imperial Palace Sirmium
Online: 8 September 2021 (11:24:50 CEST)
For the purpose of this paper, the actual air temperature and air humidity values were monitored in the Visitor Centre of the Archaeological site 1a Imperial Palace Sirmium, designated cultural heritage of exceptional importance. The contamination level of archaeological finds in the site was microbiologically analysed. The findings showed that during the phase of microclimatic monitoring (February–April 2021), air humidity was almost constantly above the levels set by standards and recommendations for museum collections (>60%). The highest levels of air humidity, amounting to 93%, were recorded in February, with daily oscillations of up to 30%; the lowest recorded temperature was 0.3°C, with the maximum daily oscillations of 6°C. Microbiological analysis revealed great diversity in the deterioration level of the finds, which can be attributed to the time lapse between the last conservation and the present. The comparative analysis of microclimatic monitoring and microbiological analysis results identified high levels of relative air humidity as the dominant factor in the increased microbiological contamination of the finds. The findings also pointed to the necessity of continuous microclimatic monitoring during the actual usage of the facility in order to provide the sustainable display and preservation of the finds on the premises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0177.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: lipid peroxidation; membrane elasticity; mesoporous silica nanoparticles; myricetin; myricitrin; nanomechanics; protective effects of flavonoids; quercetin
Online: 16 April 2019 (09:54:03 CEST)
Flavonoids, polyphenols with anti-oxidative activity have high potential as novel therapeutics for neurodegenerative disease, but their applicability is rendered by their poor water solubility and chemical instability under physiological conditions. In this study, this is overcome by delivering flavonoids to model cell membranes (unsaturated DOPC) using prepared and characterized biodegradable mesoporous silica nanoparticles, MSNs. Quercetin, myricetin and myricitrin have been investigated in order to determine the relationship between flavonoid structure and protective activity towards oxidative stress i.e. lipid peroxidation induced by addition of hydrogen peroxide and/or Cu2+ ions. Among investigated flavonoids, quercetin showed the most enhanced and prolonged protective anti-oxidative activity. The nanomechanical (Young modulus) measurement of the MSNs treated DOPC membranes during lipid peroxidation confirmed attenuated membrane damage. By applying combination of experimental techniques (AFM, force spectroscopy, ELS, DLS), this work generated detailed knowledge about the effects of flavonoid loaded MSNs on the elasticity of model membranes, especially under oxidative stress conditions. Results from this study will pave the way towards the development of innovative and improved markers for oxidative stress-associated neurological disorders. In addition, the obtained could be extended to designing effective delivery systems of other high potential bioactive molecules with an aim to improve human health in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0156.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: delphinidin; radiation protective agent; proton beam therapy; CCD-18Co cells; reactive oxygen species; antioxidant enzyme; DNA damage
Online: 29 September 2017 (13:49:38 CEST)
Unavoidable exposure to radiosensitive normal tissues around cancerous tumor during the radiotherapy can cause side effects such as self-limited acute toxicities, mild chronic symptoms, or severe organ dysfunction. Nevertheless, clinical use of currently available radiation protective agents is limited because of their generic cytotoxicity. A study on radiation protective effect of delphinidin was conducted with proton-beam-exposed human colon cells (CCD-18Co). The measurement in changes of survival fractions of CCD-18Co with/without delphinidin administration at different radiation doses were measured by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The changes in expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and in activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured by colorimetric assays using pertinent assay kits. The measurement of pro-apoptosis/pro-survival protein expressions using Western blot assay and the measurement of DNA damage using comet assay were also fulfilled to evaluate the molecular level of radiation damages in CCD-18Co cells. The experimental results revealed that the pre-administration of delphinidin regulated antioxidant enzymes, reduced ROS, decreased DNA damage, regulated pro-apoptosis/pro-survival proteins, and eventually reduced apoptosis of CCD-18Co cells. In conclusion, it is claimed that delphinidin is nontoxic natural radiation protective compound, and thus delphinidin can be used to protect normal colon tissues during the proton beam therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0577.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: personal protective equipment (PPE); COVID-19; manufacturing; prototyping; 3D-printing; biocompatibility; sterilization; face shields; regulatory sciences; local resilience
Online: 24 September 2020 (10:45:53 CEST)
The disruption of conventional manufacturing, supply, and distribution channels for medical supplies during the COVID-19 pandemic has caused widespread shortages and catalyzed local efforts to use nontraditional, rapid manufacturing to meet urgent healthcare needs. Here we present a crisis-responsive design framework designed to assist with product development under pandemic conditions. The framework utilizes extensive stakeholder engagement, comprehensive and dynamic needs assessment, local manufacturing, and product testing for the accelerated development of healthcare products. We contrast this framework with traditional medical device manufacturing and discuss relevant regulatory policies. We highlight the applicability of the crisis-responsive framework to a successful local program that designed and supplied face shields for a large US academic hospital. Finally, we make recommendations aimed at improving future resilience to healthcare emergencies. These include continued development of open source designs suitable for rapid manufacturing and changes in regulatory policy that strike a balance between rigidity and uncontrolled innovation.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0295.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Internet of Things; security; vulnerabilities and protective measures; control network security; operation in multi-user environments; risk assessment
Online: 15 September 2019 (02:55:36 CEST)
The introduction of the Internet of Things (IoT), i.e. the interconnection of embedded devices over the Internet, has changed the world we live in from the way we measure, make calls, print information and even the way we get energy in our offices or homes. The convenience of IoT products, like CCTV cameras, IP phones, and oscilloscopes, is overwhelming for end-users. In parallel, however, security issues have emerged and it is essential for infrastructure providers to assess the associated security risks. In this paper, we propose a novel method to detect IoT devices and identify the manufacturer, device model, and the firmware version currently running on the device using the page source from the web user interface. We performed automatic scans of the large-scale network at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) to evaluate our approach. Our tools identified 233 IoT devices that fell into eleven distinct device categories and included 49 device models manufactured by 26 vendors from across the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0329.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: face shield; facial protective equipment; SARS-CoV-2; phi 6; MRSA; MRSE; polyethylene terephthalate; benzalkonium chloride; COVID-19; multidrug-resistant bacteria
Online: 16 August 2021 (11:38:49 CEST)
Transparent materials used for facial protection equipment provide protection against microbial infections caused by viruses and bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. However, transparent materials used for this type of application are made of materials that do not possess antimicrobial activity. They just avoid direct contact between the person and the biological agent. Therefore, healthy people can get infected through contact of the contaminated material surfaces and this equipment constitute an increasing source of infectious biological waste. Furthermore, infected people can transmit microbial infections easily because the protective equipment do not inactivate the microbial load generated while breathing, sneezing, or coughing. In this regard, the goal of this work consisted of fabricating a transparent face shield with intrinsic antimicrobial activity that could provide extra-protection against infectious agents and reduce the generation of infectious waste. Thus, a single-use transparent antimicrobial face shield composed of polyethylene terephthalate and an antimicrobial coating of benzalkonium chloride has been developed for the next generation of facial protective equipment. The antimicrobial coating was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy with elemental analysis. This is the first facial transparent protective material capable of inactivating enveloped viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 in less than one minute of contact, and the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Bacterial infections contribute to severe pneumonia associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their resistance to antibiotics is increasing. Our extra protective broad-spectrum antimicrobial composite material could also be applied for the fabrication of other facial protective tools such as such as goggles, helmets, plastic masks and space separation screens used for counters or vehicles. This low-cost technology would be very useful to combat the current COVID-19 pandemic and protect health care workers from multidrug-resistant infections in developed and underdeveloped countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0174.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: lactic acid bacteria; food-producing animals; dairy products; health benefits; One health; antimicrobial resistance; probiotics; starter cultures; adjunct cultures; protective cultures.
Online: 7 August 2021 (00:17:15 CEST)
Animal products, in particular dairy and fermented products, are natural, major sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Due to their antimicrobial properties, LAB are used in humans and in animals, with beneficial effects, as probiotics or in the treatment of a variety of diseases. In livestock production, LAB contribute to animal performance, health, and productivity. In the food industry, LAB are applied as bioprotective and biopreservation agents, contributing to improve food safety and quality. However, some studies have described resistance to relevant antibiotics in LAB, with the concomitant risks associated to the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to foodborne pathogens, their potential dissemination throughout the food chain, and the environment. Here, we summarize the application of LAB in livestock and animal products, as well as the health impact of LAB in animal food products. In general, the beneficial effects of LAB on the human food chain seem to outweigh the potential risks associated with their consumption as part of animal and human diets. However, further studies and continuous monitorization efforts are needed to ensure their safe application in animal products and in the control of pathogenic microorganisms, preventing the possible risks associated with antibiotic resistance and, thus, protecting public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0207.v1
Subject: Keywords: open hardware; COVID-19; medical hardware; Powered Air-Purifying Respirator; PAPR; RepRap; 3-D printing; additive manufacturing; personal protective equipment; safety equipment
Online: 17 June 2020 (03:50:13 CEST)
To assist firefighters and other first responders to use their existing equipment for respiration during the COVID-19 pandemic without using single-use, low-supply, masks, this study outlines an open source kit to convert a 3M-manufactured Scott Safety self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) into a powered air-purifying particulate respirator (PAPR). The open source PAPR can be fabricated with a low-cost 3-D printer and widely available components for less than $150, replacing commercial conversion kits saving 85% or full-fledged proprietary PAPRs saving over 90%. The parametric designs allow for adaptation to other core components and can be custom fit specifically to fire-fighter equipment, including their suspenders. The open source PAPR has controllable air flow and its design enables breathing even if the fan is disconnected or if the battery dies. The open source PAPR was tested for air flow as a function of battery life and was found to meet NIOSH air flow requirements for 4 hours, which is 300% over expected regular use.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: continuous co-phase traction power supply system (CCTPSS); traction electric network; directional protective relaying(dpr); amplitude comparison of traveling wave; VMD; modulus maximum
Online: 27 October 2019 (15:24:24 CET)
Directional protective relaying based on amplitude comparison of traveling wave on continuous co-phase auto-transformer(AT) power transmission system was proposed. Phase-model transformation is used for decoupling transient fault signals and get aerial mode component. The forward and backward traveling wave are obtained by calculating aerial mode component, then the intrinsic mode function(IMF) components can be obtained through Variational Mode Decomposition(VMD), the module maxima are obtained through calculating the IMF components. The fault direction is determined by the ratio of fault components. If two faults relays at the ends of electric traction networks detect a fault to be in the forward direction, the fault occurred in the internal area, the protection would operate properly. The simulation tests indicate that the protection scheme is feasible, and the proposed protection method can discriminate internal faults from external faults under various fault types, and its performances are immune to fault initial angle, ground resistance, etc.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0491.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: cytomegalovirus (CMV); infection, reactivation, epidemiology, host-virus interaction, CMV-specific IgG; protective IgG level, avidity, adoptive/acquired immune response, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); secondary immunodeficiency, Quantiferon, pentamer, β2-microglobulin/beta 2-Microglobulin
Online: 22 October 2018 (11:53:47 CEST)
Although the existing paradigm states that CMV reactivation is under control of cellular immune response, the role of humoral counterpart is underestimated. Anti-CMV positive woman after conditioning with Bu-Flu-ATG underwent stem cell transplantation from fully matched, seronegative sibling donor. In immunodeficient recipient fast and significant decrease of specific immune response was observed but reconstitution of marrow-derived B and NK cells was prior thymic origin T cells. The lowest CMV-IgG(89 U/ml) was observed just before CMV viremia. Noteworthy, the sole and exclusive factor of CMV-specific immune response is a residual recipient antibody class IgG. The CMV-quantiferon increase was observed later, but in the first phase immune reconstitution of the PHA-induced IFNγ release was significantly lower than that CMV-induced. It corresponds with NK cells increase at the top of lymphocyte reconstitution and undetected CMV-specific CD8 cells by pentamer technique. Most of NK cells are CD16+, thus are stimulated by residual IgG. In immunocompetent donor the cellular and humoral immune response increases in parallel manner but symptoms of CMV mononucleosis were observed till the increase of specific IgG. Our observations shed light on a unique host-CMV interaction: indicate that significant decrease of CMV-IgG is a good predictor for CMV reactivation during secondary immunodeficiency.