ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0332.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: cobalt; ZnO; photocathodic protection; corrosion protection
Online: 29 October 2019 (10:30:46 CET)
In this work, cobalt doped ZnO nanorod arrays with anticorrosion function were successfully prepared on FTO substrate by a simple aqueous solution method. XRD and EDS results indicate the doped Co2+ has successfully incorporated into the ZnO crystal lattice. Photocurrent density and open circuit potential (OCP) results indicate the photocathodic protection performance for 316 stainless steel (316 SS) and Q235 carbon steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution under 300 W Xe lamp enhanced with the increase of cobalt concentration, and the photoanode with 15% Co/Zn ratio has the optimal photocathodic protection effect. The mechanism of enhancement may be result from the narrowed band gap, the lower recombination rate of photogenerated electron-holes, the intermediate impurity level and the split of the hypo-outer shell of cobalt ions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0251.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: adaptive protection; decentralized protection; microgrid protection; backup protection; instantaneous relays characteristic curve; instantaneous relays coordination; DG; GOOSE message; IEC 61850
Online: 23 July 2019 (07:50:46 CEST)
In this paper a protection scheme is provided to protect microgrid by considering the problems that are generated by addition of distributed generators to distribution networks and change these networks from passive to active. At first, changes in microgrid conditions that can affect short-circuit current is explained. Then Based on these changes, an algorithm is proposed to update relays settings. The algorithm can be used for both instantaneous and inverse time relays. In this protection scheme, central unit has no place and relays are responsible for monitoring microgrid and update their settings. In other words, this protection scheme is an adaptive and decentralized microgrid protection scheme. Instantaneous overcurrent relays are used in this paper. To avoid storing large amounts of setting data in relays memory, a method for calculating pickup current of instantaneous relay is provided. Since digital relays used, a new characteristic curve for instantaneous relay for better performance in the field of backup protection is defined. This new characteristic curve has two peakup currents: one of them for main protection and the other one for backup protection. Then coordination of instantaneous relay using the new characteristic curve is explained. At the end, this protection scheme is implemented on a microgrid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1071.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: siliconate; nanometals; wood; protection
Online: 15 June 2023 (08:05:16 CEST)
Wood is very susceptible to the action of biotic agents. There is a growing interest in the protection of wood and wood artworks to extend their life, using environmentally friendly preservatives. The aim of this paper was the study of nano/siliconate impregnation system for wood protection to control biological colonization. The biotic agents studied have been wood decay fungi. In conclusion, this paper has shown that all the treatments have presented an excellent protective performance against biotic agents. Is important to mention that a synergistic effect can be observed when generating the siliconate/nanoparticle mixtures, resulting in protective systems with excellent efficiency for all the degrading agents. Moreover, it presents an easy application, which represents not only a watertight protective system, but also a set of systems that may be used and managed according to the availability of the active components, the costs, and, most importantly, without having to modify the form of application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0085.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: FMD; vaccine; cross-protection; heterologous protection; potency test; foot-and-mouth disease
Online: 9 January 2020 (12:10:31 CET)
Since 2015, outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the Middle East have been caused by a new emerging viral lineage, A/ASIA/G-VII. In-vitro vaccine matching data indicated that this virus poorly matched (low r1-value) with vaccines that were being used in the region as well as most other commercially available vaccines. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of two candidate vaccines against challenge with a representative field virus from the A/ASIA/G-VII lineage. The results from an initial full dose protection study provided encouraging data for the A/MAY/97 vaccine, while the A22/IRQ/64 vaccine only protected 2/7 vaccinated animals. In view of these promising results, this vaccine was tested in a potency test (PD50) experiment in which 5 cattle were vaccinated with a full dose, 5 cattle with a 1/3 dose and 5 cattle with a 1/9 dose of vaccine. Vaccines were prepared as would be done during an emergency vaccination campaign using a double oil emulsion adjuvant. At 21 days post vaccination these vaccinated cattle and 3 control cattle were subsequently challenged intradermolingually with a field isolate from the A/ASIA/G-VII lineage. All cattle from the full vaccine dose, 4 cattle from the 1/3 vaccine dose and 2 cattle from the 1/9 vaccine dose were clinically protected against challenge with FMDV A/ASIA/G-VII, resulting in a heterologous potency of 6.5 PD50/dose. These data support previous studies showing that a high potency emergency vaccine can protect against clinical disease when challenged with a heterologous strain of the same serotype. Not only the r1-value of the vaccine, but also the homologous potency of a vaccine should be taken into account when advising vaccines to control an outbreak.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1355.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Mucosa; protection; permeability; kinetic permeation
Online: 23 October 2023 (09:53:37 CEST)
The permeability of the oral or nasal mucosa is higher than that of the skin. Mucosa permeability depends mainly on the thickness and keratinization degree of the tissues. Their permeability barrier is conditioned by the presence of certain lipids. This work has the main aim of reinforcing the barrier effect of oral mucosa with a series of formulations. Sixty-three initial formulations were evaluated for transmembrane water loss, with 16 formulations selected to test on sublingual mucosa. In vitro release tests of caffeine, ibuprofen, dexamethasone and ivermectin were carried out on porcine skin, mucosa and modified mucosa in order to compare the effectiveness of the formulations. A similar permeation profile was obtained in the different membranes: caffeine > ibuprofen ~ dexamethasone > ivermectin. The most efficient formulation was a liposomal formulation composed of lipids that are present in the skin stratum corneum. Impermeability provided by this formulation was really notable mainly for the low molecular weight compounds, decreasing their permeability coefficient between 40-80%. The reinforcement of the barrier function of mucosa provides a reduction or prevention of the permeation of different actives such as viruses, contaminants, toxins, etc.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1105.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: VPNs; Protection; Privacy; Security; Data
Online: 16 June 2023 (03:35:35 CEST)
The recent COVID-19 pandemic has showcased the implications of using virtual private networks (VPNs) as home-working is now common. Establishing the current state of knowledge on VPNs and their processes is vital. This corroborates an up to date understanding on the fundamentals of VPNs and their usage in today’s society; it informs on how to better use VPNs too. Insight into the security issues VPNs face and possible solutions to these allows for the identification of gaps for potential future research. Addressing these gaps would then indicate how to further improve VPNs, making sure VPNs are indeed beneficial to users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0715.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy; distributed generation (DG); artificial neural networks; Network; Transmission network; Protection algorithms; Distance protection
Online: 10 November 2023 (13:26:36 CET)
To protect power lines, distance relays are used which can rely on a modified distance resistance. But usually the operating range of these relays changes as the network conditions change (network topology, load value, output value, etc.) and leads to false trips, By using methods that can process information and recognize patterns, for example, the use of micro and intelligent processor algorithms can use the new relays with high precision and thus provide adequate protection. In this study, a distance relay was modeled using a neural network, and it was observed that the neural relay had higher accuracy than the conventional relay. In addition to detecting the fault and its location, type and phase of the fault, three-stage simultaneous protection can be performed. As a result, the number of linear relays can be reduced by using relays based on neural technologies. An MLP (multilayer perceptron) neural network is used to model a sequence of distances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0925.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: vector watermarking; vector copyright protection; vector geographic data; copyright protection; digital watermarking; zero-watermarking
Online: 13 July 2023 (10:53:23 CEST)
Vector geographic data play an important role in the natural resources and environment sector and other location information services. This is also one of the types of data where the cost to create it is relatively large because of the difficulty in surveying, collecting, and authorizing. The rapid development of the Internet has created many advantages in the distribution, exploitation, and use of vector geographic data, but it also gives rise to many problems such as duplication, redistribution, forgery, and illegal data use. The theft on the Internet is becoming more and more sophisticated and the number of violations is increasing, showing the urgent need to research and develop an effective solution to protect the copyright of vector geographic data and prevent them from being illegally collected and used. Among the major studies and solutions, digital watermarking emerges as an effective method and is an active research area for copyright protection. Towards a good solution for copyright protection of vector geographic data, our study proposes a new algorithm with three main contributions, including: (1) generating short, pseudo-random meaningful watermarks to increase robustness and to enable automated as well as visual manual verifying; (2) building a uniformly distributed mapping between the vertex coordinates and the watermark bit indexes to increase the robustness of the watermarks; and (3) integrate two types of watermarks, namely, spatial domain-based watermarking and zero-watermarking to be resistant to most common attacks on geographic vector data. The algorithm also allows working on all types of vector geographic data, including points, polylines, and polygons.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0299.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: Relics protection; Protection of material heritage; VR animation; Stone statue; The Ming Xiao Mausoleum
Online: 25 February 2022 (13:54:51 CET)
This paper takes the VR animation display of the Ming Xiao Mausoleum General stone statue life as an example to study the advantages of VR animation in the display of material heritage. Combined with literature and pictures, the digital restoration of the Ming Xiao Mausoleum stone statue is carried out in MAYA and Z brush, and the construction of the scene and the output of the final effect are realized in UE4.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0266.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Collecting line current protection (CLPC); coordination protection; large-scale WGs trip-off; risk indicator
Online: 18 June 2018 (13:48:38 CEST)
There have been several cases of large-scale wind generators (WGs) tripping off caused by untimely fault removing in recent years. Currently, the discoordination between the box-type transformer fuse protection (BTFP) and two-section collecting line current protection (CLCP) brings a security risk to wind farm. In order to ensure the selectivity, the first section (Sec-I) CLCP should be set a enough interval that is longer than the fuse melting time, and another interval is set for the Sec-II CLCP, which weakens the speed of the CLCP. When a fault occurs on the collecting line, there is no doubt that WGs cannot work too long in abnormal operation, which may cause WGs to be placed off the grid. For a power system with high penetration of wind power, large-scale WGs tripping off will cause a great power shortage, and affect the stability of the power system. The selectivity and sensitivity of the CLCP is analyzed in detail to make the CLCP speed better. Considering the fault ride-through ability of WGs, the fault clear time is an important factor to lead to large-scale WGs tripping off. Two main works are done in this paper. The first is to accelerate the speed of the Sec-I CLCP though reducing the protection zone. Another one is introduce the risk assessment module into the CLCP, which not only improve the speed of the CLCP but also ensure the safety of the wind farm during faults. According to the deference in trip-off causes of WGs, the matching functions are created to assess the trip-off risk of WGs on the spot. In the case of fault, the trip-off risk indicators of WGs are timely updated to data sharing center and open to the CLCPs. The set of risk indicators is divided into several subsets according to the risk range. The dynamic changes of the subsets during fault help to improved CLCP scheme. This scheme can accelerate protection speed based on the increasing risk of large-scale WGs tripping off in wind farms. Compared with traditional CLCP, this approach can make the CLCP combines selectivity and speed better based on the analysis of the ride- through ability of WGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1055.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: respirator; fit testing; tuberculosis; respiratory protection
Online: 14 June 2023 (14:18:37 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has promoted a shortage of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and the emergence of new FFRs brands. We aimed to determine the fit provided by in-use FFRs in Peruvian healthcare workers (HCWs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We enrolled 279 HCWs from 37 primary healthcare centers with highest burden of care for TB in Peru, of which 263 were assessed using quantitative fit tests (QNFT). Results were expressed as real-time fit factor (rt-FF) and overall fit factor (overall-FF), which was categorized as ≥100 (optimal result), 50-99, and <50. Results: We identified 3M 1860 FFRs (33.1%), Xiantao Zhong Yi ZYB-11 FFRs (24.7%) and Makrite 9500 FFRs (20.5%), mainly. Eighty-seven HCWs (33.1%) had an optimal overall-FF, 27 (10.3%) between 50-99, and 149 (56.7%) less than 50. Of the 87 HCWs with optimal over-all-FF, 73 (83.9%) were 3M 1860 FFR. Of the 27 participants with overall-FF between 50-99, 7 (25.9%) were Makrite 9500, while of the 149 with overall-FF less than 50, 58 (38.9%), and 47 (31.5%) were Xiantao Zhong Yi ZYB-11 and Makrite 9500, respectively. Conclusion: The Xiantao Zhong Yi and Makrite FFRs do not adapt adequately to the face of Peruvian HCWs, most having fit factors less than 50.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0027.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: cross-disciplinary; AI; blockchain; investment; protection
Online: 5 October 2022 (04:04:40 CEST)
This article presents the results of a cross-disciplinary applied study exploring investors’ protections in the context of distributed ledger technology (DLT) smart contracts. Fusing legal, business, and technical perspectives, we developed a framework for protection from non-commercial risks for stablecoins, taking advantage of DLT and AI. A key concept we propose is the monitoring of disinformation and fake news to prevent malicious parties from abusing our solution. Based on the similarities between central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) and stablecoins, we propose scaling up our results to all future internet investments performed without face-to-face contact between the investor and the company.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0061.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: dam; hazard protection measure; water conduit
Online: 6 December 2021 (11:48:24 CET)
Studies have shown the unconditional danger of biological attacks on underground hydroelectric pumped-storage power stations. A hypothetical list of biological damage to water conduits and dams is determined. Relevant predictions are given, as well as accident events of hydraulic structures are described. A universal scheme for the application of hazard protection measures, which can be comprehensive, has been developed. Praemonitus praemunitus – precautions should be taken.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0361.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: human resource; management; environmental protection; Serbia
Online: 27 December 2019 (10:27:44 CET)
Starting from the fact that the units of local self-government of the Republic of Serbia are not sufficiently oriented towards innovations related to human resources and the environment, the application of quantitative research tradition examines the positioning and understanding of certain procedures and decisions of human resources management regarding the functioning of the environmental protection system, on the one hand, and future strategies for changing the given system, on the other. A series of 105 face-to-face interviews were conducted during the whole of 2016 in 105 of the 191 municipalities in the Republic of Serbia. Examination of the attitudes of the local self-government was carried out using a specially designed closed electronic questionnaire. The results of the multivariate regressions show that the most important predictor of the possible improvement of the environment is the size of the municipality. The remaining variables (e.g., human resources policy, human resources service) did not have significant effects on the ability to improve the environment. In more than half of local self-governments, there was no clearly defined human resources strategy in the field of environmental protection, an environmental protection service, an Environmental Action Plan, as well as an employment plan for waste management in local governments, etc. The research has shown that top managers of local governments agree that the management of human resources in environmental protection represents a significant opportunity to improve the quality of the environment. The results of the research can be used to improve the organization of human resource competence in environmental protection and the quality of a working and sustainable environment in the area of local self-government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0219.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; Security; Dynamic Protection
Online: 18 December 2018 (10:42:48 CET)
A Smart Home is characterized by the presence of a huge number of small, low power devices, along with more classical devices. According to the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm, all of them are expected to be always connected to the Internet in order to provide enhanced services. In this scenario, an attacker can undermine both the network security and the user’s security/privacy. Traditional security measures are not sufficient, because they are too difficult to setup and are either too weak to effectively protect the user or too limiting for the new services effectiveness. The paper suggests to dynamically adapt the security level of the smart home network according to the user perceived risk level what we have called network sentiment analysis. The security level is not fixed, established by a central system (usually by the Internet Service Provider) but can be changed with the users cooperation. The security of the smart home network is improved by a distributed firewalling and Intrusion Detection Systems both to the smart home side as to the Internet Service Provider side. These two parts must cooperate and integrate their actions for reacting dynamically to new and ongoing threats. Moreover, the level of network sentiment detected can be propagate to nearby home networks (e.g. the smart home networks of the apartments inside a building) to increase/decrease their level of security, thus creating a true in-line Intrusion Prevention System (IPS). The paper also presents a test bed for Smart Home to detect and counteract to different attacks against the IoT devices,,Wi-Fi and Ethernet connections .
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1096.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: review; Chinese ancient thoughts on plant protection; plant protection methods and subdivision measures; pesticide application technology; 3R/3E/3M; pesticide spraying; measurement and simulation; robot for plant protection
Online: 17 October 2023 (12:13:16 CEST)
After reviewing the history of the struggle between human beings and plant diseases, insects and weeds, especially reviewing the thoughts of plant protection in ancient Chinese agricultural books, the target recognition of plant pests and the six types of plant protection methods and 36 subdi-vision measures were summarized. Then the development overview of pesticide application technology was focused and reviewed systematically by combining the development timeline of pesticide application and the key technologies including the performance measurement and the simulation and modeling of pesticide spraying system. And three suggestions for further research were proposed from the perspectives of human-being and environmental health, the sustainable and eco-friendly application medium, and the efficiently application equipment system in plant protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0233.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: g-C3N4; ZnIn2S4; photocathodic protection; composites; XPS
Online: 5 July 2023 (03:48:28 CEST)
Low separation efficiency of photogenerated carriers and inefficient utilization of visible light limit the application of g-C3N4 nanosheets (CNNs) in the field of photocathodic protection (PCP). Therefore, this work considered indium zinc sulfide (ZnIn2S4, ZIS) as a visible photosensitizer and an electronic donor to promote its PCP performance. ZIS nanolayers with nano-leaf structures were fabricated on CNNs by a simple hydrothermal method. The synthesized 30% ZIS@CNNs composites significantly enhanced the PCP performance for 316 stainless steel (SS) compared with pure CNNs. Under visible light illumination, the 30% ZIS@CNNs photoelectrode exhibited the largest photoinduced current density of 17.30 μA cm−2 and a photoinduced potential drop of 0.37 V, which was approximately 4 and 7.5 times higher than that of pure CNNs, respectively. The improved protection performance may be attributed to the significant increase in visible light absorption and the great enhancement in the separation efficiency of
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0424.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: phenanthroline method; reprotonation; delamination, blistering; protection mechanism
Online: 6 June 2023 (09:07:56 CEST)
The composite coatings prepared by mixing the 5 wt.% of polyaniline with commercial alkyd-based paint are applied on carbon steel. The polyaniline emeraldine chloride salt is prepared by procedure recommended by IUPAC, deprotonated by ammonia hydroxide, and reprotonated with the sulfamic, succinic, citric, and acetic acids with different doping degrees or oxidation states. The steel samples with base and composite coatings are immersed in 3% NaCl and the corrosion current density is determined after 96 h in-site using ASTM 1,10-phenanthroline method. The samples are also inspected by the optical microscope. It is shown that composite coatings reduce the possibility of blister formations and delamination. The corrosion current density and the appearance of the corrosion products, which area is determined by ImageJ softer, closely follow the initial oxidation state of the polyaniline. The role of the initial state of the polyaniline is discussed. It is suggested that such behavior could be connected with the oxygen reduction reaction mechanism that proceeds mainly via two electron paths on the polyaniline particles, releasing a much smaller amount of hydroxyl ions, responsible for the delamination and blister formations of the commercial coatings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0120.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Crime Detection; Suspect Identification; ATM; Faces; Protection
Online: 7 March 2023 (02:24:03 CET)
—The number of ATMs in various countries is increasing steadily and rapidly with the number of users increasing very widely. On the other hand, banks have become more interested in finding the best procedures to combat ATM crimes to ensure the safety and security of their customers and other cardholders. This has become an excellent target for some criminals or fraudsters, despite the limited amounts that can be withdrawn from these devices, given a maximum daily limit. We aim at implementing this system inside bank ATMs in order to detect objects like guns, hammers, and knives. Once the suspicious objects and actions are detected, we perform facial recognition to identify whether the suspect is a repeating offender. We use object, face, and action recognition algorithms to achieve our objective. Results showed that using our proposed algorithm is efficient in detecting threatening objects
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Protection Measures; Observational Study; Pandemics
Online: 6 March 2023 (15:36:27 CET)
Preventive behavior is one of the main strategies to contain the spread of the coronavirus, understand the factors that influence adherence or hesitation to protective measures and the way the population behaves during a health crisis is of great importance. Aim: To analyze the factors associated with adherence to protection measures against Covid-19 in Brazil. Method: cross-sectional study, survey type online, between the period of August 2020 and February 2021. The population included in the study were Brazilians, aged 18 years or older. Non-probabilistic sampling was used to obtain the sample. The data was stored on the "Redcap" platform and analyzed in a descriptive and inferential approach. Results: The sample consisted of 1,516 people, women adopted 10% more protective measures than men, people with higher education level and higher income, within the age group between 40-59 years, were those who most adhered to the measures imposed by health agencies. Carrier of Asthma, Diabetes Mellitus, Systemic Arterial Hypertension, Obesity and smoking were factors that increased the adherence of protective measures in the fight against COVID-19. Conclusion: Being female, aged between 40 and 59 years, higher education, smoking, not having a religion, having health insurance, and being a carrier of chronic diseases were associated with greater adherence to protective measures against COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0545.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: LCIA; plant protection; compost; sustainable greenhouse production
Online: 22 December 2020 (09:32:12 CET)
Italian floriculture is facing structural changes. Possible options to maintain competitiveness of the involved companies include promotion of added values, from local productions to environmental sustainability. To quantify value and benefits of cleaner production processes and choices, a holistic view is necessary, and could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Previous studies on ornamental products generally focused on data from one company or a small sample. The aim of this study was a gate-to-gate life cycle assessment of two ornamental species (Cyclamen persicum Mill. and Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey) using data from a sample of 20 companies belonging to a floriculture district in Treviso, Veneto region. We also assessed the potential benefits for the environmental impact of the selected species of alternative management choices regarding plant protection and reuse of composted waste biomass. Life cycle impact assessment showed the higher impact scores for the zonal geranium, mainly as a consequence of greenhouse heating with fossil fuels. This factor, along with higher uniformity of production practices and technological level of equipment, translated in lower variability observed in comparison with cyclamen production, which shows a wider results range, in particular for eutrophication, acidification and human toxicity potentials. The application of integrated pest management had significant benefits in terms of impact reduction for acidification and human toxicity of cyclamen, while reduced use of mineral nutrients through compost amendment of growing media resulted in a reduced eutrophication potential. The achievable benefits for zonal geranium were not observable because of the dominant contribution of energy inputs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0349.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: neurodegeneration; tauopathies; cancer, Tau protein, DNA protection
Online: 16 October 2020 (12:31:41 CEST)
For its microtubule-binding properties, the expression level of the neurodegeneration-associated protein Tau is pondered as a potential modifier of cancer resistance to chemotherapy since decades. Indeed, Tau binds microtubules at the same site as taxanes, a class of chemotherapeutic drugs designed to stabilize the microtubule network in order to stall cell division and to induce tumor cell death. Whilst independent studies report the association between low Tau expression and superior taxane response, the data were refused by a meta-analysis, suggesting interference of other parameters. Unpredictably, Tau expression level was identified as a prognostic cancer marker, whereby its positive or negative predictive value for survival depended on the cancer type. With recent experimental evidence linking Tau to P53 signaling, DNA stability and protection and to the implication of Tau in cancer is strengthened. The identification of a role of Tau at the interface between two major aging-related disorder families, neurodegeneration and cancer, offers clues for the epidemiological observation inversely correlating these disorders. Elucidating how Tau is mechanistically implicated in cellular pathways common to these devastating illnesses may extend the Tau-targeting therapeutic opportunities to cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0470.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; facial protection; masks; PAPR
Online: 31 May 2020 (15:02:43 CEST)
We live in extraordinary times, where COVID-19 pandemic has brought the whole world to a screeching halt. Tensions and contradictions that surround the pandemic ridden world include the availability, and the lack thereof, various facial protection measures to mitigate the viral spread. Here, we comprehensively explore the different type of facial protection measures, including masks, needed both for the pubic and the health care workers (HCW). We discuss the anatomy, the critical issues of disinfection and reusability of masks, the alternative equipment available for the protection of the facial region from airborne diseases, such as face shields and powered air purifying respirators (PAPR), and the skin-health impact of prolonged wearing of facial protection by HCW. Clearly, facial protection, either in the form of masks or alternates, appears to have mitigated the pandemic as seen from the minimal COVID-19 spread in countries where public mask wearing is strictly enforced. On the contrary, the healthcare systems, that appear to have been unprepared for emergencies of this nature, should be appropriately geared to handle the imbalance of supply and demand of personal protective equipment including face masks. These are two crucial lessons we can learn from this tragic experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0389.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: personal protection equipment; COVID-19; mass production
Online: 22 April 2020 (05:50:16 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic provoked a number of restrictive measures, such as the closure or severe restriction of border transit for international trading traffic, quarantines and self-isolation. This caused a series of interrelated consequences that not only prevent or slow down the spread of disease, but also impact the medical systems’ capability to treat the patients and help their recovery. In particular, steeply growing demand for medical safety goods cannot be satisfied by regular suppliers due to the shortage of raw materials originating from other countries or remotely located national sources, under conditions of quarantined manpower. The current context inevitably brings back memories (and records!) of the situation 80 years ago, when WWII necessitated major effort directed at the rapid build-up of low cost mass production to satisfy all aspects of war-time need. In the present short report we document a successful case of fast mass-production of light transparent medical safety face shields (thousands per day) realized in Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech) fabrication laboratory (FabLab). The demand for safety face shields by tens of hospitals in Moscow City and Region rapidly ramped up due to the need to protect medical staff during patient collection and transportation to hospitals, and within both the infected (“red”) and uninfected (“green”) zones. Materials selection for sterilizable transparent materials was conducted based on the analysis of merit indices, namely, minimal weight at given stiffness and minimal cost at given stiffness. Due to the need for permanent wear, design was motivated by low weight and comfortable head fixation, along with high production efficiency. The selection of minimal tooling in University fabrication workshops and the use of distributed volunteer labor are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: patient confidentiality; privacy; data protection; Saudi Arabia
Online: 22 August 2019 (10:50:10 CEST)
The concept of patient confidentiality is nearly as old as the practice of health professions and, has evolved and transformed over the years, from one jurisdiction to the other. Patient confidentiality can be a fundamental human right, an ethical duty or, a legal duty. The Saudi laws have evolved around its Shari’ah-based legal culture, its history and the international human right laws (IHRLs). These elements have moulded the Saudi Arabia’s unique perspective on patient confidentiality. Its confidentiality laws are found scattered in several legislations. Is the Saudi patient confidentiality law able to adequately deal with the contemporary challenges? The study reviewed the relevant Saudi laws in the light the International Humana Rights Laws. Findings suggest that there are issues bordering on the lack of quality comprehensive data protection laws, on clarity and foreseeability of the existing laws, and on the accessibility of the courts. Furthermore, the lack of a system of law reporting and stare decisis potentially gave the judges a wider latitude of discretion in interpreting the laws. Therefore, the study recommends for a comprehensive data protection law with a clear definition of “confidential information”, of data controllers and their role, and of specific safeguards against potential abuses. Others include defining legitimate purposes for using the patient’s data, and his role, and the extent to which he can control the use of his own data. Consistency in legal interpretations, and an improved law reporting system could positively enhance the overall outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0118.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: child protection; poverty; inequality; neoliberalism; new paradigm
Online: 10 April 2018 (08:21:26 CEST)
This article sets out to deconstruct and challenge the psychologised and pathologising approach that has come to dominate child protection practice in Aotearoa-New Zealand and comparable societies in neoliberal times. Within a risk and protection focused paradigm circumstances and behaviours associated with material deprivation are construed as indicators of heightened danger and harm as opposed to a means of better understanding family life. In this way, although poverty may be classified as an issue that is worthy of attention in the realm of broader economic and social policy, structural inequality is rendered largely irrelevant to the practice of statutory child protection. This article sets out to trouble this construction. It will be argued that understandings of how the effects of material inequality are played out in the lives of children and their families are critical to the development of more effective child protection social work. This ‘life-world’ is generally populated by young women parenting in poverty. Poverty exacerbates the everyday struggle of parenting - it shames and dis-empowers; reducing confidence and perceptions of competence (Gupta, 2015). A paradigm shift is needed. Child protection policy and practice needs to re-engage with the every-day struggles that accompany the lives of socially marginalised families in increasingly stratified late capitalist society. The future of social work in child protection depends on it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0272.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Microgrid; Protection; bagged decision tree; Wavelet; FFT
Online: 30 March 2018 (13:57:00 CEST)
Microgrids of varying size and applications are regarded as a key feature of modernizing the power system. The protection of those systems, however, has become a major challenge and a popular research topic for the reason that it involves greater complexity than traditional distribution systems. This paper addresses the issue through a novel approach which utilizes detailed analysis of current and voltage waveforms through windowed fast Fourier and wavelet transforms. The fault detection scheme involves bagged decision trees which use input features extracted from the signal processing stage and selected by correlation analysis. The technique was tested on a microgrid model developed using PSCAD/EMTDS, which is inspired from an operational microgrid in Goldwind Sc. Tech. Co. Ltd, in Beijing, China. The results showed great level of effectiveness to accurately identify faults from other non-fault disturbances, precisely locate the fault and trigger opening of the right circuit breaker/s under different operation modes, fault resistances and other system disturbances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrid; multi-microgrid; measured admittance; protection scheme
Online: 16 February 2017 (09:17:26 CET)
Multi-microgrid has many new characteristics, such as bi-directional power flows, flexible operation modes and variable fault currents with different control strategy of inverter interfaced distributed generations (IIDGs). All these featuring aspects pose challenges to multi-microgrid protection. In this paper, current and voltage characteristics of different feeders are analyzed when fault occurs in different positions of multi-microgrid. Based on the voltage and current distribution characteristics of the line parameters, a new protection scheme for the internal fault of multi-microgrid is proposed, which takes the change of phase difference and amplitude of measured bus admittance as the criterion. This scheme with high sensitivity and reliability, has a simple principle and is easy to be adjusted. PSCAD/EMTDC is used in simulation analysis, and simulation results have verified the correctness and effectiveness of the protection scheme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0111.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Heatwaves; health protection; perception; key informant interviews
Online: 26 October 2016 (09:52:01 CEST)
National heatwave plans are aimed at reducing the avoidable human health consequences due to heatwaves, by providing warnings to and improving communication between relevant stakeholders. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of key stakeholders within plans in Belgium and the Netherlands on their responsibilities, the partnerships, and the effectiveness of the local implementation in Brussels and Amsterdam. Key informant interviews were held with stakeholders that had an important role in development of the heatwave plan in these countries, or its implementation in Brussels or Amsterdam. Care organisations, including hospitals and elderly care organisations, had a lack of familiarity with the national heatwave plan in both cities, and prioritised heat the lowest. Some groups of individuals, specifically socially isolated individuals, are not sufficiently addressed by the current national heatwave plans and most local plans. Stakeholders reported that responsibilities were not clearly described and that the national plan does not describe tasks on a local level. We recommend to urgently increase awareness on the impact of heat on health among care organisations. More emphasis needs to be given to the variety of heat risk groups. Stakeholders should be involved in the development of updates of the plans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Solid-state DC circuit breaker; Coupled inductor; Pole-to-ground fault protection; LVDC(Low voltage DC) microgrid protection
Online: 5 July 2021 (07:58:00 CEST)
Ensuring a protection scheme in DC distribution is more difficult to achieve against pole-to-ground fault than in AC distribution system because of the absence of zero crossing points and low line impedance. To complement the major obstacle of limiting the fault current, several compositions have been proposed related to mechanical switching and solid-state switching. Among them, solid-state circuit breakers(SSCBs) are considered a possible solution to limit fast fault current. However, they may cause problems in circuit complexity, reliability and cost-related troubles due to the use of multiple power semiconductor devices and additional circuit configuration to commutate current. This paper proposes the SSCB with a coupled inductor(SSCB-CI) which has symmetrical configuration. The circuit is comprised of passive components like commutation capacitors, a CI and damping resistors. Thus, proposed SSCB-CI offers the advantages of simple circuit configuration and fewer utilized power semiconductor devices than another typical SSCBs in LVDC microgrid. For analysis, six operation states are described for the voltage across main switches and fault current. The effectiveness of the SSCB-CI against a short-circuit fault is proved via simulation and experimental results in a lab-scale prototype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0396.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: Protection Routing; Completely Independent Spanning Trees; Dual Protection Routing Trees; Complete graphs; Complete Bipartite Graphs; Hypercubes; Locally Twisted Cubes.
Online: 6 June 2023 (07:36:01 CEST)
In IP networks, packet forwarding is destination-based and hop-by-hop, and routes are built as needed. Kwong et al. introduced a protection routing in which packet delivery to the destination node can proceed uninterrupted in the event of any single node or link failure. He then shows that “whether there is a protection routing to the destination” is NP-complete. Tapolcai find that two completely independent spanning trees, abbreviated as CISTs, can be used to configure the protection routing. In this paper, we propose dual protection routing trees, denoted as dual-PRTs to replace CISTs, which are less restrictive than CISTs. Next, we propose a transformation algorithm that uses dual-PRTs to configure the protection routing. Taking complete graphs Kn, complete bipartite graphs Km,n, hypercubes Qn, locally twisted cubes LTQn as examples, we provide a recursive method to construct dual-PRTs on them. This article will show that there are no two CISTs on K3,3, Q3, and LTQ3, but there exist dual-PRTs that can be used to configure the protection routing. As shown in the performance evaluation of simulation results, for both Qn and LTQn, we get the average path length of protection routing configured by dual-PRTs is shorter than that by two CISTs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0398.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: intellectual property; intellectual property protection; plant variety protection, plant breeders’ rights, essentially derived variety; utility patent; plant breeding; biotechnology.
Online: 17 May 2021 (17:03:30 CEST)
This review examines the categorization of Essentially Derived Varieties (EDV) introduced in the 1991 revision of the Convention of the Union internationale pour la protection des obtentions végétales (UPOV). Challenges in the implementation of the concept and progress made on a crop-by-crop basis to provide greater clarity and more efficient implementation are reviewed. The current approach to EDV remains valid provided i) clarity on thresholds can be achieved including through resource intensive research on an individual crop species basis and ii) that threshold clarity does not lead to perverse incentives to avoid detection of essential derivation. However, technological advances leading to new varieties resulting from the simultaneous introduction or change in expression of more than “a few” genes will so challenge the concept to require a new Convention. Revision could include deletion of the concept of essential derivation and revision on a crop-by-crop basis of the breeder exception. Countries that allow utility patents for individual plant varieties per se should consider removing that possibility unless plant breeders utilize those encouragements for risk taking and investment to broaden the germplasm base upon which the long-term sustainability of plant breeding resides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: territory space; ecological products; integrated protection; systematic governance
Online: 16 November 2023 (02:34:58 CET)
Territory space is an ecological resource carrier and place for human development. Human activities and ecological systems are the basis of ecological product supply. Promoting territory spatial protection and governance by improving the ecological products supply is very important. In this study, we established an ecological products supply capacity evaluation index system involving three types of ecological products, i.e., ecological environmental products, ecological material products, and ecological cultural products. For the case of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, we comprehensively used principal component analysis, equivalent factor method, and entropy method to evaluate the supply capacity of the ecological products from 2011 to 2021. Then, we analyzed the spatio-temporal pattern combining the natural breakpoint and quantile classification methods and analyzed the obstacle factors using the obstacle degree model of ecological supply. The results show that the supply capacity of different ecological product in each city are closely related to ecological resource endowment. The supply capacity of ecological products exhibited an upward trend, with the highest ecological environmental products supply, relatively smaller ecological material product supply, and the largest growth rate for ecological cultural product supply. The supply capacity of different ecological products varied across cities over time and displayed noticeable spatial differentiation. The main obstacle factors included eco-land, eco-tourism, eco-leisure, park green space, and fishery products, although there were variations among cities. Finally, based on the level, spatial-temporal pattern, and obstacle factors of ecological product supply, we proposed strategies for territory spatial protection and governance from the perspectives of integrated protection of elements, structural regulation, and systematic governance. The results reflected the ecological functional heterogeneity of territory space, which can provide spatial planning guidance for sustainable development.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0527.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Streptomyces; phytostimulation; genome analysis; secondary metabolites; plant protection
Online: 9 October 2023 (12:58:14 CEST)
The aim of this work is the study of genome organization and metabolic potential of Streptomyces carpaticus strain SCPM-O-B-9993, promising plant-protecting and plant-stimulating strain isolated from brown semi-desert soils with a very high degree of salinity. The genome of the strain contains of a linear chromosome of 5,968,715 bp and has no plasmids. Gene clusters of production of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties (ohmyungsamycin, pellasoren, naringenin, ansamycin) were identified in the genome. The strain SCPM-O-B-9993 has antiviral activity against cucumber mosaic virus on tomatoes under laboratory conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0547.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: stakeholder; perception; biometric data protection; face recognition technology
Online: 8 September 2023 (02:42:47 CEST)
This research aims to thoroughly understand the delicate interplay between stakeholders' perspectives, biometric data protection policies, and the deployment of face recognition technologies in Indonesia's dynamic digital world. Adopting a qualitative methodology, the study conducts Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with various stakeholders, including government agencies, technology developers, regulatory agencies, civil society groups, and data subjects as end-users. Face-to-face group discussions facilitate an in-depth exploration of participants' perspectives, yielding rich qualitative data that reveals nuanced insights into the delicate balance between technological innovation, ethical considerations, and socioeconomic repercussions associated with implementing face recognition technology. The research comprehensively explains the difficulties and opportunities associated with responsible technological progress and biometric data security. The findings from the FGDs influence the development of strategies that effectively balance technical advancement with individual rights, privacy, and social well-being within the growing digital landscape of Indonesia. The regulatory function of the government seeks to bridge the gap between public expectations and technological advancements. Collaboration between academic institutions, government agencies, the private sector, and data subjects as end-users emerges as a crucial element, fostering an all-encompassing strategy integrating research, law, technology deployment, and user empowerment. This holistic approach is necessary to ensure that biometric data and facial recognition technology are utilized responsibly, thereby laying the way for Indonesia's technologically sophisticated and ethically aware digital future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0256.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Sustainable development; Energy management; Environmental protection; Economic management
Online: 5 September 2023 (08:11:19 CEST)
This investigation delves into an examination of the growth dynamics observed in Central Taiwan Science Park (CTSP) and Silicon Glen in Scotland, with a specific focus on their energy, environmental, and economic management. The aim is to predict and evaluate the latest advancements and applications of technology. In terms of energy, CTSP focuses on Taiwan's supply security and green transformation challenges, while Silicon Glen emphasizes Scotland's wind energy generation technologies. Both regions are committed to the development of renewable energy and smart grids. Regarding environmental aspects, CTSP and Silicon Glen prioritize environmental protection and sustainable development by implementing measures for environmental monitoring. In terms of economic management, CTSP, and Silicon Glen serve as key technology industry hubs This investigation delves into an examination of the growth dynamics observed in Central Tai-wan Science Park (CTSP) and Silicon Glen in Scotland, with a specific focus on their energy, environmental, and economic management. The aim is to predict and evaluate the latest advancements and applications of technology. In terms of energy, CTSP focuses on Taiwan's supply security and green transformation challenges, while Silicon Glen emphasizes Scotland's wind energy generation technologies. Both regions are committed to the development of renewable energy and smart grids. Regarding environmental aspects, CTSP and Silicon Glen prioritize environmental protection and sustainable development by implementing measures for environmental monitoring. In terms of economic management, CTSP, and Silicon Glen serve as key technology industry hubs in Taiwan and Scotland, respectively, attracting numerous high-tech and startup enterprises. Various means facilitate the growth of industries and foster innovations in different industrial spheres. Important factors contributing to this growth include policy support, availability of research materials, and provision of infrastructure. This research paper compares the successful case studies of two industrial parks, along with their environmental and economic management strategies. It explores the management principles that ensure the sustainable development and economic growth of industrial parks, aiming to assist decision-makers and relevant stakeholders in evaluating the sustainable development planning of industrial parks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1017.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: nature-based solution; seaweed; seagrass; platform; coastal protection
Online: 14 August 2023 (10:03:59 CEST)
One-fifth of the world’s population and critical infrastructures are near the coast and regions at high risk of sea level elevation. Climate change is expected to increase coastal extreme events, rising sea levels, and impact on the ecosystem. Hard engineering, like seawalls, has been used to prevent, protect, and control water-based environmental forces with an extended impact on the land. A nature-based engineering solution, such as growing vegetation, is being adopted as a sustainable solution to help make existing technology live its design life and provide climate change adaptation and resilience for coastal and riverine communities. This paper presents review of seaweed farms as an advanced nature-based mitigation approach. The paper also presents the result obtained from experiments conducted at RWTH Aachen University hydraulic lab on a model test of the wave damping system using seaweed as a nature-based solution to test the hypothesis. One result involving a system with two lines of seaweed revealed 15 percent wave damping. A soft engineering approach to designing future vegetated protection systems using seaweed as a nature-based solution can help existing coastal infrastructure design life and protect against climate-induced SLR rise and adaptation, coastal risk mitigation, ecosystem restoration, and blue bio-economic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0495.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Layered double hydroxide; Epoxy coatings; Corrosion protection mechanism
Online: 7 June 2023 (05:46:27 CEST)
In this work, nitrite intercalated CaAl-LDH was firstly prepared in this work. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) coupled with the energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) was used to characterize the morphology and element composition of the synthesized powder. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the chemical composition and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyze the structure. The nitrite release curve and the chloride concentration change curve were obtained to study the anion-exchange reaction. The corrosion protection effect of the CaAl-LDH loaded with nitrites towards the carbon steel was evaluated in 0.02 M NaCl solution by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Then the powder was added in the epoxy coating with a percentage of 2% (vs. epoxy resin). The coating morphology and roughness was evaluated by SEM and laser microscopy, and the corrosion protection effect was investigated by EIS in an immersion period of 21 d. Local electrochemical impedance spectra (LEIS) was used to characterize the corrosion development process in micro-corrosion sites. The corrosion product of the scratched area after salt spray exposure was analyzed by EDS and Raman spectroscopy. The corrosion protection mechanism of the CaAl-LDH loaded with nitrites was proposed based on the above experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1597.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Lightweight; Fire Resistant Board, Intumescent, Passive Fire Protection
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:37:19 CEST)
Using lightweight fire-rated board (LFRB) presents cost-effective opportunities for various passive fire protection measures. The aim of the project is to develop a LFRB with enhanced fire resistance, acoustic properties, and mechanical properties. These properties were determined using the Bunsen burner, furnace, energy dispersive X-Ray, impedance tube instrument, and Instron universal testing machine. To fabricate the LFRBs, vermiculite and perlite were blended with flame-retardant bind-ers, and four types of LFRBs were produced. A fire test was conducted to compare the fire-resistance performance of the LFRBs with a commercially available flame retardant board. The B2 prototype showed exceptional fire-resistant properties, with a temperature reduction of up to 73.0 °C as compared to the commercially available fire-rated magnesium board. Incorporating nano chicken eggshell into the specially formulated flame-retardant binder preserved the LFRBs’ structural integrity, enabling them to withstand fire for up to 120 minutes with an equilibrium temperature of 92.6 °C. This approach also provided an absorption coefficient of α = 2.0, a high flexural strength of 3.54 MPa, and effective flame retardancy properties with a low oxygen/carbon ratio of 2.60. These results make the LFRBs valuable for passive fire protection applications in the construction and building materials industry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0812.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: nature-based solution; seaweed; seagrass; platform; coastal protection
Online: 16 May 2023 (04:12:32 CEST)
One-fifth of the world’s population and critical infrastructures are near the coast and regions at high risk of sea level elevation. Climate change is expected to increase coastal extreme events, rising sea levels, and impact on ecosystem. This paper reviews coastal physical processes, wave and impacts, and the introduction of nature-based models for the mitigation of flooding, erosion, and recovery. Hard engineering like seawalls has been used to prevent, protect, and control water-based environmental forces with an extended impact on the land. A nature-based engineering solution, such as growing vegetation, is being adopted as a sustainable solution to help make existing technology live its design life and provide climate change adaptation and resilience for coastal and riverine communities. This paper presents applications of seaweed farms as an advanced nature-based mitigation approach. The result of the experiments conducted at RWTH Aachen University on wave damping of seaweed types and farming structures to validate the hypothesis will be presented in part B. A soft engineering approach to designing future vegetated protection systems using seaweed as a nature-based solution can help existing coastal infrastructure design life and protect against climate-induced SLR rise and adaptation, coastal risk mitigation, ecosystem restoration, and blue bio-economic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0261.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: wetlands; Interreg Italy-Croatia; governance; biodiversity; protection; participation
Online: 16 February 2023 (02:24:32 CET)
Wetlands are complex ecosystems, considered among the most productive environments of the world. They contain major biodiversity hotspots, providing the resources upon which countless species of plants and animals depend and they perform important environmental and economic functions. Wetlands reduce flooding events, improve water quality and represent a valuable cultural and natural heritage. It is estimated that 2/3 of Europe wetlands have disappeared since the beginning of the 20th Century, mainly lost through development processes which did not take their functions and values adequately into account. The European Directive (2000/60/EC) re-quires to foster an integrated approach for wetland management through collaborative governance processes. The Wetland Contract is a tool that has been developed and implemented to set the ground for voluntary-based commitments for the sustainable governance of water systems. Among the Mediterranean countries, Italy and Croatia count on a rich variety of coastal wetlands that, together with the plants and animals inhabiting and crossing them, constitute an extremely precious natural heritage. The aim of this paper is to present and discuss, whit a critical approach, the output of the Interreg Project CREW that, between 2018-21, contributed to the drafting of seven new Wetland Contracts.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0335.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Cloud Computing; Data Protection; Secure Communication; Middleware; Protocols
Online: 30 January 2023 (09:24:01 CET)
In recent years, Cloud Computing and Big Data have been considered the most attractive areas that are revolutionizing the IT world. Cloud Computing paradigm has recently appeared that allows running proprietary or difficult portable applications outside their original software environment on one or more virtual hardware platforms. Therefore, we are to developing such techniques which make it possible to secure communication between the communicating Cloud entities. These techniques must take into account several factors due to the data transmitted in this type of environment is proprietary and of significant size. Conventional data security techniques are not suitable for today's cloud usage. Hence, the main research of this thesis is to define an adaptable architecture with the aim to propose a scalable system that supports cloud services. We will define feasible security solutions dedicated to the Cloud computing context in order to robustly protect data stored in the Cloud. We are more precisely looking for working on NoSQL databases. We also intend to propose a secure solution based on the blockchain that has powerful features like decentralization, autonomy, security, reliability, and transparency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0254.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Insect pest control; Insect Resistance Management; Crop protection
Online: 18 October 2022 (07:27:52 CEST)
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a spore-forming bacterium that produces insecticidal proteins and other virulence factors and is considered one of the most successful bioinsecticides available to control pests in agriculture. Bt strains have been reported as endophyte or rhizospheric bacteria, but little is known about the implications of this property of Bt in crop protection. Here, we review if Bt can establish as an endophyte/rhizobacterium and evaluate if Bt as an endophyte/rhizobacterium can simultaneously act against different phytopathogens (fungi, bacteria, insects and viruses) plus promote plant growth. The implications of the proposed review will broaden our understanding of Bt as a versatile entomopathogen by exhibiting differential behavior depending on context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0204.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: time; space; motion; timelike curves; chronology protection conjecture
Online: 21 April 2022 (10:37:05 CEST)
In experimental physics, we understand time as the duration of material changes that run into space. This fact is the standpoint for our model of time-invariant space in which causality is only a principle and not a physical actuality, and entropy runs only in space and not in time. Time is merely a duration of entropy that is increasing in time-invariant space. Time is entering existence when measured by the observer. In time-invariant space, motion happens only in space and not in time which means that also in open timelike curves motion happens only in space and not in time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0311.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: biodiversity education; knowledge; perspective; biodiversity conservation; biodiversity protection
Online: 18 November 2021 (17:20:15 CET)
Rich biodiversity is one of the Philippines’ greatest assets. Unfortunately, there is a continuous decline in the diversity of flora and fauna across the world. This calls for the need to educate people, especially younger generations, to value and protect biodiversity and natural resources. The study aimed to assess the students’ extent of knowledge and identify their perspectives towards biodiversity and its protection and conservation. A total of 268 randomly selected students at Aurora State College of Technology Zabali Campus were involved in the study. Survey questionnaires were used to obtain data and information which were subjected to statistical tests. The students had a moderate knowledge level on biodiversity with a mean score of 6.65 out of 10 items (SD = 1.50). Their perspective on biodiversity was leaning toward its protection and conservation, with a mean score of 7.2 out of 10 items (SD = 1.29). Factors affecting the students’ knowledge were gender (p = .003) and academic department (p = 0.003). Females and those associated with the Department of Forestry and Environmental Sciences and Department of Industrial technology were found to have more knowledge than the others. Males, on the other hand, were found to have a more positive perspective towards biodiversity. Knowledge and perspective had a weak correlation with r = 0.39. Students were not well-aware, but were in support of the Philippines’ biodiversity-related laws, which could help shape their mindset and actions towards biodiversity conservation and protection. As an implication, the college administration must revisit the curricula of all degree programs and ensure that students from each degree program are environmentally educated, emphasizing biodiversity conservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0247.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Artisanal mining; Environment; Goldmining; Health; Safety; Self-protection
Online: 9 June 2021 (08:55:06 CEST)
The nature of Artisanal mining in Ghana exposes its workers to various levels of health, safety and environmental (HSE) threats. These miners are mostly liable for their own HSE state at work. In an attempt to understand the HSE dynamics of artisanal miners, this study sought to assess the effect of HSE conditions on self-protection at work by artisanal goldminers in Ghana. A nested binary logistic regression model was fitted to a cross sectional survey of 500 artisanal goldminers while controlling for compositional and contextual factors. Of the HSE conditions, only health (OR= 1.653, p<0.001) and safety conditions (OR= 1.935, p<0.001) were robust in predicting self-protection in all three models. Goldminers who reported good health and safety conditions were more likely to fully protect themselves at work as compared to their counterparts who reported poor health and safety conditions. For compositional factors, female goldminers were 84% less likely to protect themselves. Miners who had senior high (OR= 1.759, p<0.001) or tertiary education (OR= 1.875, p<0.001) were more likely to protect themselves at work as compared to those with no formal education. Likewise, miners who undertook routine medical checkups (OR= 2.533, p<0.001) and the most experienced miners (OR= 2.734, p<0.001) were more likely to protect themselves at work. Counterintuitively, miners who earned more monthly income ($174 and above) were less likely to protect themselves. At the contextual level, miners who worked in non-production departments (OR= 2.001, p<0.001) and miners who worked in the medium scale subsector (OR= 5.311, p<0.001) were more likely to protect themselves at work. To increase consciousness of self-protection in artisanal mining, there is the need for a national dialogue on how to improve HSE conditions and in the absence of legislation, the complexities in managing HSE in the sector needs to be decoupled to achieve fair and standard HSE conditions as championed by the World Health Organization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0288.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Adaptive Protection; Fault Detection; Microgrids; Directional Overcurrent Relay
Online: 11 February 2021 (16:19:02 CET)
In this research work, an adaptive scheme for the coordinated protection of AC Microgrids using directional overcurrent (DOCR) relays is presented. Protection of AC MGs is a complex and challenging issue due to the dynamic nature of the network including, a) its capability to reconfigure the modes of operation ranging from grid-connected to the islanded mode, c) bidirectional-power flow capability, and c) integration of intermittent renewable energy resources with real-time variations in the resource availability. Consequently, the fault current contributions may largely vary depending upon the incident conditions on the network. Conventional protection schemes, generally designed for radial networks, and unidirectional power flow from the source end to the load may either mal-operate or exhibit very poor performance, if not adapted according to the dynamic conditions of the network. To address this issue, a communication-based adaptive protection scheme capable to adapt its settings according to the generation resource availability and network configuration is presented in this work. The proposed scheme consists of an intelligent central protection unit (ICPU) capable to update the settings and communicate it to the individual relays based on the pre-calculated offline settings. The directional overcurrent relays employed in the scheme use two-stage settings, i.e. definite time and inverse definite minimum time characteristics for the effective coordination among the downstream and upstream relays. An adaptive algorithm for ICPU operation is presented and a case study is implemented for a modified IEEE 9-bus system using DigSilent Power factory. The results for various scenarios including, a) grid-connected mode of operation, b) islanded mode of operation, and c) variable distributed generation mode are obtained and compared to the static scheme, which validates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2020022
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: privacy; general data protection regulation; security; cloud security
Online: 2 April 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
On 25 May 2018, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)Article 17, the Right to Erasure (‘Right to be Forgotten’) came into force making it vital for organisations to identify, locate and delete all Personally Identifiable Information (PII) where a valid request is received from a data subject to erase their PII and the contractual period has expired. This must be done without undue delay and the organisation must be able to demonstrate reasonable measures were taken. Failure to comply may incur significant fines, not to mention impact to reputation. Many organisations do not understand their data, and the complexity of a hybrid cloud infrastructure means they do not have the resources to undertake this task. The variety of available tools are quite often unsuitable as they involve restructuring so there is one centralised data repository. This research aims to demonstrate compliance with GDPR’s Article 17 Right to Erasure (‘Right to be Forgotten’) is achievable in a Hybrid cloud environment by following a list of recommendations. However, 100% retrieval, 100% of time will not be possible, but we show that small organisations running an ad-hoc Hybrid cloud environment can demonstrate that reasonable measures were taken to be Right to Erasure (‘Right to be Forgotten’) compliant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0152.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: chlorophyll; carotenoids; methanol; photo-protection; phytoextraction; Portulaca oleracea
Online: 15 September 2019 (15:04:55 CEST)
The chlorophyll is one of the most important natural pigments used extensively in the food industry. Two important factors for the production of chlorophyll are the use of plants rich in chlorophyll and efficiency of extraction method. Present investigation was performed to compare the extraction of photosynthetic pigments by using solvents of different chemical nature. The purslane plants with different growth behavior viz. Scrollable and standing were grown under shade and sunshine stress condition. Different solvents including diethyl ether, 5% ethanol, pure acetone, 20% acetone, pure methanol and 10% methanol were used to extract chlorophyll and carotenoids from the purslane plant. The results indicated that stress, growth type and different solvents had a significant effect on the extraction of chlorophyll and carotenoids. Different trend was observed in extraction rate for chlorophylls and carotenoids. Among the solvents, pure methanol was the best for extraction of chl a. Methanol and acetone were appropriate solvents to achieve the highest amount of chlorophyll from plant tissues. Among different solvents, pure methanol for chl a, pure acetone and methanol for carotenoids were best solvent for purslane plant with a growing type scrollable of under shade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1134.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: gentrification; touristification; tourism in historic cities; heritage protection; Seville
Online: 17 November 2023 (04:33:10 CET)
Encouraged by the administration the gentrification process has been useful in economic terms for the reactivation of socio-cultural fabrics of historic urban spaces in decline. What was initially considered an advantage has led to the touristification of historic centres, and in turn to the alter-ation of their original use. In these settings, the demographic void caused by increasingly shunning local identity has combined with pressure from excessive tourism and the obsolescence of heritage protection bodies in charge of conservation. Given the crisis affecting the definitions of the current system, this study aims to review the envi-ronmental agents of heritage value in relation to the processes of touristification and gentrification. Data obtained from different methodologies are analysed using a multidisciplinary database, a model which enables the analysis of the relevant information from the different interacting fields. The case study focuses on the historic town centre of Seville specifically between 2015 and 2020. Elements are defined as indicators for these processes and the analysis of the case study will com-prise the main results of this research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0596.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: black poplar; thermal stability; wood protection; impregnation, surface properties
Online: 10 October 2023 (10:54:27 CEST)
The objective of this work was to improve the thermal stability, flame resistance and surface properties of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) wood via different impregnation methods. The impregnation method was employed through two distinct modalities: vacuum impregnation and immersion impregnation. Here, poplar wood was impregnated with calcium oxide solutions (1%, 3% and 5%). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed a shift in the typical peaks of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin depending on the impregnation method and solution ratio. Thermogravimetric analysis and the limiting oxygen index indicated that the samples impregnated with lime solutions exhibited higher thermal stability than the unimpregnated wood. In both impregnation methods caused a decrease water absorption and thickness swelling of the sample groups. Using a scanning electron microscope, the effect of the impregnation process on the structure of the wood was examined. In terms of surface properties, it was determined that the surface roughness value increased. On the contrary, it was observed that the contact angle value also increased. A significant difference emerged between the applied methods. In conclusion, the applied lime minerals are suitable substances to increase flame resistance and thermal stability of black poplar wood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1370.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: cone beam computed tomography; dosimetry; radiation protection; scattered radiation
Online: 20 July 2023 (08:37:30 CEST)
This study aimed to estimate scattered radiation and its spatial distribution around three Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) devices, in order to determine relatively safe positions for an operator to stand if needed to be inside the CBCT room. The following devices were tested: Morita Accuitomo (CBCT1), Newtom Giano HR (CBCT2), Newtom VGi (CBCT3). Scattered radiation measurements were performed using different kVp, mA and Field of View (FOV) options. An anthropomorphic phantom (NATHANIA) was placed inside the x-ray gantry to simulate clinical conditions. Scattered measurements were taken with the ionization chamber Inovision model 451P Victoreen once placed at fixed distances from each irradiation isocenter, away from the primary beam. A statistically significant (p<0.001) difference was found in the mean value of the scattered radiation estimations between the CBCT devices. Scattered radiation was reduced with a different rate for each CBCT device as distance was increased. For CBCT1 the reduction was 0.047μGy, for the CBCT2 0.036 μGy and 0.079 μGy for CBCT3, for every one meter away from the x-ray gantry. Therefore, at certain distances from the central x-ray, the scattered radiation was below the critical 1mGy. Consequently, an operator could stay inside the room accompanying the patient being scanned, if necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0407.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: pesticides; multiple residues; plant protection; monitoring results; compliance assessment
Online: 6 July 2023 (11:44:00 CEST)
As required by the EU legislation and the national risk management duties, the pesticide residues were determined by four specialized laboratories in 9,924 samples taken from 119 crops of economic importance and imported foodstuffs during 2017-2021 in Hungary. The screening method applied covered 622 pesticide residues as defined for enforcement purposes. The limit of detection ranged between 0.002-0.008 mg/kg. The 1.0% violation rate was lower than in the European Union for all commodities. No residue was detectable in 45.9% of the samples. For detailed analyses of the results, eight commodities (apple, cherry, grape, nectarine/peach, sweet peppers, and strawberry) were selected as they were analyzed over 195 samples and contained most frequently residues. Besides testing their conformity with national MRLs, applying 0.3MRL action limits for pre-export control, we found that 73% of the sampled lots would be compliant with ≥90% probability based on second independent sampling. Multiple residues (2-23) in one sample were detected in 36-50% of the tested lots. Noting the provisions of integrated pest management and the major pests and diseases of selected crops, normally 3-4, exceptionally 7-9 active ingredients of different mode of actions should be sufficient for their effective and economic protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0192.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: trademarks; data protection; artificial intelligence; image processing; trademark retrieval
Online: 2 June 2023 (11:37:01 CEST)
CNN-based off-the-shelf features have shown themselves as a good baseline for trademark retrieval. However, in recent years, the computer vision area was transitioning from CNNs to a new architecture – Vision Transformer. In this paper, we investigate the performance of off-the-shelf features extracted with vision transformers and explore the effects of pre, post-processing, and pre-training on big datasets. We propose a method of joint usage of global and local features, which leverages the best aspects of both approaches. Experimental results on METU Trademark Dataset show that off-the-shelf features extracted with ViT-based models outperform off-the-shelf features from CNN-based models. The proposed method achieves the mAP value of 31.23, surpassing previous state-of-the-art results. We assume that the proposed approach for the trademark similarity evaluation will allow one to improve the protection of such data with the help of artificial intelligence methods. Moreover, this approach will allow one to identify cases of unfair use of such data and form an evidence base for litigation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0420.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: conversational commerce; data protection; law of obligations of data
Online: 24 August 2022 (10:55:06 CEST)
The possibilities and reach of social networks are increasing, the designs are becoming more diverse, and the ideas more visionary. Most recently, the former company “Facebook” announced the creation of a metaverse. With these technical possibilities, however, the danger of fraudsters is also growing. Using social bots, consumers are increasingly influenced on such platforms and business transactions are brought about through communication, i.e. conversational commerce. Minors or the elderly are particularly susceptible. This technical development is accompanied by a legal one: it is permitted by the Digital Services Directive and the Sale of Goods Directive to demand the provision of data as consideration for the sale of digital products. This raises legal problems at the level of the law of obligations and data protection law, whose regulations are intended to protect the aforementioned groups of individuals. This protection becomes even more important the more manipulative consumers are influenced by communicative bots. We show that there is a lack of knowledge about what objective data value can have in business transactions. Sufficient transparency of an objective data value can maintain legal protection, especially of vulnerable groups, and ensure the purpose of the laws.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Pig; Porcine Circovirus 2; ORF2 capsid protein; vaccine; protection.
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:01:17 CEST)
Porcine Circovirus 2 (PCV2) vaccines are based on either inactivated whole virion, or recombinant ORF2 capsid protein assembled into Virus-like Particles (VLPs). No data are available instead about the immunizing properties of free, non-assembled capsid protein. To investigate this issue, ORF2 of a reference PCV2b strain was expressed in a Baculovirus-based expression system without assembly into VLPs. The free purified protein was formulated into an oil vaccine at three distinct Ag payloads: 10.8 / 3.6 / 1.2 micrograms /dose. Each dose was injected intramuscularly into five, 37-day old piglets, carefully matched for maternally-derived antibody. Five control piglets were injected with sterile PBS in oil adjuvant. Twenty-eight days later, all the pigs were challenged intranasally with 200,000 TCID50 of PCV2b strain DV6503. After challenge infection, all the pigs remained in good clinical conditions. The recombinant vaccine did not induce significant antibody and PCV2-specific IFN-gamma responses. ELISPOT and lymphocyte proliferation data confirmed poor induction of cell-mediated immunity. In terms of PCV2 viremia, there was no significant difference between vaccinated and control animals. The histological data indicated the absence of a detectable viral load and of PCVAD lesions in both vaccinated and control animals, as well as of histiocytes and multi-nucleated giant cells. We conclude that free, non-assembled ORF2 capsid protein does not induce protective immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0577.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Cloud Computing; Health Systems; Security; Privacy; Data Protection; GDPR
Online: 28 October 2020 (10:00:55 CET)
Currently, there are several challenges that Cloud-based health-care Systems, around the world, are facing. The most important issue is to ensure security and privacy or in other words to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of the data. Although the main provisions for data security and privacy were present in the former legal framework for the protection of personal data, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) introduces new concepts and new requirements. In this paper, we present the main changes and the key challenges of the General Data Protection Regulation, and also at the same time we present how the Cloud-based Security Policy methodology proposed in  could be modified in order to be compliant with the GDPR and how Cloud environments can assist developers to build secure and GDPR compliant Cloud-based health Systems. The major concept of this paper is, primarily, to facilitate Cloud Providers in comprehending the framework of the new General Data Protection Regulation and secondly, to identify security measures and security policy rules for the protection of sensitive data in a Cloud-based Health System, following our risk-based Security Policy Methodology that assesses the associated security risks and takes into account different requirements from patients, hospitals, and various other professional and organizational actors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0487.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: CeO2-NPs; Musa sapientum; A549; MTT assay UV protection
Online: 21 July 2020 (12:44:32 CEST)
In recent years, the nanoparticles applications have been well recognized in various fields. It is known that nanoparticles as an active ingredient in sunscreens are widely used. Zinc oxide and titanium oxide nanoparticles are common nanoparticles utilized in sunscreens. In this study, we aimed to suggest new nanoparticles for this purpose. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-NPs) were synthesized by using Musa sapientum fruit peel extract. Synthesized nanoparticles were identified through Raman, Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Field Energy Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX). The results showed that size of synthesized nanoparticles are in range 4-13 nm. The cytotoxic activity of synthesized nanoparticles on lung (A549) cancer cell line was performed through MTT assay. The results showed that synthesized nanoparticles are non-toxicity against A549 cell line to below 500 μg/mL of nanoparticles concentration. The Sun protection factor (SPF) was estimated ~ 40 for synthesized CeO2-NPs. So, synthesized nanoparticles can be a good option for use in the cosmetics industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0368.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV2; personal protection devices; snorkel masks; safety test
Online: 30 June 2020 (07:43:58 CEST)
Introduction: The SARS-CoV2 pandemic has led to an worldwide shortage of Personal Protection Devices (PPD) for medical and paramedical personnel. Adaptation of commercially available snorkel masks to serve as full face masks has been proposed. Even not formally approved as PPD, they are publicized on social media as suitable for this use. Concerns about actual protection levels and risk of carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation while wearing them for extended periods made us perform a systematic testing of various brands, in order to verify whether they are as safe and effective as claimed. Methods: A ‘fit’ test was performed, analogous to gas mask testing. Respiratory safety was evaluated by measuring end-tidal CO2 and oxygen saturation while wearing the masks in rest and during physical exercise. Masks were tested with 3D adaptors to mount regular bacterial-viral ventilator filters when available, or with snorkel openings covered with N95/FFP2 cloth. Results: Modified masks performed reasonably well on the fit test, comparable to regular N95/FFP2 masks. Not all ventilator filters are equally protective. For all masks, a small initial increase in end-tidal CO2 was noted, remaining within physiological limits. Masks with specific adaptors (3D printed or provided by the manufacturer) are safer, have more flexibility and reliability than makeshift adaptations. Conclusions: These masks can offer benefit as a substitute for complete protective gear as they are easier to don and remove and offer full-face protection. They may be more comfortable to wear for extended periods. Proper selection of mask size, fit testing, quality of 3D printed parts and choice of filter are important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0266.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: cyclic nucleotide monophosphate; bio-reversible protection; acyloxybenzyl phosphate ester
Online: 12 October 2018 (11:32:45 CEST)
Adenine nucleotide (AN) 2nd messengers such as 3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are central elements of intracellular signaling, but many details of underlying processes remain still elusive. Like all nucleotides, cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs) are net-negatively charged at physiologic pH which limits their applicability in cell-based settings. Thus, many cellular assays rely on sophisticated techniques like microinjection or electroporation. This setup is not feasible for medium- to high-throughput formats, and the mechanic stress that cells are exposed to raises the probability of interfering artefacts or false-positives. Here, we present a short and flexible chemical route yielding membrane-permeable, bio-reversibly masked cNMPs for which we employed the octanoyloxybenzyl (OB) group. We further show hydrolysis studies on chemical stability and enzymatic activation, and present results of real-time assays, where we used cAMP and Ca2+ live cell imaging to demonstrate high permeability and prompt intracellular conversion of some selected masked cNMPs. Consequently, our novel OB-masked cNMPs constitute valuable precursor-tools for non-invasive studies on intracellular signaling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0165.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: infectious bronchitis virus; protection; co-expressing; subunit vaccine; challenge
Online: 10 May 2018 (12:02:08 CEST)
Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the causative agent of infectious bronchitis, which causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. It is imperative to develop safe and efficient candidate vaccines to control IBV infection. In the current study, recombinant baculoviruses co-expressing S1 and N proteins, mono-expressing S1 or N proteins alone of IBV were constructed and prepared into subunit vaccines rHBM-S1-N, rHBM-S1 and rHBM-N. The levels of immune protection of these subunit vaccines were evaluated by inoculating specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens at 14 days of age, boosting with the same dose 14 days later, and following challenge with a virulent GX-YL5 strain of IBV 14 days post-booster (dpb). The commercial vaccine strain H120 was used as a control. The IBV-specific antibody levels as well as the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were detected within 28 days post-vaccination (dpv). The morbidity, mortality, and re-isolation of virus from the tracheas and kidneys of challenged birds were evaluated at 5 days post-challenge (dpc). The results showed that the IBV-specific antibody levels and the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte in rHBM-S1-N group were higher than those of rHBM-S1 and rHBM-N groups, especially the cellular immunity response. At 5 dpc, the mortality, morbidity and virus re-isolation rate of rHBM-S1-N were slightly higher than those of H120 group, but were lower than those of rHBM-S1 group and rHBM-N group. The present study demonstrated that the protection of recombinant baculovirus co-expressing S1 and N proteins was better than that of recombinant baculoviruses mono-expressing S1 or N protein alone. Thus, the recombinant baculovirus co-expressing S1 and N proteins could serve as a potential IBV vaccine and this demonstrates that the bivalent subunit vaccine including the S1 and N proteins might be a strategy for the development of an IBV subunit vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: cancer; carotenoid; chemoprevention; Cucurbita; cytotoxicity; DNA-protection; tumor cells
Online: 11 May 2017 (17:31:47 CEST)
Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo) is a seasonal vegetable with high nutritional and medical value. Many useful properties of this fruit are attributed to its bioactive compounds. Zucchini fruits (“Yellow” and “Light Green” varieties) and four distinctive components (lutein, β-carotene, zeaxanthin and dehydroascorbic acid)were selected. Firstly it was determinated the lutein, β-carotene, zeaxanthin and dehydroascorbic acid content in these fruits and then, in order to measure the safety and suitability of their use different assays were carried out: (i) Genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity tests to determine the safety and DNA-protection against hydrogen peroxide; (ii) cytotoxicity and (iii) DNA fragmentation assay to evaluate the proapoptotic effect. Results showed that: (i) all the substances were non-genotoxic, (ii) all the substances were antigenotoxic except the highest concentration of lutein, (iii) “Yellow” Zucchini epicarp and mesocarp exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity (IC50 > 0.1 mg/mL and 0.2 mg/mL, respectively) and iv) “Light Green” Zucchini skin and pulp induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation . To sump up, Zucchini fruit could play a positive role in human health and nutrition due to this fruit and its components were safe, able to inhibit significantly the H2O2-induced damage and exhibit antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic properties toward HL60 tumour cells. The information generated from this research should take into account to select potential accessions for breeding programs purposes.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: Asteroid Mining, Planetary Exploration, Utilitarianism, Environment, Planetary Protection, Exploitation, Space
Online: 10 November 2023 (07:27:55 CET)
The expansion of mankind in Space will eventually lead to the need for resource extraction on places different from Earth. For the few who would succeed, the monetary gains from space mining are promising but inevitably, such activities will bring about substantial consequences to the celestial bodies they are conducted on and to the political-economical scene of the parties involved. Thus, a new set of moral interrogatives needs to be dealt with. This paper reflects, from a utilitarian perspective, on whether it is ethical or not to exploit extra-terrestrial resources and tries to produce moral norms on the matter. The main research question is analyzed with respect to three crucial aspects: environmental consequences, interaction with possible forms of life and the political-economical setting around resource extraction in space. Reflections, argumentations, and claims are backed up or confronted with already existing theories and positions of other authors. Altogether, we concluded that the extraction and usage of the resources of another celestial body is ethical only when: 1) it is regulated enough to avoid the destruction of naturalistic, aesthetically or culturally valuable environments; 2) it does not interfere (or at least, it tries to deal) with existing or possible future forms of life, which ought to be protected with ad-hoc legislation; 3) it is regulated to prevent tensions that would likely arise between countries that want to access specific resources-rich sites, issuing laws able to avoid conflicts and a possible economic collapse. To summarize, we identified the concept of responsible innovation as the key director for future policies that will need to be established when space resource extraction becomes a reality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1344.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: personal information management systems; Solid; semantic web; data protection; consent
Online: 23 October 2023 (11:14:44 CEST)
Personal Information Management Systems (PIMS) are acquiring a prominent role in the data economy by promoting services that help individuals to have more control over the processing of their personal data, in line with the European data protection law. One of the highlighted solutions in this area is Solid, a new protocol that is decentralizing the storage of data, through the usage of interoperable Web standards and semantic vocabularies, to empower its users to have more control over the processing of data by agents and applications. However, to fulfill this vision and gather widespread adoption, Solid needs to be aligned with the law governing the processing of personal data in Europe, the main piece of legislation being the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). To assist with this process, we analyze the current efforts to introduce a policy layer in the Solid ecosystem, in particular, related to the challenge of obtaining consent for processing personal data, focusing on the GDPR. Furthermore, we investigate if, in the context of using personal data for biomedical research, consent can be expressed in advance, discuss the conditions for valid consent and how it can be obtained in this decentralized setting, namely through the matching of privacy preferences, set by the user, with requests for data and whether this can signify informed consent. Finally, we discuss the technical challenges of an implementation that caters to the previously-identified legal requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1274.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Characeae; Chara; Tolypella; Dagestan; Caucasus; Caspian Sea; DNA barcoding; protection
Online: 19 July 2023 (08:37:11 CEST)
To fill in the blanks for charophytes in the Caucasus to improve our knowledge of species distribution areas in Eurasia, a field survey and study of available specimens from Dagestan (North Caucasus, Russia) was conducted based on morphological observation and molecular genetic analysis. Seventeen new localities for six Chara species and one Tolypella species, with six new species and one new genus for the region studied, and one new species for the Caspian Sea region were found. Some species records changed the outline or filled in the gaps in the species distribution area. The presence of species with a distribution area mainly in the centre of Eurasia (C. globata, C. neglecta) with mainly Mediterranean – Middle East species (C. gymnophylla) is notable for this region, as well as for other studied regions of the Caucasus having a combination of species with different distribution areas. The frequent occurrence of C. gymnophylla points is similar to that in the Mediterranean region and the Middle East. Small brackish waterbodies at the coast of the Caspian Sea, freshwater mountain rivers, small waterbodies associated with them, and water reservoirs are the main habitats of charophytes in the regions. The habitat preference and distribution in the Caucasus allowed suggestion some species for protection. The absence of endemic species among charophytes from Dagestan and Caucasus contrasts with the flora of terrestrial magnoliophytes, which have a large number of endemic species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1055.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: change at the grassroots; community-led initiatives; local environmental protection
Online: 17 July 2023 (07:25:41 CEST)
Community-led initiatives have emerged as powerful drivers of change in the realm of local environmental protection. This qualitative study, conducted in Acmac, Iligan City in 2020, delves into the motivations, strategies, challenges, and outcomes of community-led initiatives, shedding light on their transformative potential. Through interviews, participant observations, and document analysis, the study explores the themes of community empowerment, collaborative decision-making, environmental justice, sustainable practices, and policy advocacy. The findings reveal the significance of bottom-up approaches, emphasizing the role of community engagement in achieving environmental sustainability. The study contributes to the literature by filling gaps in understanding and providing insights into the dynamics and effectiveness of community-led initiatives. The implications of the findings extend beyond the local context, highlighting the need for inclusive environmental practices and policy frameworks. By fostering community empowerment and collaborative action, this research sets the stage for future research and the promotion of community-led initiatives worldwide.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0595.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: synthesis, isoamyl (E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylate; sun protection factor
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:10:01 CEST)
Isoamyl (E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylate (1) was obtained 95% yield by 2-methyl-6-nitrobenzoic anhydride (MNBA)/4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)-catalyzed reaction at room temperature for 190 minutes in dichloromethane. The structure of isoamyl (E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylate (1) was established by NMR, FTIR, and the high resolution of mass spectroscopies. In vitro sun protection factor evaluation exhibited value of 37.10 ± 0.03 which indicates that isoamyl (E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylate (1) as a sunscreen agent with high protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0293.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Child protection, social work, participation, child abuse, inequalities, cultural capital
Online: 16 December 2022 (03:29:14 CET)
Children’s right to participation in child protection decision-making is supported by moral imperatives and international conventions. The fragmented implementation of this right reflects an already-conflicted discursive terrain that attempts to incorporate both children’s agency and their need for protection. This article uses two key theoretical lenses to further examine this terrain: child welfare inequalities and cultural capital. These theories draw attention to how social inequities and cultural capital relating to culture and class affect how participation plays out. An unintended consequence of constructing children within a traditional liberal account of rights, within neoliberal and ‘child focussed’ policy paradigms, is the reduction of an acknowledgment of the culturally contested nature of an individualistic construction of children, excising children from their social backgrounds and promoting the notion of a ‘universal child’. With a particular focus on class, culture and professional paradigms, I argue that the ways children’s views are elicited, the content of those views and how they are interpreted, become subject to a set of professional assumptions that tend to take little cognisance of the social backround of children, including norms relating to class, ethinicity and the oppressive structural relations relating to those two factors. This process is shored up with concepts such as attachment theory, the ‘adultification’ of children of colour, the diminishing of Indigenous concepts of children and childhood, and the pre-eminence of the ‘concerted cultivation’ middle class parenting style. The child’s cultural worldview and manner of expressing it may clash with professional cultures that emphasise an ability for verbal expression, independence, and entitlement when negotiating preferences with representatives of powerful social institutions such as child protection systems. Many children may not comply with this expectation due to both cultural and class socialisation processes, and the histories of the oppressive functions of child protection systems. The unspoken power of child protection organisations that must engage in constant translation of children’s cultural capital to ensure participation, may instead better serve children’s participation aims by devolving authority to affected communities. Communities reflecting children’s own, may be better able to offer recognition to children and enable their participation more effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0102.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; pandemic; DNA vaccine; immunity; protection
Online: 8 October 2022 (03:02:18 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has caused more than 600 million cases and over 6 million deaths worldwide. Vaccination has been the main strategy used to contain the spread of the virus, and to avoid hospitalizations and deaths. Currently, there are two mRNA-based and one adenovirus vectored vaccines approved and available for use in the U.S. population. The versatility, low cost and rapid-to-manufacture attributes of DNA vaccines are important advantages over other platforms. However, DNA vaccination must meet higher efficiency levels for use in humans. Importantly, in vivo DNA delivery combined with electroporation (EP) has been successfully used in the veterinary field. Here we evaluated the safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a novel linear SARS-CoV-2 DNA vaccine candidate for delivered by intramuscular injection followed by electroporation (Vet-ePorator™) in ferrets. The results demonstrated that the linear SARS-CoV-2 DNA vaccine candidate did not cause unexpected side effects, and was able to elicit neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses using a low dose of the linear DNA construct in prime-boost regimen, and significantly reduced shedding of infectious SARS-CoV-2 through oral and nasal secretions in a ferret model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0539.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: concrete protection; infrared detection; image processing; cluster analysis; uniformity evaluation
Online: 23 July 2021 (11:02:54 CEST)
With the continuous development of urbanization and industrialization in the world, concrete is widely used in various engineering constructions as an engineering material. However, the consequent problem of durability of concrete structures is also becoming increasingly prominent. As an important additional measures, protective coating can effectively improve the durability of concrete performance. Moreover, the uniformity of the concrete surface coating will directly affect its protective effect. Therefore, we propose a nondestructive inspection and evaluation method of coating uniformity based on infrared imaging and cluster analysis for concrete surface coating uniformity detection and evaluation. Based on the obtained infrared images, a series of processing and analysis of the images were carried out using MATLAB software to obtain the characteristics of the infrared images of concrete surface. Finally, by extracting the temperature distribution data of the pixel points on the concrete surface, an evaluation method of concrete surface coating uniformity based on a combination of cluster analysis and hierarchical analysis was established. The evaluation results show that the determination results obtained by this method are consistent with the actual situation. This study has a positive contribution to the testing of concrete surface coating uniformity and its evaluation.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0141.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; pneumococcal vaccine; vaccination; cross-reactivity; protection; molecular mimicry; CRM197; rubella vaccine
Online: 4 September 2020 (10:45:26 CEST)
Various studies indicate that vaccination, especially with pneumococcal vaccines, protects against symptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and death. This paper explores the possibility that pneumococcal vaccines in particular, but perhaps other vaccines as well, contain antigens that might be cross-reactive with SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Comparison of the glycosylation structures of SARS-CoV-2 with the polysaccharide structures of pneumococcal vaccines yielded no obvious similarities. However, while pneumococcal vaccines are primarily composed of capsular polysaccharides, some are conjugated to CRM197, a modified diphtheria toxin, and all contain about three percent protein contaminants, including the pneumococcal surface proteins PsaA, PspA and probably PspC. All of these proteins have very high degrees of similarity, using very stringent criteria, with several SARS-CoV-2 proteins including the spike protein, membrane protein and replicase 1a. CRM197 is also present in Hib and meningitis vaccines. Equivalent similarities were found at lower rates, or were completely absent, among the proteins in diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, and poliovirus vaccines. Notably, PspA and PspC are highly antigenic and new pneumococcal vaccines based on them are currently in human clinical trials so that their effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 disease is easily testable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0272.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Chinese pyramids; Han dynasty; Feng-Shui; protection of ancient landscapes
Online: 24 December 2018 (10:48:36 CET)
The so-called “Chinese pyramids” are huge burial mounds covering the tombs of the Emperors of the Western Han dynasty. If we include also the mounds of the members of the royal families, these monuments sum up to more than 40, scattered throughout the western and the southern outskirts of modern Xi'an. They are mostly unexcavated and poorly known although, taken together, they form a fascinating sacred landscape, which was conceived as a perennial witness of one of the most magnificent Chinese dynasties. This sacred landscape is today encroached by the frenetic urban development of the Xi’an urban area. We discuss and elaborate here some of the results of a recent, new satellite-imagery survey of these monuments, highlighting the aspects which may contribute to solutions for a sustainable and compatible development within this important ancient landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0278.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Sustainable space tourism; economic development; environmental protection; education intervention; Chinese residents
Online: 5 December 2023 (15:19:38 CET)
Space tourism began in 2001 and became popular in 2021 because of commercial operations. With the development of space technology and commercialization, like re-launchable rockets to travel to space in recent years, it has gradually entered the era of space. However, the space industry causes massive emissions, inducing some opposition to its development. It is essential to investigate the attitude of residents toward space tourism and balance the pros and cons of sustainability. Quantitative analysis was adapted to test two models based on duality theory. The data were obtained from 284 samples from various regions of China and analyzed using the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results show that the two-factor model of economic development conflicted with environmental protection. However, study two indicates that educational interventions can facilitate sustainable space tourism because they mediate the relationship between economic and environmental factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0134.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: anti-swelling efficiency; citric acid; mechanical properties; thermal treatment; wood protection
Online: 4 September 2023 (08:27:43 CEST)
Modification of Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris L.) with heterocyclic compounds, imidazole and succinimide, was investigated. Pressure-impregnation with aqueous solutions containing imidazole, imidazole + citric acid, succinimide, succinimide + citric acid, and citric acid + sorbitol (CIOL®) at 5%, 10%, and 15% solid content was followed by oven-curing at 220 °C for 1 hour. Mass changes during treatment steps, bending properties, and anti-swelling efficiency (ASE) were examined. Results indicate that solid concentrations within the range of 5% to 10% were optimal. Results seem to show there are two differing mechanisms in the modification of imidazole and succinimide, respectively. Mass loss due to the heat treatment was highest in imidazole-treated specimens, whereas it remained low and concentration-independent in succinimide-treated specimens. ASE after three cycles reached 31% for imidazole-treated specimens and improved to 38% with the addition of citric acid. For succinimide, ASE increased from 17% to 41%. Bending properties generally showed improvement, except for succinimide + citric acid and CIOL®, which displayed a reduced modulus of rupture. Chemical analyses are warranted to fully understand the reaction mechanisms of the treatments. Imidazole treatment's positive effects are suggested to stem from a thermal reaction between the chemical and wood, indicated by substantial mass loss during leaching and specimen darkening. Succinimide and citric acid might exhibit polymerization with each other and wood components, akin to the CIOL® process. Further research should delve into reaction mechanisms and the impact of imidazole and succinimide on biological durability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0071.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; Influenza virus; Heterologous protection; Recombinant vaccine; T cell immunity
Online: 2 August 2023 (02:11:41 CEST)
Current COVID-19 vaccines can effectively reduce disease severity and hospitalisation; however, they are not considerably effective in preventing infection and transmission. In this context, mucosal vaccines are pertinent to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and spread. In this study, we generated a replication-competent recombinant chimeric influenza A virus (IAV) expressing the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 prototype in the C-terminus of the neuraminidase (NA) of A/Puerto Rico/08/1934 H1N1 (PR8). The remaining seven segments from A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN) were named PR8NARBD/WSN. We observed that the recombinant virus with the WSN backbone demonstrated improved expression of NA and RBD. A single intranasal dose of PR8NARBD/WSN in mice generated robust mucosal immunity, neutralising antibodies, cellular immunity, and tissue-resident memory T cells specific to SARS-CoV-2 and IAV. Importantly, immunisation with PR8NARBD/WSN viruses effectively protected mice against lethal challenges with H1N1, H3N2 IAV, and SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant and significantly reduced lung viral loads. Overall, our research demonstrates the promising potential of PR8NARBD/WSN as an attractive vaccine against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and influenza A virus infections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2157.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: algae biostimulants; sustainable agriculture; microalgae; crop nutrition; biofertiliser; crop protection products
Online: 29 June 2023 (13:47:40 CEST)
In order to ensure food security worldwide in the face of current climatic changes, a higher quality and quantity of crops is necessary to sustain the growing human population. By developing a sustainable circular economy and biorefinery approaches, we can move from a petroleum-based to a bio-based economy. Plant biostimulants have long been considered an important source of plant growth stimulants in agronomy and agro-industries with both macroalgae (seaweeds) and microalgae (microalgae). There has been extensive exploration of macroalgae biostimulants. A lack of research and high production costs have constrained the commercial implementation of microalgal biostimulants, despite their positive impact on crop growth, development and yields. The current knowledge on potential biostimulatory compounds, key sources and their quantitative information from algae is summarized in the present review. Our goal is to provide a brief overview of the potential for microalgal biostimulants to improve crop production and quality. A number of key aspects are discussed, including the biostimulant effects caused by microalgae extracts, as well as the feasibility and potential for cocultures and coapplication with other biostimulants and biofertilizers. This article also discusses the current knowledge, recent developments and achievements in extraction techniques, types of applications, timings of applications. Ultimately, this review highlights the potential for microalgal biostimulants for sustainable agricultural practices, the algal biochemical components contributing to these traits, and finally bottlenecks and involved prospects in commercializing microalgal biostimulants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0399.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: scuba diving; volunteers; marine environmental protection; mediating effects; environmentally responsible behavior
Online: 6 June 2023 (07:49:27 CEST)
Volunteer scuba divers have become indispensable stakeholders in marine environmental protection, as their educational knowledge and environmental awareness create environmentally responsible attitudes and behaviors, which are the key elements to promote the sustainable development of marine environments. This study used the C-A-B model to examine the relationship between environmental knowledge, environmental sensitivity, destination social responsibility, and environmentally responsible behaviors of volunteer scuba divers. It also explored the mediating effects of destination social responsibility and first-time and repeat volunteers. In order to achieve the research purpose, this study adopted quantitative research to verify the research structure, proposed the hypotheses and prepared a questionnaire with reference to relevant previous studies. A total of 238 Taiwan marine volunteer scuba divers were selected as the subjects by intentional sampling, and the effective questionnaire recovery rate is 92.9%. Structural equation was used to verify the model of environmentally responsible behaviors of volunteer scuba divers, as based on the C-A-B model. This study found that environmental knowledge had a significant impact on destination social responsibility, and destination social responsibility had a significant impact on environmentally responsible behaviors. Destination social responsibility also had the effect of complete mediation on the model. In addition, the first-time and repeat volunteers had a significant mediating effect on the causal relationship between environmental knowledge and environmentally responsible behaviors, as well as between environmental sensitivity and environmentally responsible behaviors. The explanatory power of the overall model on the environmentally responsible behaviors of volunteer scuba divers is 69.0%, and their knowledge, sense of responsibility, experience, and level of involvement can be regarded as the determinants of their environmentally responsible behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0411.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Choline; Citrus; method; analysis; decoction; Zhishi; Zhiqiao; effect; cardiovascular protection; uterus
Online: 23 March 2023 (08:36:04 CET)
Four Chinese herbs Zhishi, Zhiqiao, Qingpi and Chenpi from Citrus genus were widely used for treating various cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases. Although many pharmacological functions of these herb decoctions can be clarified from the bioactivities of identified ingredients, some of them remain confusing. To clarify the reasons of those confusing functions, depending on the extended structure-activity relationships of cholinergic and anti-cholinergic agents, here a simple method for quickly discovering possible choline analogs was established using a specific TLC method, and then stachydrine and choline were first identified from these Citrus herb decoctions based on their NMR and HRMS data. After this, two TLCS methods were first established respectively for the quantitatively analyses of stachydrine and choline, and the contents of both two ingredients and synephrine in 39 samples were determined using the valid TLCS and HPLC methods, respectively. The results showed the contents of stachydrine were 2.4 times to those of synephrine in Zhiqiao while about 1/3 to 2/3 in Zhishi, Qingpi and Chenpi. Simultaneously, the contents of stachydrine, choline and synephrine in these herbs present similar changing trends along with the delay of harvest time. However, the contents of synephrine decrease most rapidly, while those of stachydrine decrease most slowly. Based on these above, comparing with the pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetics reported of stachydrine and synephrine, it indicated that stachydrine and synephrine can be considered as a pair of bioactive equilibrists, especially in the cardio-cerebrovascular protection from these citrus herbs. Simultaneously, it confirmed that stachydrine should play an important role in the pharmacological functions, especially in dual-directionally regulating the uterus and various beneficial effects on cardio-cerebrovascular system, kidney and liver, of these citrus herbs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0011.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Malthusian theory; Population growth; Species protection index; Sustainability; Wetland area size
Online: 1 June 2022 (09:55:14 CEST)
The ongoing exponential growth of human population poses a risk to sustainable development goals (SDGs). Unless we understand the drivers of this growth and inform policy development accordingly, SDGs would remain a dream. One of the old theories of population growth known as the Malthusian theory predicts that resource availability drives population growth to a certain time when population growth outrun resource availability, leading to all sort of crises known as Malthusian crisis. Although the link between economic growth and population has been widely investigated while testing the theory, little is known about environmental and social factors po-tentially driving population growth. Here, because of various crises of our time recalling the Malthusian crisis, we revisited the theory by fitting structural equation models to environmental, social and economic data collected over 30-year period in South Africa. None of the social varia-bles tested predicts population growth. Instead, we found that biodiversity (species protection index) correlates positively with population growth. Biodiversity provides various resources through ecosystem goods and services to human, thus supporting population growth as pre-dicted in the Malthusian theory. However, we also found that this population growth may lead to conservation conflict as we found that biodiversity habitat (wetland area) correlates negatively with population growth, thus raising the compromising effect of population growth on life on earth. What’s more, we found a significant link between economic growth measured as GDP and population growth, further supporting the Malthusian prediction. Overall, our study re-affirms the value of biodiversity to human and suggests that the Malthusian theory should continuously be tested with predictors other than economic.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Drug-induced hearing loss; cochlea; outer hair cells; hearing protection; SIRT3
Online: 9 August 2021 (07:50:36 CEST)
A single paragraph of about 200 words maximum. For research articles, abstracts should give a pertinent overview of the work. We strongly encourage authors to use the following style of structured abstracts, but without headings: (1) Background: Place the question addressed in a broad context and highlight the purpose of the study; (2) Methods: briefly describe the main methods or treatments applied; (3) Results: summarize the article's main findings; (4) Conclusions: indicate the main conclusions or interpretations. The abstract should be an objective representation of the article and it must not contain results that are not presented and substantiated in the main text and should not exaggerate the main conclusions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0419.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Resveratrol; Cardiovascular disease; Bioavailability; Diet; COVID-19; Resveratrol carriers; Cardiovascular protection
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:00:17 CET)
Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced by many plants as a defense mechanism against stress-inducing conditions. The richest dietary sources of resveratrol are berries and grapes, their juices and wines. Good bioavailability of resveratrol is not reflected in its high biological activity in vivo because of resveratrol isomerization and its poor solubility in aqueous solutions. Proteins, cyclodextrins and nanomaterials have been explored as innovative delivery vehicles for resveratrol to overcome this limitation. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated beneficial effects of resveratrol in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Main beneficial effects of resveratrol intake are cardioprotective, anti-hypertensive, vasodilatory, anti-diabetic, and improvement of lipid status. As resveratrol can alleviate the numerous factors associated with CVD, it has potential as a functional supplement to reduce COVID-19 illness severity in patients displaying poor prognosis due to cardio-vascular complications. Resveratrol was shown to mitigate the major pathways involved in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 including regulation of the renin-angiotensin system and expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, stimulation of immune system and downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines release. Therefore, several studies already have anticipated potential implementation of resveratrol in COVID-19 treatment. Regular intake of resveratrol rich diet, or resveratrol-based complementary medicaments, may contribute to a healthier cardio-vascular system, prevention and control of CVD, including COVID-19 disease related complications of CVD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0527.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Toxoplasmosis; Toxoplasma gondii; tachyzoite; antiparasitic effect; dehydroepiandrosterone; DHEA; proteomic profile; protection
Online: 23 February 2021 (15:55:27 CET)
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the apicomplexa protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. This disease is a health burden, mainly in pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has proved to be an important molecule that could drive resistance against a variety of infections, including intracellular parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanozoma cruzi, among others. However, to date it has not been explored the role of DHEA on T. gondii. In here, we demonstrated for the first time the toxoplasmicidal effect of DHEA on extracellular tachyzoites. Ultrastructural analysis of treated parasites showed that DHEA alters the cytoskeleton structures, leading to the loss of the organelle structure and organization, as well as the loss of the cellular shape. In vitro treatment with DHEA reduces the viability of extracellular tachyzoites and passive invasion process. 2D SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that in the presence of the hormone a progesterone receptor membrane component (PGRMC) with a cytochrome b5 family heme/steroid binding domain-containing protein was expressed, while the expression of proteins that are essential for motility and virulence was highly reduced. Finally, in vivo DHEA treatment induced a reduction of parasitic load in male, but not in female mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0496.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: power system protection; renewable energy sources; fault elimination; power system security
Online: 23 October 2020 (15:37:19 CEST)
In the development of power systems it is indicated very often, that transformation of power systems should be carried out in accordance with the idea of energy democracy. This will develop energy communities, that are trying to meet energy needs by using local renewable generation sources. This may result with a temporary low load on the MV lines connecting the community grid and the power system. Such state may cause incorrect operation of power protection systems. This can cause an extended protection operation time, due to decision algorithms inactivity at low values of measurement currents. Therefore, the detailed MV lines overcurrent digital protection model and a dynamic model of the power network were developed. The simulation results are showing that the settings of the parameters activating the protection decision algorithms affect their operation time in dynamic conditions. The conclusion is that the development of the power protection automatics must be carried out in the same time (preferably in advance) with the change of the power system operation model. This is very important for future power systems with high penetration energy communities and renewable generation sources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0330.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Data Privacy; Mobile devices; Environment Privacy; General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).
Online: 15 July 2020 (09:30:42 CEST)
The mobile devices caused a constant struggle for the pursuit of data privacy. Nowadays, it appears that the number of mobile devices in the world is increasing. With this increase and technological evolution, thousands of data associated with everyone are generated and stored remotely. Thus, the topic of data privacy is highlighted in several areas. There is a need for control and management of data in circulation inherent to this theme. This article presents an approach of the interaction between the individual and the public environment, where this interaction will determine the access to information. This analysis was based on a data privacy management model in public environments created after reading and analyzing the current technologies. A mobile application based on location via Global Positioning System (GPS) was created to substantiate this model, which it considers the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) to control and manage access to the data of each individual.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: titanium dental implant; vitamin D3; bioactive coating; anticorrosion protection; EIS; DFT
Online: 10 September 2019 (11:35:26 CEST)
In recent years extensive studies have been continuously undertaken on the design of bioactive and biomimetic dental implant surfaces due to the need for improvement of the implant-bone interface properties. In this paper, the titanium dental implant surface was modified by a bioactive vitamin D3 coating prepared by self-assembly process. Surface characterization of the modified implant was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and contact angle measurements (CA). Implant’s electrochemical stability during exposure to an artificial saliva solution was monitored in situ by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Experimental results obtained were corroborated by means of quantum chemical calculations at the density functional theory level (DFT). The formation mechanism of the coating onto the titanium implant surface was proposed. During a prolonged immersion period, the bioactive vitamin D3 coating effectively prevented the underlying titanium from corrosive attack (polarization resistance in order of 107 Ω cm2) with ~95% protection effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: road alleys; protection of road trees; tree cutting; roadside trees management
Online: 18 February 2019 (10:55:14 CET)
Road alleys, especially on areas of Warmia (north-east Poland), are multifunctional features in open landscapes. They serve as ecological corridors connecting habitats and play an important role in sustaining ecological stability. However, multiple road authorities claim that tree-lined routes are a threat for traffic safety and therefore should be removed. The aspect of safety seems to be crucial to them, significantly overwhelming alley benefits. The vitality problems of the trees (which are mainly mature and aging) deliver arguments to cutting them down. The aim of this paper is examination of environmental and natural value of the road alleys (based on a 14 km long-distance of the Gamerki – Jonkowo road), and verification of the degree of hazard posed by trees designated for cutting because of safety reasons. The six-examination framework for the research was developed. Tree risk assessment and vitality evaluation, pulling tests, examination of protected beetle species - hermit beetle, the lichens species, and examination of bat fauna were performed. The results revealed no trees in the resignation phase and confirmed that the alley is a unique natural and landscape habitat with protected species of lichens, a few bats species and valuable insect species, among others hermit beetle (Osmoderma barnabita) existing there. The environmental value of the alley is, therefore, hard to overestimate and cannot be perceived only as a component of the road infrastructure. The maintenance of the trees seems to be essential when taking into account environmental stability of the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0160.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Aronia melanocarpa berries; cadmium; liver; oxidative/antioxidative balance; oxidative stress; protection
Online: 7 November 2018 (10:47:33 CET)
The study investigated, in a rat model of low-level and moderate environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd; 1 or 5 mg Cd/kg diet, respectively, for 3-24 months), whether the co-administration of 0.1% extract from Aronia melanocarpa L. berries (AE) may protect against oxidative stress in the liver. The intoxication with Cd, dose- and duration-dependently, weakened the enzymatic antioxidative barrier (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), decreased the concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione and total thiol groups), and increased the concentrations of oxidized glutathione, hydrogen peroxide, xanthine oxidase, and myeloperoxidase in this organ. These resulted in a decrease in the total antioxidative status (TAS), an increase in the total oxidative status (TOS), and development of oxidative stress in the liver (evaluated based on the index of oxidative stress calculated as the ratio of TOS and TAS). The administration of AE at both levels of Cd treatment significantly improved the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative barrier, decreased the concentration of pro-oxidants, and protected from the development of oxidative stress in the liver. In conclusion, consumption of aronia products may prevent Cd-induced destroying the oxidative/antioxidative balance and development of oxidative stress in the liver protecting against this organ damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0101.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: air pollution; air quality standard; spatial pattern; variability; human health protection
Online: 5 October 2018 (14:15:36 CEST)
Shenzhen is China’s top ten clean air city and the cleanest air megacity. Even so, epidemiologic studies have shown ambient air pollution had significant adverse impacts on human health in this less polluted city. In this study, the concentrations of six criteria air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, SO2, and CO) from 2014 to 2017 were analyzed and compared to thresholds of both national and international air quality standards. The results showed concentrations of all air pollutants were below target values of current national air quality standard, but levels of particulate matter (PM) and O3 were still much higher than the recommended levels by the World Health Organization. Within national air quality standards, the number of over-limit days was rare with few variations between highly polluted and low pollution areas. The air quality improvement was slowing down recently. Our results suggest annual and daily thresholds for PM are too loose for air quality improvement in Shenzhen. Hence, we call for evaluation and establishment of tougher air quality standard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1615.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Watermarking algortihms; Elementary Cellular Automata; Rule-30; Security; Copyright Protection; Authentication; Robustness
Online: 27 November 2023 (03:10:55 CET)
As technology and multimedia production have advanced, there has been a significant rise in attacks on digital media, resulting in duplicated, fraudulent, and altered data and the infringement of copyright laws. This paper presents a robust and secure digital image watermarking technique that has been implemented in the spatial domain and exploits the erratic and chaotic behaviour of the powerful elementary cellular automata rule-30. The crucial characteristics of the watermarking system, i.e., imperceptibility, capacity, and robustness, have been perfectly balanced by the suggested blind watermarking technique. In this approach, prior to embedding, the grayscale watermark image is downsized to its two Most Significant Bits (MSBs). Then, the 2-MSBs watermark is encrypted using an ECA rule-30 so as to level up the security attribute of the system. Then, the host image is scrambled using ECA rule-30 to distribute the watermark pixels throughout the host image and thus achieve the highest robustness against geometrical attacks. Finally, the encrypted watermark data is embedded into the scrambled host image using the ECA rule-30-based embedding key. The proposed method performs better in terms of imperceptibility, capacity, and robustness when compared to several systems with similar competencies. The simulation's findings demonstrate strong imperceptibility as evaluated by the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), which has an average value of 58.3735 dB and a high payload. The experimental outcomes, observed across a diverse range of standardized attack scenarios, unequivocally establish the ascendancy of the proposed algorithm over competing methodologies in the realm of image watermarking.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0472.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: medical waste; classified environmental protection signs; augmented reality; artificial intelligence identification technology
Online: 8 November 2023 (01:33:50 CET)
There are four categories of medical waste that cannot be mixed as this will cause serious problems such as environmental pollution or infection. In the past, the classification of medical waste often involved a lot of human and material resources to process, with workers at risk of exposure to infectious substances. Therefore, an augmented reality (AR) and artificial intelligence (AI) medical waste classification system and method were developed. This innovative medical waste classification system and method combines AR and AI identification technology to reduce the risk of manual judgment errors by clinical staff when handling medical waste.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0229.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Anthracnose fruit rot; Colletotrichum acutatum; Diagnostics; crop protection; sustainable management techniques; strawberry
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:08:31 CEST)
Anthracnose and root rot are major foliar and root diseases of strawberry, respectively that cause most yield and quality losses. Anthracnose is caused by multiple species belonging to Colletotrichum spp complex. This disease alone can causeup to 70% yield loss in North America. Colletotrichum spp. cause several disease symptoms on strawberries, including root, fruit, and crown rot, lesions on petioles and runners, and irregular black spots on the leaf. In many cases, a lower level of infection on foliage remains non-symptomatic (quiescent), posing a challenge to growers as these plants can be a significant source of inoculum for the fruiting field. Reliable detection methods for quiescent infection should play an important role in preventing infected plants' entry into the production system or guiding growers to take appropriate preventative measures to control the disease. The selection of highly effective fungicides and including them in a schedule to prevent the development of fungicide resistance in fungal populations will remain an area of continued research. Disease management methods should entail sensitive molecular testing of suspected fungal isolates for resistance, rotation of products, and monitoring of quiescent infections in transplant materials. Testing and the inclusion of non-chemical methods such as biologicals and biorational treatments especially for soilborne pathogens will also be necessary to make disease management economically feasible and sustainable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0694.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Salt Marsh; Coastal Protection; Long Island Sound; Connecticut; Green Structures; Ecosystem based
Online: 17 July 2023 (10:36:40 CEST)
Coastal areas are influenced by natural coastal hazards such as hurricanes, storm surges and tsunamis. For centuries coastal structures such as seawalls, detached breakwaters, groins, and revetments have been constructed to protect coastal properties. However, their effectiveness diminishes with time, and they are not adaptable to changing coastal conditions. Ecosystem-based approaches offer protection against erosion and the creation or restoration of coastal habitats. However, the protection properties and the sustainability provided by these systems are not well understood. Salt marshes have been known as one of the ecosystem-based protection systems. They protect coasts and lands by dissipating energy, stabilizing sediments and producing organic matter through blow ground production. Stems of plants dissipate waves propagating over salt marsh and plant roots stabilize soils and sediments. The dissipation rate varies with wave frequency; the low-frequency swell wave is dissipated less on the edge of the marsh than wind-sea waves. Salt and wetlands can also be used for reducing coastal flooding and storm surges, but a wetland is required to successfully attenuate storm surges. A salt marsh can be resilient to sea-level rise in certain conditions. Large sediment supply and gentle upland slope increase salt marsh resiliency to relative sea-level rise. Connecticut marshes, like other marshes in the world, are vulnerable to anthropogenic and climate change effects. However, an assessment of current sea level rise and average marsh accretion rates in Connecticut demonstrates sea level rise is not the main vulnerable factor for salt marshes loss. The study on the feasibility of developing an ecosystem based on two coastlines in Connecticut, Guilford and Stratford, shows that both coastlines, like other coastlines in Connecticut, have limited wave energy, which is a positive factor for marsh growth. The available data assessment represents that sediment supply is the most important parameter to guarantee the resilience and sustainability of a newly developed salt marsh system in Connecticut. In Stratford, conditions for establishing a new ecosystem seem to be better, as the fetch length is pretty small, and there is some sediment supply for the ecosystem. In Guilford, wave energy is limited, but it is more than in Stratford case. In addition, sediment availability is low and the coastline experienced a large erosion during Hurricane Sandy and has not recovered yet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2150.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: power communication network; relay protection service overload; dual route; network; route planning
Online: 30 June 2023 (02:09:16 CEST)
Relay protection service is the most crucial service carried by the electric power communication network, which is directly linked to the safe operation of the power grid. In the route planning of power services, a route planning architecture for the power communication network is constructed in this paper, considering the operation and maintenance requirements, such as relay protection service overload (RPSO) and dual route. To minimize network risk variance, the problem of single-service route allocation is formulated by taking the factors into account such as service delay, link bandwidth utilization, and RPSO constraints. Based on $k$ shortest paths algorithm, a route planning scheme for the power services is proposed, which considers RPSO and risk balance, and a strategy for implementing multi-service route planning of the communication network is studied. The simulation results show that the proposed route planning strategy can effectively avoid relay protection service overload, reduce network risk variance, and balance network risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: water reservoir; critical infrastructure elements; physical protection system; model; simulation; physical attack
Online: 29 June 2023 (08:16:56 CEST)
Water management systems help allocate water resources effectively, considering various demands such as agriculture, industry, domestic use, and environmental needs. They optimise water distribution and ensure equitable access, minimising water scarcity and conflicts. Critical elements of this system are often the target of various attacks. Depending on the target of the attack, different scenarios based on physical, cyber, or combined forms of attacks can be used. Requirements for the protection of water objects forming part of the critical infrastructure system are determined primarily by generally binding legal regulations, technical standards, or other requirements of third parties. These requirements imply the need to adopt certain protective measures. Physical protection system (PPS), as a convenient way of organising protective measures, makes it possible to prevent an unauthorised person from achieving his goal. Current procedures aimed at protecting objects use a qualitative or quantitative approach. The article presents the use case of a possible way to protect a selected water reservoir that has been identified as a national element of critical infrastructure in the subsector Drinking Water Provision. The use case is based on the analysis of safety requirements and subsequent design of the PPS water reservoir. To verify the functionality of the proposed PPS, a quantitative PPS model was created using a software tool, and four possible attack scenarios were simulated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Citrus flavonoids; naringin; naringenin; pectin; byproducts; anti-ischemic myocardial protection; hydrodynamic cavitation
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:54:33 CEST)
Citrus flavonoids are well-known for beneficial effects at the cardiovascular and cardio-metabolic level, but often the encouraging in vitro results are not confirmed by in vivo approaches; also clinical trials are inconsistent. The limited bioavailability of them can be, at least in part, the reason of these discrepancies. Therefore many efforts were performed towards the improvement of their bioavailability. Hydrodynamic cavitation methods were successfully applied to the extraction of byproducts of the Citrus fruits industry, showing high process yields and affording stable phytocomplexes, known as IntegroPectin, endowed with great amounts of bioactive compounds and high water solubility. Cardioprotective effects of grapefruit IntegroPectin were evaluated by an ex vivo ischemia/reperfusion protocol. A further pharmacological characterization was carried out to assess the involvement of mitochondrial potassium channels. Grapefruit IntegroPectin, where naringin represented 98% of flavonoids, showed anti-ischemic cardioprotective activity, better than pure naringenin (the bioactive aglycone of naringin). On cardiac isolated mitochondria, this extract confirmed that naringenin/naringin were involved in the activation of mitochondrial potassium channels. The hydrodynamic cavitation-based extraction confirmed a valuable opportunity for the exploitation of Citrus fruits waste, with the end product presenting high levels of Citrus flavonoids and an improved bioaccessibility that enhances its nutraceutical and economic value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0454.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: food waste recovery; maggot production; environmental protection; animal feed; solid waste management
Online: 24 January 2022 (14:16:03 CET)
Waste recovery is an important aspect towards human and environmental health protection. Unfortunately, proper food waste management is among the serious challenges in the field of solid waste management worldwide. Therefore, it is of great importance to conduct studies towards achieving efficient and cost-effective approaches for food waste management. This study investigated the potential of recovering food waste through maggots’ production as animal feed. The influence of fly attractant application on maggot production was also investigated. The study also investigated the potential of maggot production for waste recovery and reduction. Four different types of food waste (starch food leftovers, rotten bananas and peels, rotten pineapple and peels, and rotten oranges) were used in the investigation process. From the results, it was observed that the application of fly attractants had a significant effect on the production of maggots as determined by the weights after harvesting. Average weight of 94 g/kg of maggot was achieved from banana materials with an application of fly attractant during the 8th day of the cultivation; which is equivalent to a 32.4% increase from the same day when the material was cultured without applying fly attractant. Also, from the starch materials, about 77 g/kg of maggot weight was achieved; which is a 54.6% increase from the same day and the same material but without application of fly attractant. Moreover, the relative dry weight reduction in the trials varied from 52.5% to 82.4%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0516.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: health attitudes; health knowledge; skin cancer; sun protection; ultraviolet radiation; UV index
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:56:09 CET)
More than twenty-five years ago the Global Solar UV index (UVI) has been introduced as a simple means of visualizing the intensity of ultraviolet radiation and to alert people to the need for sun protection. In our survey among directors of 436 kindergartens in southern Germany we investigated the level of awareness and knowledge about the UVI as well as the practical consequences for sun protection in kindergartens. Less than half of the directors (n=208, 47.7%) had ever heard of the UVI, and only a small minority of them (n=34, 8.7%) used the daily UVI information to adapt sun protective measures in their kindergartens. Detailed knowledge about the UVI was a rarity among the respondents. The proportion of respondents with self-perceived detailed UVI knowledge was five times higher than actual knowledge assessed by an in-depth structured interview using open-ended questions about the UVI (14.2% vs. 2.8%). No clear relationship of UVI awareness, knowledge, and use to directors' age and gender was found. The UVI-related variables also showed no association with directors' knowledge of risk factors for skin cancer and their attitudes towards tanned skin. Overall, the results paint a sobering picture regarding the penetration of the UVI into sun protection policies of German kindergartens. Future public health campaigns should target increasing awareness and understanding of the UVI as well as its importance for sun protection of children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0671.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Dengue; Dengue vaccine trials; vaccine efficacy; cross-protection; serotypes; serostatus; Bayesian approach
Online: 27 September 2020 (08:37:14 CEST)
There is a growing public health need for effective preventive interventions against dengue, and a safe, effective and affordable dengue vaccine against the four serotypes would be a significant achievement for disease prevention and control. Two tetravalent dengue vaccines, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur) and DENVax (Takeda Pharmaceutical Company), have now completed phase 3 clinical trials. While Dengvaxia resulted in serious adverse events and is restricted to individuals with prior dengue infections, DENVax has shown, at first glance, some encouraging results. Using the available data for the TAK 003 trial, we estimate, via the Bayesian approach, vaccine efficacy (VE) of the post-vaccination surveillance periods. Although better measurement over long time was expected for the second part of the post-vaccination surveillance, variation in serotype-specific efficacy needs careful consideration. Besides observing that individual serostatus prior to vaccination is determinant of DENVax vaccine efficacy, we also compare the VE estimations for 12 and 18 months and we observe that the efficacy is decreasing over time. The comparison of efficacies over time is informative and very important, bring up the discussion of the role of temporary cross-immunity in dengue vaccine trials and the impact of serostatus prior to vaccination in the context of dengue fever epidemiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0132.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: V2X; vehicle-to-network; blockchain; distributed registry; data protection; network; decentralized systems
Online: 5 September 2020 (08:21:40 CEST)
Over the past decade, wireless communication technologies have developed significantly for intelligent applications in road transport. This paper provides an overview of telecommunications-based intelligent transport systems with a focus on ensuring system safety and resilience. In vehicle-to-everything, these problems are extremely acute due to the specifics of the operation of transport networks, which requires the use of special protection mechanisms. In this regard, it was decided to use blockchain as a system platform to support the needs of transport systems for secure information exchange. This paper describes the technological aspects of implementing blockchain technology in vehicle-to-network; the features of such technology are presented, as well as the features of their interaction.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antibodies; COVID-19; glycans; immunoglobulin M; SARS-CoV-2; pneumonia; prediction; protection
Online: 24 April 2020 (10:25:27 CEST)
The natural history of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is extremely variable, ranging from asymptomatic infection, to pneumonia, and to complications eventually fatal. We propose here the first model, explaining how the outcome of first, crucial 10-15 days after infection, hangs on the balance between the cumulative dose of viral exposure and the efficacy of the local innate immune response (natural IgA and IgM antibodies, MBL). If SARS-CoV-2 runs the blockade of this innate immunity and spreads from the upper airways to the alveoli in the early phases of the infections, it can replicate with no local resistance, causing pneumonia and releasing high amounts of antigens. The delayed and strong adaptive immune response (high affinity IgM and IgG antibodies) that follows, causes severe inflammation and triggers mediator cascades (complement, coagulation, and cytokine storm) leading to complications often requiring intensive therapy and being, in some patients, fatal. Strenuous exercise and high flow air in the incubation days and early stages of COVID-19, facilitates direct penetration of the virus to the lower airways and the alveoli, without impacting on the airway’s mucosae covered by neutralizing antibodies. This allows the virus to bypass the efficient immune barrier of the upper airways mucosa in young and healthy athletes. In conclusion, whether the virus or the adaptative immune response reach the lungs first, is a crucial factor deciding the fate of the patient. This “quantitative and time-sequence dependent” model has several implications for prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of COVID-19.