ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1162.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Ureteral Obstruction; Hydronephrosis; Prognosis; Pediatrics
Online: 17 November 2023 (11:52:40 CET)
Background: Pediatric ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is a common urinary tract issue. Accurate assessment of postoperative kidney function is crucial for prognosis. Previous studies mainly focused on postoperative renal function and individual factors. Radionuclide imaging was costly and unsuitable for long-term follow-up. For aligning closely with clinical needs, we emphasizing renal morphology enhancement, and comprehensively analyzed factors influencing UPJO surgery outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively studied 150 pediatric UPJO patients (July 2012-July 2022) with severe anteroposterior renal pelvis dilation (APD grades 4-5) who underwent laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty. Demographics, symptoms, preoperative findings, and postoperative renal ultrasounds were assessed. We performed multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify significant predictors of prognosis and construct a regression model. Results: Among the 150 pediatric patients, 78 (52%) showed improvement in renal morphology after surgery. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age at surgery, duration of hydronephrosis, body weight, and preoperative creatinine were identified as significant prognostic factors for postoperative outcomes. The nomogram (AUC: 0.92) was constructed based on these factors and could serve as a useful tool for clinicians in evaluating the surgical prognosis of children with UPJO. Conclusions: This study reveals that among pediatric patients with severe hydronephrosis resulting from UPJO, those who are younger, have a shorter duration of illness, normal serum creatinine levels, and a healthy body weight tend to experience better postoperative recovery. This finding emphasizes the importance of adopting more proactive clinical interventions when managing such cases, with the goal of achieving enhanced recovery outcomes for affected children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0828.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: methylation; prognosis; colon cancer; biomarkers
Online: 12 July 2023 (11:09:30 CEST)
Colon cancer (CC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Gene hypermethylation is a well-known alteration that contributes to tumour progression in CC. It is essential to analyse new molecular markers that can delineate more aggressive CC cases. The detection of new epigenetic alterations such as hypermethylation and hypomethylation of regulatory gene regions that participate in crucial mechanisms of cancer progression, such as epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), could be useful for identifying cases that might benefit from a closer follow-up by clinicians. In the present report we describe, for the first time, the hypermethylation of the ZEB1 gene, which is more frequent in cases without expression of hMLH1. More importantly, this epigenetic alteration is a good prognostic factor related to disease-free and overall survival in all cases and Consensus Molecular Subtypes (CMS2/3) independently of other clinical parameters such as patient age, stage, lymph node involvement, and blood vessel and perineural invasion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1374.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: pancreatic cancer; claudins; zolbetuximab; prognosis
Online: 19 June 2023 (15:00:31 CEST)
Claudin-18.2 (CLDN18.2) is specifically expressed in pancreatic precancerous lesions and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We assessed clinical characteristics of patients with CLDN18.2 overexpressing pancreatic cancer to identify patients who might benefit from CLDN18 targeted treatment. 130 patients with surgically resected PDAC were investigated the immunohistochemical expression of claudin-18 (CLDN18). The CLDN18 staining intensities (0-3+) and relative proportion of positive tumor cells were analyzed by two independent raters. Tumor as positive for CLDN18 expression was defined as ≥80% of tumor cells with 2+ or 3+ staining intensity on CLDN18 immunohistochemical assay. Positive CLDN18 expression was present in 41/130 (31.5%) surgically resected PDAC and the relative proportion of positive tumor cells and the staining intensity were directly correlated (p < 0.001). Positive CLDN18 expression was significantly associated with well-differentiated tumor (p<0.001) and less regional node involvement (p=0.045). The positive CLDN18 expressing group showed no statistical difference in median overall survival (17.4 months vs. 20.6 months, p=0.770) compared to negative CLDN18 expressing group. Distant nodal metastasis was more frequent in positive CLDN18 expressing group (p=0.011). CLDN18 is frequently expressed in PDAC, and high CLDN18 expressing PDAC showed some different clinicopathologic characteristics. High CLDN18 expression was not associated with prognosis in patients with surgically resected PDAC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0284.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: machine learning; benchmarking; tuberculosis; prognosis
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:20:31 CEST)
Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infectious disease caused by organisms in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) complex. In many low and middle-income countries, TB remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Once a patient has been diagnosed with TB, it is critical that healthcare workers make the most appropriate treatment decision given the individual conditions of the patient and the likely course of the disease based on medical experience. Depending on the prognosis, delayed or inappropriate treatment can result in unsatisfactory results including the exacerbation of clinical symptoms, poor quality of life, and increased risk of death. This work benchmarks machine learning models to aid TB prognosis using a Brazilian health database of confirmed cases and deaths related to TB in the State of Amazonas. The goal is to predict the probability of death by TB thus aiding the prognosis of TB and associated treatment decision making process. In its original form, the data set comprised 36,228 records and 130 fields but suffered from missing, incomplete, or incorrect data. Following data cleaning and preprocessing, a revised data set was generated comprising 24,015 records and 38 fields, including 22,876 reported cured TB patients and 1,139 deaths by TB. To explore how the data imbalance impacts model performance, two controlled experiments were designed using (1) imbalanced and (2) balanced data sets. The best result is achieved by the Gradient Boosting (GB) model using the balanced data set to predict TB-mortality, and the ensemble model composed by the Random Forest (RF), GB and Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) models is the best model to predict the cure class.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COPD; COVID-19; prevalence; prognosis
Online: 11 September 2020 (05:47:59 CEST)
Patients with COPD have a higher prevalence of coronary ischemia and other factors that put them at risk for COVID-19-related complications. We aimed to explore the impact of COVID-19 in a large population-based sample of patients with COPD in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. We analyzed clinical data in electronic health records from January 1st to May 10th, 2020 by using Natural Language Processing through the SAVANA Manager® clinical platform. Out of 31,633 COPD patients, 793 had a diagnosis of COVID-19. The proportion of patients with COVID-19 in the COPD population (2,51%; CI95% 2,33 – 2,68) was significantly higher than in the general population aged > 40 years (1,16%; 95%CI 1,14 – 1,18); P < .001. Compared with COPD-free individuals, COPD patients with COVID-19 showed significantly poorer disease prognosis, as evaluated by hospitalizations (31,1 % vs 39,8%: OR 1,57; 95%CI 1,14 – 1,18) and mortality (3,4% vs 9,3%: OR 2,93; 95%CI 2,27 – 3,79). Patients with COPD and COVID-19 were significantly older (75 vs. 66 years), predominantly male (83% vs 17%), smoked more frequently, and had more comorbidities than their non-COPD counterparts. Pneumonia was the most common diagnosis among COPD patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 (59%); 19% of patients showed pulmonary infiltrates suggestive of pneumonia and heart failure. Mortality in COPD patients with COVID-19 was associated with older age and prevalence of heart failure (P<0.05). COPD patients with COVID-19 showed higher rates of hospitalization and mortality, mainly associated with pneumonia. This clinical profile is different from exacerbations caused by other respiratory viruses in the winter season.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0109.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: TILs; TNBC; AR; FOXA1; Prognosis
Online: 8 August 2019 (12:28:55 CEST)
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are a valuable indicator of the immune microenvironment that plays the central role in new anticancer drugs. TILs has a strong prognostic role in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Little is known about his interaction with Androgen receptor (AR) and Forkhead box A1 (FOXA1). We analyzed the relationships between TIL levels, AR and FOXA1 expression and their clinical significance in TNBC patients. Further, we investigated their interaction with other biomarkers like programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1), Breast Cancer Type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1), Poly [ADP-Ribose] Polymerase 1 (PARP1) and Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor 1 (NHERF1). The expression of the proteins was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 124 TNBC samples. TILs were performed adhering to International TILs Working Group 2014 criteria. Cox proportional hazards models were also used to identify risk factors associated with poor prognosis. Multivariate analysis identified TILs as independent prognostic factor of disease free survival (DFS) (p=0.045). A Kaplan-Meyer analysis revealed that the patients with high TILs had a better DFS compared to patients with low TILs (p=0.037), and the phenotypes TILs-/AR+ and TILs-/FOXA1- had a worse DFS (p=0.032, p=0.001 respectively). AR was associated with FOXA1 expression (p=0.007), and the tumors FOXA1+ presented low levels of TILs (p=0.028). A poor DFS was observed for AR+/FOXA1+ tumors compared to other TNBCs (p=0.0117). Low TILs score was associated with poor patients’ survival, and TILs level in combination with AR or FOXA1 expression affected patient’s clinical outcome. In addition, AR+/FOXA1+ phenotype identified a specific subgroup of TNBC patients with poor prognosis. These data may suggest new ways of therapeutic intervention to support current treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Cirrhosis; Hepatic encephalopathy; Propranolol; Prognosis
Online: 24 December 2018 (12:41:29 CET)
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) reduces survival in cirrhotic patients and correlates with systemic inflammation and gut-liver disequilibrium. We investigated the association between propranolol treatment and outcomes for cirrhotic patients with HE. Using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 4,754 cirrhotic patients newly diagnosed with HE. Among them, 519 patients received propranolol treatment and the other 519 patients without exposure to propranolol were enrolled into our study, both of which were matched by sex, age, and propensity score. The median overall survival (OS) was longer in the propranolol-treated cohort than in the untreated cohort (3.46 versus 1.88 years, p<0.001). A dose-dependent increase in survival was observed (median OS: 4.49, 3.29, and 2.46 years in patients treated with propranolol >30mg/day, 20–30mg/day, and <20mg/day, respectively [p<0.001, p=0.001, and p=0.079 versus the untreated group]). In addition to reduce the risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.58; p<0.001), propranolol also diminished the risk of sepsis-related death (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.31; p=0.006) according to the multivariate analysis. However, the risk of circulatory or hepatic failure was non-significantly altered by propranolol treatment. In conclusion, propranolol treatment was associated with a better OS in cirrhotic patients with HE and its effects were dose-dependent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0197.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: GBM, EGFR, ERBB4, prognosis, therapy
Online: 12 June 2018 (14:51:34 CEST)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is often resistant to conventional and targeted therapeutics. ERBB4 is expressed throughout normal brain and is an oncogene in several pediatric brain cancers; therefore, we investigated ERBB4 as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target in GBM. Using RT-qPCR, we quantified mRNA encoding total ERBB4 and known ERBB4 variants in GBM and non-neoplastic normal brain (NNB) samples. Using immunohistochemistry, we characterized the localization of total and phosphorylated ERBB4 (p-ERBB4) and EGFR protein in archived GBM samples and assessed their association with patient survival. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of ERBB4 phosphorylation on angiogenesis and tumorigenicity in GBM xenograft models. Total ERBB4 mRNA was significantly lower in GBM than NNB samples, with the JM-a and CYT-2 variants predominating. ERBB4 protein was ubiquitously expressed in GBM but was not associated with patient survival. However, high p-ERBB4 in 11% of archived GBM samples, independent of p-EGFR, was associated with shorter patient survival (12.0±3.2 months) than was no p-ERBB4 (22.5±9.5 months). Increased ERBB4 activation was also associated with increased proliferation, angiogenesis, tumorigenicity and reduced sensitivity to anti-EGFR treatment in xenograft models. Despite low ERBB4 mRNA in GBM, the functional effects of increased ERBB4 activation identify ERBB4 as a potential prognostic and therapeutic target.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1748.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Glioma; peroxisome; PEX5; prognosis; immune microenvironment
Online: 26 September 2023 (07:16:44 CEST)
Gliomas, the most prevalent and lethal form of brain cancer, are known to exhibit metabolic alterations that facilitate tumor growth, invasion, and resistance to therapies. Peroxisomes, essential organelles responsible for fatty acid oxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, rely on the receptor PEX5 for the import of metabolic enzymes into their matrix. However, the prognostic significance of PEX5 for glioma patients remains unclear. We developed a robust prognosis model based on PEX5-dependent signature. This signature not only serves as a robust prognosis model capable of accurately predicting outcomes for glioma patients but also effectively distinguishes several clinicopathological features, including the grade, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation, and 1p19q codeletion status. Furthermore, we developed a nomogram that integrates the prognostic model with other clinicopathological factors, demonstrating highly accurate performance in estimating patient survival. Patients classified into the high-risk group based on our prognostic model exhibit an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Finally, we validated that the peroxisomal localization of the signature genes depends on PEX5 and demonstrated that PEX5 is required for cell growth, migration and invasion of glioma cells. These findings identify the PEX5-dependent signature as a promising prognostic tool for gliomas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0557.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: systemic sclerosis; organ manifestations; biomarkers; prognosis
Online: 8 August 2023 (02:49:33 CEST)
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a progressive autoimmune disorder that mainly affects the skin. There are other clinical manifestations as renal, pulmonary, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal tract involvements. Based on the skin involvement there are two subtypes of SSc, as limited cutaneous SSc (lSSc) which involves the acral part of the body and diffuse cutaneous SSc (dSSc) resulting in significant skin thickening of the body. The lSSc has usually moderate internal organ manifestations, except for the late-onset pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) mainly appearing in this form. In dSSc the severity of the organ manifestations or failure is more intensive such as scleroderma renal crisis (RSC), interstitial lung disease (ILD), myocardial fibrosis, and chronic gastrointestinal dysmotility with consequent malabsorption
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1126.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer; homologous recombination; prognosis; Mre11
Online: 16 May 2023 (08:30:40 CEST)
Background: Homologous Recombination (HR) is the most accurate repair pathway for double-strand breaks and replication fork disruption that is capable of faithfully restoring the original nucleotide sequence of the broken DNA. The deficiency in this mechanism is a frequent event in tumorigenesis. Therapies that exploit defects in HR have been explored essentially in breast, ovarian, pancreas, and prostate cancers, but poorly in colorectal cancers (CRC) although CRC ranks second in mortality worldwide. Methods: Tumor specimens and matched healthy tissues from 63 patients with CRC were assessed for gene expression of HR key components and MMR status, which were correlated with clinicopathological features, progression-free survival, and overall survival (OS). Results: Enhanced expression of MRE11A, the gene encoding a key molecular actor for resection is significantly overexpressed in CRC, is associated with the occurrence of primary tumors particularly T3-T4 and is found in more than 90% of the right-side of CRC, the location with worst prognostic. Importantly, we also found that high MRE11A transcript abundance is associated with 16.7 months shorter OS and a 3.5 higher risk of death. Conclusion: Monitoring MRE11 expression could be used both as a predictor of outcome and as a marker to select CRC patients for treatments thus far adapted for HR deficient cancers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: male; breast; cancer; diagnosis; treatment; prognosis
Online: 24 May 2022 (09:34:47 CEST)
Male breast cancers are uncommon, as men account for less than 1 percent of all breast carcinomas. Among the predisposing risk factors for male breast cancer, the following appear to be significant: a) breast/chest radiation exposure, b) estrogen use, diseases associated with hyper-estrogenism, such as cirrhosis or Klinefelter syndrome, and c) family health history. Furthermore, there are clear familial tendencies, with a higher incidence among men who have a large number of female relatives with breast cancer and d) major inheritance susceptibility. Moreover, in families with BRCA mutations, there is an increased risk of male breast cancer, although the risk appears to be greater with inherited BRCA2 mutations than with inherited BRCA1 mutations. Due to diagnostic delays, male breast cancer is more likely to present at an advanced stage. A core biopsy or a fine needle aspiration must be performed to confirm suspicious findings. Infiltrating ductal cancer is the most prevalent form of male breast cancer, while invasive lobular carcinoma is extremely uncommon. Male breast cancer is almost always positive for hormone receptors. A worse prognosis is associated with a more advanced stage at diagnosis for men with breast cancer. And randomized controlled trials which recruit both female and male patients should be developed in order to gain more consistent data on the optimal clinical approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0314.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: PET; theranostics; radionuclide therapy; cancer; prognosis
Online: 22 February 2021 (07:51:33 CET)
Theranostics covers combination of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques for various cancers throughout body using suitable drug combination. This review covers well-known treatment of thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma with I-131 compounds and also new radiopharmaceuticals for prostatic cancer and pancreatic cancer. Of particular, new trends toward patient outcome has been focused. A recent clinical study highlighted the ability of alpha-radiotherapy with high LET to overcome treatment resistance to beta--particle therapy. The theranostics will become an ever-increasing part of clinical nuclear medicine these days.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: COVID-19; sensitivity; specificity; diagnosis; prognosis
Online: 15 January 2021 (12:44:59 CET)
Study objective Since December 2019, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused over a million deaths and resulted in adverse socio-economic impacts worldwide. However, predictability and prognostication of clinical features vary among different populations. Methods We search PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and WHO Global Health Library from December 2019 to April 2020 for studies reporting the risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes. The random-effect models for transformed prevalence (single-arm) or bivariate random-effect models (sensitivity and specificity) for correlated performance indicators. Results Among the 189 included studies representing 53,659 patients, the most sensitive predictor for COVID-19 infection was fever in adults (83%, 95% confidence interval [CI]:73–90%), and the most specific predictor was fatigue (96%, 95% CI: 80–99%). Fever was the most sensitive symptom in predicting the severity (89%, 95% CI:83–92%), followed by cough (71%, 95% CI:63–78%). The most specific predictor of severe COVID-19 was a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (99%, 95% CI:98–99%). The stage of the outbreak and age significantly affect the prevalence of fever, fatigue, cough, and dyspnea. Fever, cough, fatigue, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus combined have a 3.06 positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and a 0.59 negative likelihood ratio (NLR) in the diagnosis. Additionally, fever, cough, sputum production, myalgia, fatigue, and dyspnea combined have a 10.44 PLR and a 0.16 NLR in predicting severe COVID-19. Conclusions Understanding the different distribution of predictors essential for screening potential COVID-19 infection and severe outcomes and the combination of symptoms could improve the pre-test probability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: coronavirus; heart; prognosis; COVID-19; ICU
Online: 19 April 2020 (13:15:27 CEST)
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging infectious disease with currently a pandemic state. Cardiac function can be involved, affecting prognosis, in addition with lung feature severity, particularly in patients with comorbidities. Since the renin angiotensin aldosterone (RAA) system may interact with SARS-Cov-2, researches are still ongoing to assess the prognostic value of RAA blockers in cardiology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0282.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: pancreatitis; epidemiology; diagnosis; complications; treatment; prognosis.
Online: 29 March 2019 (12:13:17 CET)
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas and is one of the most common ailments of the gastrointestinal system that results in significant morbidity and mortality. The main etiologic causes of AP are alcohol consumption, gallstones, hypertriglyceridemia, and biliary stones. The clinical signs and symptoms, and diagnostic criteria of AP are well established in the literature and multiple studies. Multiple scoring systems have been used to predict the severity, prognosis, and mortality associated with AP. The present review of the literature brings to light the significant and recent contributions in the etiology, risk factors, epidemiology, diagnosis, complications, prognosis and newest modalities in treatment that could be beneficial in the management of AP.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0203.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Primary urethral cancer; Elderly female; Prognosis
Online: 11 September 2018 (15:43:04 CEST)
Primary urethral malignancies are rare in clinical practice and elderly female are prone to suffer. The cause of PUC is unknown and may be related to long-term chronic inflammation, infection, sexual intercourse, pregnancy and irritation of the urethra. Incipient symptom of PUC is not distinctness and can easily lead to misdiagnosis. The final diagnosis relied on transvaginal ultrasound-guided mass biopsy and urethral biopsy. Early tumor treatment is mainly based on surgical resection. For advanced tumors, it is recommended to adopt a comprehensive treatment plan combining surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy We report this case with the aim of bringing attention to that primary urethral cancer progresses rapidly and has a poor prognosis, it is urged to call for a need of diagnostic and treatment specification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1621.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: DEPDC1; Dedifferentiation; Expression correlation; Cancer progression; Prognosis
Online: 28 November 2023 (01:42:00 CET)
Background: We screened key genes involved in the dedifferentiation process of thyroid cancer by analyzing differentially expressed genes in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) using Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Methods: We analyzed differentially expressed genes in ATC from GEO database and constructed a co-expression network using Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) . Cytoscape was used to calculate top ten key genes based on their gene scores. DEPDC1 was selected as interest gene for further validation, including examination of its prognostic relationship with thyroid cancer, correlation analysis with thyroid differentiation markers, immune cell infiltration, and tumor microenvironment. The impact of DEPDC1 on cancer cell migration, invasion, and proliferation was validated through downregulation and overexpression of DEPDC1 gene in thyroid cancer cell lines c643 and BCPAP. Results: We identified top 10 key genes in ATC: AURKA, TPX2, RACGAP1, MELK, DLGAP5, DEPDC1, KIF2C, NCAPG, CCNB1, and PBK. DEPDC1 showed a strong correlation with the prognosis of thyroid cancer. The odds ratio (OR) for overall survival was 3.5 (P=0.016) in individuals with high DEPDC1 expression, and the OR for disease-free survival was 2.6 (P=0.003). Additionally, the analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between the expression of DEPDC1 and thyroid differentiation markers. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis demonstrated that DEPDC1 co-expressed genes were enriched in cellular processes, cell cycle pathways, and dynamic protein groups. Matrix and immune scoring indicated tumor microenvironment and immune scores were associated with DEPDC1 expression. TIMER2.0 online analysis revealed a strong correlation between DEPDC1 expression and immune cell infiltration in papillary thyroid carcinoma. After downregulation of DEPDC1 expression, the invasion, migration, and proliferation abilities of tumor cells were significantly reduced. Conversely, overexpression of DEPDC1 exhibited the opposite effect. Conclusion: DEPDC1, a newly identified dedifferentiation gene in thyroid cancer, inversely correlated with the degree of differentiation. High expression of DEPDC1 promotes cancer progression and leads to poor prognosis in thyroid cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2025.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: intron retention; RNA-seq; cancer; diagnosis; prognosis
Online: 30 August 2023 (14:10:03 CEST)
Alternative splicing can produce transcripts that affect cancer development and shows potential for cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, intron retention (IR), a type of alternative splicing, has been less systematically studied in cancer biology research. Here, we generated a pan-cancer IR landscape for more than 10,000 samples across 33 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We characterized differentially retained introns between tumor and normal samples and identified retained introns associated with survival. We discovered 988 differentially retained introns in 14 cancers, some of which demonstrated diagnostic potential in multiple cancer types. We also inferred a large number of prognosis-related introns in 33 cancer types, and the associated genes included well-known cancer hallmarks such as angiogenesis, metastasis, and DNA mutations. Notably, we discovered a novel intron retention event inside 5′UTR of STN1 that is associated with the survival of lung cancer patients. The retained intron reduces translation efficiency by producing upstream open reading frames (uORFs) and thereby inhibits colony formation and cell migration of lung cancer cells. Besides, the IR-based prognostic model achieved good stratification on certain cancers, as illustrated in acute myeloid leukemia. Taken together, we performed a comprehensive IR survey at a pan-cancer level, and the results implied that IR has the potential to be diagnostic and prognostic cancer biomarkers, as well as new drug targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1572.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; prognostic nutritional index; inflammation; prognosis
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:50:23 CEST)
Background: In this paper, it was aimed to evaluate the biomarker potential as well as the effect of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), which is calculated using the albumin level reflecting nutritional status and lymphocyte count reflecting immune status, in determining the prognosis of metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC). Methods: This retrospective observational study included the complete data of 108 patients with mCPSC who were treated for at least three months between January 1, 2010, and June 1, 2021. The relationship between cancer specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and PNI was evaluated. Kaplan-Meier method for OS, PFS, and CSS, as well as univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used in statistical analyses. Results: The median age of 108 patients included in the study was 68.54 (61.05-74.19) years. While 71.3% (n = 77) of the patient population were high-volume according to CHAARTED, 52.8% (n = 57) were high-risk based on LATITUDE. 49.75 was determined as the best cut-off point for the PNI. OS (months) was found to be significantly lower in patients with low PNI (median: 34.93, 95% CI: 21.52–48.34) compared to patients with high PNI (median: 65.60, 95% CI: 39.36–91.83) (p=0.016). Patients with high PNI (median: 48.20, 95% CI: 34.66–61.73) had significantly better CSS (months) than patients with low PNI (median: 27.86, 95% CI: 24.16–31.57) (p=0.001). Conclusions: PNI calculated at the time of diagnosis strongly predicts OS and CSS but not PFS in patients with mCSPC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Perinatal depression; prognosis; prognostic modeling; nomogram; Pakistan
Online: 10 May 2022 (15:40:48 CEST)
Task sharing approaches are challenged by the barriers fundamental to the use of non-specialists who lack specialist mental health training required to triage the candidates who could benefit from task-shared treatments. However, these challenges could be offset by using standardized and easy-to-implement algorithmic devices (e.g., nomograms) to help with the targeted dissemination of interventions. Therefore, the present investigation posits a prognostic model and a nomogram to predict the prognosis of perinatal depression among women in rural Pakistan. This secondary analysis utilizes data based on 903 pregnant women with depression who participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial that tested the effectiveness of the Thinking Healthy Program in rural Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The participants were recruited from 40 union councils in two sub-districts of Rawalpindi and randomly assigned to intervention and enhanced usual care. Sixteen sessions of the THP intervention were delivered by trained community health workers to women with depression over pregnancy and the postnatal period. A trained assessment team used the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-4 current major depressive episode module to diagnose depression at the baseline and post-intervention. The intervention received by the participants emerged as the most significant predictor in the model. Among clinical factors, baseline severity of core-emotional symptoms emerged as an essential predictor, followed by atypical symptoms and insomnia. Higher severity of these symptoms was associated with a poorer prognosis. Other important predictors of a favorable prognosis included living with paternal and maternal grandmothers, financial empowerment, higher socioeconomic class, and living in a joint family system. This prognostic model yielded acceptable discrimination (c-statistic =0.75) and calibration to aid in personalized delivery of psychological treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Left ventricular hypertrophy; Echocardiography; Magnetic Resonance; Prognosis
Online: 5 January 2022 (13:10:00 CET)
Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) may be due to different causes, ranging from benign secondary forms to severe cardiomyopathies. Transthoracic Echocardiography (TTE) and ECG are the first level examination for LVH diagnosis. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) defines accurately LVH type, extent and severity. Objectives: to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic role of CMR in patients with TTE and/or ECG evidence of LVH. Methods: We performed CMR in 300 consecutive patients with echocardiographic and/or ECG signs of LVH. Results: Overall, 275 patients had TTE evidence of LVH with initial suspicion of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in 132 (44%), cardiac amyloidosis in 41 (14%), hypertensive LVH in 48 (16%), aortic stenosis in 4 (1%), undetermined LVH in 50(16%). The initial echocardiographic diagnostic suspicion of LVH was confirmed in 172 patients (57.3%) and changed in 128 patients (42.7%, p<0.0001): the diagnosis of HCM increased from 44% to 71% of patients; hypertensive and undetermined LVH decreased significantly (respectively to 4% and 5%). CMR allowed a diagnosis in 41 out of 50 (82%) with undetermined LVH at TTE. CMR also identified HCM in 17 out of 25 patients with apparently normal echo but with ECG criteria for LVH. Finally, the reclassification of the diagnosis by CMR was associated with a change of survival risk of patients: after CMR reclassification no events occurred in patients with undetermined or hypertensive LVH. Conclusions: CMR changed echocardiographic suspicion in almost half of patients with LVH. In the subgroup of patient with abnormal ECG, CMR identified LVH (particularly HCM) in 80% of patients. This study highlights the indication of CMR to better characterize the type, extent and severity of LVH detected at echocardiography and suspected with ECG.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: PDK1; breast cancer; survival; prognosis; targeted therapy
Online: 14 September 2021 (14:51:06 CEST)
Given that 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) plays a crucial role in malignant biological behaviors of a wide-range of cancers, we further review the influence of PDK1 in breast cancer (BC). First, we describe the power of PDK1 in cellular behaviors and extensively demonstrate the interacting networks of PDK1 via PI3K-dependent/ PI3K-independent pathway. Then we enlighten the roles of PDK1 in carcinogenesis, growth and survival, metastasis, and chemoresistance in BC cells. More important, we sort the current preclinical or clinical trials of PDK1 targeted therapy in BC and find that even though at present no selective PDK1 inhibitor is available for BC therapy, but the combination trials of PDK1 targeted therapy and other agents have demonstrated some benefit. Thus, there is increasing anticipations that PDK1 targeted therapy will have its space in future therapeutic concepts of BC, and we hope to feature PDK1 in BC to the clinic and bring the new promising to patients for targeted therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Hodgkin lymphoma, HIV,; antiretroviral therapy; prognosis; etiopathogenesis
Online: 20 August 2021 (14:08:47 CEST)
Despite widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and increased life expectancy in people living with HIV (PLWH), HIV-related lymphomas (HRL) remain a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality for PLWH, even in patients optimally treated with cART. While incidence of aggressive forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma decreased after cART advent, incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has increased among PLWH in recent decades. The coinfection of Epstein Barr virus plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HL in the HIV setting. Currently, PLWH with HRL, including HL, are treated similarly to HIV-negative patients and, importantly, the prognosis of HL in PLWH is approaching to that of the general population. In this regard, effective chem-otherapy is strongly recommended since it has been shown to improve survival rates in all lymphoma subtypes, including HL. As a consequence, interdisciplinary collaboration between HIV specialists and hemato-oncologists for the management of potential drug-drug interactions and overlapping toxicities between antiretroviral and antineoplastic drugs is crucial for the op-timal treatment of PLWH with HL. In this article the authors review and update the epidemio-logical, clinical and biological aspects of HL presenting in PLWH with special emphasis in the improvement on prognosis and the factors that have contributed to it.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Hodgkin lymphoma, HIV; antiretroviral therapy; prognosis; etiopathogenesis
Online: 2 June 2021 (11:53:29 CEST)
Despite widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) and increased life expectancy in people living with HIV (PLWH), HIV-related lymphomas (HRL) remain a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality for PLWH, even in patients optimally treated with ART. While incidence of aggressive forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma decreased after ART advent, incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has increased among PLWH in recent decades. The coinfection of Epstein Barr virus plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HL in the HIV setting. Currently, PLWH with HRL, including HL, are treated similarly to HIV-negative patients and, importantly, the prognosis of HL in PLWH is approaching to that of the general population. In this regard, effective chemotherapy is strongly recommended since it has been shown to improve survival rates in all lymphoma subtypes, including HL. As a consequence, interdisciplinary collaboration between HIV specialists and hemato-oncologists for the management of potential drug-drug interactions and overlapping toxicities between antiretroviral and antineoplastic drugs is crucial for the optimal treatment of PLWH with HL. In this article the authors review and update the epidemiological, clinical and biological aspects of HL presenting in PLWH with special emphasis in the improvement on prognosis and the factors that have contributed to it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0530.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; biomarker; prognosis; P53; mass spectrometry
Online: 26 January 2021 (10:01:35 CET)
Despite the increasing number of individuals affected by Alzheimer’s disease (AD) every year, no effective therapy has been developed to treat this neurodegenerative disease yet. The current methods for AD diagnosis are effective for clinical confirmation of the disease only when symptoms become apparent, years after molecular damage started within the patients’ brains. As higher expression of a conformationally altered p53 has been correlated with AD, we developed a mass spectrometry-based method for highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible quantification of a p53 conformational variant in plasma samples of patients with known clinical outcome. In particular, we tested the prognostic performance of an AD-specific 2D3A8-immunoselected p53 peptide (AZ 284™) in different sets of individuals progressing from both cognitively unimpaired (CU) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients progressing to AD dementia. Our data showed that quantitative analysis of AZ 284™ is a reliable tool for predicting AD progression up to 6 years prior to dementia onset with AUC >90%. Taken together, these results support the implementation of p53 conformational variant quantification as an affordable and powerful diagnostic tool for early, non-invasive AD diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: heart failure; 6-minute walk test; prognosis
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:08:38 CET)
Background: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is a simple and low-cost method that allows assessment of functional capacity in patients with heart failure (HF). However, the prognostic role of 6MWT in HF remains uncertain. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the 6MWT as a predictor of mid-term adverse outcomes in patients with HF with mid-range and reduced ejection fraction. Methods: Prospective single-center cohort study that included patients with HF with an ejection fraction under 50% at a specialized outpatient HF service. Patients underwent the 6MWT on admission and were compared according to the distance walked: Group I walked ≥350 meters and group II <350 meters. The primary outcome was a composite of death from any cause or hospitalization for HF decompensation in one-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes were the components of the primary outcome in an isolated analysis. Results: Sixty patients were included, 43.3% male, with a mean age of 61.1 ± 12.9 years and ejection fraction 34.3 ± 10.1%. 52 patients (86.7%) were on guideline-directed triple therapy for HF. The average distance walked in the 6MWT was 395.1 ± 98.8 meters, with 40 patients (66.7%) in group I and 20 (33.3%) in group II. The primary outcome in groups I and II were, respectively, 15,0% and 35,0% (p=0.05). One-year mortality was 5.0% vs 15.0% (p=0.18) and the hospitalization rate was 10.0% vs 20.0% (p=0.28). Conclusions: There was no association of distance <350 meters in the 6MWT with the primary outcome in patients with HF. Despite the higher occurrence of outcomes in group II, the difference was not statistically significant in this analysis. On a selective basis, the 6MWT may be a useful tool for prognostic stratification in HF, if combined with other methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Heart Failure; Acute Kidney Injury; Prognosis; Mortality.
Online: 2 November 2020 (08:09:49 CET)
Introduction: Decompensated heart failure (HF) is a complex and debilitating syndrome, which constitutes a severe emergency condition with high morbidity and mortality. The kidneys play fundamental roles in the pathophysiology of HF and, in the context of decompensations, acute kidney injury (AKI) has a bilateral cause-and-effect relationship, which can significantly worsen prognosis. However, the interaction between AKI and decompensated HF is poorly understood. Objective: This study aimed to assess the occurrence of AKI in patients hospitalized due to decompensated HF and to analyze its prognostic impact during hospitalization. Methods: Prospective single-center observational study that included patients hospitalized due to decompensated HF in a tertiary-level teaching hospital, conducted between July 2017 and January 2020. Patients who developed AKI during hospitalization were compared with those who did not develop it, until hospital discharge or death. AKI was defined as a serum creatinine increase greater than or equal to 0.3 mg/dl in 48 hours, a 1.5-fold increase in baseline creatinine in seven days or urinary volume <0.5 ml/kg/h during six hours, according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. The endpoints analyzed were death, need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and length of hospital stay. The Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and unpaired student t tests were used. Results: Ninety-nine patients were included, with a mean age of 65.4 ± 14 years, of which 47 (47.5%) were male and 52 (52.5%) were female. Reduced ejection fraction was observed in 77.8% of patients, whilst 22.2% had a diagnosis of HF with preserved EF. The decompensation clinical classifications were: dry and warm = 7 (7.1%), wet and warm = 72 (72.7%), wet and cold = 15 (15.1%) and dry and cold = 5 (5.1%). The average left ventricular ejection fraction was 38.3% ± 15. AKI ocurred in 22 patients (22.2%). Comparison between patients who evolved with and without AKI showed higher mortality (36.4% vs 10.4%, p = 0.004) and the need for IMV (54.5% vs 13%, p = 0.0001) in the first group. There was no significant difference regarding the length of in-hospital stay (22.9 ± 19 vs 18.8 ± 16 days, p = 0.26). Conclusions: The occurrence of AKI was frequent in patients with decompensated HF requiring hospitalization, affecting approximately one out of five patients. This complication was significantly associated with increased mortality and the need for IMV during hospitalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0064.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: TCGA; lung adenocarcinoma; RN7SL494P; nodal metastasis; prognosis
Online: 5 March 2019 (12:27:55 CET)
The metastasis of lung cancer can spread to the lymph nodes around the lungs. Metastasis, rather than the primary cancer, judges patients survival. Wherefore, a more detailed study on transcriptome of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma including primary carcinoma was carried out. LUAD RNA-seq data and the corresponding clinical information were available from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), which included 522 cases but only 515 cases have transcriptome data. Differential expression analyses between cases and controls, between primary cancer and metastasis subgroup, or between TNM stages, were respectively carried out using edgeR package. Then, the Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to verify the gradient changes of cancer metastasis or staging with the differential expression genes. The survival analyses were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier algorithm and log-rank test. The functional predictions for the differentially expressed genes were porformed with the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (GO/KEGG). Single gene set enrichment analysis (single GSEA) was run to explore the biological pathways associated with the expressions of RN7SL494P gene based on the Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB). 406 and 439 differentially expressed genes were identified respectively in lymph node metastasis or TNM stages. 112/296 intersection genes were associated with nodal metastasis and/or staging, among them only 25 genes were associated with the nodal metastasis, 13 genes were associated with the staging with gradient changes. Only one gene (RN7SL494P) was found to be associated with prognosis. But RN7SL494P was not found joining any biological functions or processes or cellular components with GO/KEGG analyses. Finally, single GSEA enrichment and pathway analyses showed that RN7SL494P might be involving in cancer development process and poor outcome in lung adenocarcinoma. These findings highlight the potential applications of RN7SL494P as a promising molecular predictor not only in nodal metastasis but prognosis evalution in lung adenocarcinoma patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0155.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: EIF4GI; pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; prognosis; GEO; TCGA
Online: 16 January 2019 (07:54:33 CET)
Background: The advances of genomics have greatly improved the survival rate cancer patients. However, due to genetic heterogeneity, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is still difficult to diagnose early and the survival rate is extremely low. Therefore, we identified biomarkers that predict the prognosis of PDAC patients by using independent cohort data. Methods: To develop a novel prognostic biomarker, we used gene expression and clinical data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). In Kaplan-Meier survival curve using median values of genes as cut off, the only statistically significant gene in the three cohorts was EIF4G1. We analyzed prognostic significance of EIF4G1 using the time-dependent area under the curve (AUC) of the Uno's C-index, the AUC value of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) at 3 years, and multivariate cox analysis. Also, we compare EIF4G1 levels between tumor and matched non-tumor. Results: EIF4G1 is the only prognostic gene patients with PDAC which was selected by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that high expression of EIF4G1 was associated with poor prognosis of PDAC with good discriminative ability in 3 independent cohorts. Risk stratifying ability of EIF4G1 was demonstrated by analyzing C-indices and AUC values. Multivariate cox regression analysis confirmed its prognostic significance. EIF4G1 expression was significantly higher in the PDAC tissues than in the matched normal tissues. Conclusions: Herein, the novel prognostic biomarker EIF4G1 could be used as prognostic maker for PDAC and determining suitable treatment options.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: sarcopenia; prognosis; biomarker; bladder cancer; urothelial carcinoma
Online: 3 August 2018 (16:05:54 CEST)
Sarcopenia, the degenerative and systemic loss of skeletal muscle mass, indicates patient frailty and impaired physical function. Sarcopenia can be caused by multiple factors, including advanced age, lack of exercise, poor nutritional status, inflammatory diseases, endocrine diseases, and malignancies. Recently, growing evidence has indicated the importance of sarcopenia in the management of patients with various cancers. Sarcopenia is associated with not only higher rates of treatment-related complications but also worse prognosis in cancer-bearing patients. In this article, we conducted a systematic literature review regarding the significance of sarcopenia as a prognostic biomarker of bladder cancer. We also reviewed recent studies focusing on the prognostic role of changes in skeletal muscle mass during the course of treatment in bladder cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0190.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: breast cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; vimentin; vascular invasion; prognosis
Online: 4 October 2023 (11:22:07 CEST)
To clarify whether changes in biological features of breast tumor cells and intra-tumor immunity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) may correlate with pathological responses and prognosis in breast cancer patients treated with NAC, we investigated various biomarkers using both pre- and post-NAC tumor samples. The study subjects were 24 primary breast cancer patients, who were treated with NAC at the Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School Hospital between 2010 and 2011. All of them had a non-pathological complete response (pCR) to NAC and their pre- and post-NAC tumor samples were available for biomarker assays. Ki67 labeling index, apoptosis, factors related to cancer stem cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and expression levels of CD-8, CD-4, FoxP3, PD-L1, and PD-1 were studied using the paired samples. Biological characteristics of residual tumors such as nuclear grade (NG) and vascular invasion (v) were also investigated. The median age was 53 years-old and 14 patients had stage III tumors, while 10 had stage II tumors. A higher expression level of CD8, CD4, or PD-1 in pre-NAC samples and of CD8, CD4 or PD-L1 in post-NAC samples was significantly correlated with a better pathological response to NAC. Positivity of ZEB1, vimentin, and v or NG 3 in post-NAC samples was significantly correlated with either worse disease-free survival (DFS) or worse overall survival (OS) by univariate analyses. Multivariate analyses for DFS and OS revealed that positivity for v and vimentin expression in residual tumors were independent prognostic factors in this study. These findings indicate that activated intra-tumor immune microenvironments may play significant roles in pathological responses to NAC, and that the up-regulation of vimentin and v-positivity in residual tumors may be pivotal prognostic factors in non-pCR cases to NAC.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; neutrophils; lymphocytes; NLR; survival; prognosis
Online: 3 October 2023 (05:55:51 CEST)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common neurodegenerative motor neuron disease and remains misunderstood with difficult diagnosis and prognosis. The implication of the immune system is recognized in ALS pathophysiology, hence the interest in leucocytes count as lymphocytes and neutrophils. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has recently been used as a prognosis factor to assess the progression of ALS. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the evolution of the NLR during disease evolution in a French cohort of ALS patients and its relation with survival. Clinical parameters and NLR were collected in ALS patients followed at the University Hospital of Tours (France). ALS patients were subdivided into three groups in regard to their NLR value at inclusion: group 1 (NLR < 2); group 2 (NLR: 2-3); group 3 (NLR > 3). Comparison of qualitative and quantitative clinical and biological variables between NLR groups was performed. Then Cox-regressions were carried out to determine the association of NLR with survival. We observed a significant correlation of NLR with ALSFRS-r score (p<0.0001) and with vital forced capacity (p=0.0004) at inclusion. We observed that increased NLR at diagnosis is associated with decreased ALS patients’ survival.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0880.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: inflammation; stroke; prognosis; positron emission tomography; recurrence; carotid
Online: 13 July 2023 (10:11:53 CEST)
Atherosclerosis is a chronic systemic inflammatory condition of the vasculature and a leading cause of stroke. Luminal stenosis severity is an important factor in determining vascular risk. Conventional imaging modalities, such as angiography or duplex ultrasonography, are used to quantify stenosis severity and inform clinical care but provide limited information on plaque biology. Inflammatory processes are central to atherosclerotic plaque progression and destabilization. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a validated technique for quantifying plaque inflammation. In this review, we discuss the evolution of FDG-PET as an imaging modality to quantify plaque vulnerability, challenges to standardization of image acquisition and analysis, its potential application to routine clinical care after stroke, and the possible role it will play in future drug discovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2054.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: CDK1; RO-3306; ovarian cancer; apoptosis; invasion; prognosis
Online: 28 June 2023 (16:02:31 CEST)
Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecological malignancy of the reproductive organs in the United States. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) is an important cell cycle regulatory protein that spe-cifically controls the G2/M phase transition of the cell cycle. RO-3306 is a selective, ATP-competitive, and cell-permeable CDK1 inhibitor that shows potent anti-tumor activity in multiple pre-clinical models. In this study, we investigated the effect of CDK1 expression on the prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer and the anti-tumorigenic effect of RO-3306 in both ovarian cancer cell lines and a genetically engineered mouse model of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (KpB model). In 147 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, overexpression of CDK1 was significantly associated with poor prognosis, compared with a low expression group. RO-3306 significantly inhibited cellular proliferation, induced apoptosis, caused cellular stress, and reduced cell migration. Treatment of KpB mice with RO-3306 for four weeks showed a significant decrease in tumor weight under obese and lean conditions without obvious side effects. Overall, our results demonstrate that inhibition of CDK1 activity by RO-3306 effectively reduces cell proliferation and tumor growth, providing biological evidence for future clinical trials of CDK1 inhibitors in ovarian cancer
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: microRNA; glioma; cancer stem cells.; prognosis; targeted therapy
Online: 28 June 2023 (11:06:15 CEST)
Gliomas, which arise from glial cells in the brain, remain a significant challenge due to their location and resistance to traditional treatments. Despite research efforts and advancements in healthcare, the incidence of gliomas has risen dramatically over the past two decades. The dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has prompted the creation of therapeutic agents that specially target them. However, it has been reported that they are involved in complex signaling pathways that contribute to the loss of expression of tumor suppressor genes and the upregulating of the expression of oncogenes. In addition, numerous miRNAs promote the development, progression, and recurrence of gliomas by targeting crucial proteins and enzymes involved in metabolic pathways such as glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. However, the complex interplay among these pathways and other obstacles hinder the ability to apply miRNA targeting in clinical practice. This underscores the importance of pinpointing miRNAs to be targeted for therapy and having a complete understanding of the diverse pathways they are involved in. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an overview on the role of miRNAs in the progression and prognosis of gliomas, emphasizing the different pathways involved and identifying potential therapeutic targets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0567.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: chronic coronary syndromes; revascularization; prognosis; ISCHEMIA; ISCHEMIA-EXTEND
Online: 8 June 2023 (02:13:16 CEST)
Coronary revascularization is one of the most studied treatment modalities in cardiology, however, there is no consensus among experts about its indications in patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD). Contemporary data regarding the role of revascularization in SCAD are in clear conflict with the current European guidelines. This article discusses the main statements of the most significant American and European Guidelines on myocardial revascularization of the last decade, and also analyzes the appropriateness of revascularization to improve the prognosis and symptoms in CCS in the light of new research data, primarily the ISCHEMIA study (NCT01471522) and ACC/AHA 2021 Revascularization Guidelines based on them. Data on the revascularization in CCS obtained after the completion of ISCHEMIA (including the interim analysis of ISCHEMIA-EXTEND) and their potential significance are discussed. The results of ISCHEMIA sub-analyses in the most important ‘controversial’ subgroups (3-vessel disease, proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) disease, strongly positive stress test, etc.) are reviewed, as well as the results of the ISCHEMIA-CKD substudy in patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0175.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: non-cardiac comorbidities; ejection fraction; myocardial infarction; prognosis
Online: 2 June 2023 (10:00:09 CEST)
Background: The prognostic impact of non-cardiac comorbidities can vary in relation to the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim was to analyze prevalence and long-term prognostic impact of non-cardiac co-morbidities in patients with reduced and preserved EF following STEMI. Method: 3115 STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI were divided in two groups: reduced EF <50% and preserved EF≥50%. Follow-up period was 8 years. Results: Preserved EF was present in 1726 (55.4%) patients and reduced EF was present in 1389 (44.5%) patients. Non-cardiac comorbidities were more frequent in patients with reduced EF as compared with patients with preserved EF (38.9% vs 27.4%, respectively, p<0.001). Lethal outcome was registered in 240 (17.2%) patients with reduced EF and in 40 (2.3%) patients with preserved EF, p<0.001. Diabetes and CKD were independent predictors for 8-year mortality in patients with preserved EF while in patients with reduced EF only CKD was independently associated with 8-year mortality. Conclusion: In the present study the prevalence of non-cardiac comorbidities is similar in patients with reduced and preserved EF after STEMI, but only DM and CKD are independently associated with long-term mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: anoikis; Low-grade glioma; signature; prognosis; immune microenvironment
Online: 22 September 2022 (10:38:43 CEST)
Low-grade glioma (LGG) is a highly aggressive disease in the skull. On the other hand, anoikis, a specific form of cell death induced by the loss of cell contact with the extracellular matrix, plays a key role in cancer metastasis. In this study，anoikis-related genes (ANRGs) were used to identify LGG subtypes and to construct a prognostic model for LGG patients. In addition, we explored the immune microenvironment and enrichment pathways between different subtypes. We constructed an anoikis-related gene signature using the TCGA cohort and investigated the differences in clinical features, mutational landscape, immune cell infiltration, etc. between different risk groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the characteristics of ANRGs in the high-risk group were associated with poor prognosis in LGG patients. The risk score was identified as an independent prognostic factor. The high-risk group had higher immune cell infiltration, tumor mutation load, immune checkpoint gene expression, and ICB treatment response. Functional analysis showed that these high- and low-risk groups had different immune statuses and drug sensitivity. Risk scores were used together with LGG clinicopathological features to construct a nomogram, and DCA analysis showed that the model could enable patients to benefit from clinical treatment strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0104.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: glioma; HLA-G; IL-6; polymorphism; prognosis; survival
Online: 7 December 2021 (12:55:23 CET)
HLA-G is an immune checkpoint molecule with immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities, and its expression and level of its soluble form (sHLA-G) may play an important role in tumor prognosis. The HLA-G 14 bp ins/del polymorphism and the plasma level of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) were investigated by a polymerase chain reaction and ELISA, respectively, in 59 glioma patients. A significantly higher proportion of glioma patients had the 14 nt insert in both homozygous and heterozygous states compared to the control group. Glioma patients had also higher plasma levels of sHLA-G. Patients with methylated MGMT promoter had lower levels of sHLA-G than those with unmethylated MGMT promoter. Level of sHLA-G negatively correlated with the overall survival of patients. Glioblastoma patients who survived more than one year after diagnosis had lower levels of sHLA-G than those surviving less than one year. Patients with sHLA-G levels below the cut off value 40 U/mL survived significantly longer than patients with sHLA-G above 40 U/mL. The levels of sHLA-G also negatively correlated with the level of IL-6 (P=0.0004) and positively with IL-10/IL-6 (P=0.046). Conclusion: The presence of 14 nt insert in both homozygous and heterozygous states of the HLA-G 14 bp ins/del polymorphism is more frequent in glioma patients and the elevated plasma levels of sHLA-G are negatively associated with their survival.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0063.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: circulating tumor cells; dielectrophoresis; prostate cancer; detection; prognosis
Online: 6 December 2021 (12:03:13 CET)
Liquid biopsy via isolation of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) represents a promising diagnostic tool capable of supplementing state-of-the-art for prostate cancer (PC) prognosis. Unfortunately, most of CTC technologies, such as AdnaTest or Cellsearch, critically rely on the Epithelial-Cell-Adhesion-Molecule (EpCAM) marker, limiting the possibility of detecting stem-like cells (CSCs) and mesenchymal-like cells (EMT-CTCs) that are present during PC progression. In this tontext, dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an epCAM independent, label-free, enrichment system, separating rare cells simply on the basis of their specific electrical properties. As compared to other technollgies, DEP represents a superior technique in terms of running costs, cells yield and specificity, but due to its higher complexity, requires still further technical as well as clinical development. Interestingly, DEP can be improved by the use of microfluid, nanostructured materials and fluoroimaging in order to increase its potential applications. In the context of PC, the utility of DEP can be translated in its capacity to detect CTC in the bloodstream in their epithelial, mesenchymal, or epithelial-mesenchymal phenotypes, which should be taken into account when choosing CTC enrichment and analysis methods for PC prognosis and early diagnosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Prognosis; prosthodontics; dental implant; clinical performance; risk factor.
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:34:49 CET)
Background: The treatment plan of prosthetic restorations supported by dental implants require comprehensive scientific knowledge to deliver prostheses with good prognosis, even before the implant insertion. This review aims to analyze the main prosthetic determinants of the prognosis of implant-supported prostheses. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted with a PICO question: "For partially or complete edentulous subjects treated with implant-supported prostheses, which prosthetic factors could affect clinical outcomes?". A literature search was performed electronically in PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus and Cochrane Library with the following equation [PROGNOS* OR RISK] FACTOR IMPLANT DENTAL, and by hand search in relevant journals and throughout the selected papers. Results: This revision was carried out based on 50 papers focused on several prosthodontics-related risk factors that were grouped as follows: implant-connection, loading protocol, transmucosal abutments, prosthetic fit, provisionalization, type of retention, impression technique, fabrication technique, and occlusion. More than a half of the studies were systematic reviews (30%), meta-analysis (16%) or prospective evaluations of prosthesis with various kinds of events (18%). But also narrative reviews of literature (14%) and in vitro/animal studies (16%) were found. Conclusions: The current literature provides insufficient evidence for most of the investigated topics. However, based on the accumulated data, it seems reasonable to defend that the best treatment approach is the use of morse taper implants with transmucosal abutments, recorded by means of rigidly splinted copings through the pick-up technique, and screwed by milled prosthesis occlusally adjusted to minimize functional overloading.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0602.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Bladder cancer; diagnosis; differential diagnosis; prognosis; histopathology; immunohistochemistry
Online: 29 October 2020 (09:25:10 CET)
The overwhelming majority of bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas. Albeit mostly monotonous, carcinomas in the bladder may occasionally display a broad spectrum of histological features that should be recognized by pathologists because some of them represent a diagnostic problem and/or lead prognostic implications. Sometimes these features are focal in the context of conventional transitional cell carcinomas, but some others are generalized across the tumor making its recognition a challenge. For practical purposes, the review distributes the morphologic spectrum of changes in architectural and cytological. So, nested and large nested, micropapillary, myxoid stroma, small tubules and adenoma nephrogenic-like, microcystic, verrucous, and diffuse lymphoepithelioma-like, on one hand, and plasmacytoid, signet ring, basaloid-squamous, yolk-sac, trophoblastic, rhabdoid, lipid/lipoblastic, giant, clear, eosinophilic (oncocytoid), and sarcomatoid, on the other, are revisited. Key histological and immunohistochemical features useful in the differential diagnosis are mentioned. In selected cases, molecular data associated with the diagnosis, prognosis, and/or treatment are also included.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0718.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Sepsis, Septic shock, Lactic acid, Dynamic monitoring, Prognosis
Online: 30 July 2020 (11:23:48 CEST)
Objectives: To investigate the value of early lactate dynamic monitoring index in predicting prognosis of patients with sepsis and septic shock. Methods: We performed our test on 50 patients. Out of 50 patients, 28 are male, and 22 are female. Prospectively studied pediatric patients with septic shock were performed. Vital signs, Lactate clearance, were obtained at presentation 6 h, 12 h, 24 h over the first 48 h of hospitalization. The therapy received, outcome parameters of mortality and duration of hospitalization were recorded. Results: The statistical data and comparative analysis showed that an average of 16.88 days after admission, 5 patients have died, 17 patients are poorly prognosis leaves the hospital, and the remaining 28 are recovered and discharged. The primary outcome variable of mean 16 days hospitalization mortality rate was 10%. Poor prognosis 34% and fully recovery 56 % were observed. In this retrospective cohort study, a lactate level of more than 2.5mmol/L was the best threshold to predict 28-day mortality among severe sepsis and septic shock patients. In our research, we found mean LC 6 h 3.08mmol/L, and after 48 h mean it is 1.79mmol/L. Significant LC 6 h found, which is 8.08mmol/L in the death group patient where 48 h mmol/L shows significant high. Poor prognosis also presents a clinical increase of lactate level high in the LC 6 h analysis, which is 3.32mmol/L. Recovered patients showed a significant improvement after administering treatment depending on the patient organ involvement and good decrease of lactate reports achieved, which is 1.20mmol/L, where admission reports show it was 1.91mmol/L in LC 6 h. Mean Heart rate 94/51mmhg, pulse 119, temperature 39℃, respiratory rate 32.26, and urine output 456 ml recorded during our study. Death patient shows a remarkable detonation of those reports but has a significant clinical report with the recovered patients. Conclusion: The early lactate dynamic monitoring index has a high value in predicting sepsis and septic shock patients' prognosis, thus worth popularizing.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: lncRNA; melanoma; prognosis; immune checkpoint inhibit; WGCNA; NMF
Online: 11 July 2020 (04:35:06 CEST)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have been widely used in melanoma, but to identify melanoma patients with survival benefit from ICI is still a big challenge. There is an urgent need for prognostic signatures improving the prediction of immunotherapy responses of cancer patients. We used data from EMBL-EBI database and analyzed RNA-seq information and clinical profiles in melanoma. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify the key module, then nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) was conducted to cluster patients into two different cluster and compared them regarding overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Subsequently, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between different clusters were identified, and their function and pathway annotation were performed. 91 melanoma biopsies with complete survival information were included in our analyses and we first identified the key module (magenta) by WGCNA, then identified nine prognostic lncRNAs (ENSG00000258869, ENSG00000179840, ENSG00000206344, ENSG00000226777, ENSG00000205018, ENSG00000204261, ENSG00000163597, ENSG00000197536, and ENSG00000263069) signature that predicted for OS and PFS in patients treated with ICI by NMF. Finally, enrichment analysis showed that the functions of DEGs between two consensus clusters were mainly related to the immune process and treatment. In summary, the nine lncRNAs signature is a novel effective predictor for OS and PFS in melanoma patients treated with ICI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0221.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: brain cancer; glioblastoma multiforme; giant cell glioblastoma; prognosis
Online: 17 May 2019 (08:40:33 CEST)
Brain cancer is the tenth leading cause of death in the U.S. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal primary malignant central nervous system tumor in adults. The present study employed samples from 1985-2014 to discover the difference in prognosis among glioblastoma subtypes after the evolution of treatment modalities over the past few years. The current study aims to find the differences between Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and giant cell glioblastoma (GCG) in terms of prognosis among adults and elderly patients in the U.S. This study is a historical cohort type of study and is conducted on adults and elderly individuals with GBM or GCG from the years 1985-2014 in the U.S. Data were collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) database. The study exposure was GBM or GCG and the outcome was mortality. The potential confounders were age, sex, race, ethnicity, year of diagnosis, primary site, and surgery. A chi-square test was used for categorical data. A univariate analysis was used for variables having a p-value < 0.05. Potential confounders were selected and evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models to calculate the odds ratio with stepwise selection. The study sample was 25,117. The incidences of GBM and GCG were not similar in relation to age group. Also, Spanish-Hispanic ethnicity was independently protective of GBM and GCG as compared to Non-Spanish-Hispanic ethnicity patients with GBM have a higher mortality rate than do GCG patients. The mortality rate was higher among patients diagnosed before 2010. In conclusion, GCG was not statistically significant in association to reduced mortality. Non-Spanish-Hispanics with GBM or GCG had a higher mortality rate than did Spanish-Hispanics. Factors such as being female, being age >59, and having a year of diagnosis before 2010 were independently associated with increased mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1440.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Interstitial lung diseases; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; Telomere length; Prognosis
Online: 23 November 2023 (17:35:25 CET)
Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) constitute a group of more than 200 disorders, being idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) one of the most frequent. Telomere length (TL) shortening causes loss of function of the lung parenchyma. However, little is known about its role as prognostic factor in ILD patients. With the aim of investigating the role of TL and telomerase activity in the prognosis of patients affected by ILDs, we analysed lung tissue samples from 61 patients. We measured relative TL and telomerase activity by conventional procedures. Both clinical and molecular parameters were associated with overall survival by the Kaplan-Meier method. Patients with IPF had poorer prognosis than patients with other ILDs (p = 0.034). When patients were classified according to TL, those with shortened telomeres reported lower overall survival (p = 0.085); differences reached statistical significance after excluding ILD patients who developed cancer (p = 0.021). In a Cox regression analysis, TL behaved as a risk-modifying variable for death associated with rheumatological disorders (RD) co-occurrence (p = 0.029). Also, in patients without cancer, ferritin was significantly increased in cases with RD and IPF co-occurrence (p = 0.032). In relation to telomerase activity, no significant differences were detected. In conclusion, TL in lung tissue emerges as a prognostic factor in ILD patients, Specifically, in cases with RD and IPF co-occurrence, TL can be considered as a risk-modifying variable for death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0897.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: lung cancer; platinum-based chemotherapy; ERCC5; Genetic polymorphism; prognosis
Online: 13 October 2023 (11:34:21 CEST)
Background: Lung cancer is still the most lethal malignancy in the world from the report of Cancer Statistics in 2021. Platinum-based chemotherapy combined immunotherapy is the first-line treatment in lung cancer patients. However, the 5-year survival rate always affected by the adverse reaction and drug resistance caused by platinum-based chemotherapy. DNA damage and repair system is one of the important mechanisms which can affect the response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome in lung cancer patients. Objective: The objective of this study is to find the relationship between the polymorphisms of DNA repair genes with the prognosis in platinum-based chemotherapy in lung cancer patients. Patients and Methods: We performed genotyping in 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Excision Repair Cross-Complementation group (ERCC) genes and X-ray Repair Cross-Complementing (XRCC) genes of 345 lung cancer patients by Sequenom MassARRAY. We used Cox proportional hazard models, state and plink to analyze the associations between SNPs and the prognosis of lung cancer patients. Results: We found that the ERCC5 rs873601 was associated with the overall survival time in lung cancer patients treat by platinum-based chemotherapy (p=0.031*). We also discovered that the polymorphisms in rs873601 was significantly associated with the prognosis in age more than 55 years, Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) and smoking patients, Long Intergenic Non-protein Coding RNA (PNKY) rs2444933 in age less than 55 years, SCLC, metastasis and stage III/IV/ED patients, Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR1) rs3740051 in SCLC and metastasis patients, PNKY rs1869641 in SCLC patients, XRCC5 rs1051685 in non-metastasis patients, respectively. Conclusion: The ERCC5 rs873601(G>A) maybe a valuable biomarker for predicting the prognosis in lung cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Statements and Declarations: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1409.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: uveitis-associated cataract; postoperative complications; phacoemulsification; uveitis; visual prognosis
Online: 21 September 2023 (04:56:43 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Uveitis, a prevalent eye disorder characterized by inflammatory processes, often leads to cataract formation and significant visual impairment. This study aimed to evaluate preoperative conditions and postoperative outcomes following cataract surgery in uveitis patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at the University Hospital Center Rebro Zagreb, Croatia, involving uveitis patients who underwent cataract surgery between 2013 and 2022. Eligible patients had uveitic cataracts affecting visual acuity or posterior segment visualization in a "quiet eye" and were disease-inactive for at least three months. Patients with certain preexisting ocular conditions were excluded. Data collected included patient demographics, uveitis type, preoperative therapy, preexisting lesions, and postoperative outcomes such as visual acuity, intraocular pressure, central macular thickness, and complications. Statistical analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with complications. Results: The study included 105 patients. After cataract surgery, there was a significant improvement in visual acuity at various time points, with 90% of eyes showing improvement. Intraocular pressure decreased over time. Central macular thickness increased at three months post-surgery but remained stable thereafter. Early and late complications were observed in 52.4% and 63.8% of eyes, respectively. The most common complications were posterior capsular opacification, macular edema, and epiretinal membrane. Factors associated with complications varied between early and late stages but included age, age at onset of uveitis, and uveitis type. Conclusion: Cataract surgery in uveitis patients presents challenges but can lead to significant visual improvement. This study highlights the importance of careful patient selection, preoperative and postoperative inflammation management, and precise surgical techniques. Although complications were common, they were manageable, and most patients experienced improved vision, emphasizing the benefits of cataract surgery in this population. However, future investigations should address the study's limitations and further refine perioperative strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1837.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: colorectal cancer; risk factors; oncogenesis; lifestyle; gut microbiota; prognosis
Online: 28 August 2023 (08:44:19 CEST)
Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Numerous pathophysiological mechanisms, such as abnormal cell proliferation, cell differentiation, resistance to apoptosis, invasion of structures adjacent to colorectal tumor cells, and distant metastasis, are involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. These processes are initiated by the complex interaction of a number of genetic and environmental factors, including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, alcohol consumption, smoking or gut microbiota. Despite the significant progress achieved in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients with colorectal cancer, there has been recently a noteworthy increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer in individuals below the age of 50 years. Early-onset colorectal cancer has a different frequency of oncogenic mutations, a higher prevalence of mucinous histology, a distinct deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation profile, a more distal location, and lower survival rates. A significant improvement in the prognosis of these patients can be achieved through the detection and removal of modifiable risk factors, along with the implementation of personalized screening strategies for individuals at high risk for this malignancy. Furthermore, gaining comprehension of the pathophysiological mechanisms by which these risk factors contribute to the process of oncogenesis may facilitate the discovery of novel therapeutic targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: machinery; prognosis framework; vibration data; roller bearings; stochastic models
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:04:20 CEST)
Machinery parts gradually wear out over time due to regular usage. To improve machinery health and prevent critical issues, a reliable prognosis framework can be implemented by monitoring the behaviour of machinery parts and issuing warnings before they reach a critical state. To achieve this, vibration data from roller bearings experiencing various fault conditions have been collected. Different techniques from the literature were combined to analyze the distinct configurations in the vibration data sets and identify the main defects in roller bearings. The significant features extracted from this analysis were then used to create optimized stochastic model equations, separately regressing inner and outer race fault features to healthy bearing features under random conditions. These models can help engineers design more dependable systems, optimize their performance, and minimize the risk of failures and downtime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: heart failure; cardiomyopathy; ischemic heart disease; prognosis; women; men
Online: 29 June 2023 (07:27:12 CEST)
Background: Limited research has explored sex-specific differences in death predictors of HF pa-tients with ischemic (iCMP) and nonischemic (niCMP) cardiomyopathy. This study assessed sex differences in niCMP and iCMP prognosis. Methods: We studied 7,487 patients with HF between February 2017 and September 2020. Clini-cal features and echocardiographic findings were collected. We used Kaplan-Meier, Cox propor-tional hazards models, and score chi-square of Cox regression to determine death predictors in women and men. Results: mean age was 64.3±14.2 years, with 4,417 (59%) males. Women with iCMP and niCMP exhibited significantly higher mean age, higher mean left ventricular ejection fraction, and smaller left ventricular diastolic diameter than men. Over 2.26 years of follow-up, 325 (14.7%) women and 420 (15.7%) men, and 211 women (24.5%) and 519 men (29.8%) died in niCMP (p=NS) and iCMP (p=0.004), respectively. Cumulative incidence of death was higher in men with iCMP (log-rank p<0.0001) but similar in niCMP. Cox regression showed chronic kidney disease, dia-betes, stroke, atrial fibrillation, age, and myocardial infarction, as main predictors of death for iCMP in women and men. Conclusion: Women exhibited a better prognosis than men in iCMP, but similar for niCMP. Nevertheless, sex was not an independent predictor of death for both CMP.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0849.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Molecular biology; infectious diseases; clinical diagnostic; early detection; prognosis
Online: 12 June 2023 (14:31:24 CEST)
Epigenetic alterations are heritable and enduring modifications in gene expression that play a pivotal role in immune evasion. These include alterations to noncoding RNA, DNA methylation, and histone modifications. DNA methylation plays a crucial role in normal cell growth and development but alterations in methylation patterns such as hypermethylation or hypomethylation can enable tumor and viral cells to evade host immune responses. Histone modifications can also inhibit immune responses by promoting the expression of genes involved in suppressing normal immune function. In the case of T-cell lymphoma, adult T-cell Lymphomas (ALT) also undergo immune evasion through the exceptional function of its accessory and regulatory genes. Epigenetic therapies are emerging as a promising adjunct to traditional immunotherapy and chemotherapy regimens. Clinical trials are currently investigating the use of epigenetic therapies in combination with immunotherapies and chemotherapies for more effective treatment of ATL and other cancers. This review highlights epigenetic alterations that are widely found in T cell malignancies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0335.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma; Aggressive; Malignant; Prognosis; Risk stratification; Lymph node
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:26:22 CEST)
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is an extremely rare vascular sarcoma with variable aggressive clinical behavior. In this retrospective study we aimed to investigate prognostic factors based on clinicopathologic findings in a molecular/immunohistochemical confirmed nationwide multicenter cohort of 57 EHE. Patients had unifocal disease (n=29), multifocal disease (n=5), lymph node metastasis (n=8) and/or distant metastasis (n=15) at the time of diagnosis. The overall survival rate was 69.6% at 1 year and 50.5% at 5 years. Survival did not correlate with sex, age or histo-pathological parameters. No survival differences were observed between multifocal and metastatic disease suggesting that multifocality represents early metastases and treatment options are limited in comparison to unifocal disease. In unifocal tumors, survival could be predicted using the risk stratification model of Shibayama et al. dividing the cases into low (n=4), intermediate (n=15) and high (n=3) risk-groups. Larger tumor size (>3cm) and higher mitotic count (>1/10HPF) was asso-ciated with progressive unifocal disease course. Lymph node metastases at time of diagnosis oc-curred in 14.0% of the cases and was mainly associated with tumor localization in the head and neck area proposing lymph node dissection. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the aggressive behavior of EHE, emphasize the prognostic value of a previous described risk stratification model and may provide new insights regarding tumor focality, therapeutic strategies and prognosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1725.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Molecular biology; infectious diseases; clinical diagnostic; early detection; prognosis
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:34:18 CEST)
Antibiotic therapy is a cornerstone of modern medicine, yet the development of antibiotic re-sistance threatens to render these therapies ineffective. The gut microbiota, a complex ecosystem of microorganisms residing in the gastrointestinal tract, plays a critical role in modulating anti-biotic efficacy and resistance. This review delves into the intricate relationship between gut mi-crobiota, antibiotic therapy, and resistance, and discusses the potential applications of gut mi-crobiota research in guiding personalized antibiotic therapy and resistance mitigation strategies. Recent advancements in metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metabolomics have demon-strated the potential for tailored antibiotic regimens that minimize collateral damage to com-mensal bacteria and reduce the risk of resistance. Adjuvant therapies such as probiotics, prebi-otics, and synbiotics have shown promise in restoring gut microbial balance and mitigating the adverse effects of antibiotic therapy. We address the challenges associated with this emerging field including the need for standardized methodologies, ethical considerations, and interdisci-plinary collaboration. With continued interdisciplinary collaboration and the implementation of standardized methodologies, gut microbiota research can contribute to the global fight against antibiotic resistance and improve patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0047.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: colorectal neoplasm; nutrition assessment; body composition; electric impedance; prognosis
Online: 5 September 2022 (07:33:30 CEST)
Background: Some studies have shown that an increase in visceral fat is associated with postoperative clinical and oncologic outcomes. However, no studies have used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to determine the effects of visceral fat on the oncologic outcomes of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between visceral fat area (VFA) and clinical, and oncologic outcomes in CRC. Methods: This study included 203 patients who underwent anthropometric measurements by BIA before surgical treatment for CRC between January 2016 and June 2020. Results: According to the cutoff level of VFA by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 85 (40.5%) patients had a low VFA, and 119 (59.5%) had a high VFA. Multivariate analysis found that preoperative CRP (hazard ratio [HR], 3.882; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001–15.051; p=0.050) and nodal stage (HR, 7.996; 95% CI, 1.414–45.209; p=0.019) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival, while sex (HR, 0.110; 95% CI, 0.013–0.905; p=0.040), lymphovascular invasion (HR, 3.560; 95% CI, 1.098–11.544; p=0.034), and VFA (HR, 4.263; 95% CI, 1.280–14.196; p=0.040) were independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS). Conclusion: High VFA preoperatively measured by BIA was associated with inflammations and was an independent prognostic factor for DFS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Glaucoma; TrabEx; Trabectome; ab-interno trabeculectomy; prognosis; intraocular pressure
Online: 14 September 2021 (11:01:38 CEST)
Purpose: To compare ab interno trabeculectomy by trabecular meshwork excision to plasma-mediated ablation in primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: Retrospectively collected data of TrabEx+ (TEx, n=56) and Trabectome (T, n=99) were compared by coarsened exact matching to reduce confounding and matched based on baseline IOP and age. Primary outcomes were IOP and number of glaucoma medications. Complications and need for additional glaucoma surgery were assessed. Patients were followed for up to one year. Results: 53 TEx could be matched to T. Baseline IOP was 16.5±4.6 mmHg in both; age was 73.7±8.8 and 71.5±9.9 years in TEx and T, respectively. TEx were taking more medications than T (p<0.001). IOP was reduced to 14.8±4.3 in TEx and to 13.4±3.4 in T at 6 months, and to 14.9±6.0 (p=0.13) in TEx and to 14.1±3.8 mmHg (all p<0.05) in T at 12 months. Medications were reduced at both 6 and 12 months (p< 0.05). No differences were seen between TEx and T at 6 and 12 months. In TEx, only one serious complication occurred, and two patients required further glaucoma surgery. Conclusion: Although both groups had a baseline IOP considered low for ab-interno trabeculectomy, IOP and medications were reduced further at 6 and 12 months. IOP reduction did not reach significance in TEx at 12 months. The inter-group comparison did not reveal any significant differences. Both had a low complication rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0527.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Nonfunctioning neuroendocrine tumor of pancreas; Prognosis; Resection; Risk factors
Online: 23 July 2021 (08:07:47 CEST)
Several treatment guidelines for sporadic, nonmetastatic nonfunctioning neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (NF-pNETs) have recommended resection, however, tumors ≤ 2 cm do not necessarily need surgery. This study aimed to establish a surgical treatment plan for NF-pNETs ≤ 2 cm. From 2000 to 2017, 483 patients who underwent resection for NF-pNETs ≤ 2cm in 18 institutions from Korea and China were enrolled and their medical records were reviewed. Median age was 56 (range 16- 80) years. The 10-year overall survival rate (10Y-OS) and recurrence-free survival rate (10Y-RFS) were 89.8 and 93.1%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, tumor size (> 1.5cm; p = 0.001) and nodal metastasis (p = 0.013) were independent adverse prognostic factors for OS. Perineural invasion (p = 0.008) and high Ki-67 index (≥3%; p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for poor RFS. NF-pNETs ≤ 2 cm showed unfavorable prognosis after resection when the tumor was larger than 1.5cm, Ki-67 index ≥ 3%, or nodal metastasis was present. NF-pNET patients with tumors ≤ 1.5cm can be observed if the preoperative Ki-67 index is under 3%, and if nodal metastasis is not suspected in preoperative radiologic studies. These findings support the clinical use to make decision about small NF-pNETs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0434.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease; histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis; prognosis; children; age
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:37:36 CEST)
Background: Little information exists regarding the differences in the clinical and laboratory characteristics of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) according to age. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of KFD according to age. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients diagnosed with KFD at Pusan National University Hospital between 2010 and 2020. Results: Eighty patients (46 children and 34 adults) with a mean age of 21.5 ± 11.8 years (range, 3–49 years) were included in the study. Among children, the male sex ratio was higher, in adults, the female sex ratio was higher. Fever, tenderness in the lymph node, and skin rashes were more common in children, while myalgia and weight loss were more common in adults. In children, the recurrence rate was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.8% vs 0.0%, P=0.001). EBV and ANA positivity rates were higher in boys than in girls. In adults, the recurrence rate was significantly higher in women than in men (18.2% vs 0.0%, P=0.005). ANA positivity rates were higher in women than in men. Conclusion: The clinical features, laboratory findings, and recurrence of KFD may differ depending on age and sex. Clinicians should be aware of this.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: early breast cancer; prognosis; physical activity; tumor dormancy; recurrence
Online: 2 February 2021 (08:24:31 CET)
Several studies have suggested that pre and/or postdiagnosis physical activity can reduce the risk of recurrence in breast cancer patients, however its effect according to follow-up time has not yet been investigated. We analyzed recurrence and mortality dynamics in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) from Australia and Canada. The combined Australian RCTs evaluated, at median follow-up of 8.3 years, an 8-month pragmatic exercise intervention in 337 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, while the Canadian RCT evaluated, at median follow-up of 7.4 years, supervised aerobic or resistance exercise during chemotherapy in 242 patients. For each RCT, the control arm consisted of patients undergoing usual care. We estimated the event dynamics by the discrete hazard function, through flexible regression of yearly conditional event probabilities with generalized additive models. In the considered RCTs, the recurrence and mortality risk of patients enrolled in the physical activity arm was stably reduced at medium/long term after five year of follow-up. In the Australian RCTs where patients were recruited by urban versus rural area, the latter group did not display benefit from physical activity. Estimated Odds Ratios (95% Confidence Intervals) for Disease Free Survival (DFS) in urban women were 0.63 (0.22-1.85); 0.27 (0.079-0.90); 0.11 (0.013-0.96) at the 3rd, 5th and 7th year of follow-up, respectively. For rural women, DFS patterns were overlapping with ORs approximating 1 at the different years of follow-up. Although not reaching statistical evidence, the estimates in the Canadian trial were in line with the results from the Australian urban women with ORs (95% CI) forDFS of 0.70 (0.33-1.50); 0.47 (0.19-1.18); 0.32 (0.077-1.29) at 3rd, 5th, 7th follow-up year, respectively. While we acknowledge that the analyzed RCTs were not designed for investigating disease recurrence over time, these results support the evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of developing medium/long-term metastases. Additional translational research is needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying these observations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0476.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Ovarian cancer; mapping-based; mapping-free; SNVs; survival prognosis
Online: 18 December 2020 (15:15:50 CET)
Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of deaths in gynecologic malignancies. Many possible mechanisms have been proposed via RNAseq and DNAseq technique recently. However, the driving factors are still obscure. The possible reasons are attributed to the incomplete human reference. This study integrated the canonical mapping-based and mapping-free protocols to extract reliable variations and novel events. We eventually obtained 450 reliable SNVs from the WES data and novel events from the RNAseq data, including 154 SNVs, 462 intron events, two repeats and six splice events. We identified six differentially expressed genes and six contigs that are significantly related to survival prognosis. The recurrent SNVs in significantly differentially expressed genes can be validated in an independent cohort of 20 Chinese ovarian cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0441.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Corona Virus Disease 2019; pulmonary vesicle; prognosis; surgical treatment
Online: 24 April 2020 (12:06:33 CEST)
Background: The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading globally now. However, the clinical presentation that predict prognosis of the patients are still largely unknow. Methods: We enrolled 393 patients infected with COVID-19 and 30 patients with common pulmonary bulla and reviewed their clinical features to evaluate the potential prognostic value of pulmonary vesicles, especially in the patients with severe symptoms. One COVID-19 patient with vesicles was treated by bullectomy for last resort, and its characteristics of the patient’s perioperative laboratory tests was analyzed. The pathological findings of bullectomy were described and compared with those of common bulla cases. Results: Patients infected with COVID-19 showed more dependence on ventilator, occurrence of super resistant bacteria, and prone to vesicle formation than common bulla (p<0.05). Disease severity is associated with age, sex, and usage of ventilator, ECMO and antibiotics, super resistance bacteria and vesicle formation (p<0.05). The average mortality rate of COVID-19 patients was 4.10% (25.4% in severe patients, 0.00% in mild patients). Interestingly, the mortality rate further increased in severe patients with pulmonary vesicles than those without pulmonary vesicles (35.7% vs 22.4%, p=0.0442). One COVID-19 patient with vesicles underwent bullectomy and had a poor prognosis, who showed diffuse alveolar damage and extensive necrosis in bullectomy specimen. Conclusions: Patients infected with COVID-19 are more prone to form pulmonary vesicles showed on chest CT scans, as an important poor prognosis factor, especially in the severe patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0109.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: connexins; Cx43; gap junctions; lung cancer; immunohistochemistry; prognosis; nuclear
Online: 13 February 2019 (10:30:49 CET)
Direct intercellular communication, mediated by gap junctions formed by the connexin transmembrane protein family, is frequently dysregulated in cancer. Connexins have been described as tumour suppressors, but emerging evidence suggests that they can also act as tumour promoters. This feature is connexin- and tissue-specific and may be mediated by complex signalling pathways through gap junctions or hemichannels or by completely junction-independent events. Lung cancer is the number one cancer in terms of mortality worldwide, and novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets are urgently needed. Our objective was to gain a better understanding of connexins in this setting. We used several in silico tools to analyse TCGA data in order to compare connexin mRNA expression between healthy lung tissue and lung tumours and correlated these results with gene methylation patterns. Using Kaplan-Meier plotter tools, we analysed a microarray dataset and an RNA-seq dataset of non-small cell lung tumours in order to correlate connexin expression with patient prognosis. We found that connexin mRNA expression is frequently either upregulated or downregulated in lung tumours. This correlated with both good and poor prognosis (overall survival) in a clear connexin isoform-dependent manner. These associations were strongly influenced by the histological subtype (adenocarcinoma versus squamous cell carcinoma). We present an overview of all connexins but particularly focus on four isoforms implicated in lung cancer: Cx26, Cx30.3, Cx32 and Cx43. We further analysed the protein expression and localization of Cx43 in a series of 72 human lung tumours. We identified a subset of tumours that exhibited a unique strong nuclear Cx43 expression pattern that predicted worse overall survival (p=0.014). Upon sub-stratification, the prognostic value remained highly significant in the adenocarcinoma subtype (p=0.002) but not in the squamous carcinoma subtype (p=0.578). This finding highlights the importance of analysis of connexin expression at the protein level, particularly the subcellular localization. Elucidation of the underlying pathways regulating Cx43 localization may provide for novel therapeutic opportunities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: biomarker; chemoradiation; prognosis; bladder preservation; bladder neoplasm; urothelial carcinoma
Online: 27 August 2018 (11:13:28 CEST)
Chemoradiation-based bladder preservation therapy (BPT) is currently a curative option for non-metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients at favorable risk or an alternative to radical cystectomy (RC) for those who are unfit for RC. In BPT, only patients who achieve complete response (CR) after chemoradiation have favorable prognosis and quality of life with preserved functional bladder. Thus, predicting CR and favorable prognosis is important for optimal patient selection for BPT. We reviewed biomarkers for predicting clinical outcomes of chemoradiation-based BPT. Biomarkers studied were categorized into those related to apoptosis, cell proliferation, receptor tyrosine kinases, DNA damage response genes, hypoxia, molecular subtype, and others. Among these biomarkers, Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI) and meiotic recombination 11 may be used for selecting BPT or RC. Ki-67 LI and erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (erbB2) may be used for predicting both chemoradiation response and prognosis of patients on BPT. Concurrent use of trastuzumab and a combination of carbogen and nicotinamide can overcome chemoradiation resistance conferred by erbB2 overexpression and tumor hypoxia. Further studies are needed to confirm the practical utility of these biomarkers for progress on biomarker-directed personalized management of MIBC patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cytochromes P450; ovarian cancer; gynecologic cancers; pro-drug; xenobiotics; prognosis
Online: 4 September 2023 (11:58:30 CEST)
Over the past decade, significant developments have occurred in treatment strategies for ovarian cancer, yet targeted therapy with few side effects is still a major issue. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme family plays a vital role in the tumorigenesis process and metabolism of drugs, with a negative impact on therapy outcomes. Gaining more insight into CYP expression is crucial for understanding the pathophysiology of ovarian cancer since many isoforms are essential for the metabolism of xenobiotics and steroid hormones, which drive the disease's development. The purpose of this review is to provide a clear understanding of differential CYP expression in ovarian cancer and its implications for the prognosis of ovarian cancer patients, together with their polymorphisms' effect on chemotherapy metabolism. Finally, we provide our thoughts on opportunities to exploit metabolic CYP expression for novel therapeutic development to treat ovarian cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0879.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: early-stage endometrial cancer; molecular classification; L1CAM; risk stratification; prognosis
Online: 11 August 2023 (08:38:07 CEST)
Aim: To improve risk stratification in early-stage endometrial cancer (EC), we performed mo-lecular classification, and L1CAM immunohistochemistry (IHC) for additional risk assessment. Method: We analyzed archival tumor tissue from 247 early-stage EC patients. POLE mutations were detected using a Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction assay and Sanger sequencing, while the mismatch repair (MMR) status was determined by MMR protein IHC and MSI test. Additionally, we conducted IHC of p53 and L1CAM. Results: The 247 ECs were categorized into four subgroups: POLE-mutated (13.0%), MMR-deficient (27.9%), p53-abnormal (8.5%), and non-specific molecular profile (NSMP, 50.6%). We further subcategorized NSMP subgroup into NSMP-L1CAMneg (44.9%) and NSMP-L1CAMpos (5.7%), which we refer to as the molecu-lar-L1CAM classification. The molecular-L1CAM classification was an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) (p <0.001, each). Similarly, the simplified L1CAM-p53 categorization, for practical use, remained an independent prognostic factor for RFS and OS (p <0.001, p =0.003, respectively). Conclusion: Integrating the molecu-lar-L1CAM classification or the simplified L1CAM/p53 categorization can enhance risk stratifi-cation in early-stage EC, providing valuable prognostic information to guide treatment deci-sions and improve patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0385.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: papillary thyroid cancer; BRAFV600E mutation; lymph node metastasis; prognosis; outcomes.
Online: 6 July 2023 (07:14:21 CEST)
We aimed to assess the prognostic value of BRAFV600E mutation in a series of 127 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cases as a single factor, as well as in synergic interaction with other standard risk factors. All cases were tested for BRAFV600E mutation by real-time PCR. Event-free survival (EFS) was calculated between the date of the first evaluation and the date of occurrence of an adverse event (tumor recurrence/distant metastasis) or the date of the last known status. The prevalence of BRAFV600E mutation was 57.2%. The Kaplan-Meyer analysis showed a significant reduction of EFS among cases harboring BRAFV600E mutation compared to non-mutated cases (p=0.010). In addition, BRAFV600E mutation was found to better predict adverse outcomes when associated with the following risk factors: age≥55 years-old (p<0.001), male gender (p<0.001), conventional (p=0.005) and tall cell (p=0.014) histology, tumor size>40mm (p=0.001), extrathyroidal extension (p=0.001), multifocality (p=0.001) and lymph node metastasis (p<0.001). In univariate analysis, a 3.74-fold increased risk for a reduced EFS (p=0.018) was found for BRAFV600E mutated cases. Our results highlight the prognostic value of BRAFV600E mutation in PTCs. Moreover, the synergic interaction between BRAFV600E mutation and other risk factors seems more valuable in terms of prognosis, compared to BRAFV600E mutation alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1767.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; tumor marker; atezolizumab plus bevacizumab; prognosis; predictive model
Online: 26 June 2023 (09:42:06 CEST)
Aim: This study was to evaluate the predictive value of tumor marker (TM) score in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with Atezolizumab plus Bevacizumab (Atez/Bev) as a first-line chemotherapy. Materials/Methods: From September 2020 to December 2022, 371 HCC patients treated with Atez/Bev, in whom alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), fucosylated AFP (AFP-L3) and des gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) were measured at introducing Atez/Bev. Elevations of AFP (≥100 ng/ml), AFP-L3 (≥10%), and DCP (≥100 mAU/ml) were treated as positive, and the number of positive tumor marker was summed up and used as the previously proposed TM score. Hepatic reserve function was assessed with modified albumin-bilirubin grade (mALBI). Predictive values for prognosis were evaluated, retrospectively. Results: TM score 0 was in 81 (21.8%), score 1 in 110 (29.6%), score 2 in 112 (29.9%), and score 3 in 68 (18.3%), respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was not applicable [NA] (95% CI NA-NA), 24.0 months (95% CI 17.8-NA), 16.7 months (95% CI 17.8-NA) and NA (95%CI 8.3-NA) for TM scores 0, 1, 2 and 3, respectively (p<0.001). Median progression free survival (PFS) was also 16.5 months (95% CI 8.0-not applicable [NA]), 13.8 months (95% CI 10.6-21.3) and 7.7 months (95% CI 5.3-8.9), 5.8 months (95%CI 3.0-7.6), respectively (p<0.001). OS was stratified well in mALBI 1/2a as well as in mALBI 2a/2b. Whereas, PFS was well stratified in mALBI 2a/2b, while not in mALBI 1/2a. Conclusion: The TM score was a simple and useful prognostic marker in HCC patients treated with Atez/Bev.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0782.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR); corticosteroids; inflammatory macular edema; prognosis; relapse; uveitis.
Online: 12 June 2023 (07:17:49 CEST)
Purpose: To report the progression of patients diagnosed with birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR) initially treated with corticosteroids. Methods: We included 39 BSCR patients followed for ≥1 year. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to their initial treatment: methylprednisolone followed by prednisone (n=28) and prednisone alone (n=11). We analyzed the progression under treatment after 1, 3, 6 months, 1 year, and at the end of follow-up. Results: At the end of follow-up, 31/39 (79.5%) patients had reached inflammation control. Thirteen out of 28 (46.4%) and 6/11 (54.5%) patients were treated exclusively with corticosteroids, and 18/19 (94.7%) of them had reached inflammation control at the end of follow-up; their mean (range) corticosteroid dose was 3.5 (0-10) mg/day. Conclusion: We found that the prolonged corticosteroid therapy treatment strategy resulted in inflammation control in half of BSCR patients. This control was maintained with low doses of cortisone, usually <5 mg/day.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0837.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Gastric signet ring cell carcinoma; lymph node metastases; LODDS; prognosis
Online: 24 April 2023 (09:00:47 CEST)
Background: The lymph nodes staging system can predict the prognosis of gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC), but the optimal system for early and advanced SRCC remains unknown. Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed 693 SRCC patients who underwent radical resection in the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital. The predicted performance of three lymph node staging systems, including pN staging, lymph node metastasis rate (LNR), and log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS), was compared using the receiver characteristic operating curve (ROC). The kaplan⁃meier method and the log⁃rank test analyze the overall survival of patients. The Cox risk regression model identifies independent risk factors associated with patient outcomes. The nomogram was made by R studio. Results: The 693 SRCC included 165 early SRCC and 528 advanced SRCC. ROC showed that LODDS had better predictive performance than pN and LNR in predicting prognosis regardless of early or advanced SRCC. LODDS can be used to predict the prognosis of early and advanced SRCC and was an independent risk factor associated with patient outcomes (P=0.002, P<0.001). Furthermore, the nomogram constructed by LODDS and clinicopathological features had good predictive performance. Conclusion: LODDS showed a clear prognostic superiority over both pN and LNR in early and advanced SRCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Frailty; elderly; inflammageing; inflammation; biomarkers; prognosis; outcomes; emergency; laparotomy; surgery
Online: 3 April 2023 (08:20:39 CEST)
Surgeons are increasingly faced with a challenging, ageing and frail patient population. A significant absence of biomarkers to stratify outcomes of patients undergoing emergency laparotomy exists. Inflammageing describes a state of chronic inflammation associated with ageing and frailty and may predict worse outcomes. This retrospective observational study evaluated pre-morbid inflammatory markers in the prognostication of elderly patients undergoing emergency laparotomy. Patients aged ≥65 years undergoing surgery between 01/04/2017 – 01/04/2022 were identified. Pre-admission and acute C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), total white cell count (WCC), neutrophil count (NC) and lymphocyte count (LC) data points were captured. Pre-operative risk stratification scores and postoperative outcomes were recorded using the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit (NELA) database. A cohort of 196 patients was included: 57.7% were female, median age of 74.5 years. High-risk (NELA risk of mortality ≥5%) and frail (clinical frailty scale ≥4) patients experienced a significantly longer hospital and critical care stay (p<0.05). Pre-admission ESR ≥16 and LC ≥4.1 were significantly associated with a longer critical care stay (p<0.05), however, no statistical significance was observed with CRP, WCC and NC in predicting adverse outcomes. We found an elevated pre-morbid ESR and LC identifies a potential inflammageing cohort that demonstrate worse outcomes following emergency laparotomy. The prognostication of elderly surgical patients remains a challenge and represents an area of research deserving of future attention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0391.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: prognosis and health management, preprocessing data, feature extraction, feature selection.
Online: 22 March 2023 (04:31:53 CET)
In the chemical processing industries, sensors for pumps are among the most commonly used machinery. Condition-based maintenance (CBM) and prognosis health management (PHM) determine the most cost-effective time to overhaul pumps. In order to determine the status of the pump, a signal-emitting accelerometer is employed. Stationarity-based feature extraction from amplitude signals is used to process the signal. Utilizing the time-domain function, multiple statistical results were produced. Eight fault codes were classified using support vector machine method. The enormous amount of data points necessitated the use of feature selection. In terms of accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score, the Chi-square feature selection method exceeds other approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Breast Cancer; Liquid biopsy; ctDNA; ALU 247; Disease progression; Prognosis
Online: 21 December 2022 (11:43:52 CET)
Background: Liquid biopsy is widely recognised as an efficient diagnostic method in oncology for disease detection and monitoring. Though examination of circulating tumor cell (CTC) is mostly implemented for assessment of genomic aberrations, need of complex methodologies for their detection has impeded its acceptance in low resource settings. We evaluated the cell free DNA (cfDNA) as a liquid biopsy tool and investigated its utility in breast cancer patients. Methods: Total cell free DNA was extracted from plasma of breast cancer patients (n=167) with median follow up of more than 5 years, at various stages of the disease. Quantitative PCR was performed to estimate the copy numbers of two fractions of ALU repetitive elements (ALU 115 and ALU 247) and DNA Integrity (DI) was calculated as the ratio of ALU 247/115. Mutations in TP53 and PIK3CA in the cfDNA was estimated by next-gen sequencing (NGS) in a subset of samples. Association of the levels of both the ALU fragments with various clinico-pathological factors and disease-free survival at various stages were examined. Nomogram models were constructed with clinical variables and ALU 247 levels to predict disease-free survival and best performing model was evaluated by decision curve analysis. Results: DI and ALU 247 levels were significantly lower (p<0.0001) in the post-operative plasma when compared to their pre-surgery levels. DI and ALU 247 were found to be significantly higher in patients with metastasis (p<0.05). Patients with higher levels of ALU 247 in their post-operative plasma had significantly poor disease-free survival (p=0.005). Higher level of ALU 247 in circulation also correlated with low tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) within their primary tumors in the ER-negative breast cancer subtype (p=0.01). Cox proportional hazard analysis confirmed ALU 247 as an independent variable of disease-free survival both in univariate and multivariate analysis [HR 1.3 (95% CI 1.047 to 1.613, p= 0.017)]. Nomogram model showed addition of ALU 247 with other variables significantly improved (C-index-0.823) the predictive ability of the model. Conclusion: Our results confirm the utility of cfDNA as an evolving liquid biopsy tool for molecular analysis. Evaluation of larger fragment of cfDNA estimated through ALU 247 can provide vital information concurrent with the pathological process of disease evolution in breast cancer and warrants expansion to other cancer types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0068.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: prostate cancer; Warburg effect; prognosis; radical prostatectomy; lipidic; metabolism; mortality
Online: 5 December 2022 (08:50:39 CET)
Prostate Cancer (PCa) is still ranked as the first cancer in male population and evidences have suggested an alteration of glycemic and lipidic metabolism that are related to its progression and prognosis. Aim of the study is to investigate associations between enzymes’ expression, especially involved in the lipidic pathway, and PCa aggressiveness. We retrospectively analyzed data from 390 patients with PCa or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) at the Department of Urology, University of Catania. Immunohistochemical slides were evaluated for the expression of proteins related to glucose and lipidic metabolism. A total of 286 were affected by PCa while 104 by BPH. We demonstrated that ATP-lyase (odds ratio [OR]: 1.71; p<0.01), fatty acide sinthase (OR: 4.82; p<0.01), carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1a (OR: 2.27; p<0.05) were associated with androgen receptor (AR) expression. We found that steaoryl Co-A desaturase expression in PCa patients with total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dl was independently associated with ISUP ≥4 (OR: 4.22; p=0.049). We found that CPT-1a+ was associated with biochemical recurrence (hazard ratio: 1.94; p=0.03]). Our results support the evidences that the manipulation of lipidic metabolism could serve in the future to contrast PCa progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: bortezomib; cMAF; MAFb; multiple myeloma; POMP; prognosis; PFS; survival; OS
Online: 13 August 2021 (08:43:42 CEST)
While multiple myeloma (MM) treatment with proteasome inhibitors and other agents yields encouraging results, primary and secondary resistance remains an emerging problem. An important factor in such treatment resistance is the overexpression of several proteins. The present study comprehensively evaluates the expression of POMP, PSMB5, NRF2, XBP1, cMAF and MAFb proteins in plasma cells isolated from the bone marrow of 39 MM patients treated with bortezomib-based regimens using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proteins were selected on the basis of previous laboratory and clinical studies in bortezomib treated MM patients. It was found that the expression of the investigated proteins did not significantly differ between bortezomib-sensitive and bortezomib-refractory patients. However, the expression of some proteins correlated with overall survival (OS); this was significantly shorter in patients with higher POMP expression (HR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.0, p = 0.0277) and longer in those with higher MAFB expression (HR 0.32, 95% CI: 0.13-0.80, p = 0.0147). Our results indicate that high expression of POMP and MAFB in MM plasma cells may serve as predictors of OS in MM patients treated with bortezomib-based regimens. However, further studies are needed to determine the role of these factors in effective strategies for improving anti-myeloma therapy.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: triple-negative breast cancer; prognosis; immune system; immunoglobulin kappa C
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:27:49 CEST)
We studied the prognostic impact of tumor immunoglobulin kappa C (IGKC) mRNA expression as a marker of the humoral immune system in the FinHer trial patient population, where 1,010 patients with early breast cancer were randomly allocated to either docetaxel-containing or vinorelbine-containing adjuvant chemotherapy. HER2-positive patients were additionally allocated to either trastuzumab or no trastuzumab. Hormone receptor-positive patients received tamoxifen. IGKC was evaluated in 909 tumors using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the influence on distant disease-free survival (DDFS) was examined using univariable and multivariable Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier estimates. Interactions were analyzed using Cox regression. IGKC expression, included as continuous variable, was independently associated with DDFS in a multivariable analysis including also age, molecular subtype, grade, and pT and pN stage (HR 0.930, 95% CI 0.870 – 0.995, P = 0.034). An independent association with DDFS was also found in a subset analysis of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (HR 0.843, 95% CI 0.724 – 0.983, P = 0.029), but not in luminal (HR 0.957, 95% CI 0.867 – 1.056, P = 0.383) or HER2-positive (HR 0.933, 95% CI 0.826 – 1.055, P = 0.271) cancers. No significant interaction between IGKC and chemotherapy or trastuzumab administration was detected (Pinteraction = 0.855 and 0.684, respectively). These results show that humoral immunity beneficially influences the DDFS of patients with early TNBC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0569.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: multiple myeloma; computed tomography; artificial intelligence; radiomics; prognosis; imaging; diagnosis
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:17:03 CET)
Multiple Myeloma (MM) is the second most common type of hematological disease and, although it is rare among patients under 40 years of age, its incidence rises in elderly subject. MM manifestations are usually known with the abbreviation CRAB (hyperCalcemia, Renal failure, Anaemia, and lytic Bone lesions). In particular, the extent of the bone disease is negatively related to a decreased patients’ quality of life and, in general, bone disease in MM increases both morbidity and mortality. The detection of lytic bone lesions on imaging, especially CT and MRI, is becoming crucial from the clinical viewpoint to separate asymptomatic from symptomatic MM patients and the detection of focal lytic lesion in these imaging data is becoming relevant even when no clinical symptoms are present. Therefore, radiology is pivotal in the staging and accurate management of patients with MM even in early phases of the disease. In this review we describe the opportunities offered by quantitative imaging and radiomics in multiple myeloma. At present time there is still high variability in the choice between various imaging methods to study MM patients and high variability in image interpretation with suboptimal agreement among readers even in tertiary centres. Therefore, the potential of medical imaging for patients affected by MM is still to be completely unveiled. In the next years, new insights to study MM with medical imaging will derive from artificial intelligence (AI) and radiomics usage in different bone lesions and from the wide implementations of quantitative methods to report CT and MRI. Eventually, medical imaging data can be integrated with the patient's outcomes with the purpose to find radiological biomarkers for predicting the disease prognostic flow and its therapeutic response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0466.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; dietary fiber; gut microbiota; prognosis; vegetable fiber
Online: 22 October 2020 (21:26:36 CEST)
The gut microbiota has been suggested as an important factor in the pathogenic mechanisms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This study aimed to investigate whether the intake of different kinds of dietary fiber was related to the disease progression rate (∆FS) and survival time. In total, 272 sporadic ALS patients diagnosed according to the revised EI Escorial criteria were recruited from March 2011 and were followed-up until the occurrence of events or the end of September 2020. The events included percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, tracheostomy, and death. Dietary fiber intake was calculated based on a 24-hour dietary recall and classified according to five major fiber-rich foods: vegetables, fruits, grains, legumes, and nuts/seeds. Among the total participants, the group with ∆FS values lower than the mean ∆FS (0.75) was noted in the highest tertiles of total and vegetable fiber intake. Participants with the highest tertile of vegetable fiber intake showed longer survival in the Kaplan–Meier analysis (p = 0.033). Notably, vegetable fiber intake was negatively correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. This study showed that vegetable fiber intake could influence the disease progression rate and survival time. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm whether dietary fiber supplementation improves the prognosis of ALS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0159.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Thyroid carcinoma; non-coding RNA; radioactive iodine; drug resistance; prognosis
Online: 7 October 2020 (14:28:40 CEST)
Thyroid cancer is the most prevalent malignancy of the endocrine system and the ninth most common cancer globally. Despite the advances in the management of thyroid cancer, there are critical issues with the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer that result in the poor overall survival of undifferentiated and metastatic thyroid cancer patients. Recent studies have revealed the role of different non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) that are dysregulated during thyroid cancer development or the acquisition of resistance to therapeutics, and may play key roles in treatment failure and poor prognosis of the thyroid cancer patients. Here, we systematically review the emerging roles and molecular mechanisms of ncRNAs that regulate thyroid tumorigenesis and drug response. We then propose the potential clinical implications of ncRNAs as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for thyroid cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: MDS; immune cell repertoire; prognosis; multiplex immunohistochemistry; stem cell niche
Online: 13 September 2020 (11:51:13 CEST)
Purpose: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are caused by a stem cell failure, but the relationship between immune dysregulation and the course of disease has not yet been analyzed in detail. Experimental design: To get insights into the pathophysiologic and clinical relevance of the histotopography of immune cell subpopulations in this process, the immune cell infiltrate with focus on its spatial distribution was determined by multispectral imaging (MSI) in 147 bone marrow biopsies from MDS or secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) patients and healthy controls (HC). In addition, the data were correlated to genetic alterations and clinical features of these patients including therapy response. Results: A high inter-tumoral heterogeneity in the frequency and spatial distribution of CD3+CD8+, CD3+CD8-, CD3+FOXP3+ T cell subsets, MUM1p+CD3- post-germinal B/plasma cells and CD34+ blasts was found in MDS and sAML samples. In HC only few B cells/plasma cells, but no T cell subpopulations were detected in the proximity to CD34+ blasts. In contrast, the frequency of these lymphocytes was increased in proximity to CD34+ blasts in both MDS and sAML independent of the karyotype, genetic alterations frequently detected in MDS, clinical risk stratification systems or treatment response to hypomethylating agents. Furthermore, an increased frequency of CD3+CD8+ T cells and MUM1p+ CD3- B cells was found in responders to epigenetic drugs. Conclusions: Thus, we conclude that (i) T cell subsets do not belong to the normal stem cell niche, (ii) the presence of T and B cell subpopulations not directly affect the course of MDS, (iii) lymphocytes in the proximity to CD34+ blasts might indicate defective stem cell properties and (iv) the number of lymphocytes is a predictor of therapy response to hypomethylating agents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: strap muscle invasion; prognosis; differentiated thyroid carcinoma; meta-analysis; review
Online: 14 May 2020 (11:35:41 CEST)
Gross strap muscle invasion (gSMI) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) was defined as high-risk recurrent group in the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines. However, controversy persists because several studies suggested gSMI had little effect on disease outcome. Herein, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate impact of gSMI on outcome of DTC. Methods: A systematic search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and MEDLINE) for studies published until February 2020 was performed. Case-control studies and randomized controlled trials that studied the impact of gSMI on outcome of DTC were included. Results: Six studies (all retrospective studies) involving 13639 patients met final inclusion criteria. Compared with no extrathyroidal extension (ETE), patients with gSMI were associated with increased risk of recurrence (P=0.0004,OR, 1.46; 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.80) and lymph node metastasis (LNM) (P<0.00001,OR 4.19;95% CI. 2.53 to 6.96). For mortality (P=0.34,OR 1.47;95% CI:0.67 to 3.25), ten-year disease-specific survival (P=0.80, OR 0.91;95% CI:0.44 to 1.88) and distant metastasis (DM) (P=0.21, OR 2.94;95% CI. 0.54 to 15.93), there was no significant difference between gSMI and no ETE group. In contrast with maximal ETE, patients with gSMI were associated with decreased risk of recurrence (P<0.0001,OR, 0.58; 95% CI: 0.44 to 0.76) , mortality (P=0.0003,OR 0.20;95% CI:0.08 to 0.48), LNM (P=0.0003,OR 0.64;95% CI. 0.50 to 0.81) and DM (P=0.0009,OR 0.28;95% CI. 0.13 to 0.59). Conclusions: DTC patients with gSMI had a higher risk of recurrence and LNM than those without ETE. However, in contrast with maximal ETE, a much better prognosis was observed in DTC patients with only gSMI. The findings of our meta-analysis provide supportive evidence for the validity of the T category changes in the 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer system. The actual impact of gSMI should be re-evaluated and revised in the recurrent risk stratification system in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: bladder cancer; dynamic model; uncertainty quantification; model calibration; cancer prognosis
Online: 31 May 2018 (08:18:00 CEST)
Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases in the urinary system and a highly aggressive neoplasm. The prognosis is not favourable usually and its evolution for particular patients is very difficult to find out. In this paper we propose a dynamic mathematical model that describes the bladder tumor growth and the immune response evolution. This model is customized for a single patient, determining appropriate model parameter values via model calibration. Due to the uncertainty of the tumor evolution, using the calibrated model parameters, we predict the tumor size and the immune response evolution over the next few months assuming three different scenarios: favourable, neutral and unfavourable. In the former, the cancer disappears; in the second a 5mm tumor is expected around the middle of August 2018; in the worst scenario, a 5mm tumor is expected around the end of May 2018. The patient has been cited around June 15th, 2018, to check the tumor size, if it exists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1627.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: acute pancreatitis; neutrophil-creatinine index; neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio; prognosis; severity
Online: 25 October 2023 (10:06:31 CEST)
Background and Objectives: The severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) is graded as mild (MAP), moderately severe (MSAP), and severe (SAP) according to the revised Atlanta Classification. Determining the severity of AP is the main goal in the early time of AP. The aim of this study was to compare laboratory parameters or indices including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil-creatinine index (NCI) at admission for predicting severity of AP. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the data from patients who admitted with diagnosis of AP between January 2018 and December 2021 were collected. Laboratory parameters and indices including NLR, PLR and NCI were compared in the discrimination of AP severity groups. Results: A total of 421 patients [MAP group (n=213), MSAP group (n=158) and SAP group (n=50)] were included. WBC count, neutrophil count, hematocrit, CRP, BUN, creatinine, NLR and NCI were significant parameters to discriminate AP subgroups. The AUROC analysis for discriminating MSAP from MAP showed that WBC (AUC: 0.723, 95% CI: 0.674-0.768, p<0.001), hematocrit (AUC: 0.566, 95% CI: 0.514-0.607, p=0.032), NLR (AUC: 0.649, 95% CI: 0.598-0.698, p< 0.001) and NCI (AUC: 0.749, 95% CI: 0.701-0.792, p<0.001) were statistically significant parameters. Similarly, AUCs to discriminate SAP from MSAP were (AUC: 0.649, 95% CI: 0.579-0.713, p < 0.001) for WBC, (AUC: 0.703, 95% CI: 0.621-0.785, p< 0.001) for BUN, (AUC: 0.602, 95% CI: 0.532-0.669, p=0.029) for CRP and (AUC: 0.742, 95% CI: 0.676-0.800, p<0.001) for NCI. Logistic regression analyses indicated that NCI was the only parameter to discriminate MSAP form MAP (OR: 1.119, 95% CI: 1.015-1.235, p=0.023) and SAP from MSAP (OR: 1.113, 95% CI: 1.042-1.888, p = 0.001). Conclusions: The present study enabled the identification of neutrophil-creatinine index as a new prognostic tool for the assessment AP severity at hospital admission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0686.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: arterial stiffness; cardiovascular disease; percutaneous coronary intervention; prognosis; pulse wave analysis.
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:15:06 CEST)
Background The prognostic value of estimated pulse wave velocity (ePWV) has been infrequently explored in high-risk patient groups. Our study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of ePWV among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent (DES). Methods A total of 4,119 consecutive subjects who underwent PCI with DES (mean age, 67.1 ± 11.6 years and 33.1% were female) were retrospectively analyzed. ePWV was calculated based on the patient’s age and mean blood pressure. Major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), including cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and ischemic stroke, were evaluated. Reults During a median follow-up duration of 3.51 years (interquartile range, 1.35 ~ 6.37 years), there were 746 MACE (18.1%). Multivariable analysis showed that higher ePWV was associated with higher MACE incidence (middle tertile vs. the lowest tertile: hazard ratio [HR], 2.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81-3.42; P < 0.001; the highest tertile vs. the lowest tertile: HR, 6.18; 95% CI, 4.33-8.80; P < 0.001) The inclusion of ePWV data significantly increased the global chi-square values when added to the clinical information (from 96 to 128; P < 0.001). Conclusion ePWV demonstrated a significant association with MACE in patients who underwent DES implantation. Given its relative simplicity to calculate, ePWV could potentially serve as a valuable instrument for stratifying cardiovascular risk within this high-risk patient population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: biology; drug resistance; gene expression profiling; mRNA; multiple myeloma; prognosis; treatment
Online: 5 October 2021 (08:20:44 CEST)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a genetically complex disease that results from a multistep transformation of normal to malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the initiation and heterogeneous evolution of MM remain largely unknown. A fundamental step needed to understand the oncogenesis of MM and its response to therapy is the identification of driver mutations. The introduction of gene expression profiling (GEP) in MM was an important step in elucidating the molecular heterogeneity of MM and its clinical relevance. Since some mutations in myeloma occur in non-coding regions, studies based on the analysis of mRNA provide more comprehensive information on the oncogenic pathways and mechanisms relevant to MM biology. In this review, we discuss the role of gene expression profiling in understanding the biology of multiple myeloma together with the clinical manifestation of the disease, as well as its impact on treatment decisions and future directions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0711.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; classification; early detection; Multi-Level Fuzzy Neural Networks; prognosis
Online: 29 March 2021 (17:09:46 CEST)
Timely diagnosis of Alzheimer's diseases(AD) is crucial to obtain more practical treatments. In this paper, a novel approach Based on Multi-Level Fuzzy Neural Networks (MLFNN) for early detection of AD is proposed. The focus of study was on the problem of diagnosing AD and MCI patients from healthy people using MLFNN and selecting the best feature(s) and most compatible classification algorithm. In this way, we achieve an excellent performance using only a single feature i.e. MMSE score, by fitting the optimum algorithm to the best area using optimum possible feature(s) namely one feature for a real life problem. It can be said, the proposed method is a discovery that help patients and healthy people get rid of painful and time consuming experiments. Experiments shows the effectiveness of proposed method in current research for diagnosis of AD with one of the highest performance (accuracy rates of 96.6%), ever reported in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: germline; rare variant; cancer; lymphoid; B-cell; lymphomal; CLL; driver; prognosis
Online: 18 January 2021 (12:14:32 CET)
Growing evidence has revealed the implication of germline variation in cancer predisposition and prognostication. Here, we describe an analysis of putatively disruptive rare variants across the genomes of 726 patients with B-cell lymphoid neoplasms. We discovered a significant enrichment of 26 genes in germline protein truncating variants (PTVs), affecting cell signaling (MET, JAK2, ANGPT2), energy metabolism (ACO1) and nucleic acid metabolism and repair pathways (NT5E, DCK). Interestingly, some of these variants were restricted to either chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (i.e., ANGPT2 and AKR1C3) or B-cell lymphoma cases (PNMT, TPT1 and IGHMBP2). Additionally, we detected 1,675 likely disrupting variants in genes associated with cancer, of which 44.75% were novel events and 7.88% were PTVs. Among these, the most frequently affected genes were ATM, BIRC6, CLTCL1A and TSC2. Homozygous or compound heterozygous variants were detected in 28 cases; and coexisting somatic events were observed in 17 patients, some of which affected key lymphoma drivers such as ATM, KMT2D and MYC. Finally, we observed that variants in the helicase gene WRN were independently associated with shorter survival in CLL. Our study results support an important role for rare germline variation in the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and disease outcome of B-cell lymphoid neoplasms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0289.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: subsidy; automotive industry; prognosis; COVID-19; environmental impact; life cycle analysis
Online: 10 November 2020 (08:20:37 CET)
This paper establishes a prognosis of the long term environmental impact of various car subsidy concepts. The CO2 emissions of the German car fleet impacted by the purchase subsidies are determined. A balance model of the CO2 emissions of the whole car life cycle is developed. Consideration of production-, use- and End-of-Life processes are taken into account. The implementation of different subsidy scenarios directly affects the forecasted composition of the vehicle population and therefore the resulting life cycle assessment. All scenarios compensate the additional emissions required by the production pull-in within the considered period and hence reduce the accumulated CO2 emissions until 2030. The exclusive funding of BEVs is most effective with a break-even in 2025.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0484.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Gastric cancer; Submucosal invasion; Intestinal stem cell; Cancer stem cell; Prognosis
Online: 21 July 2020 (12:34:02 CEST)
Submucosal invasion is a critical step in gastric cancer (GC) progression, which greatly enhances metastasis risk. Cancer stem cells are responsible for invasion, metastasis, and tumor growth. To identify stem cell-related markers associated with submucosal invasion in GCs, we investigated the expression of candidate cancer stem cell (CSC) markers (CD133, CD44, and ALDH1A) and intestinal stem cell (ISC) markers (EPHB2, OLFM4, and LGR5) in early GCs with submucosal invasion. Remarkably, expression of all ISC markers and CD133 was frequently confined to the basal area of the lamina propria (basal pattern) in mucosal cancer. The proportion of stem cell marker-positive cells substantially increased during submucosal invasion. Given that ISC markers are restricted to the crypt base of the normal intestinal mucosa, these findings suggest that many early GCs may retain hierarchical characteristics. CD44 expression showed a focal pattern, ALDH1A was predominantly expressed diffusely, and there was no expansion of CD44 or ALDH1A expression in the submucosal cancer cells. RSPO2 from muscularis mucosa seem to be partly responsible for the increased expression of ISC markers in GC cells at the basal areas. We also found that ISC markers were correlated with CDX2 expression in GCs, indicating that ISC markers are involved in the intestinal differentiation in GCs. Interestingly, ISC markers (EPHB2 and OLFM4) and CD133 showed a positive impact on clinical outcomes. In particular, the prognostic value of EPHB2 was significant for intestinal-type GCs in a multivariate analysis. In summary, ISC markers and CD133 showed a basal distribution pattern along with enhanced expression in submucosal invading cells in early GCs. EPHB2 was an independent prognostic marker in intestinal-type GCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0373.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: malignant melanoma; BRAF V600E mutation; proteomics; mass spectrometry genetics; heterogeneity; prognosis
Online: 31 October 2019 (10:36:32 CET)
In comparison to other human cancer types, malignant melanoma exhibits the greatest amount of heterogeneity. After DNA-based detection of the BRAF V600E mutation in melanoma patients, targeted inhibitor treatment is the current recommendation. This approach, however, does not take the abundance of the therapeutic target, i.e., the B-raf V600E protein, into consideration. As shown by immunohistochemistry, the protein expression profiles of metastatic melanomas do clearly reveal the existence of inter- and intra-tumor variability. Nevertheless, the technique is only semi-quantitative. To quantitate the mutant protein there is a fundamental need for more precise techniques that are aimed at defining the currently non-existent link between the levels of the target protein and subsequent drug efficacy. Using cutting-edge mass spectrometry combined with DNA and mRNA sequencing, the mutated B-raf protein within metastatic tumors was quantitated for the first time. B-raf V600E protein analysis revealed a subjacent layer of heterogeneity for mutation-positive metastatic melanomas. These were characterized into two distinct groups with different tumor morphologies, protein profiles and patient clinical outcomes. This study provides evidence that a higher level of expression for the mutated protein is associated with a more aggressive tumor progression. Our study design that is comprised of surgical isolation of tumors, histopathological characterization, tissue biobanking, and protein analysis may enable the eventual delineation of patient responders/non-responders and the subsequent therapy of malignant melanoma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0478.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: pheochromocytoma; paraganglioma; GAPP; metastasis; prognosis; catecholamine; gene mutation; immunohistochemistry; pathology; diagnosis
Online: 25 July 2018 (11:41:52 CEST)
Pheochromocytoma and sympathetic paraganglioma (PPGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors characterized by catecholamine production in the adrenal medulla and extra-adrenal paraganglia. PPGL with metastasis was termed malignant PPGL. However, the distinction between “benign” and “malignant” PPGLs has been debated. Currently, all PPGLs are believed to have some metastatic potential and are assigned malignant tumors (ICD-O/3) by the WHO Classification of Endocrine Organs (2017, 4th edition). Therefore, the previous categories benign and malignant PPGL have been eliminated in favor of a risk stratification approach. The Grading of Adrenal Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma (GAPP) is a tool for risk stratification for predicting metastasis and the prognosis of patients. At least 30% of PPGLs are hereditary, with 20 genes identified and genotype-phenotype correlations clarified. Of these, VHL, RET, and NF1 have been well investigated and are the primary cause of bilateral PCC. In addition, succinate dehydrogenase gene subunits SDHB and SDHD are strongly correlated with extra-adrenal location, younger age, multiple tumors, metastasis, and poor prognosis. Disease stratification by catecholamine phenotype and molecular profiling correlates with histological grading by GAPP. PPGLs should be understood comprehensively based on clinical, biochemical, molecular, and pathological data for patient care. A flow chart for pathological diagnosis is included.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0635.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID‐19; IL18; TLR2; TLR4; CD14; CD40; CARD8; innate immunity; polymorphism; prognosis
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:53:03 CEST)
COVID-19 is characterized by a heterogeneous clinical presentation and prognosis. Risk factors contributing to the development of severe disease include old age and the presence of comorbidities. However, the genetic background of the host has also been recognized as an important determinant of disease prognosis. Considering the pivotal role of innate immunity in the control of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we analyzed the possible contribution of several innate immune gene polymorphisms (including TLR2-rs5743708, TLR4-rs4986790, TLR4-rs4986791, CD14-rs2569190, CARD8-rs1834481, IL18-rs2043211 and CD40-rs1883832) in disease severity and prognosis. A total of 249 individuals were enrolled and further divided into five (5) groups, according to the clinical progression scale provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) (asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe and critical). We identified that elderly patients with obesity and/or diabetes mellitus were more susceptible to developing pneumonia and respiratory distress syndrome after SARS-CoV-2 infection, while the IL18-rs1834481 polymorphism was an independent risk factor for developing pneumonia. Moreover, individuals carrying either the TLR2-rs5743708 or the TLR4-rs4986791 polymorphisms exhibited a 3.6- and 2.5-fold increased probability for developing pneumonia and a more severe disease, respectively. Our data supports the notion that the host’s genetic background can significantly affect COVID-19 clinical phenotype, also suggesting that the IL18-rs1834481, TLR2-rs5743708 and TLR4-rs4986791 polymorphisms may be used as molecular predictors of COVID-19 clinical phenotype.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1636.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: clinical decision support system; brain tumour; brain neoplasms; diagnosis; prognosis; systematic review
Online: 22 June 2023 (14:59:46 CEST)
The abnormal accumulation of cells in the human brain, if left untreated, may cause brain damage. Management and treatment of these tumours require an early and accurate diagnosis, while their prognostic characterisation can also be beneficial in the choice of care planning for the patient. CDSSs are being continuously developed and integrated into routine clinical practice as they assist clinicians and radiologists to deal with an enormous amount of medical data, reduce clinical errors, and improve diagnostic capabilities. They assist detection, classification, and grading of brain tumours as well as alerting physicians of requirement of change in treatment plans. The aim of this systematic review is to identify various CDSSs used in brain tumour diagnosis and prognosis, that rely on data captured by any imaging modality. Based on the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol, the literature search was conducted in PubMed and Engineering Village Compendex databases. This review examines various CDSS tool types, system features, techniques used, accuracy, and outcome, to provide the latest evidence available in the field of neuro-oncology. An overview of different types of CDSSs used to support clinical decision-making in the management and treatment of brain tumours, along with highlighting their benefits, challenges, and future perspectives has been provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0206.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: COVID-19; multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C); risk classification; prognosis
Online: 14 June 2022 (11:12:22 CEST)
Background: Two years after the first cases, critical gaps remain in identifying prognostic factors in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Methods: This retrospective study included 99 patients with MIS-C hospitalized between August 2020 and March 2022 in a pediatric tertiary center. The patients were divided into two groups according to clinical severity (low and high-risk). Prognostic values of baseline clinical and laboratory characteristics were evaluated with advanced statistical analysis, including machine learning. Results: Sixty-three patients were male, and the median age was 83 (3–205) months. Fifty-nine patients (%59.6) were low-risk cases. Patients aged six years and over tended to be at higher risk. Involvement of aortic or tricuspid valve or >1 valve was more frequent in the high-risk group. Mortality in previously healthy children was 3.2%. Intensive care unit admission and mortality rate in the high-risk group were 37.5% and 7.5%, respectively. At admission, high-risk patients were more likely to have reduced lymphocyte count and total protein level and increased brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), ferritin, D-dimer, and troponin concentrations. The multiple logistic regression model showed that BNP, total protein, and troponin were associated with higher risk. When the laboratory parameters were used together, BNP, total protein, ferritin, and D-dimer provided the highest contribution to the discrimination of the risk groups (100%, 89.6%, 85.6%, and 55.8%, respectively). Conclusions: Our study widely evaluates and points to some clinical and laboratory parameters that, at admission, may indicate a more severe course. Modeling studies with larger sample groups are strongly needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Aggressiveness; biomarker; cancer stem cells; diagnosis; colon cancer; glycan; immunohistochemistry; lectin; prognosis
Online: 4 November 2021 (09:23:14 CET)
Nowadays, colon cancer prognosis still difficult to predict, especially in the early stages. Recurrences remain elevated, even in the early stages after curative surgery. Carcidiag Biotechnologies has developed an immunohistochemistry (IHC) kit called ColoSTEM Dx, based on a MIX of biotinylated plant lectins that specifically detects colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) through glycan patterns that they specifically (over)express. A retrospective clinical study was carried out on tumor tissues from 208 non-treated and 21 treated patients with colon cancer, that were stained by IHC with the MIX. Clinical performances of the kit were determined, and prognostic and predictive values were evaluated. With 78.3% and 70.6% of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity respectively, our kit shows great clinical performances. Moreover, patient prognosis is significantly poorer when the MIX staining is “High” compared to “Low”, especially at 5-years of overall survival and for early stages. The ColoSTEM Dx kit allows an earlier and a more precise determination of patients’ outcome. Thus, it affords an innovating clinical tool for predicting tumor aggressiveness earlier and determining prognosis value regarding therapeutic response in colon cancer patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0513.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: liquid biopsy; epilepsy; circulating biomarkers; cfDNA; lncRNA; tRNA; miRNA; diagnosis; prognosis; therapeutics
Online: 26 August 2021 (16:40:54 CEST)
Epilepsy is one of the most common disorders of the central nervous system, impacting nearly 50 million people around the world. Heterogeneous in nature, epilepsy presents in children and adults alike. Currently, surgery is the only treatment that can cure epilepsy. However, not all individuals are eligible or have successful outcomes. Difficulty in accessing samples of human brain tissue along with advances in sequencing technology have driven researchers to investigate sampling liquid biopsies in blood, serum, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid within the context of epilepsy. Liquid biopsies provide minimal or non-invasive sample collection approaches and can be assayed relatively easily across multiple time points, unlike tissue-based sampling. Various efforts have investigated circulating nucleic acids from these samples including microRNAs, cell-free DNA, transfer RNAs, and long non-coding RNAs. Here, we review nucleic acid-based liquid biopsies in epilepsy to improve understanding of etiology, diagnosis, prediction, and therapeutic monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0729.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Gastric cancer; Cyclin-dependent protein kinase; Cluster of differentiation (CD) 47; Prognosis
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:13:20 CEST)
Objective: To investigate the protein expression levels of cyclin‑dependent kinase subunit 2 (CKS2) and cluster of differentiation (CD) 47 in gastric cancer (GC) and their clinical significances. Methods: A total of 126 GC patients who underwent radical resection were selected as study subjects. Additionally, 32 patients with benign gastric tumor, 42 patients with low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIEN), and 49 patients with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIEN) who underwent surgery were selected as the control groups. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of CKS2 and CD47 in surgical specimens. We statistically analyzed the clinical significance of the expression of the two factors. Results: (1) The positivity rates for CKS2 in benign gastric tumor tissue, LGIEN tissue, HGIEN tissue, and GC tissue gradually increased, i.e., 6.3% (2/32), 30.9% (13/42), 38.8% (19/49), and 60.3% (76/126), respectively, and the positivity rates for CD47 were 18.8% (6/32), 38.1% (16/42), 46.9% (23/49), and 65.9% (83/126), respectively. (2) High expression of CKS2 and CD47 were associated with tumor diameter, Lauren classification, number of lymph node metastases, and TNM stage. In addition, the immunohistochemical scores for CKS2 and CD47 were positively correlated (r=0.625, P=0.000). (3) The median follow-up time of 126 patients was 46.5 months, and the overall survival rate was 40.5% (51/126). Survival analysis showed that compared with that in the CKS2 (-) group, the overall survival rate for patients in the CKS2 (+) group was significantly worse (25.0% vs 64.0%, 2=15.67, P=0.000) and that compared with the CD47 (-) group, the CD47 (+) group had significantly worse overall survival (30.1% vs 60.5%, 2=15.67, P=0.000). (4) The overall survival rates of CKS2(+)CD47(+) group, CKS2(+)CD47(-) group, CKS2(-)CD47(+) group, and CKS2 (-)CD47 (-) group were 20.0%(13/65), 58.3%(7/12), 57.1%(8/14), 65.7% (23/35), respectively, the prognosis of patients in CKS2(+)CD47(+) group was significantly poor. Conclusion: High expression levels of CKS2 and CD47 were closely related to the occurrence of GC and can be used as independent risk factors to assess the prognosis of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0303.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Controlling Nutritional Status Score; Hemorrhagic stroke; Nutrition screening; Prognosis; Modified Rankin Scale
Online: 15 January 2021 (16:08:15 CET)
Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) Score is useful for the nutritional screening. We aimed to explore whether the CONUT score may predict a 3-month functional outcome in hemorrhagic stroke (AHS). Totally, 349 patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. Poor functional outcomes were defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at 3 months. A total of 328 patients (mean age, 60.4 ± 12.83 years; 66.8% male) were included, 172 (52.40%) patients at malnutrition risk and 104 (31.7%) patients with a poor prognosis. High-CONUT patients had lower total lymphocyte counts and total cholesterol levels than low-CONUT patients (p < 0.001 and p = 0.012). At 3-month post discharge, patients with malnutrition risk had higher hospitalization costs (p = 0.021), lower Barthel Index (p = 0.001), and more infectious complications (p = 0.002) than those without, and there was a greater risk for poor functional outcomes in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (adjusted odds ratio: 2.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.28-4.17). High-CONUT scores predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which may help identify the AHS patients who need additional nutritional managements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0154.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA methylation; epigenetics; biomarkers; circulating DNA; cfDNA; prostate cancer; early detection; prognosis
Online: 7 October 2020 (09:27:34 CEST)
There is a major clinical need for accurate biomarkers for prostate cancer prognosis, to better inform treatment strategies and disease monitoring. Current clinically recognised prognostic factors, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, lack sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing aggressive from indolent disease, particularly in patients with localised intermediate grade prostate cancer. There has therefore been a major focus on identifying molecular biomarkers that can add prognostic value to existing markers, including investigation of DNA methylation, which has a known role in tumorigenesis. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of DNA methylation biomarker studies in prostate cancer prognosis, and highlight the advances that have been made in this field. We cover the numerous studies into well-established candidate genes, and explore the technological transition that has enabled hypothesis-free genome-wide studies and the subsequent discovery of novel prognostic genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0258.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: GPR15, pan-cancer, TCGA, cancer immunity, differential gene expression, prognosis, virtual screening
Online: 23 July 2019 (11:15:19 CEST)
G protein-coupled receptor 15 (GPR15, also known as BOB) is an extensively studied orphan GPCR involving HIV infection, colonic inflammation and smoking-related diseases. Recently, GPR15 was deorphanized and its corresponding natural ligand demonstrated an ability of inhibiting cancer cell growth. However, no study reported the potential role of GPR15 in a pan-cancer manner. Using large-scale publicly available data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) databases, we found that GPR15 expression is significantly lower in colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) than in normal tissues. And among 33 cancer types, GPR15 expression is significantly correlated with the prognoses of COAD, neck squamous carcinoma (HNSC), lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) positively and stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) negatively. This study also revealed that commonly upregulated gene set in the high GPR15 expression group (stratified via median) of COAD, HNSC, LUAD and STAD are enriched in immune systems, indicating that GPR15 might be considered as a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. Furthermore, we modelled the 3D structure of GPR15 and conducted the structure-based virtual screening. The top 8 hits compounds were screened and then subjected to molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for stability analysis. Our study provided novel insights into the role of GPR15 in a pan-cancer manner and discovered a potential hit compound for GPR15 antagonists.