REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0105.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: topical probiotics; skin microbiome; probiotics; biodiversity; microbiome; skin allergy; cosmetics
Online: 9 October 2022 (03:34:01 CEST)
In this paper we aim to help topical probiotics research and development achieve its potential as an incredible future solution for skin problems by investigating whether the current products on the market satisfy criteria for safe and effective use on the skin microbiome. As previously defined, this includes whether they use microbes known to be part of a healthy skin microbiome and in healthy amounts. In addition, we evaluate whether they contain live microbes, and therefore can be classified as probiotics according to the WHO’s definition. Using recent market analysis at least 84% of products do not contain live microbes. Of the products that appeared to use live microbes, they contained those used in research and development of probiotics for the gut. Due to the varying composition of each person’s microbiome, there is not a one size fits all probiotic solution. Personalisation of probiotics products is essential to satisfy the criteria for safe and effective use, but none of the products on the market, understandably, offer this. Upsetting the delicate ecosystem balance of the skin microbiome could have damaging effects and regulation could help to stop a loss of trust between consumers and cosmetics industry. Future work will perform an in-depth evaluation of the topical probiotics on the market in the EU, USA, and Canada. We will also investigate how to move the topic closer to achieving its potential by updating the criteria, including by discussing how to measure the success of a probiotic solution.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Aquaculture; Probiotics, Fish welfare.
Online: 14 October 2021 (10:33:01 CEST)
The health status and feed conversion efficiency of farmed fish may vary according to management and production methods. Successful aquaculture requires safeguarding the health of the growing fish and optimizing the feed conversion and therefore achieving better FCE thus reducing the amount of feed required to produce farmed fish, reducing the environmental impact generated by fish feed production and reducing aquaculture wastes generated by feed wasted or poorly digested. The present review presents illustrative examples from freshwater aquaculture that suggests the potential dual benefits of focusing on the link between feed conversion and the environmental impact of fresh water fish farms. Apart from the need to support future research on new diets for farmed fish (which is mainly driven by limits in the supply of fish protein and the results price fluctuation of all ingredients used by the aquaculture, feed industry), major improvements can be expected by optimizing feeding regimes and the application of probiotics. Aside from the economic benefits and increased production of fish farms, improved feeding regimes and probiotics are expected to have a significant impact on the welfare of farmed fish as well as on digestion efficiency and the environmental impact of fresh water fish farms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0526.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: psychiatry; gut microbiome; probiotics
Online: 27 July 2018 (03:22:02 CEST)
The microbiome gut brain (MGB) axis involves bidirectional routes of communication and has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for multiple medical specialities including psychiatry. Significant numbers of preclinical trials have taken place with some transitioning to clinical studies in more recent years. Some positive results have been reported secondary to probiotic administration in both healthy populations and specific patient groups. This review aims to summarise the current understanding of the MGB axis and the preclinical and clinical findings relevant to psychiatry. The link between the gut microbiome and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is well established. Significant differences have been identified between the microbiome of patients with a diagnosis of depressive disorder and healthy controls. Similar findings have occurred in patients diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder. A probiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium bifidum produced clinically measurable symptom improvement in patients with depressive disorder. To date some promising results have suggested that probiotics could play a role in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disease. However, more well-controlled clinical trials are required to determine which clinical conditions are likely to benefit most significantly from this novel approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1394.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Gut microbiota; gastrointestinal illnesses; probiotics
Online: 21 August 2023 (09:46:46 CEST)
Modulating the gut microbiota with probiotics has been identified as a promising therapeutic method for the management of gastrointestinal illnesses. The effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders can only be determined by delving into their underlying mechanisms of action. Through an analysis of the underlying processes, this study hopes to provide light on the potential benefits of probiotics for treating a variety of gastrointestinal conditions. The study covers a wide variety of gastrointestinal conditions, such as IBS, IBD, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Modifying the gut microbiota composition, strengthening the gut barrier function, modulating the immune system, and producing beneficial metabolites are among mechanisms of action that have been investigated. The strain- and dose-specific variables essential to getting the best treatment results are also highlighted. This review, which synthesizes the current information, gives a thorough overview of the effectiveness of probiotics in treating a variety of gastrointestinal illnesses and illuminates potential avenues for further study and therapeutic use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Microbiota; probiotics; formulations; immune system
Online: 14 July 2023 (16:49:09 CEST)
Probiotics have become a potential way to change the microbiota, which allows for more personalized ways to improve health results. This abstract gives an outline of the most important parts of personalized microbiota regulation through probiotics. It focuses on effectiveness and mechanisms, clinical applications, safety and tolerability, formulations and delivery methods, and customized approaches. Many studies have looked into how and why probiotics change the microbiome. These studies show that probiotics can change the makeup and function of microbial communities. Probiotics have been shown to help treat a number of health problems, such as digestive problems, immune system problems, metabolic problems, and mental health problems. It is important for the success of probiotics to find out if they are safe and can be tolerated. Studies have shown that probiotics are usually safe for most people, but there are some things that need to be taken into account to make sure they are safe, especially for people who are weak. Formulations and transport methods are very important for making sure that probiotics are alive, stable, and delivered to the right places in the GI tract. Probiotic strains work better in the gut because of improvements in how probiotic preparation technologies protect and control the release of probiotic strains. Personalized methods take into account how each person's microbiome and health are different. By using individual microbiota profiling, custom probiotic approaches can be made to address specific microbial imbalances and promote a healthier microbial environment, which could improve treatment results. Even though individual methods show promise, there are still problems, such as the need to standardize microbiota profiling techniques, figure out how to understand data, and keep track of people over time. For personalized probiotics to reach their full potential and change the way patients are cared for based on the microbiota-host relationship, more study, technological advances, and teamwork are needed. In conclusion, probiotics can be used to change your microbiome in a way that is specific to you and your health goals. By using the power of individualized microbiota profiling, personalized probiotic treatments might be able to help with certain health problems and make the microbial environment better. Putting personalized probiotics into clinical practice and changing the way patients are cared for will require more study and partnerships between different fields.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0553.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Probiotics; Cancer; tumors; treatment; immunotherapy
Online: 10 July 2023 (08:19:08 CEST)
Probiotics are now being looked at as a possible addition to cancer treatments in both study and clinical settings. This study tries to give an overview of probiotic research as it relates to cancer, with a focus on how it might help avoid cancer, treat it, and improve the health of cancer patients. We look at developmental studies that use cell culture and animal models to look at how well probiotics work in cancer. We focus on how probiotics change the immune system, inflammation, and gut bacteria. The results of clinical studies that looked at probiotics as an add-on therapy for cancer patients are looked at to see how they affected the treatment success, side effects, and quality of life of the patients. We look at the possible benefits of probiotics for certain types of cancer, such as colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and stomach tumors. We also find the best probiotic strains for each type of cancer. We also look at the synergistic benefits of combining probiotics with standard cancer treatments like chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy to improve the effectiveness of treatment and lower side effects. Lastly, we talk about the present problems and future directions of probiotic research for cancer. We focus on personalized methods, ideal doses and treatment plans, finding signs of treatment success, and making probiotic-based therapies. By learning more about how probiotics could be used to treat cancer, we can create personalized, successful, and well-tolerated probiotic treatments to improve cancer outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0243.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Gut; probiotics; diseases; gastrointestinal system
Online: 4 July 2023 (13:55:45 CEST)
The stability of the gut barrier is very important for keeping the gut healthy and stopping dangerous substances from getting into the bloodstream. Several diseases, including cancer, have been linked to the gut barrier being broken. Live bacteria called probiotics that are good for the host have been shown to have the ability to improve the gut barrier and lower the risk of cancer in the gastrointestinal system. This review looks at how probiotics affect the health of the gut barrier and what that might mean for preventing cancer. Researchers have found that probiotics strengthen the connections between intestine cells, encourage the production of protective mucins, and change the make-up and balance of the gut bacteria. These processes help keep the gut barrier strong and stop harmful chemicals from getting into the bloodstream. Probiotics may help lower the chance of cancer by reducing inflammation throughout the body and protecting the GI tract from harmful substances. But more study is needed to fully understand the benefits of different probiotic strains, the best amounts to take, and how they affect the health of the gut barrier. Understanding how probiotics, the health of the gut barrier, and the risk of cancer all work together can help us come up with new ways to avoid and treat cancer.
Online: 28 December 2020 (16:59:04 CET)
Celiac disease (CD) is a permanent intolerance to dietary protein, gluten, from wheat rye and barley. It occurs in about 1% worldwide population, in genetically predisposed individuals bearing human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2/DQ8. Gut epithelial cell stress and innate immune activation are responsible for breaking oral tolerance to gliadin, the gluten component. To date, the only treatment available for CD is a long-term gluten-free diet. Several evidences show that an altered composition of the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) could play a key role in the pathogenesis of CD, through the modulation of intestinal permeability and the regulation of the immune system. Here we show that gliadin induces a chronic ER stress condition in the small intestine of a CD mouse model and that the co-administration of probiotics efficiently attenuates both UPR and gut inflammation. Moreover, the composition of probiotics formulations might differ in their activity at molecular level, especially toward the three axes of the UPR. Therefore, rebalancing the gut microbiota composition by probiotics administration might rep-resent a new strategy to treat CD affected patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: probiotics; cancer; safety; clinical trials
Online: 5 August 2020 (09:27:01 CEST)
In recent years, the consumption of over-the-counter probiotics used to promote health has grown rapidly worldwide and become an industry. In medicine, various studies have proven that probiotics can help improve the immune system and intestinal health. They are usually safe, but in some rare cases, they may cause concerning adverse reactions. Although the use of probiotics has been widely popularized in the public, the results of many probiotics clinical trials are contradictory. Especially for the cancer patients, the feasibility of probiotics management to provide benefits by targeting cancer and lessening anti-cancer side effects requires further investigations. And this review summarizes the interactions between probiotics and the host and current pros and cons of applying probiotics in the cancer patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1497.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Dysbiosis; Faecal microbiota transfer; Cancer; Probiotics
Online: 21 July 2023 (10:03:51 CEST)
The gut microbiota's part in colon cancer has become an exciting and hopeful area of study because it shows complex links that affect how cancer starts, spreads, and responds to treatments. Dysbiosis, which is an imbalance in the community of germs in the gut, has been linked to a higher risk of colon cancer by causing inflammation and making a place where tumours can grow. Researchers have found that some kinds of bugs can either help colon cancer grow or stop it from doing so. This shows how important it is to maintain a healthy gut bacteria. In both preclinical and clinical research, therapeutic treatments that target the microbiome in the gut have shown promise. Probiotics and prebiotics can change the environment around a tumour, change the balance of microorganisms in the gut, and boost immune responses that fight the cancer. Faecal microbiota transfer (FMT) is being looked at as a new way to change the bacteria in the guts of people with colon cancer. By adding microbiota-targeted drugs to standard cancer treatments, it may be possible to make the treatment more effective and lessen side effects. Microbiota-focused treatments for colon cancer are still in their early stages, but they show promise. More research needs to be done to find out how they work and show that they work in the clinic. The link between the bacteria in the gut and colon cancer opens up new ways to help patients and give them better results. This might make a difference in how colon cancer is handled in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Candida albicans; Lactobacillus species; biofilm; probiotics
Online: 27 September 2022 (12:34:41 CEST)
Antifungal agents are not always efficient in resolving vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), a common genital infection caused by overgrowth of Candida spp., including Candida albicans, or preventing recurrent infections. Although lactobacilli (which are dominant microorganisms constituting healthy human vaginal microbiota) are important barriers against VVC, the Lactobacillus metabolite concentration needed to suppress VVC is unknown. Therefore, we quantitatively evaluated Lactobacillus metabolite concentrations to determine their effect on Candida spp., including 27 vaginal strains of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus, and Limosilactobacillus vaginalis, with inhibitory abilities against biofilms of Candida clinical isolates. Lactobacillus culture supernatants suppressed viable bacteria by approximately 24%-92% relative to preformed Candida biofilms, but their suppression differed between strains, not species. Lactate production was necessary to suppress preformed biofilms and hyphal elongation of C. albicans, whereas hydrogen peroxide was not always essential. Both lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide were required to suppress Candida planktonic cell growth. Lactobacillus strains that significantly inhibited biofilm formation in culture supernatant also inhibited Candida adhesion to epithelial cells in an actual live bacterial adhesion competition test. Healthy human microflora and their metabolites may play important roles in the development of new antifungal agent against VVC caused by C. albicans.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: depression; metabolic syndrome; microbiota; probiotics; obesity
Online: 1 April 2021 (10:07:32 CEST)
Depression and metabolic diseases often coexist having several features in common, e.g., chronic low-grade inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis. Different microbiota interventions have been proposed to be used as a treatment for these disorders. In the paper we review the efficacy of probiotics in depressive disorders, obesity, metabolic syndrome and its liver equivalent based on the published experimental studies, clinical trials and meta-analyses. Probiotics seem to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms when administered in addition to antidepressants. Additionally, probiotics intake may ameliorate some of the clinical components of metabolic diseases. However, standardized methodology regarding probiotics clinical trials has not been established yet. In this narrative review we discuss current knowledge on the recently used methodology with its strengths and limitations and propose criteria that may be implemented to create a new study of the effectiveness of probiotics in depressive disorders comorbid with metabolic abnormalities. We put across our choice on type of study population, probiotics genus, strains, dosages and formulations, intervention period, as well as primary and secondary outcome measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0137.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Escherichia coli; Bifidobacterium bifidum; probiotics; enteropathogens
Online: 10 July 2019 (06:04:16 CEST)
Enteropathogenic microorganisms like Escherichia coli cause severe intestinal problems by disrupting the gut homeostasis. The live microorganisms, when given in adequate quantities provide several beneficial effects to the host are known as probiotics. One of the pronounced benefits conferred by probiotic is to antagonize the growth of enteropathogens competing for adherence to the intestinal epithelium. Bifidobacterium is the major genera of human especially infant are intestinal microbiota. In current study, Bifidobacterium bifidum was isolated from the infant stools and probiotic potential was assessed using prescribed tolerance tests against low pH, gastric juices and bile salts. Anti-infectious activity of probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum against enteropathogenic E. coli was checked both in vitro and in vivo using agar well diffusion assay and mice model respectively. Mice feces were evaluated for both Bifidobacterium bifidum and E. coli counts in all groups and analyzed statistically. In vitro results showed Bifidobacterium bifidum possess marked antibacterial activity against E. coli. There was significant decrease in enteropathogenic E. coli burden in the mice group fed with Bifidobacterium bifidum before and after challenge. In conclusion, the endogenous Bifidobacterium bifidum have excellent probiotic potential and can be used prophylactic and treatment option against enteropathogens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0328.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Bifidobacterium breve; probiotics; pediatrics; therapeutic microbiology
Online: 15 October 2018 (17:03:26 CEST)
The human intestinal microbiota, establishing a symbiotic relationship with the host, plays a significant role for the human health. It is also well known that a disease status is frequently characterized by a dysbiotic condition of the gut. A probiotic treatment can represent an alternative therapy for enteric disorders and human pathologies not apparently linked to the gut environment. Among bifidobacteria, strains of the species Bifidobacterium breve are widely used in pediatrics. B. breve is the dominant species in the gut of breast-fed infants and it has also been isolated from human milk. It has antimicrobial activity against human pathogens, it does not possess transmissible antibiotic resistance traits, it is not cytotoxic and it has immuno-stimulating abilities. This review describes the applications of B. breve strains mainly for the prevention/treatment of pediatric pathologies. The target pathologies range from widespread gut diseases, including diarrhea and infant colics, to celiac disease, obesity, allergic and neurological disorders. Moreover, B. breve strains are used for the prevention of side infections in pre-term newborns and during antibiotic treatments or chemotherapy. With this documentation, we hope to increase knowledge on this species to boost the interest in the emerging discipline known as “therapeutic microbiology”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0437.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: functional food; whey; byproducts; beverages; probiotics
Online: 27 June 2018 (09:40:14 CEST)
Whey proteins have excellent nutritional characteristics due to their levels of essential amino acids with high bioavailability. However, it has a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and a considerable polluting potential, thus food manufacturers have opted to add whey to food formulations. The demand for beverages containing vitamins, probiotics, prebiotics, minerals, and bioactive compounds (antioxidants) with health benefits has increased and driven market growth. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a probiotic functional carbonated beverage from cheese whey and evaluate its microbiological, and physicochemical characteristics soon after the production and during storage. The viability and stability of probiotic, the microbiological characteristics, titratable acidity and sedimentation of the beverage were monitored during refrigerated storage for a month. The probiotic to be added to the formulation was established in a preliminary step. The production of this beverage proved to be a simple technology and the product was suitable for incorporation of the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. The probiotic showed good viability and stability during storage. The microbiological quality of the beverage met the Brazilian legal standards. The pH and titratable acidity of the probiotic carbonated beverage remained stable during storage, and slight sedimentation was observed after one week of refrigerated storage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0408.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Probiotics; Prebiotics; Synbiotics; Gut microbiota; Fishes; Aquaculture
Online: 7 November 2023 (10:27:55 CET)
Aquaculture is a fast-emerging food-producing sector in which fishery production plays an im-perative socio-economic role, providing ample resources and tremendous potential worldwide. However, aquatic animals are exposed to the deterioration of the ecological environment and in-fection outbreaks, which represent significant issues nowadays. One of the reasons for these threats is the excessive use of antibiotics and synthetic drugs that have harmful impacts on the aquatic atmosphere. It is not surprising that functional biotic feeds such as probiotics, prebiotics, postbiotics, and synbiotics have been developed as natural alternatives to sustain a healthy microbial envi-ronment in aquaculture. These functional feed additives possess several beneficial characteristics, including gut microbiota modulation, immune response reinforcement, resistance to pathogenic organisms, improved growth performance, and enhanced feed utilization in aquatic animals. Nevertheless, their mechanisms in modulating the immune system and gut microbiota in aquatic animals are largely unclear. This review discusses current research advancements to fill research gaps and promote effective and healthy aquaculture production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0526.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: probiotics; pregnancy; GDM; gestational diabetes; meta analysis
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:47:54 CEST)
Background: Gestational diabetes is a common complication during pregnancy that can lead to numerous adverse outcomes. Some studies suggest that probiotics may be used to treat gestational diabetes, however, the results remain controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of probiotics on blood glucose and pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes. Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases was performed (start date to August 22, 2023). Primary outcomes included fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting serum insulin (FSI), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Secondary outcomes included pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Results: 15 articles (n = 1006 women) met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Compared to a placebo, probiotics can decrease FBS (MD -2.58, 95% CI -4.38 to -0.79, p < 0.01), FSI (MD -2.29, 95% CI -3.40 to -1.18, p < 0.01), HOMA-IR (MD -0.56, 95% CI -0.81 to -0.32, p < 0.01), birthweight (MD -101.20, 95% CI -184.62 to -17.77, p = 0.02), neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.89, p = 0.01), and hyperbilirubinemia (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.61, p < 0.01), alongside higher QUICKI (MD 0.01, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.01, p < 0.01). However, no other significant results were obtained. Conclusion: Probiotics may improve blood glucose indicators and reduce neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, NICU admissions, and birth weight in women with GDM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0662.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Fresh cheese; Lactobacillus acidophilus; Lactobacillus rhamnosus; probiotics
Online: 8 August 2023 (10:51:07 CEST)
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of added cultures of probiotic lactic acid bacteria on physicochemical, textural, and sensory characteristics of fresh cheese as well as their viability. Probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. rhamnosus were evaluated at two inoculation times (before the renneting and salting processes) following a factorial treatment arrangement. The bacterial count (log CFU g-1), acidity determination (% lactic acid), pH and percentage of syneresis were evaluated at 0, 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of refrigerated storage (4–5 °C). The texture profile analysis and an extended preference test were carried out at 21 days of storage. At the end of storage, fresh cheeses containing L. rhamnosus, added prior to the renneting process, had similar acidity values (0.18% lactic acid), pH (5.36) and percentage of syneresis (4.71%) compared to those for the cheeses without probiotics or control. Excluding adhesiveness, no differences were observed in texture profile parameters among the assessed cheeses. The fresh cheese supplemented with L. rhamnosus before the renneting process had a microorganism count greater than 6 logarithmic cycle/g, and the highest preference among treatments. The results from this study suggest that fresh cheese can be an excellent matrix for probiotic microorganisms, in particular L. rhamnosus.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0062.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: biocontrol; non-Saccharomyces yeasts; functional yeasts; probiotics
Online: 2 May 2023 (05:41:37 CEST)
Fermented food matrices, including beverages, can be defined as the result of the activity of complex microbial ecosystems where different microorganisms interact according to different biotic and abiotic factors. Certainly, in industrial production the technological processes aim to control the fermentation to place safe foods on the market. Therefore, if food safety is the essential prerogative, consumers are increasingly oriented towards a healthy and conscious diet driving the production and consequently the applied research towards natural processes. In this regard, the aim to guarantee safety, quality and diversify of products should be reached limiting or avoiding the addition of antimicrobials or synthetic additives using the biological approach. In this paper, following the recent re-evaluation of non-Saccharomyces yeasts (NSYs) has been re-viewed the bio-protectant and biocontrol activity with a particular focus on their antimicrobial power, probiotic features and promoting functional aspects. In this review, the authors would underline the contribution of NSYs in all food production chain and its role in the technological and fermentative features for their practical and useful use as biocontrol agent in food preparations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0239.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Probiotics; Canine; Lactobacilli; Feed supplementation; Infectious diseases
Online: 12 July 2021 (10:13:26 CEST)
Antibiotics are commonly used to treat infectious diseases. However, massive and inappropriate antibiotics usage cause many problems including the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To avoid this issue, in modern countries the interest of using probiotics in feed supplementation to promote health and prevent or treat intestinal infectious diseases in companion animals like dogs has been increasing. We evaluate the probiotic potential of Lactobacilli isolated from healthy dogs faeces. The isolated Lactobacilli were first confirmed by 16SrRNA sequencing, then in vitro tests were conducted to assess survival potential of Lactobacilli under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and adhesion ability to gut epithelia, effects on epithelial barrier function, anti-inflammatory activities, effects on defensin peptides (beta-defensin 3) and inhibitory effects on common pathogens. Lactobacilli showed considerable potential to survive in simulated gastrointestinal environmental conditions, low pH, high bile salt concentrations along with good adhesion properties with MODE-K cells. Pathogenic bacterial growth and their adhesion to MODE-K cells was significantly inhibited by Lactobacilli. Real-time PCR analyses further demonstrated that L. acidophilus strain AR1 and AR3 inhibit Salmonella-induced proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, 1ꞵ) production and reinforce expression of tight junction protein (occludin). None of the strain induce mRNA expression of beta-defensin 3 in MODE-K cells. Based on in vitro results the L. acidophilus strain AR1 has potential to be supplemented in canine feed. However, further in vivo studies investigating health-promoting effects are awaited.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Probiotics, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, alcohol, acetaldehyde, ALDH2 gene
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:04:39 CEST)
Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcohol is oxidized to toxic and carcinogenic acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and further oxidized to a non-toxic acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Emerging evidence shows that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species encode alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) mediate alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism, respectively. This study involves supplementation of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium probiotic mixture in humans and assessed their effects on alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism. Here, twenty-seven wild types (ALDH2*1/*1) and the same number ofheterozygotes (ALDH2*2/*1) were recruited for the study. The enrolled participants were randomly divided into either the probiotic (Duolac ProAP4) or the placebo group. Each group received a probiotic or placebo capsule for 15 days with subsequent crossover. Primary outcomes were measurement of alcohol and acetaldehyde in the blood after the alcohol intake. Blood levels of alcohol and acetaldehyde in the ALDH2 heterozygote group were significantly downregulated in the probiotic-supplemented group with no changes in hangover score symptoms than the placebo group. No clinically significant changes were observed in safety parameters. These results suggest that probiotic has a potential to downregulate the alcohol and acetaldehyde concentrations, and their effects depend on the presence or absence of polymorphism on the ALDH2 gene.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Probiotics; food matrices; cell viability; model digestion
Online: 1 December 2020 (11:36:11 CET)
The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of various food and beverages on the viability of probiotic bacteria during passing through artificial digestion. As a model food, solutions with various concentrations of alcohol, sugar, salt, protein and acid were prepared. Different types of real foods and beverages were used as well. Viability in presence of food matrices was tested on monocultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus CCM4833 and Bifidobacterium breve CCM7825T and on mixed commercial culture with 9 different strains of probiotic microorganisms( Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus). The concentration and viability of probiotic bacteria was tested by cultivation assay and flow cytometry. In model foods, the best growth of was determined in the presence of 10% albumin and 10% ethanol. Survival of the probiotics delivered in different food matrices through a simulated gastrointestinal tract was quantitatively different. As the best food environment for probiotics complex food matrices such as pasta with cream sauce, chocolate spread and homemade beef broth were selected, followed by mixed vegetables, potato salad, salted chips, fruits and yoghurt. Among beverages the best option was milk, followed by black tea, coffee and Coca Cola. Probiotic microorganisms are more viable when consumed with meals than with beverages only. In general, the highest viability of probiotic cells has been observed in presence of foods containing high concentration of sugar and fat or their suitable combination. The increase of cell viability observed in such foods during model digestion may further contribute to the positive effect of probiotics on human health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Probiotics, Upper Respiratory Infections, Network Meta-Analysis
Online: 1 October 2018 (10:22:49 CEST)
Background. Upper respiratory infections (URIs) remains as significant cause of morbidity in children. Evidence on efficacy of probiotics to prevent URIs in children is increasing. This systematic review was assembled to analyze evidence about the efficacy of probiotics to reduce duration of upper respiratory infections in ambulatory children. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics vs. placebo to prevent URIs, published between 2001 and 2016 were considered. Quality evaluation was evaluated using CONSORT. Standard mean difference (SMD) or risk ratio (RR) was calculated. Network Meta-Analysis (NMA), using a random effect model was assembled. Results. 31 RCTs were evaluated and 20 studies were included with 3,635 children randomized to probiotics and 3,433 to placebo. Lactobacillus reuteri [SMD -0.56 CI95% (-0.72 to -0.41), p 0.0001] and Lactobacillus acidophillus [SMD -0.33 CI95% (-0.60 to -0.06), p 0.01] were superior to placebo to reduce duration of URIs. L. rhamnosus GG showed tendency [SMD -0.14 CI95% (-0.28 to 0.0), p 0.048]. On the network forest plot L. reuteri showed preventive equivalence when was compared to L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei and BB12. Conclusions. Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium BB12 are evidence-based alternatives to be considered to prevent URIs in children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0700.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Bacillus subtilis; ruminal fermentation; forage probiotics; cellulases; xylanases
Online: 10 November 2023 (11:31:57 CET)
The administration of Bacilli to dairy cows exerts a beneficial effect on dry matter intake, lactation performances and milk composition. In this work, two isogenic strains, only differing in the se-cretion level of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes, were compared to establish whether B. subtilis cellulase and xylanase enzymes are involved in the positive effect exerted by these bacteria on animal nutrition. Conveniently, bacteria were grown in a newly designed growth medium based on an inexpensive waste. A multi-factorial study was conducted in which eight feed in-gredients were treated in vitro, using ruminal fluid from cannulated cows, with cultures of the two B. subtilis strains. Feed digestibility and gas production, a parameter linked to feed fermentability, were assessed. Fiber degradability was significantly higher in feeds treated with the en-zyme-overexpressing strain (10% and 5% higher than control treatment with B. subtilis-free media and the parent strain, respectively). This effect was accentuated for the most recalcitrant feeds, in which the benefits of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes were maximized. Fermentability also benefited by the treatment with the enzyme-overexpressing strain, although the trend observed in gas production didn’t reach statistical difference between the two strains, and only minor changes in fermentation profiles were detected. Our results revealed that B. subtilis cellulases and xylanases effectively contribute to improving forage quality, supporting the use of Bacilli as fodder sup-plements to increase animal productivity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Postbiotics; prebiotics; probiotics; metabolites; lactic acid bacteria; fermentation
Online: 29 September 2023 (07:25:02 CEST)
Postbiotics are biologically active probiotic microorganisms that have produced non-viable bacterial products in the host. Eating a diet high in probiotic and prebiotic foods may help to ensure that the gut has an appropriate supply of these essential nutrients because postbiotics are produced when probiotics feed on prebiotics. Cell wall components and metabolites produced by living bacteria that have positive effects on the host are referred to as postbiotics. Postbiotics are functional bioactive chemicals that are produced in a matrix during anaerobic fermentation of organic nutrients like prebiotics. Postbiotics are low molecular weight soluble chemicals that are either produced after microbial cell lysis or secreted by live microflora as byproducts of this metabolic process. In general, the producer strains from bacterial and fungal species such as Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus, Akkermansia muciniphila, Saccharomyces boulardii, Eubacterium hallii, Faecalibacterium, etc. When handling and selling food items in an industrial setting, postbiotics can be used as functional components in foods, which has a number of advantages, including the potential to be added to some foods that are known to be harmful to probiotic survival. Postbiotic supplements have grown in popularity among customers because of their numerous health advantages, particularly food, cosmetic, and healthcare industries. Classification of postbiotics depends on various factors including type of microorganism, structural composition, and physiological functions. This review presents a succinct introduction, history, and concept of postbiotics, the salient features of postbiotics, classification, production, purification, characterization, biological functions, and applications of postbiotics in the food industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0375.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Cheese whey; Ultrafiltration; Sheep; Goat; Kefir; Prebiotics; Probiotics
Online: 17 April 2023 (03:03:24 CEST)
Conclusions: It could be concluded that small/medium scale dairy plants can use UF equipment with the aim to valorize sheep´s and goat´s CW through the production of dairy formulations with added prebiotics and probiotics, while reducing the environmental impact of their activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0208.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: aging; intestinal microbiota; dysbiosis; probiotics; microbial co-occurrences
Online: 17 February 2022 (10:59:55 CET)
Age-related alterations in the gut microbiome composition and its impacts on the host’s health have been well described; however, detailed analyses of the gut microbial structure defining ecological microbe-microbe interactions is limited. One of the ways to determine these interactions is by understanding microbial co-occurrence patterns. We previously showed promising abilities of Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 on the aging gut microbiome and immune system. However, the potential of the DDS-1 strain to modulate microbial co-occurrence patterns is unknown. Hence, we aimed to investigate the ability of L. acidophilus DDS-1 to modulate the fecal, mucosal and cecal-related microbial co-occurrence networks in young and aging C57BL/6J mice. Our Kendall’s tau correlation measures of co-occurrence revealed age-related changes in the gut microbiome, which were characterized by reduced number of nodes and associations across sample types when compared to younger mice. After four-week supplementation, L. acidophilus DDS-1 differentially modulated the overall microbial community structure in fecal and mucosal samples as compared to cecal samples. Beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Akkermansia acted as connectors in aging networks in response to L. acidophilus DDS-1 supplementation. Our findings provided the first evidence of the DDS-1-induced gut microbial ecological interactions revealing the complex structure of microbial ecosystems with age.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0318.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Chronic rhinosinusitis; probiotics; microbiome; nasal microbiota; microbiome therapy
Online: 21 October 2021 (23:00:15 CEST)
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a significant health problem. It affects 5%–12% of the general population. The causes that underlie the onset of CRS are not yet well known. However, many factors may contribute to its onset, such as environmental factors and the host’s condition. Medical treatment mainly uses local corticosteroids, nasal irrigation, and antibiotics. In recent years, a new therapeutic approach that employs the use of probiotics emerged. Probiotics have been extensively studied as a therapy for dysbiosis and inflammatory pathologies of various parts of the body . We aimed to examine the studies in the existing literature to update probiotics’ role in rhinosinusitis chronic medical treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0372.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Aging; Microbiome; Probiotics; Cellular senescence; SASP; Stress; Immunity
Online: 17 May 2021 (08:51:53 CEST)
The significance of diversity, composition, and functional attributes of the gut microbiota is recognized in human health and disease. Studies have also shown that the gut microbiota is related to human aging, and a causal relationship between gut microflora dysbiosis and chronic age-related disorders is also becoming apparent. Further, emerging evidence indicates that age-associated changes in the gut microbiome are predictors of human survival and longevity. Recent advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular aspects of biological aging have revealed a cellular senescence-centric view of the aging process. However, the association between gut microbiome and cellular senescence is only beginning to be understood. The present review provides an integrative view of the emerging relationship between the gut microbiome and cellular senescence in aging and disease. Evidence relating to microbiome-mediated modulation of senescent cells, as well as senescent cells-mediated changes in intestinal homeostasis have been discussed. Unanswered questions and future research directions have also been deliberated to truly ascertain the relationship of the gut microbiome and cellular senescence for developing microbiome-based age-delaying and longevity promoting therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: vaginal probiotics; reproductive dysbiosis; bacterial vaginosis; VVC; IVF
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:28:32 CET)
The use of probiotics in reproductive-related dysbiosis is an area of continuous progress due to the growing interest from clinicians and patients suffering recurrent reproductive microbiota disorders. An imbalance in the natural colonization sites related to reproductive health: vaginal, cervicovaginal, endometrial and also pregnancy-related altered microbiota could play decisive role in reproductive outcomes. Oral and vaginal administrations are in continuous discussion regarding the clinical effect pursued, but probiotics as oral supplement therapy is the route administration better studied. To complement and summarise with qualitative and quantitative information of vaginal probiotics clinical studies, the main objective of this work was to retrieve the standardised protocols commonly used and their microbiota modulation capacities. The studies selected were related to treat bacterial vaginosis (BV) as the most commonly disorder, few studies on vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and also administration to stabilise microbiota before in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Probiotic doses administered were similar to oral probiotics protocols, ranging from ≥ 107 CFU/day to 2.5 x 1010 CFU/day, and variable regarding posology duration from 1 day to 12 weeks, being 1 week commonly applied. Moderate modulation was achieved regarding the relative abundance decrease of abnormal microbiota, coinciding with parallel increase in Lactobacillus species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0543.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: depression; metabolic syndrome; probiotics; microbiota; inflammation; oxidative stress
Online: 24 February 2021 (11:20:26 CET)
There is a huge need to search for new treatment options and potential biomarkers of therapeutic response to antidepressant treatment. Depression and metabolic syndrome often coexist while pathophysiological overlap, including microbiota changes, may play a role. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of probiotic supplementation on symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, metabolic parameters, inflammation and oxidative stress markers, and faecal microbiota in adult patients with depressive disorders depending on the co-occurance of MetS. The trial will be a four-arm, parallel group, prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled design that will include 200 participants and will last 20 weeks. The probiotic preparation will contain Lactobacillus helveticus Rosell®-52, Bifidobacterium longum Rosell®-175. We will assess the level of depression, anxiety and stress, quality of life, blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference, white blood cells count, serum levels of C-reactive protein, HDL cholesterol, triglicerides, fasting glucose, faecal microbiota composition and the level of some faecal microbiota metabolites, as well as inflammation markers and oxidative stress parameters in serum. The trial may establish a safe and easy-to-use treatment option as an adjunct in a subpopulation of depressive patients only partially responsive to pharmacologic treatment. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: ).
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: chicken; coccidiosis; Eimeria; immunity; microbiome; phytogenics; probiotics; prebiotics
Online: 1 December 2020 (17:31:40 CET)
Coccidiosis remains a major disease and economic challenge for the global poultry industry. Coccidiosis in chickens is caused by seven Eimeria species that target specific regions of the gastrointestinal tract and cause malabsorptive or haemorrhagic disease. These Eimeria species infect segment-specific epithelial cells and thus need to navigate the host’s indigenous microbiome and intestinal defences to establish an infection and cause disease. Good husbandry practices, prophylactic use of anticoccidial drugs and/or live parasite vaccination have been the primary control measures employed but there are challenges with vaccination and growing constraints on anticoccidial drug use. This review, therefore, considers available information on the key steps of the infection process, notable microbiome- or host-related changes occurring, and the (potential) influence of dietary ‘alternatives’ to anticoccidial drugs. There is good available evidence to indicate that some phytogenics, prebiotics, probiotics, betaine, n-3 fatty acids, as well as carbohydrase enzymes and anti-IL-10 antibodies, can (beneficially) modulate at least some of these features in coccidiosis-specific challenge studies. As a minimum, these anticoccidial drug ‘alternatives’ could support the establishment of a desirable host microbiome and optimum immune system development. It is important to better understand the potential of these ‘alternatives’ in commercial production and how they can complement, or reduce, the use of anticoccidial drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0347.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: L. plantarum subsp. plantarum; ETEC K88; antimicrobial; probiotics
Online: 15 August 2020 (09:50:52 CEST)
For screening excellent lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains to inhibit Escherichia (E.) coli (ETEC) K88, inhibitory activities of more than 1100 LAB strains isolated from different materials and kept in the lab were evaluated in this study. Nine strains with inhibition zone at least 22.00 mm (including that of hole puncher 10.00 mm) and good physiological and biochemical characteristics identified by 16S DNA gene sequencing and recA gene multiple detection, were assigned to Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum subsp. plantarum (5), L. fermentum (1), L. reuteri (1), W. cibaria (1) and E. faecalis (1), respectively. As investigated for their tolerance abilities and safety, only strain ZA3 possessed high hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation abilities, had high survival rate in low pH, bile salt environment and GI fluids, sensitive to ampicillin, resistant to norfloxacin and amikacin, without hemolytic activity and didn’t carry antibiotic resistance genes, exhibited broad spectrum activity against a wide range of microorganisms, and antibacterial substance may attribute to organic acids, especially lactic acid and acetic acid. The results indicated that the selected strain L. plantarum subsp. plantarum ZA3 could be considered a potential probiotic to inhibit ETEC K88 for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0178.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: anti-oxidative properties; DPPH; grape marmalade; lactobacillus; probiotics
Online: 16 April 2019 (10:27:52 CEST)
Grape foods fermented with probiotics are sources of beneficial bacteria for the GI tract and also have a high antioxidant capacity. The addition of probiotics to ferment food has always been a traditional process; therefore, probiotic dairy and non-dairy products might contribute to a daily antioxidant diet to improve consumers’ life quality and health. This research was undertaken to determine the viability of 4 wild isolates of Lactobacillus for storage at 5 and 25ºC within 90 days in simulated synthetic grape media and a standard grape marmalade formulation. Changes in active culture numbers, pH level, glucose concentration, and antioxidant properties were evaluated. Most of the isolates demonstrated higher growth in the grape marmalade than the synthetic grape marmalade, which was greater than 7 Log cfu/g within 90 days of storage at 5ºC. In addition, most of the wild isolates grew beyond the critical count of 106 cfu/g in sampling between 60 and 90 days of storage. Moreover, fermented grape marmalade with probiotics showed a strong antioxidant capacity that failed to differ significantly with the synthetic medium. The study confirmed L. paraplantarum, L. plantarum, W. paramesenteroides, and E. feacalis were ideal probiotics for fermentation process of grape marmalade.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0062.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: microbiome; probiotics, dietary supplements; nutrition; HIV infection, inflammation
Online: 8 May 2017 (12:10:17 CEST)
Microbiota plays a key role in various body’s functions, physiological, metabolic and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Several evidences indicate that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that resides on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer participate in interactions with the host immune system, and a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity. The immunomodulatory activity of probiotics has been proposed in several bowel disorders or in aging-related dysfunctions. In HIV infected patients, the intestinal immune system is affected and inflammation persists during ART therapy too. Several studies are in progress to investigate the ability of probiotics to modulate epithelial barrier functions, microbiota composition and microbial translocation in HIV infection. This mini-review aims to suggest how the use of probiotics is beneficial not only in maintaining a healthy status but also to improve conditions in HIV subjects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1120.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: 3D printing; electrospinning; probiotics; tissue engineering; polysaccharides; sodium alginate
Online: 17 November 2023 (08:43:25 CET)
Bacteriotherapy is emerging as a strategic and effective approach to treat infections by providing putatively harmless bacteria (i.e., probiotics) as antagonists to pathogens. A proper delivery of probiotics or their metabolites (i.e., post-biotics) can avail itself of biomaterial encapsulation by innovative manufacturing technologies. This review paper aims at providing the most recent biomaterial-assisted strategies proposed to treat infections or disbiosis using bacteriotherapy. We revised the encapsulation processes across multiscale biomaterial approaches, which could be ideal to target different tissues and suit diverse therapeutic opportunities. Hydrogels, and in particular polysaccharides, are the focus of this review, as they have been reported to better sustain vitality of the live cells incorporated. Specifically, the approaches for fabricating hydrogel-based devices with increasing dimensionality (D), namely, 0D (i.e., particles), 1D (i.e., fibers), 2D (i.e., fiber meshes), and 3D (i.e., scaffolds) endowed with probiotics, were detailed by describing their advantages and challenges, along with a future overlook in the field. Electrospinning, electrospray and 3D bioprinting were investigated as new biofabrication methods for probiotic encapsulation within multidimensional matrices. Finally, examples of biomaterial-based systems for cell and post-biotic release were reported.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1149.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: yogurt; probiotics; black chokeberry juice; bioactive; supplement; functional food
Online: 17 November 2023 (08:10:33 CET)
The objective of this study was to create yogurts enriched with freeze-dried probiotic culture and freeze-dried fermented black chokeberry juice, in conjunction with a commercial starter culture. This approach was adopted to boost functionality and optimize the nutritional content of the yogurt. The study specifically investigated the impact of supplements, which included (i) freeze-dried probiotic culture Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 and (ii) freeze-dried fermented chokeberry juice Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917, as adjuncts in different formulations of yogurt. These formulations were then compared with commercially produced yogurt. All the products exhibited favorable physicochemical properties, and the probiotic strain consistently maintained levels exceeding 7 log cfu/g throughout the entire storage period. The highest lactic acid production was observed in yogurts produced with the proposed adjuncts (1.44 g/100 g yogurt at the 28th days of storage). Levels of syneresis were observed in lower values in yogurt produced with freeze-dried fermented chokeberry juice. Yogurts prepared with the supplement derived from fermented juice displayed elevated total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (25.74 µg GAE/g and 69.05 µmol TE/100g respectively). Moreover, sensory tests indicated an exceptional aroma and fruit flavor. The results demonstrate that the inclusion of dried probiotic-fermented chokeberry juice as an adjunct in yogurt production enhances both the antioxidant capacity and the growth of beneficial bacteria. Furthermore, the dried form of this product makes it a significant candidate for industrialization potential due to its stability and ease of application.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0950.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: probiotics in poultry; Salmonella infections; antibiotic resistance; poultry health
Online: 9 November 2023 (02:28:48 CET)
Salmonella infection is one of major challenges to the poultry industry because of its pressing effects on health of poultry, food safety and human well-being that later may devastate economic losses to the poultry sector. The paper reviews public health implications and the use of antibiotics together with the risk of drug resistance. In recent years, the usage of probiotics in poultry industry has been growing to mitigate an increasing pressure to adopt sustainable farming practices. The mechanisms which probiotics may control Salmonella and important criteria for selecting effective probiotics in poultry are reported. Various studies highlighting the additional benefits of probiotics in poultry production in addition to Salmonella controls are also included. While probiotics offer promise in enhancing poultry health, challenges and limitations in their utilization must also be carefully considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0328.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: probiotics; clinical trials; adults; gastroenteritis, inflammatory bowel disease; PRISMA
Online: 6 September 2023 (05:50:57 CEST)
Probiotics have been widely used in gastroenteritis due to acute and chronic illnesses. However, evidence supporting the effectiveness of probiotics in different health conditions are inconclusive and conflicting. The aim of the study was to review existing literature on the effects of probiotics in gastroenteritis among adults. Only original articles on clinical trials that demonstrated the effects of probiotics in adults with gastroenteritis were used for this analysis. Multiple databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, MEDLINE and Scopus databases were searched for the data. The study followed standard procedures for data extraction using PRISMA flow chart. A quality appraisal of the selected studies was conducted using CADIMA. Finally, a meta-analysis was conducted. Thirty-five articles met the selection criteria; of them, probiotics were found effective in the treatment and/or prevention of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease in 17 (49%), and the treatment of pouchitis in 4 (11.4%), antibiotic-induced diarrhea in 3 (8.6%), Helicobacter pylori infection in 2 (5.7%) and diverticulitis in 1 (2.9%), while the remaining 7 (20%) were ineffective and 1 study results were inconclusive. Meta-analysis, on the contrary, didn’t demonstrate any significant protective effects of probiotics. Having a τ² value of zero and I² of 6%, the studies were homogeneous and had minimum variances. Further studies are suggested to evaluate the beneficial effects of probiotics in IBDs and other chronic bowel diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2128.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: kale juice; probiotics; Limosilactobacillus reuteri; Limosilactobacillus fermentum; Anti-inflammatory
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:48:25 CEST)
This study investigates the synergistic impact of fermenting kale juice with Limosilactobacillus strains on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Kale's rich nutrient profile, especially its flavonoids, offers potential health benefits. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria are employed in kale fermentation to enhance nutrient bioavailability and generate bioactive compounds. Kale juices fermented with L. reuteri EFEL6901 or L. fermentum EFEL6800 exhibited superior microbial growth. Free sugars and amino acids were converted to alcohols and organic acids, affecting the organoleptic and health-related properties of product. In addition, fermentation increased quercetin and kaempferol content, indicating improved availability. Furthermore, the fermented juice exhibited notable antioxidant activity and suppressed NO production, revealing anti-inflammatory potential. Gene expression analysis confirmed reduced pro-inflammatory markers and elevated anti-inflammatory cytokines. This research highlights the promising potential of fermented kale juice, enriched with Limosilactobacillus strains, as a functional food with combined antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1528.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: prebiotics; probiotics; by-product; tropical fruits; cashew; fermented milk.
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:18:11 CEST)
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) processing generates a by-product (CB) with potential for health benefits and could be a favorable ingredient to be added to a probiotic food matrix. This study aimed to assess the functional attributes of CB in fermented milk with a probiotic and a starter culture using in vitro- gastrointestinal conditions. Using a standardized fermentability assay, two strains more adapted to the dehydrated CB were chosen and applied in: Test Formulation (TF, with CB) and Control Formulation (CF, without CB). TF and CF were fermented by the probiotic strain Lacticaseibacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei F19® and the starter Streptococcus thermophilus ST-M6®. During a 28-day refrigerated (6-8 °C) shelf-life study, both strains used in CF and TF were resistant and maintained a population above 8.0 log CFU/mL in the fermented milk. TF had significant increase in total phenolic compounds and greater antioxidant potential during shelf life, along with improved survival of F19® after in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The cashew by-product revealed to be promising as a substrate for the strains studied and the presence of CB increased the content of phenolics and antioxidant activity during storage, as well as the gastric resistance to the probiotic., leading to a promising healthy product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1062.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: isoflavones; soymilk; β-glucosidase; probiotics; gastrointestinal digestion in vitro
Online: 17 July 2023 (10:58:03 CEST)
Soy isoflavones are considered important sources of bioactive compounds, but they are poorly absorbable, due to their large hydrophilic structures. Some biotransformation strategies have been used to convert the glycosidic form into aglycones, making them available for absorption. This study evaluated the potential of enzymatic and/or microbial fermentation bioprocesses in soymilk extract before and after gastrointestinal in vitro digestion. Commercial β-glucosidase and mix of commercial probiotics containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei, Lactococcus lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum e B. lactis were used to biotransform soymilk extract. Isoflavone profile was quantified by HPLC-DAD, total phenolic content by Folin–Ciocalteu test, and antioxidant capacity by ORAC and FRAP. Soymilk enzymatically treated (ET) followed by microbial fermentation (ET+F) resulted in the conversion of glycosylated isoflavones (6-fold lower than control for daidzin and 2-fold for genistin) to aglycones (18-fold greater than control for dadzein and genistein), besides to increase the total phenolic content (3.48 for control and 4.48 mg/ml ET+F) and to improve antioxidant capacity represented by the ORAC (120 for control and 151 mg/ml ET+F) and by the FRAP (285 for control and 317 µl/ml for ET+F) before in vitro digestion. Further, the digested ET+F samples resulted a higher content of genistein (2-fold higher than control) also an increase in the total phenolic content (2.81 for control and 4.03 mg/ml for ET+F) and antioxidant capacity by ORAC were greater compared to undigested samples. In addition, the microbial fermentation process isolated also resulted in the positive effects, but de combination of ET followed by F presented a synergistic effect, suggesting the greater potential for both bioprocesses to contribute to functional and nutritional properties on fermented soy-based products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0465.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Gut-bone axis; Gut-brain axis; Microbiome; Probiotics; Osteoporosis
Online: 31 October 2022 (06:16:35 CET)
The gut microbiome is a collection of microorganisms and parasites that reside in the gastrointestinal tract. There are many factors that can affect the composition of this community, such as age, sex, medications, and environmental triggers. The relationship between the human host and the gut microbiota is very important for both the survival and development of the organism. The disruption of this relationship can lead to the development of various inflammatory diseases. CBD and THC are used to treat muscle spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. It is now clear these compounds also benefit patients with neuroinflammation. A study that investigated the role of gut microbiota in treating the inflammation and paralysis in a mouse model demonstrated that treatment with CBD and THC produced significant decrease in the inflammation levels. They also exhibited a significant increase in the number of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The presence of certain cannabinoids can suppress neuroinflammation and prevent microbial dysbiosis. Several studies have revealed the role of the gut microbiota in the development and maintenance of skeletal integrity and bone mineral density. The gut is a major source of nutrients, including vitamins B and K. It can also influence the development and maintenance of bone matrix. The presence of the gut microbiota can influence the actions of certain T regulatory cells, which can lead to the development of bone formation and proliferation. In addition, its metabolites can prevent bone loss. The gut microbiota can help maintain the bone's equilibrium and prevent the development of metabolic diseases, such as osteoporosis. In this review, the dual functions gut microbiota plays in the regulation of gut-bone axis and gut-brain axis and the impact of CBD on these roles are discussed in detail.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0433.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Lactobacillus spp, Bacillus spp., Anti-cancer, Probiotics, Gastrointestinal, Dysbiosis.
Online: 27 December 2021 (14:50:58 CET)
Malignant neoplasm is one of the most incurable diseases among inflammatory diseases. Researchers have been studying for decades to win over this lethal disease and provide the light of hope to humankind. The gastrointestinal bacteria of human hold a complex ecosystem and maintain homeostasis. One hundred trillion microbes are residing in the gastrointestinal tract of human. Disturbances in the microbiota of human’s gastrointestinal tract can create immune response against inflammation and also can develop diseases , including cancer. The bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract of human, can secrete a variety of metabolites and bioproducts which aid in the preservation of homeostasis in the host and gut. During pathogenic dysbiosis, on the other hand, numerous microbiota subpopulations may increase and create excessive levels of toxins, which can cause inflammation and cancer. Furthermore, the immune system of host and the epithelium cell can be influenced by gut microbiota. Probiotics, which are bacteria that live in the gut, have been protected against tumor formation. Probiotics are now studied to see if they can help fight dysbiosis in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy because of their capacity to maintain gut homeostasis. Countless numbers of gut bacteria have demonstrated anti-cancer efficiency in cancer treatment, prevention, and boosting the efficiency of immunotherapy. The review article has briefly explained the anti-cancer immunity of gut microbes and their application in treating a variety of cancer. This review paper also highlights the pre-clinical studies of probiotics against cancer and the completed and ongoing clinical trials on cancers with the two most common and highly effective probiotics Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Probiotics; Gut microbiota; Obesity; Insulin resistance; Type 2 Diabetes
Online: 8 October 2021 (10:52:45 CEST)
Background: Obesity and diabetes are two metabolic disorders linked by an inflammatory process named insulin resistance (IR). Various research on the role of gut microbiota in developing obesity and its associated disorders has led to the growing interest in probiotic supplementation. Considering the life-threatening complications of diabesity this mini-review explored the effects of probiotic supplementation on IR in obesity-associated diabetes. Method: This review is based on recent articles from 2005-2020, studying the role of probiotic supplementation on glucose and insulin parameters in healthy and diabetic mouse models. Result: Probiotic supplementation altered the gut microbiota composition, increased short-chain fatty acid production, and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, they decreased intestinal permeability, circulating lipopolysaccharide, and metabolic endotoxemia hence improved insulin sensitivity and reduced obesity. Although multi-strain probiotic supplementation showed greater benefits than single strain interventions, variations in the concentration of probiotics used and the duration of treatment also influenced the results. Conclusion: Probiotic supplementation could manipulate the gut microbiota by reducing intestinal permeability, inflammation and ameliorate IR and obesity-associated diabetes in animal models which requires further long-term clinical studies in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0113.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Probiotics; food matrices; food stress; cell viability; model digestion
Online: 5 July 2021 (15:59:51 CEST)
The aim was to evaluate the influence of model (alcohol, sugar, salt, protein and acid) and real foods and beverages on the viability of probiotics during incubation and artificial digestion. Viability of monocultures Lactobacillus acidophilus CCM4833 and Bifidobacterium breve CCM7825T and commercial mixture of 9 probiotic bacterial strains were tested by cultivation assay and flow cytometry. In model foods, the best viability was determined in the presence of 0.2 g/L glucose, 10% albumin and 10% ethanol. As the most suitable real food for probiotic survival complex protein and carbohydrate substrates were found, such as beef broth, potato salad with pork, chicken with rice, chocolate spread, porridge and yoghurt. The best liquid was milk and meat broth, followed by coca-cola, beer and coffee. Viability of probiotics was higher when consumed with meals than with beverages only. Addition of prebiotics increased the viability of probiotics especially in presence of instant and fast foods. Generally, the highest viability of probiotics during artificial digestion was observed in mixed culture in presence of protein, sugar and fat or their combination. The increase of cell viability observed in such foods during model digestion may further contribute to the positive effect of probiotics on human health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0156.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: tilapia; probiotics; linear regression analysis; hierarchical regression analysis; Pearson correlation
Online: 2 November 2023 (10:29:36 CET)
Data regarding the pandemic's impact on tilapia culture remain limited, but it is known that there was a significant decline in production and marketing since 2020. The post-pandemic challenges confronting tilapia farming necessitate prompt solutions, encompassing the management of bacterial infections and the adoption of more advanced technologies by small-scale producers in developing nations. Probiotics, acknowledged as a viable alternative, are presently extensively employed in tilapia aquaculture. Multiple studies have suggested that the application of diverse probiotics in tilapia culture has yielded favorable outcomes. Nonetheless, only a limited number of studies have employed statistical methods to evaluate such findings. To address this gap, a regression analysis was carried out to investigate the existence of a linear relationship between the probiotic dosage added to the feed and two key dependent variables: the specific growth rate (SGR) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR). Additionally, a hierarchical regression analysis was undertaken to ascertain the extent to which the variance observed in these responses could be explained by the variable "probiotic dosage in feed," after accounting for covariates such as initial weight, test duration, water temperature, and number of replicate tanks. Finally, two Pearson correlation matrices were constructed since different studies were included for the SGR and FCR analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Biofilm removal; L. rhamonsus; cell free supernatant; foodborne pathogens; probiotics
Online: 31 October 2023 (12:24:38 CET)
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance remains one of the greatest public health concerns. Biofilm formation has been postulated as a mechanism of microbial pathogens to resist antimicrobial agents. Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and their metabolites have been proposed to combat bacterial biofilms, due to their antimicrobial activity. In this vein, the aim of the present study was to investigate the biofilm removal potential of cell-free supernatant (CFS) of five wild-type Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus LAB strains, isolated from Greek natural products, in comparison to the commercial available L. rhamnosus GG strain, formed by common foodborne pathogens (Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus). Biofilm removal activity of LAB was assessed on two-days mature biofilm using a microtiter plate-based procedure. Both non-neutralized and neutralized CFSs removed biofilms in a concentration-dependent manner. Biofilm removal activity of the non-neutralized CFSs was significantly higher compared to the neutralized CFSs, as expected, ranging 40 – 90% and 10 – 78%, respectively. Biofilm removal efficiency of L. rhamnosus OLXAL-3 was signifanctly higher among the wild-type L. rhamnosus strains tested (20 – 100% v/v). In conclusion, our results suggested the great potential of application of wild-type Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus strains CFSs as effective natural agents against pathogenic bacterial biofilms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0203.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: antioxidant system; cafeteria diet; SCD probiotics; gene expression; enzyme activity
Online: 4 October 2023 (05:24:57 CEST)
Excess weight, which is seen as the background cause of most diseases, is gradually becoming the most important problem in the world. The cafeteria diet is robust diet that mimics the western diet and provides rapid weight gain associated with the obesity, diabetes, and cancer. The relationship between obesity and cancer is well known. For this reason, it is of great importance to reveal the first molecular and metabolic alterations that occur before entering the obesity process with any factor to understand the pathology of many diseases and to treat them in the early period. The beneficial effects of probiotics are attributed to their metabolite content with antioxidant properties or the postbiotic metabolites produced by them. In this study, the effects of different dietary practices on the hepatic antioxidant system of rats in developmental period were investigated by real-time PCR, enzyme activity measurements, and quantitative measurements of metabolites. After all, it was observed that CAF caused serious impairments by affecting the hepatic antioxidant system at gene and protein levels, and these impairments were relatively reversed with SCD Probiotics supplementation. In addition, regardless of the CAF diet, the regulatory effect of SCD Probiotics supplementation on the hepatic antioxidant system is remarkable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0766.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Probiotics; pigs; growth performance; lipid profile; oxidative stress; cytokines; immunity
Online: 13 September 2023 (02:27:17 CEST)
The study investigated the effect of a multi-strain probiotic compound containing Bacillus coagulans, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium butyricum and Bacillus mesentericus as in-feed zinc oxide (ZnO) alterna-tive on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, antioxidant status, lipid profile, stress and immunity in weaned piglets. A total of 72 piglets were randomly divided into 3 groups with four replicates of six piglets each. The details of the groups were as follows; (i) weaned control group (WC) received basal diet, (ii) weaned probiotic group (WB) received basal diet and probiotics and (iii) positive control (PC) group received basal diet with 2500 mg/kg ZnO. The experiment lasted for 28 days. Probiotic supple-mentation improved growth performance and reduced diarrhea rate. Probiotics supplementation im-proved lipid profile; significantly lower levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and higher level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in WB group as compared to those of the control group (WC) were recorded. Probiotic supplementation stimulated antioxidant defense system by in-creasing total antioxidant capacity and decreasing lipid peroxidation. Probiotic supplementation down-regulated the stress biomarkers like serum cortisol and serum heat shock proteins. WB group showed higher serum levels of IgG and IgM throughout the study period and higher IgA at day 28 as compared to WC. These data suggest that supplementation of the probiotic minimizes the weaning stress, thereby improves the growth performance, lipid profile, antioxidant status and systemic as well as mucosal immunity. Therefore, the multi-strain probiotic compound may be used to replace ZnO in weaned piglets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0753.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Lead Toxicity; Autism Spectrum Disorder; Microbiota; Gut-Brain Axis; Probiotics
Online: 12 September 2023 (02:53:37 CEST)
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social interaction and communication manifests in early childhood and is followed by restricted and stereotyped behaviors, interests or activities in adolescence and adulthood (DSM-V). Although genetics and environmental factors have been implicated, the exact causes of ASD have yet to be fully characterized. New evidence suggests that dysbiosis or perturbation in gut microbiota (GM) and exposure to lead (Pb) may play important roles in ASD etiology. Pb is a toxic heavy metal that has been linked to a wide range of negative health outcomes including anemia, encephalopathy, gastroenteric diseases and more importantly cognitive and behavioral problems inherent to ASD. Pb exposure can disrupt GM, which is essential for maintaining overall health. GM, consisting of trillions of microorganisms, has been shown to play a crucial role in the development of various physiological and psychological functions. GM interacts with the brain in a bidirectional manner referred to as “Gut-Brain Axis (GBA).” In this review, following a general overview of ASD and GM, the interaction of Pb with GM in the context of ASD is emphasized. Potential exploitation of this interaction for therapeutic purposes is also touched upon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Adolescence; Major depressive disorder; Cognitive disorder; Cortisol; IL-1β; Probiotics
Online: 5 July 2023 (12:19:51 CEST)
To investigate effects of probiotics on cognitive function and regulation of cortisol and IL-1β in adolescents with depression. All 180 participants were randomly assigned into study group(treated by probiotics combined with sertraline hydrochloride) and control group(treated by sertraline hydrochloride). The repetitive Neuropsychological State Test (RBANS) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) were administered in MDD patients. The levels of serum cortisol and IL-1β were detected by ELISA kit. Except speech function, immediate memory, visual span, attention function, delayed memory and RBANS in the study group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The cortisol and interleukin1β in the study group were significantly downregulated than those in the control group. Except speech function, cortisol level was negatively correlated with RBANS total score and other factors in the study group. Interleukin-1β was negatively correlated with the total score of RBANS and each factor score. Cortisol and interleukin-1β were predictors of RBANS total score, which explained 46.80% of the variance. Cortisol had significant predictive effects on attention function and delayed memory, and interleukin-1β had significant predictive effects on visual span and speech function. It could concluded that probiotics can improve cognitive function in adolescents with depression by regulating cortisol and IL-1β levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0239.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Microbiota; Immunity; Spermidine; Metabolic engineering; Probiotics; Live Biotherapeutic Product; Metabolomics
Online: 17 October 2022 (12:09:41 CEST)
Over the past decade, studies have demonstrated the importance of bioactive metabolites derived from the microbiota in the regulation of physiological processes essential for homeostasis and the maintenance of human health. Strategies to modulate the production of these metabolites in the gastrointestinal tract hold promise for combating dysbiosis or inflammatory bowel disease. Metabolic engineering of probiotics could be one of these solutions. In this work, we engineered Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) to overproduce spermidine, a metabolite known for its anti-immunosenescence and anti-inflammatory properties. Using a rational synthetic biology approach coupled with analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry, we designed in several steps and validated engineered probiotics overproducing and excreting spermidine. Based on our results, we first added the enzyme substrate putrescine and showed the overproduction of spermidine and decided to add a transporter limiting the production of the acetylated form of spermidine. Next, we used untargeted metabolomics to study the impact of engineering on the central metabolism of E. coli Nissle. Untargeted metabolomics appears to be a good strategy to optimize the metabolic engineering of probiotic strains and thus accelerate their development for personalized medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0540.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Probiotics; Dysbiosis; Obesity; High Fat Diet; Lactobacillus plantarum; Enterococcus faecium
Online: 29 November 2021 (12:59:43 CET)
Fat reduction and anti-inflammation are commonly claimed properties of probiotics. Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium were tested in high fat-induced obesity mice and in vitro experiments. After 16 weeks of probiotics, L. plantarum outperforms E. faecium on the anti-obesity property as indicated by body weight, regional fat accumulation, serum cholesterol, inflammatory cytokines (in blood and colon tissue), and gut barrier defect (FITC-dextran assay). With fecal microbiome analysis, L. plantarum but not E. faecium reduced fecal abundance of pathogenic Proteobacteria without an alteration in total Gram-negative bacteria when compared with non-probiotics obese mice. With palmitic acid induction, the condition media from both probiotics similarly attenuated supernatant IL-8, improved enterocyte integrity and down-regulated cholesterol absorption-associated genes in Caco-2 cell (an enterocyte cell line) and reduced supernatant cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) with normalization of cell energy status (extracellular flux analysis) in bone-marrow-derived macrophages. Because the anti-inflammatory effect of the condition media of both probiotics on palmitic acid-activated enterocytes was neutralized by amylase, the active anti-inflammatory molecules might, partly, be exopolysaccharides. As L. plantarum out-performed E. faecium in anti-obesity property, possibly through the reduced fecal Proteobacteria, with a similar anti-inflammatory exopolysaccharide; L. plantarum is a potentially better option for anti-obesity than E. faecium.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Probiotics; Bacillus subtilis; growth performance; immune-hematological parameters; stress resistance
Online: 2 March 2021 (11:06:52 CET)
Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing animal food-producing agricultural industries in the world and proper performance of fish in morphological, physiological and immunological aspects is important for fish production and sustainable expansion of aquaculture. But several inhibitors like disease, pathogen, and adverse environment can overpower these performances. At present, antibiotics in preventing these inhibitors have been seen as becoming favorable to those inhibitors. So, Bacillus, an important group of probiotic bacteria can be an alternative to these antibiotics in aquaculture. Bacillus has been seen used in different experiments, mainly as a supplement in feed at various concentrations. Bacillus showed effective results like improved growth with minimum cost, improvement in reproduction, hematology, improved immune response and disease, and stress resistance as well as better proximate composition in different fish species. Application of Bacillus strains has proven efficient in improving water quality by reducing ammonia and nitrite toxicity, harmful algal blooms and utilization of H+ ion. Larger application of probiotic Bacillus instead of the hazardous synthetic chemicals would promote eco-friendly low-input sustainable aquaculture for food and nutritional security of the increasing world population. So many more experiments should be conducted in commercially important fishes for better growth and health of fishes which will certainly increase fish
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0387.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ice cream; sheep's milk; probiotics; apple fiber; inulin; Bifidobacterium; Lactobacillus
Online: 17 February 2021 (12:19:50 CET)
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the addition of inulin and the replacement of part of inulin with apple fiber on the physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Moreover, the survival of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. Lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus was studied in sheep milk ice cream. There was no effect of apple fiber and the type of bacteria on the number of bacteria of the probiotics after fermentation. As a result of freezing, mixture containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. Lactis Bb-12, there was a significant reduction in the bacterial from 0.39 log cfu g −1 to 0.46 log cfu g −1. In all ice cream on the 21st day of storage, it exceeded 10 log cfu g –1, which means that the ice cream retained the status of probiotic products. The Lactobacillus rhamnosus ice cream showed a lower yellow colour compared to the Bifidobacterium Bb-12 ice cream. The overrun of sheep's milk ice cream was within a range from 78.50% to 80.41%. The appearance of sheep's milk ice cream is influenced considerably by the addition of fiber and the type of bacteria and the interaction between the type of bacteria and the addition of fiber and storage time and fiber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0823.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Probiotics fermentation; Lycium barbarum L; Ulcerative colitis; Immunohistochemistry; Macroge-nomics & Metabolomics
Online: 13 October 2023 (04:17:50 CEST)
As research into the relationship between the gut microbiome and health continues to evolve, probiotics are garnering increasing interest among consumers. Fermentation is rec-ognized as an efficacious biotechnology for augmenting the nutritional and functional at-tributes of foods. In this study, the ameliorative effects of Lycium barbarum L. lyophilized powder fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum NXU0011 (LP+Ly) on dextran sodium sul-fate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice were investigated employing immuno-histochemistry, qRT-PCR, macrogenomics, and metabolomics. The results revealed that LP+Ly intervention significantly ameliorated histopathological inflammation in the ulcer-ated colon, diminished the expression of inflammatory markers such as IL-6, P-STAT3, and miR-214, and enhanced the diversity of intestinal flora in the mouse model group. Moreover, there was an increase in abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Lactobacillus, Prevotella, and Akkermansia. Metabolomic analysis indicated that 15 metabolites, including citrulline, D-xylose, and α-ketoisovaleric acid, exhibited significant variations following LP+Ly inter-vention. The metabolic pathways that displayed substantial differences included tryptophan biosynthesis, arginine biosynthesis, and amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism. By modulating arginine biosynthesis, LP+Ly effectively improved the intestinal inflammatory state, thus mitigating the effects of UC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1791.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: baking; yeast; LAB; sourdough; essential oils; plant extracts; probiotics; drying preservation
Online: 27 September 2023 (04:25:46 CEST)
The required processes and steps for making bread include technological and innovative concepts. The current trend is the use of less toxic compounds and green processes. Besides lactic acid bacteria and yeast, other microorganisms with special properties, such as enzymes, new aroma and flavor, exopolysaccharides, and vitamins, among other compounds with beneficial properties, could be added to bread manufacture, improving bread quality and health effects for the consumers. Freeze drying, new encapsulation methods, cryoprotectants, spray drying, fluidized bed drying, and vacuum drying are used for probiotics and microorganism cultures that will be used as starters or biological additives in the fermentation. The same development is observed in the preservation methods, and studies with plant extracts and essential oils have been proposed and introduced, replacing chemical agents, such as propionate, within the clean-label bread formulations concept. Baking science is a growing research line incorporating innovative methods and biological additives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0276.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Vitamin D; VDR; inflammation; microbiome; metabolites; nuclear receptor; probiotics; tight junctions
Online: 24 December 2020 (09:55:13 CET)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal0 tract (GIT), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), which differ in the location and lesion extensions. Both diseases are associated with microbiota dysbiosis, with a reduced population of butyrate-producing species, abnormal inflammatory response, and micronutrient deficiency (e. g. vitamin D hypovitaminosis). Vitamin D (VitD) is involved in immune cell differentiation, gut microbiota modulation, gene transcription, and barrier integrity. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulates the biological actions of the active VitD (1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), and is involved in the genetic, environmental, immune, and microbial aspects of IBD. VitD deficiency is correlated with disease activity and its administration targeting a concentration of 30 ng/mL may have the potential to reduce disease activity. Moreover, VDR regulates functions of T cells and Paneth cells and modulates release of antimicrobial peptides in gut microbiota-host interactions. Meanwhile, beneficial microbial metabolites, e.g. butyrate, upregulate the VDR signaling. In this review, we summarize the clinical progress and mechanism studies on VitD /VDR related to gut microbiota modulation in IBD. We also discuss epigenetics in IBD and the probiotic regulation of VDR. Furthermore, we discuss the existing challenges and future directions. There is a lack of well-designed clinical trials exploring the appropriate dose and the influence of gender, age, ethnicity, genetics, microbiome, and metabolic disorders in IBD subtypes. To move forward, we need well-designed therapeutic studies to examine whether enhanced vitamin D will restore functions of VDR and microbiome in inhibiting chronic inflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0622.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Tau-Marin; Mucoadhesive gel; oral formulation; probiotics; periodontitis; periodontal diseases; slow delivery
Online: 10 July 2023 (11:34:50 CEST)
: An innovative and stable probiotics-containing mucoadhesive gel (AL0020), integrated with botanical extracts, has been developed to rebalance the dysbiosis associated with periodontal diseases. Tau-Marin gel was tested against some pathogenic bacteria, belonging to the so-called "red complex", recognized as the most important pathogens in plaque specimens, adherent to the epithelial lining of periodontal pockets. A detailed physico-chemical profile of AL0020 and its in vitro efficacy in protecting activity against pathogenic bacteria as well as soothing or irritative effect on gingival epithelium were reported. Moreover, a clinical-dermatological trial on 20 volunteers using the product once a day for 30 days was also performed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0767.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Gut microbiota; Variants; Probiotics; gut microbiota metabolites
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:34:31 CEST)
Natural herbs and functional foods contain bioactive molecules capable of augmenting the immune system and mediating anti-viral functions. Functional foods, such as prebiotics, probiotics, and dietary fibers, have been shown to have positive effects on gut microbiota diversity and immune function. The use of functional foods has been linked with en-hanced immunity, regeneration, improved cognitive function, maintenance of gut mi-crobiota, and significant improvement in overall health. The gut microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and immune function, and disruptions to its balance have been linked to various health problems. SARS-CoV-2 infection has been shown to affect gut microbiota diversity, and the emergence of variants poses new challenges to combat the virus. SARS-CoV-2 recognizes and infects human cells through ACE2 receptors prevalent in lung and gut epithelial cells. Humans are prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection because the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are rich in microbial diversity and contain high ACE2 and TMPRSS2. This review article explores the potential use of functional foods in mitigating the impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants on gut microbiota diversity and the potential use of functional foods as a strategy to combat these effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Allergic rhinitis; Probiotics; Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB12; Enterococcus faecium L3; children
Online: 8 March 2021 (13:47:51 CET)
BACKGROUND: Probiotics may prevent the allergic response’s development due to their anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. The aim of this study is to determine if the prophylactic treatment with a mixture of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. Lactis BB12 and Enterococcus faecium L3, would reduce symptoms and need for drug use in children with allergic rhinitis (AR). METHODS: The study included 250 children aged from 6 to 17 years, affected by AR. Patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group (117) or to the placebo group (86). Patients of the intervention group, in addition to conventional therapy (local corticosteroids and/or antihistamines), were treated, in the 3 months preceding the development of AR symptoms, with a daily oral administration of a probiotic mixture containing the Bifidobacterium animalis subsp Lactis BB12 DSM 15954 and the Enterococcus faecium L3 LMG P-27496 strain. Nasal Symptoms Score(NSS) was used to evaluate AR severity before and after the treatment with probiotics or placebo. RESULTS: 96% of the patients in the intervention group showed a significant decrease in their NSS after the probiotic treatment as well as a decrease in the intake of pharmacological therapy. GPower software was used to calculate the test power. Given the probability of error α = 0.05, the total sample size n = 117 and the effect size ρ = 2.0651316, the power of the test is 1 - β = 1. CONCLUSIONS: When administered as a prophylactic treatment the mixture of BB12 and L3 statistically decrease signs and symptoms of AR and reduces significantly the need of drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0354.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Lactobacillus helveticus; probiotics; whole genome sequencing; PacBio; probiotic genes; bacteriocins; gene expression
Online: 26 December 2019 (10:56:44 CET)
Whole-genome DNA sequencing of Lactobacillus D75 and D76 strains (Vitaflor, Russia) was performed using the PacBio RS II platform, followed by de novo assembly with SMRT Portal 2.3.0. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) test showed that both strains belong to the Lactobacillus helveticus, but not the L. acidophilus as previously assumed. 31 exopolysaccharide (EPS) production genes (nine of which form a single genetic cluster), 13 adhesion genes, 38 milk protein and 11 milk sugar utilization genes, 13 genes for and against specific antagonistic activity, aight antibiotic resistance genes, and also three CRISPR blocks and eight Cas I-B system genes were identified in the genomes of the both strains. The expression of some genes was confirmed. In fact, the presence of identified genes suggests that L. helveticus D75 and D76 are able to form biofilms on the outer mucin layer, inhibit the growth of pathogens and pathobionts, utilize milk substrates with the formation of digestible milk sugars and bioactive peptides, resist bacteriophages and show some genome-determined resistance to antibiotics, stimulate the host’s immune system. Pathogenicity genes have not been identified. The study results confirm the safety and high probiotic potential of the strains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2075.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: probiotics; post-operative pain; microbiome; visceral pain; abdominal wall pain; inflammation; opioids; cannabinoids
Online: 31 October 2023 (10:50:24 CET)
Post-operative pain is the unpleasant sensory and emotional experience after surgery, its origin being both the inflammatory reaction induced by the surgical trauma on the abdominal wall, and the splanchnic pain, induced by the activation of nociceptors of the viscera, which are highly sensi-tive to distension, ischemia and inflammation. Nowadays, it is well recognized that there is a close relationship between the gut microbiome and pain perception, and that microbiome is highly af-fected by both anaesthesia and surgical manipulation. Thus, efforts to restore the disturbed micro-biome by supplementation with beneficial bacteria, namely probiotics, seems to be effective. In this article the knowledge gained mainly from experimental research on this topic is analyzed, the con-cluding message being that each probiotic strain works in its own way towards pain relief.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1230.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; heterogeneity; women; menopause; estrogen; nutrition; choline; soy isoflavones; probiotics
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:30:28 CEST)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent condition among postmenopausal women that can lead to severe liver dysfunction and increased mortality. In recent years, research has focused on identifying potential lifestyle dietary interventions that may prevent or treat NAFLD in this population. Due to the complex and multifactorial nature of NAFLD in postmenopausal women, the disease can present as different subtypes, with varying levels of clinical presentation, and variable treatment responses. By recognizing the significant heterogeneity of NAFLD in postmenopausal women, it may be possible to identify specific subsets of individuals who may benefit from targeted nutritional interventions. In this review, we sought to examine the current evidence supporting the role of three specific nutritional factors - choline, soy isoflavones, and probiotics – as potential nutritional adjuvants in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD in postmenopausal women. There is promising evidence supporting the potential benefits of these nutritional factors for NAFLD prevention and treatment, particularly in postmenopausal women, and further research is warranted to confirm their effectiveness in alleviating hepatic steatosis in this population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0070.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Nutraceuticals; Personalized Medicine; Precision Medicine; Probiotics; Vitamins; Covid; Dietary Supplements; Adverse Drug Effects
Online: 3 November 2022 (06:27:25 CET)
Nutraceuticals have taken the spotlight during the past two decades as evidenced by the exponential publications on them. Long a part of routine in Traditional Medicine Systems, the rise of their mainstream use globally raises both safety concerns and need for better understanding of efficacious dosing. We attempt to answer these questions in this preliminary scoping review by an analysis of current literature on nutraceutical use as a personalized or prescription medicine. Using Covidence, Rayyan, and manual searches of PubMed, 598 unique publications were selected. 32 are systematic reviews, of which we overview the scope. We also overview 30 papers that address adverse drug reactions. To obtain an unbiased landscape of the 598 papers, we analyzed keywords using multiple methods. Expectedly, the most frequent keywords were probiotics and vitamins. Unexpectedly and remarkably, among the highest keyword yield was ‘COVID’. Further exploring this aspect, we review 15 pertinent papers, that not only provide robust evidence for nutraceutical benefits as part of SARS-CoV-2 treatment, but also amplify the notion that nutraceuticals are protective. Overall, the strident note is that further robust targeted research is needed in order to reap the full benefits of nutraceuticals in a safe and efficacious manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0773.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Ethnic beer; borde; shamita; keribo; korefe; indigenous drinks; fermented beverages; probiotics; Farsoo; moringa
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:50:33 CEST)
This study was designed to improve Ethiopian traditional beer – tella with the substitution of gesho by moringa leaves to enhance micronutrients. Substation of gesho by moringa from 50 – 100% against the biochemical dynamics, nutritional and sensorial profiles of tella was assessed. Incorporation of moringa suppressed the activities of yeast and favored that of lactic acid bacteria, which shifted the property of the product from mild alcoholic nature to low alcoholic and mild acidic nature, revealing the probiotic potential of tella. Moringa leaves at 100% substitution for gesho resulted in to the least yeast count compared to the other formulations. The storage of tella samples over periods of 10 days also strengthened the probiotic nature of tella by drastically reducing the yeast cell counts (from 5 logs to <1). This corresponded to the slow increase in the acidity (0.63 to 0.99%), indicating comparatively higher activities of lactic acid bacteria. The best nutritional contents (dietary minerals) and sensorial acceptance of the product was attained at the 50% substitution of gesho by moringa. The implication of the present study is that ethnic foods and beverages can be innovated to meet the nutritional needs of the community
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0541.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Bioremediation; gut microbiota; lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacterales; lead; cadmium; aluminum; Probiotics; ICP-MS
Online: 26 January 2021 (13:26:26 CET)
Hazardous toxic metals, such as lead and cadmium, and to a lesser extent aluminum, are extensively recognized as detrimental for health following ingestion within food and water, or following inhalation. Gut and food-derived microbes, by interacting with heavy metals, may actively or passively modulate their bioavailability inside the gut, either by adsorption or by sequestration. Such a bioremediation within the gut implies the selection of safe microbes, based on their specific capacities to immobilize metals. We investigated the metal removal ability of 225 bacteria toward the potential harmful trace elements lead, cadmium and aluminum in vitro, using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis. Interspecies and intraspecies comparisons were addressed and discussed among bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes, which are mostly lactic acid bacteria, including Lactobacillus spp, with some Lactococcus, Pediococcus and Carnobacterium representatives, Actinobacteria as well as Proteobacteria. The effect on mixture of lead and cadmium was also investigated. Although the purpose of such a screening is so far not to elucidate each of the various strain specific- and metal dependent- mechanisms of heavy metal removal, we identified potential bacteria which are able to alleviate Pb(II) and Cd(II) concerns in order to propose performing candidate probiotics for metal xenobiotic bioremediation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0917.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: probiotics; antimicrobials; beneficial bacteria; Bacillus velenzensis; Bacillus subtilis; Priestia megaterium; antibiotic resistance; antioxidants; CSF
Online: 13 June 2023 (09:57:37 CEST)
A total of thirty-two aerobic spore former strains were isolated from intestinal samples of healthy children and analyzed for their hemolytic and antibiotic-resistance activities. Four strains selected as non-hemolytic and sensitive to all antibiotics recommended as relevant by regulatory agencies were short-listed and evaluated for their in silico and in vitro probiotic potentials. The four selected strains were assigned to the Bacillus velenzensis (MV4 and MV11), B. subtilis (MV24) and Priestia megaterium (formerly Bacillus megaterium) (MV30) species. A genomic analysis indicated that MV4, MV11 and MV24 contained a homolog of the gene coding for the fibrinolytic enzyme nattokinase while only MV30 encoded for a glutamic acid decarboxylase essential to synthesize the neurotransmitter GABA. All four strains showed a strong antioxidant activity, formed biofilm and produced/secreted quorum sensing peptides able to induce a cytoprotective stress response in a model of human intestinal (HT29) cells. Altogether, genomic and physiological data indicate that the analyzed strains do not pose safety concerns and have in vitro probiotic potentials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0421.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: OCd; obsessive-compulsive disorder; microbiota; gut; gut-brain axis; probiotics; fecal transplants; microbial reprogramming
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:53:21 CEST)
This review examines the evidence supporting the role of dysbiosis in the development of obses-sive-compulsive disorders (OCD). We review the molecular mechanisms and role of the microbiota in the microbiota-gut-brain axis, focusing on the endocrine, nervous, and immune pathways. We then propose a model that positions dysbiosis as the central unifying element in the neurochemi-cal, immunological, genetic, and environmental factors leading to OCD. Based on this, we review the animal and human clinical evidence for the use of microbial reprogramming strategies such as probiotic or fecal microbiota transplants to treat OCD. Finally, we discuss the unique challenges that must be addressed in future clinical interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1731.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: plasma-activated water (PAW); hypochlorous acid (HOCl); probiotics(Lactobacillus reuteri ); mucosa protection; vaginal cleansing effect.
Online: 27 October 2023 (03:50:40 CEST)
This study aimed to elucidate the antibacterial efficacy and unique chemical compositions generated from plasma-activated water (PAW) when utilized a novel vaginal cleansing device. We conducted an analysis of antibacterial activity against probiotics and several chemical compositions including ions under various operational parameters of PAW, including electrical power (12 and 24 V), treatment duration (1, 10, and 20 min), and stay duration (immediate, 30 and 60 min). Our findings revealed that as treatment duration increased, hypochlorous acid (HOCl), Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentrations increased and Cl−concentrations decreased. Higher electrical power and longer treatment duration resulted in increased HOCl levels, which acts to prevent the growth of general microorganisms. Notably, PAW exhibited no antibacterial effects against a type of probiotic, Lactobacillus reuteri that produces lactic acid for vaginal health. This result demonstrated the ability of the vaginal cleaning device to generate ions, primarily HOCl and some cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+), thereby providing vaginal mucosa protecting and cleansing effects with the vaginal environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1633.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: prebiotic yogurt ice cream; simulated digestive tract; survival of probiotics; ice cream characteristics; fat content
Online: 25 October 2023 (10:09:17 CEST)
Yogurt ice cream (YIC) containing Bifidobacterum longum subsp. longum TISTR 2195 (B. longum) with different fat contents (2 and 10% fat) and prebiotics (galacto-oligosaccharide, GOS and fructo-oligosaccharide, FOS) was investigated for its physicochemical properties, microstructure, and survival of B. longum during storage time and in a simulated gastrointestinal tract. Fat contents affected pH, fat particle size, hardness, melting rate, and solid-like characteristic of ice cream while FOS seemed to enhance the hardness and elasticity of YIC better than GOS due to less solubility and denser microstructure which exhibited more solid-like properties than YIC containing GOS. The interaction effect of fat content at 10% fat and FOS in YIC seemed to promote more sensorial acceptance than the ice cream containing 2% fat and GOS. The fat content, concentration of prebiotics, and type of prebiotics were attributed to the survival of B. longum in YIC. Moreover, the survival number of B. longum in YIC during storage for 180 days and in the simulated gastrointestinal tract was still in 106 CFU g-1, which is considered to benefit human health. Finally, probiotic YIC in this study could be used as a guide for functional ice cream manufacture future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1646.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: gut-brain axis; post-partum; depression; Limosilactobacillus reuteri PBS072; Bifidobacterium breve BB077; delivery; breastfeeding; probiotics
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:14:42 CEST)
Background: Post-delivery period could be characterized by psychological distress (e.g., anxiety, sadness, and irritability), leading to post-partum depression (PPD). Objective: The present clinical study assess the effect of probiotic supplementation containing Limosilactobacillus reuteri PBS072 and Bifidobacterium breve BB077 (4x109 CFU/day) on mother’s mood and breastfeeding quality during the first trimester after delivery. Methods: A Randomized Double Blind Controlled (RDBPC) trial has been carried out in 200 healthy new mothers divided into an active group taking a supplement containing Limosilactobacillus reuteri PBS072 and Bifidobacterium breve BB077 (4x109 CFU/day) plus multivitamins, and a control group (multivitamin complex only) for 90 days. Symptoms related to maternal depression and breastfeeding quality were evaluated at days 45 and 90 by Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale Short-Form (BSES-SF). Results: At days 45 and 90, probiotic treatment significantly ameliorated the mothers’ mood compared to the control treatment (p<0.001). Likewise, breastfeeding quality and baby’s cries significantly improved in the probiotic group (p<0.001). Conclusions: Microbiota alterations could influence post-delivery woman’s mental state. According to our results, L. reuteri PBS072 and B. breve BB077 are potential candidates able to improve stress resilience in the post-partum period.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0730.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Gut microbiome; neurodegenerative diseases; next-generation probiotics; Clostridium butyricum; Akkermansia muciniphila; Faecalibacterium prausnitzii; Bacteroides fragilis
Online: 10 May 2023 (10:06:06 CEST)
Increasing clinical and preclinical evidences implicate gut microbiome (GM) dysbiosis as a key susceptibility factor for neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s diseases (PD). In recent years, neurodegenerative diseases have not been viewed as driven solely by defects in brain, and the role of GM in modulating the central nervous system function via gut-brain axis has attracted considerable interest. Encouraged by GM researches, the next-generation probiotics may lead to tangible impacts on the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. This review summarizes the current understandings of GM composition and characteristics associated with neurodegenerative diseases, and the demonstrations of molecules from GM affecting neurodegeneration. Particularly, applications of next-generation probiotics such as Clostridium butyricum, Akkermansia muciniphila, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Bacteroides fragilis for remediation of neurodegenerative diseases are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: predictive preventive personalized medicine; Lactobacillus; Bifidobacterium; probiotics, gut microbiota; patient phenotype, individualized medicine; metabolic syndrome
Online: 11 September 2018 (06:00:03 CEST)
The modification the gut microbiota in metabolic syndrome and associated chronic diseases is among leading tasks of microbiome research and needs for clinical use of probiotics. Evidence lack for the implications for microbiome modification to improve metabolic health in particular when applied impersonalized. Probiotics have tremendous potential in personalized nutrition and medicine to develop healthy diets. The aim was to to conduct comprehensive overview of recent updates of role of microbiota on human health and development of metabolic syndrome and efficacy of microbiota modulation considering specific properties of probiotic strain and particular aspects of metabolic syndrome and patient`s phenotype to fill the gap between probiotic product and individual to facilitate development of individualized / personalized probiotic and prebiotic treatments. We discuss the relevance of using host phenotype-associated biomarkers, those based on imaging and molecular and patrient`s history, reliable and accessible to facilitate person-specific appication of probiotics and prebiotic substances. Microbiome phenotypes can be parameters of predictive medicine to recognize patient`s predispositions and evaluate treatment responses; the number of phenotype markers can be effectively involved to monitor microbiome modulation. The studied strain-dependent properties of probiotic strains are potentially relevant for individualized treatment for gut and distant sites microbiome modulation. The evidence regarding probiotic strains properties can be taken to account via pathophysiology-based approach for most effective individualized treatment via gut, oral and vaginal and other sites microbiome modulation according to phenotype of the patient providing individualized and personalized medical approaches. Preventive potential of probiotics is strong and well-documented. Recommendations for individualized clinical use of probiotics, and for probiotic studies design have been suggested.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Probiotics; gut flora; gastrointestinal diseases; Lactobacillus; Bifidobacteria; placebo; Diarrhea; microbiota; composite; sin-gle-organisms; Ulcerative Colitis
Online: 17 November 2022 (08:53:58 CET)
Probiotics are namely yeast and bacteria which are regarded as dietary supplements and food. Many probiotics are being commonly used now, the most frequently used, lactic acid bacteria are called Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Many of the diseases associated with GIT are related to microbiota found in GIT, an imbalance of which causes gastrointestinal diseases. Probiotics, in light of scientific literature, are thought to play an important role in relieving symptoms of many diseases associated with GIT, i.e. beneficially regulating the microbiota composition. In the present review, we aimed to highlight the main considerations for main probiotic formulations to date. This study reviews the role of different probiotic formulations introduced so far in treating GI diseases in cohort ageing ≤18 years. We searched PubMed and Clinicaltrials.gov without any restrictions. This study comprises the descriptive and comparative analysis between Single-organism and Composite probiotics. These GI diseases include NEC, FAP, AGE, Acute Diarrhea, Ulcerative Colitis and etc. The results have been categorized according to title and outcomes. The positive outcomes emphasize the drug’s effectiveness in improving health and the negative outcome elaborates on the adverse effects the drug may have shown. Conclusively, discussed practices will assist in reducing GI disorders and strengthening the gut. Further insight into the various gut microbes and microbiomes with specific demographic is recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1547.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; mental health; interventions; hyperbaric oxygen therapy; cryotherapy; dietary patterns; fasting; light therapy; probiotics; exercise; metabolic markers
Online: 22 September 2023 (10:18:19 CEST)
Background: Depression, a multifaceted mental health condition, necessitates a multidimensional approach to treatment. This study aimed to elucidate the potential efficacy of various mitochondrial interventions, ranging from pharmacological treatments to lifestyle modifications, in alleviating depressive symptoms and enhancing overall mental well-being and assess the diverse range of mitochondrial assessments for managing depression by synthesizing findings from selected studies. Methods: A systematic compilation of studies, employing observational, interventional, and animal-based designs, was undertaken to elucidate the intricate relationship between mitochondrial function and depression as well as depressive signs and symptoms. The PRISMA guidelines were employed for conducting this review and a specific set of selection criterion were formulated by a team of reviewers for selection of relevant papers. Results: The synthesized results from the 21 selected papers highlighted the potential of these interventions to target diverse aspects of depression. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and psychotherapy demonstrated significant reductions in depression and anxiety scores, with hyperbaric oxygen therapy particularly effective in improving nerve function and daily living activities. Whole-body cryotherapy displayed substantial improvements in depressive symptoms and quality of life. Frequent sauna bathing exhibited a lower risk of depressive symptoms in males. Dietary patterns, including Paleolithic and Mediterranean diets, showcased potential protective effects against depression, anxiety, and stress. The ketogenic diet revealed promise in ameliorating depression and psychosis symptoms alongside positive metabolic changes. Fasting interventions, though challenging, were associated with lower anxiety and depression levels without increased fatigue. Bright white light therapy enhanced remission rates and reduced depression scores in bipolar depression. Probiotic supplementation exhibited potential in reducing depression scores and improving metabolic markers, although further investigation is warranted. Conclusion: The diverse array of interventions explored in this study underlines the multifaceted nature of depression treatment. While these findings offer hope for more personalized and effective approaches, it is imperative to consider the variability in study designs, sample sizes, and methodologies among the selected papers. The mechanisms underlying the observed effects remain partially understood, emphasizing the need for continued mechanistic research. This study sets the stage for future investigations and clinical practices, showcasing the potential of various interventions in mitigating the challenges posed by depression and paving the way for more effective treatment strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0851.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: wound healing; probiotics; lactoplantibacillus plantarum; lactobacillus rhamnosus; lactobacillus acidophilus; Bifidobacterium longum; lactobacillus casei; lactobacillus reuteri; lactobacillus refmentum
Online: 12 June 2023 (14:46:07 CEST)
Wound healing is a multi-factorial response to tissue injury, aiming to restore tissue continuity. Numerous recent experimental and some clinical studies, clearly indicate that probiotics applied topically promote the wound healing process. However, the precise mechanism by which they contribute to healing is not yet clear. Each strain appears to exert a distinctive, even multi-factorial action on different phases of the healing process. Given that a multi-probiotic formula exerts better results than a single strain, the pharmaceutical industry has embarked on a race for the production of a formulation containing a combination of probiotics, capable of playing a role in all the phases of the healing process. Hence, the object of this review is to describe what is known to date of the distinctive mechanisms of each of the most studied probiotic strains in order to further facilitate research towards the development of combinations of strains and doses, covering the whole spectrum of healing. Eleven probiotic species have been analyzed, the only criterion of inclusion being a minimum of two published research articles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1722.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Crohn's disease; mitochondrial dysfunction; nutraceuticals; probiotics; exercise; dietary modifications; systematic review; meta-analysis; clinical remission; disease activity indices
Online: 26 September 2023 (04:43:19 CEST)
ABSTRACTBackground: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disorder with limited treatment options. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in CD pathogenesis, and mitochondrial-based interventions have emerged as a potential therapeutic avenue. This systematic review aimed to assess the efficacy of mitochondrial-based interventions in the management of CD.Methods: A systematic search of multiple databases was conducted to identify relevant studies in accordance with the PRISMA protocol. Inclusion criteria encompassed studies investigating mitochondrial-targeted interventions in CD patients. Methodological quality and risk of bias assessments were performed. Data synthesis involved both quantitative meta-analysis and qualitative narrative synthesis.Results: A total of 23 studies were included in this review, comprising randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case reports. Mitochondrial-based interventions encompassed nutraceuticals, probiotics, exercise, and dietary modifications. However, the overall quality of evidence was moderate, primarily due to methodological limitations in some studies.Conclusion: This systematic review suggests that mitochondrial-based interventions hold promise as adjunctive therapies for CD management. They appear to contribute to clinical remission and amelioration of disease activity. Nevertheless, the moderate quality of evidence underscores the need for further well-designed clinical trials to substantiate these findings and delineate optimal intervention strategies.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2157.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: bariatric surgery; sleeve gastrectomy; Roux-en-y gastric bypass; obesity; microbiota; gut-brain axis; beck scale; depression; diet; probiotics
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:27:10 CEST)
Keywords: bariatric surgery, sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-y gastric bypass, obesity, microbiota, gut-brain axis, beck scale, depression, diet, probiotics
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0211.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: HIV-1; CRISPR-Cas9; T-cells; lipid nanoparticles; gut-associated-lymphoid tissue; Co-receptors; Probiotics; GI Tract,; Gene Editing
Online: 13 April 2020 (10:57:52 CEST)
HIV-1 is a complicated and perplexing virus. It infects T cells, reverse transcribes its RNA into DNA, utilizes its host DNA machinery to replicate its HIV-DNA, translates the HIV-DNA into proteins, assembles itself for a budding escape from the T cell, and rapidly mutates its conformation. Partially, due to its complexity, there remains no cure for HIV or AIDs. However, recently with the discovery of TALENs, the use of zinc fingers, and most of all the applications of CRISPR-Cas9 technology, has given researchers new hope in finding alternative gene therapies and treatments for diseases. With more focus on CRISPR-Cas9, this new and novel technology uses a guiding RNA, sgRNA, to lead a Cas9 nuclease to its target for deletion or to change that DNA site. CRISPR-Cas9 can delete point mutations and multiple DNA sites. Because CRISPR can alter DNA sequences, several scientists have conducted research into CRISPR, possibly treating more diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and even HIV. HIV-1 drew the focus of a researcher named Dr. Ebina in 2013 when he was the first to design and apply CRISPR-Cas9 to genes found in the binding sites of HIV-1, inhibiting HIV-1 gene expression. Since 2013, several other researchers have blocked HIV replication and infection through CRISPR-Cas9 targeting the receptors of T cells called the CC chemokine receptor 5 or CCR5. HIV-1 binds to the CD4 receptor of T cells, which consists of co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4. If CCR5 expression can be removed, the HIV virus cannot bind to T-cells, blocking the initial attachment stage, and discontinuing the infection. However, there remain obstacles and issues for the CRISPR deletion of CCR5 for treating HIV-1. The issues include: 1) finding new and safe methods of CRISPR-Cas9 delivery, 2) clearing the latent HIV reservoirs, 3) improving the sgRNA design to avoid off-target mutations or deletions, and 4) effectively analyze the viral escape of HIV from CRISPR-Cas9 modifications. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss possible techniques for removing the obstacles that can lessen the potential of CRISPR to delete CCR5, repressing HIV-1 into long-term remission or a functional cure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0174.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: lactic acid bacteria; food-producing animals; dairy products; health benefits; One health; antimicrobial resistance; probiotics; starter cultures; adjunct cultures; protective cultures.
Online: 7 August 2021 (00:17:15 CEST)
Animal products, in particular dairy and fermented products, are natural, major sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Due to their antimicrobial properties, LAB are used in humans and in animals, with beneficial effects, as probiotics or in the treatment of a variety of diseases. In livestock production, LAB contribute to animal performance, health, and productivity. In the food industry, LAB are applied as bioprotective and biopreservation agents, contributing to improve food safety and quality. However, some studies have described resistance to relevant antibiotics in LAB, with the concomitant risks associated to the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to foodborne pathogens, their potential dissemination throughout the food chain, and the environment. Here, we summarize the application of LAB in livestock and animal products, as well as the health impact of LAB in animal food products. In general, the beneficial effects of LAB on the human food chain seem to outweigh the potential risks associated with their consumption as part of animal and human diets. However, further studies and continuous monitorization efforts are needed to ensure their safe application in animal products and in the control of pathogenic microorganisms, preventing the possible risks associated with antibiotic resistance and, thus, protecting public health.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: ulcerative colitis; inflammatory bowel disease; pediatrics; FMT; probiotics; synbiotics; antibiotics; prebiotics; fecal microbiota transplant; colitis-associated cancer; colorectal cancer; CAC; CRC; dysbiosis
Online: 20 September 2021 (14:20:39 CEST)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic autoimmune disorder affecting the colonic mucosa. UC is a subtype of inflammatory bowel disease along with Crohn’s disease and presents with varying extraintestinal manifestations. No single etiology for UC has been found, but a combination of genetic and environmental factors is suspected. Research has focused on the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of UC, including the effects of dysbiosis on the integrity of the colonic mucosal barrier, priming and regulation of the host immune system, chronic inflammation, and progression to tumorigenesis. Characterization of key microbial taxa and their implications in the pathogenesis of UC and colitis-associated cancer (CAC) may present opportunities for modulating intestinal inflammation through microbial-targeted therapies. In this review, we will discuss the microbiota-immune crosstalk in UC and CAC, as well as the evolution of microbiota-based therapies.