REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0051.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder; deep brain stimulation; fear extinction; amygdala; prefrontal cortex
Online: 8 December 2017 (07:21:28 CET)
Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common debilitating psychiatric condition for which pharmacological therapy is not always solvable. Various treatments have been suggested for these patients. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently under investigation for patients affected by PTSD. 2) Methods: We review the neurocircuitry and up to date clinical concepts that may be of relevance for the implementation of DBS in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). 3) Results: The role of DBS in treatment-refractory PTSD patients has been investigated relying on both preclinical and clinical studies. 4) Conclusions: DBS for PTSD is in its preliminary phases and likely to provide hope to patients with medical refractory PTSD following the results of randomized controlled studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1259.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: real time; heart rate variability; psychological intervention program; complex posttraumatic stress disorder
Online: 19 July 2023 (09:42:40 CEST)
For a subject suffering from complex post-traumatic stress disorder, a psychological intervention program was designed, monitored in real-time during psychotherapy, and evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively after psychotherapy. One male subject participated in this program under consent. The proposed intervention program was designed using cognitive behavioral therapy and stabilization treatments for body-based sensory processes in four sessions of 90 min each. During psychotherapy, a wearable heart sensor and a communication application were utilized to determine the subject’s current psychological state. After the intervention, the effect of the proposed program was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using the Impact of Event Scale–Revised (IES-R-K), Athens insomnia scale (AIS), and heart rate variability (HRV). After the intervention program was conducted, the subject reconstructed his traumatic events and trained himself with certain psychological techniques to decrease his negative thoughts and emotions induced by his previous traumatic events. The IES-R-K and AIS ten months after the last session were changed positively by approximately 25% compared with the subject’s state before the first session. During psychotherapy, the HRV exhibited a significant correlation with the subject’s emotional state. The proposed intervention program induced a positive change in the subject. Although the HRV was well utilized in this investigation, more sophisticated statistical analysis will be required for clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0176.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: COVID-19; nurses; posttraumatic stress disorder; perceived social support; changes in outlook; sense of security; meaning in life
Online: 7 August 2020 (08:10:28 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic affects not only physical health but also deteriorates mental health resulting in sleep problems, depression, and traumatic stress. Our research investigates the level of posttraumatic stress, perceived social support, opinions on positive and negative consequences of the pandemic, sense of security, and sense of meaning among nurses in the face of new and not fully understood global epidemiological phenomena. For this purpose, computer-assisted web interviewing methods were conducted between May 1 and May 15, 2020. Participating nurses completed the following research tools: The Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), The Changes in Outlook Questionnaire (CIOQ), The Safety Experience Questionnaire (SEQ) and The Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ). Three hundred and twenty-five nurses working throughout Poland joined the study of an average age of 39.18 ± 11.16 years. The average overall IES-R score in the study group was 1.78 ± 0.65. Among the dimensions of traumatic stress, the highest score was obtained in the dimension Avoidance 1.86 ± 0.73, then in the dimensions Hyperarousal 1.8 ± 0.78 and Intrusion 1.74 ± 0.83. Amongst studied nurses, the highest support rates were provided by significant others (22.58 ± 5.22), then from friends (21.91 ± 5) and family (21.45 ± 4.4). Among the surveyed nurses, higher average scores were noted in the subscale measuring positive psychological changes (18.56 ± 4.04). In contrast, a higher average level of assessment was noted on the Reflection on the safety dimension (4.21 ± 0.49). The mean MLQ score was 5.33 ± 0.87. A slightly higher result was observed in the subscale Presence (5.35 ± 1.14). The results of the research implemented during the period of severe psychological pressure associated with the COVID-19 pandemic provided information on symptoms of traumatic stress in the examined group of nurses. Their sense of security has been lowered and accompanied by an intensified reflection on issues concerning security. However, the sense of meaning (currently felt) in life remains higher than the tendency to searching for it. The surveyed nurses perceive individual support from the so-called significant others (apart from family and friends). They see positive changes resulting from painful experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic, which can be characterized by adaptation in the form of posttraumatic growth.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: nonodontogenic cysts; posttraumatic; skull base; infratemporal fossa; minimally invasive surgical procedures
Online: 28 April 2023 (05:03:39 CEST)
Surgical ciliated cysts occur primarily in the maxilla after radical maxillary sinus surgery. We report a first case of a surgical ciliated cyst that developed in the infratemporal fossa 25 years after the patient sustained severe facial trauma. The patient complained of mandibular pain and limited mouth opening. The patient’s condition was completely resolved 5 months after marsupialization via Le Fort I osteotomy. Surgical morbidities can be minimized by proper diagnosis and less invasive surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0094.v4
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); depression; anxiety; memory; tryptophan; serotonin (5-HT); kynurenine; transaminases; conversion disorder; experimental animal models
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:34:01 CEST)
Memory and emotion, fundamental components of our mental existence, are highly vulnerable to psychiatric disorders like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This condition has been linked to serotonin (5-HT) metabolism disruptions. Over 95% of the 5-HT precursor tryptophan (Trp) is metabolized through the Trp-kynurenine (KYN) metabolic pathway, but little is known about its role in behavior. Kynurenine aminotransferases are responsible for the production of the Trp-KYN metabolite kynurenic acid. The gene aadat codes for mitochondrial kynurenine aminotransferase isotype 2. We generated CRISPR/Cas9-induced aadat knockout (kat2−/−) mice to examine the consequence of the gene deletion on negative valence in emotion, memory, and motor function in males 8 weeks of age and compared them to their wild-type counterparts. The forced swim test showed increased depression-like behaviors in transgenic mice. Anxiety and memory tests showed no significant differences. The transgenic mice had fewer center field and corner entries, shorter ambulation distances, and fewer jumping counts in the open field test. Overall, the transgenic mice exhibit depression-like behavior in a learned helplessness model, emotional indifference, and motor deficits. Here we present the first evidence that the deletion of the aadat gene triggers depression-like behaviors, uniquely associated with despair experience rather than adverse-conditioned memory. These findings have profound implications, opening avenues for further exploration into the main causes of experience-based depression linked to despair. This investigation has the potential to advance our understanding of these complex conditions and pave the way for improved therapeutic strategies by elucidating the relationship between Trp metabolism and the pathogenesis of PTSD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1124.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: parents of children with disabilities; mental health; work-family facilitation; emotional regulation strategies; optimism; posttraumatic growth; social support; recovery management
Online: 18 July 2023 (13:42:45 CEST)
Quantitative research on positive aspects of work-life integration and the well-being of families with children with disabilities is scarce, especially in the national context. The aim of this study was to examine the contributions of some personal and environmental resources in explaining work-to-family (WFF) and family-to-work (FWF) facilitation and mental health of parents of children with disabilities residing in Croatia. The mediational role of WFF and FWF in the relationship between the resources and mental health was tested, while controlling for some general socio-demographic variables. A total of 571 employed parents of a child/children with disabilities completed an online self-assessment questionnaire. The results showed higher WFF (19%) was predicted by higher levels of social support at work, a higher level of education, posttraumatic growth (PTG) of personal strength, and recovery management. Higher FWF (46%) was predicted by higher levels of social support in the family, PTG of personal strength, the emotional regulation strategy of reorienting to planning, optimism, a lower age, the male gender, a greater number of children, and a higher level of education. A higher level of mental health (47%) was predicted directly by higher levels of optimism, recovery management, FWF, emotional regulation strategies of positive refocusing and planning, and a greater number of children, and indirectly by all the predictors of FWF, through a higher level of FWF (but not WFF).