SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0044.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: drill; gorilla; mandrill; nonhuman primates; papio; stress
Online: 3 June 2022 (10:22:01 CEST)
The aim of this study was to compare left and right osseous orbit forms in two different Catarrhini primate genera using geometric morphometric techniques. The analysis was carried out on 20 well-preserved skulls from gorilla (Gorilla gorilla, n=10) and papios (drill [Mandrillus leucophaeus, n=3] and mandrill [M. sphinx, n=7]) from animals kept in zoo, which were photographed in their frontal norm. A set of 4 sagittal landmarks on the face and 23 semilandmarks on each orbita contour were used. According to results, right and left orbitas were similar in size but not in shape, appearing to be significative for individual-by-side interaction (fluctuating asymmetry). It is supposed this due to a developmental instability due to captivity life. Fluctuating asymmetry was clearly higher among gorillas, seeming logical that hominoidea primates suffering in captivity is higher than among cercopithecids (papios and mandrills). Side directional differences were significative only for papios. We supposed it to be due to a stronger stroke of lateralized mastication as, compared to gorillas, mandibles in papios are longer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0035.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: enterovirus; nonhuman primates; humans; genetic recombination; emergence; Republic of Congo
Online: 2 September 2020 (08:49:42 CEST)
Enteroviruses (EVs) are viruses of the family Picornaviridae that cause mild to severe infections in humans and in several animal species, including nonhuman primates (NHPs). We conducted a survey and characterization of enteroviruses circulating between humans and great apes in the Congo. Fecal samples (N=24) of gorillas and chimpanzees living close to or distant from humans in three Congolese parks were collected, as well as from healthy humans (N=38) living around and within these parks. Enterovirus were detected in 29.4% gorilla and 13.15% human feces, including wild and human-habituated gorillas, local humans and eco-guards. Two identical strains were isolated from two humans come from two remote regions. Their genomes were similar and all genes showed their close similarity to Coxsackieviruses except for 3C, 3D and 5’UTR region where they were most similar to poliovirus 1 and 2, suggesting recombination. Recombination events were found between these strains, poliovirus 1 and 2 and EV-C99. The same EV- C species detected in both humans and apes in different regions suggest a clonal distribution of the virus in Congo.
Online: 26 November 2019 (11:47:45 CET)
Toxoplasmosis is a neglected anthropozoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. The role of non-human primates in the epidemiology of human toxoplasmosis is not clear. Acute and highly fatal cases of toxoplasmosis are frequently reported in new world monkeys and asymptomatic infections in old world monkeys. Here we report detection of latent natural T. gondii infection in olive baboons during a screening exercise to select animals for an experimental toxoplasmosis study. Archived serum samples from 32 olive baboons (Papio anubis), 23 wild caught and nine colony-born, were screened for T. gondii DNA using nested PCR. Eighteen (56.25%) samples were from females and fourteen (43.75%) from males. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in 21 (65.6%) baboons. 13 females (40. 6%) and eight males (25%). Five baboons (24%) which tested positive were from the Institute of Primate Research colony but there was no statistical significance between them and the wild trapped (p=0.453). There was neither statistical significance (p=0.373) between sex and infection status nor between area of origin and infection status (p>0.05). These results indicate that olive baboons get infected with T. gondii in the wild and during captivity and may be significant reservoirs of human infections, especially where they may be trapped for bushmeat. We recommend a country-wide study to establish true prevalence of toxoplasmosis among non-human primates and identify associated parasite strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0684.v1
Subject: Keywords: human-wildlife interactions; non-human primates; zooanthropology; primate sanctuary; Lemur catta
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:18:23 CEST)
The aim of the present study is to investigate themes related to visitors’ perceptions of captive wildlife in particular, attitudes towards non-human primates (henceforth, primates). This research took place in free-roaming, multi-species primate sanctuary, Monkeyland (South Africa), where 400 visitors were interviewed using an anonymous survey both before and after attending a guided tour. The answers were divided into different categories, in order to standardize the motivations behind tourists’ choices. The results of the survey demonstrated that most visitors agree that a primate would not be a good companion animal. Visitors’ desire to touch primates was found to be positively correlated with desire for companion primates and inversely associated with visitor age. In response to: “would you like to touch a monkey?”, the majority of tourists who expressed this desire seemed aware that such interactions are not appropriate, with concern for animal welfare and human health. Of the various primate species present in the sanctuary, visitors preferred the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) and, generally speaking, expressed appreciation for primates’ “cuteness”. Our results indicate a general awareness by the visitors on the importance of animal welfare in the human interactions with captive wildlife, in agreement with the “hands-off” policy of Monkeyland primate sanctuary. We discuss the findings from a general to zooanthropological point of view, proposing some reflections on the attitudes of visitors toward non-human primates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0425.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Empathy; comparative thanatology; cognitive biases; animal ethics; mentaphobia; primates; elephants; birds; robot
Online: 16 November 2020 (14:23:45 CET)
Anthropomorphism is a natural tendency in humans, but it is also influenced by many characteristics of the observer (the human) and the observed entity (here, the animal species). This study asked participants to complete an online questionnaire about three videos showing epimeletic behaviours in three animal species. In the videos, an individual (a sparrow, an elephant and a macaque, respectively) displayed behaviours towards an inanimate conspecific that suddenly regained consciousness at the end of the footage. A fourth video showed a robot dog being kicked by an engineer to demonstrate its stability. Each video was followed by a series of questions designed to evaluate the degree of anthropomorphism of participants, from mentaphobia (no attribution of intentions and beliefs, whatever the animal species) to full anthropomorphism (full attribution of intentions and beliefs by animals, to the same extent as in humans) and to measure how far the participants had correctly assessed each situation in terms of biological reality (current scientific knowledge of each species). There is a negative correlation (about 61%) between the mental states attributed to animals by humans to animals and the real capability of animals. The heterogeneity of responses proved that humans display different forms of anthropomorphism, from rejecting all emotional or intentional states in animals to considering animals to show the same intentions as humans. However, the scores participants attributed to animals differed according to the species shown in the video and to human sociodemographic characteristics. Understanding the potential usefulness of these factors can lead to better relationships with animals and encourage a positive view of human-robot interactions. Indeed, reflective or critical anthropomorphism can increase our humanity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0711.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Empathy; comparative thanatology; cognitive biases; animal ethics; mentaphobia; primates; elephants; birds; robot
Online: 31 August 2020 (06:13:03 CEST)
In this study, we asked participants to answer an online questionnaire about videos showing animal epimeletic behaviours: an individual (a sparrow, an elephant and a macaque) displayed behaviours towards an inanimate conspecific who suddenly got back to conscious at the end of the footage. A fourth video showed a dog-robot kicked by an engineer to demonstrate its stability. After each video, questions were asked to score the degree of anthropomorphism of participants, from mentophobia (no attribution whatever the species) to full anthropomorphism and to measure how close participants are to biological reality (actual scientific knowledge). A first important result is that there is a negative correlation (about 61%) between the anthropomorphism score (AS) and the biological reality one (BRS) showing a wrong statement. The heterogeneity of responses proved that all levels of anthropomorphism are covered from mentaphobia to full anthropomorphism. However, the scores participants attributed to animals differ according to the species shown in the video and to human characteristics. Understanding how one can play with these factors can conduct to better relationships with animals as encourage human-robot interactions. Finally, such reflective anthropomorphism can lead to an increase of human empathy and sociality, finally increasing our humanity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0121.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: alphavirus; vaccine; arbovirus; animal models; nonhuman primates; electrocardiography; ecg; aerosol; encephalitis; equine
Online: 11 October 2019 (03:32:33 CEST)
Eastern (EEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses (EEVs) are related, (+)ssRNA arboviruses that can cause severe, sometimes fatal, encephalitis in humans. EEVs are highly infectious when aerosolized, raising concerns for potential use as biological weapons. No licensed medical countermeasures exist; given the severity/rarity of natural EEV infections, efficacy studies require animal models. Cynomolgus macaques exposed to EEV aerosols develop fever, encephalitis, and other clinical signs similar to humans. Fever is nonspecific for encephalitis in macaques. Electrocardiography (ECG) metrics may predict onset, severity, or outcome of EEV-attributable disease. Macaques were implanted with thermometry/ECG radiotransmitters and exposed to aerosolized EEV. Data was collected continuously, and repeated-measures ANOVA and frequency-spectrum analyses identified differences between courses of illness and between pre-exposure and post-exposure states. EEEV-infected macaques manifested widened QRS-intervals in severely ill subjects post-exposure. Moreover, QT-intervals and RR-intervals decreased during the febrile period. VEEV-infected macaques suffered decreased QT-intervals and RR-intervals with fever onset. Frequency-spectrum analyses revealed differences in the fundamental frequencies of multiple metrics in the post-exposure and febrile periods compared to baseline and confirmed circadian dysfunction. Heart rate variability (HRV) analyses revealed diminished variability post-exposure. These analyses support using ECG data alongside fever and clinical laboratory findings for evaluating medical countermeasure efficacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0096.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika virus; ZIKV; Rhesus macaques; Non-human primates; NHP; infection; natural history; Asian-lineage; African-lineage
Online: 9 April 2018 (03:53:26 CEST)
The establishment of a well characterized non-human primate model of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is critical for the development of medical interventions. In this study, challenging Indian rhesus macaques (IRMs) with ZIKV strains of the Asian lineage resulted in dose dependent peak viral loads between days 2 and 5 post infection; and a robust immune response which protected the animals from homologous and heterologous re-challenge. In contrast, viremia in IRMs challenged with an African lineage strain was below the assays lower limit of quantitation and the immune response was insufficient to protect from re-challenge. These results corroborate previous observations but are contrary to reports using other African strains obviating the need for additional studies to elucidate the variables contributing to the disparities. Nonetheless, the utility of an Asian lineage ZIKV IRM model for countermeasures development was verified by vaccinating animals with a formalin inactivated reference vaccine and demonstrating sterilizing immunity against a subsequent subcutaneous challenge.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Neotropical non-human primates; serology; sylvatic cycles; Flavivirus; Dengue Virus; Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus; West Nile Virus
Online: 5 November 2020 (18:35:56 CET)
Arthropod-borne viruses belonging to the flavivirus genus possess an enormous relevance in public health. Neotropical non-human primates (NPs) have been proposed to be infected more frequently with flaviviruses due to their arboreal and diurnal habits, their genetic similarity to humans and their relative closeness to humans. However, the only known flavivirus in America that is maintained by sylvatic cycles involving NPs is Yellow Fever virus (YFV), and the NPs role as potential hosts of flaviviruses is still unknown. Here, we examined flavivirus exposure in 86 free range and captive NPs of Costa Rica to evaluate their involvement in flavivirus transmission cycles and their potential as flavivirus hosts. We used a highly-specific micro plaque reduction neutralization test (micro-PRNT) to determine the presence of antibodies against YFV, Dengue virus 1-4 (DENV), Zika virus, West Nile Virus (WNV) and Saint Louis Encephalitis virus (SLEV). We found evidence of seropositive NPs to DENV-1 8.2% (homotypic –3/86, heterotypic – 4/86), SLEV 15.1% (homotypic – 10/86, heterotypic – 2/86), WNV 2.3% (homotypic – 2/86) and 8.1% (7/86) undetermined Flavivirus species. No antibodies against YFV or ZIKV were found. This work provides compelling serological evidence of exposure in NPs of flaviviruses associated with urban cycles, i.e. DENV, and confirms decades of circulation of SLEV in the same environments. Also, the range of years of sampling and the socioeconomic region was statistically significant for the presence of Dengue and Flavivirus undetermined seropositive individuals, respectively. Both the years and socioeconomic regions with greater seroprevalence coincide with the years and socioeconomic regions with high numbers of Dengue human cases for the country. Our work suggests bidirectional? circulation of different flaviviruses between humans and wildlife with public health importance and underscores the necessity of further surveillance for flaviviruses in the humans/wildlife interface in Central America.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0460.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; neural tissue repair; neuroregeneration; non-human primates; hydrogels; neural tissue engineering; stroke; cortical injury
Online: 28 May 2020 (13:08:32 CEST)
Neural tissue engineering, nanotechnology and neuroregeneration are diverse biomedical disciplines that have been working together in recent decades to solve the complex problems linked to central nervous system (CNS) repair. It is known that the CNS demonstrates a very limited regenerative capacity because of a microenvironment that impedes effective regenerative processes, making development of CNS therapeutics challenging. Given the high prevalence of CNS conditions such as stroke that damage the brain and place a severe burden on afflicted individuals and on society, it is of utmost significance to explore the optimum methodologies for finding treatments that could be applied to humans for restoration of function to pre-injury levels. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), also known as exosomes, when derived from mesenchymal stem cells, are one of the most promising approaches that have been attempted thus far, as EVs deliver factors that stimulate recovery by acting at the nanoscale level on intercellular communication while avoiding the risks linked to stem cell transplantation. At the same time, advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have offered the potential of using hydrogels as bio-scaffolds in order to provide the stroma required for neural repair to occur, as well as the release of biomolecules facilitating or inducing the reparative processes. This review introduces a novel experimental hypothesis regarding the benefits that could be offered if EVs were to be combined with biocompatible injectable hydrogels. The rationale behind this hypothesis is presented, analyzing how a hydrogel might prolong the retention of EVs and maximize the localized benefit to the brain. This sustained delivery of EVs would be coupled with essential guidance cues and structural support from the hydrogel until neural tissue remodeling and regeneration occur. Finally, the importance of including non-human primate (NHP) models in the clinical translation pipeline, as well as the added benefit of multi-modal neuroimage analysis to establish non-invasive, in vivo, quantifiable imaging-based biomarkers for CNS repair are discussed, aiming for more effective and safe clinical translation of such regenerative therapies to humans.