ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0277.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Long Covid; post Covid; Post-acute COVID
Online: 21 March 2022 (08:25:20 CET)
Abstract: COVID-19 Long Haulers, an estimated 3% to 12% of people infected globally with coronavirus having latter devasting symptoms 12 weeks after the initial infection is on the rise. We conducted a collaborative study with the long covid patient organization in Greece in order to estimate the prevalence, symptoms and problems that adult long haulers experience and then propose a management plan for these patients. Symptoms were obtained from 208 patients using unstructured qualitative free text entries in an anonymized online questionnaire. The majority of respondents (68.8%) were not hospitalized and had been diagnosed more than six months ago with lingering symptoms (66,8%). Eighteen different symptoms (fatigue, tachycardia, shortness of breath, parosmia etc) were mentioned in both hospitalized and community patients. Interestingly, patients with initial mild symptoms suffer from the same persistent symptoms as those who were hospitalized. Awareness of long covid sequelae seems to be low even among medical doctors. Treatment options incorporating targeted rehabilitation programs are either not available or still excluded from the management plan of long covid patients. Since long COVID is a multi-systemic entity, we propose a holistic interventional approach using a multidisciplinary medical team in order to securely and effectively diagnose and treat these specific patients. Academic and medical community must collaborate with long covid patients’ organizations so as to provide personalized medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; depression; anxiety; post-acute COVID-19 syndrome; post-COVID
Online: 12 August 2022 (04:56:33 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to examine the course of Depression and anxiety in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history compared with those without a psychiatric history. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey for COVID-19 survivors was conducted from July to September 2021. 6016 COVID-19 survivors, the accuracy of whose responses was determined to be assured, were included in analyses. Exposures included psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection, and the main outcomes and measures included severity of depression and anxiety, as assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), respectively. Results: Mean severity of PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were significantly higher in participants with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history. Two-way analysis of covariance for PHQ-9 showed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and a significant interaction effect of psychiatric history × time since infection. Two-way analysis of covariance for the GAD-7 score revealed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection and the interaction effect of these factors. Conclusions: The course of depression and anxiety was more severe in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0836.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Long covid; Post covid; Sleep disorders
Online: 11 May 2023 (09:42:22 CEST)
Objectives: To examine the long term impact of COVID-19 on sleep patterns and development of sleep disorders. Methods: Using the centralized Massachusetts General Brigham (MGB) Research Patient Data Registry (RPDR), SARS-CoV2 positive patients were surveyed about their sleep patterns before and after the viral infection. Information related to co-morbid conditions and medications were obtained through chart review. Results: Two hundred and forty five completed surverys were analysed. Average age was 53.3 ± 16.3 years, and participants were predominantly Non-Hispanic White (84.1%) and female (74.3%). Average BMI (kg/m2) was 29.9 ± 6.9, and a greater proportion was non-smokers (63.2%). After COVID-19, there was an increase in the percentage of participants reporting difficulty initiating (31 ± 46% vs. 39 ± 49%, P=0.01), and maintaining sleep (43 ± 49% vs. 57 ± 49%, P<0.001), and use of sleep aids (24 ± 43% vs. 30 ± 45% P=0.003) with an incidence rate of 24.3%, 37.4%, and 12.3% respectively. In addition, there was an increase in daytime fatigue and the need for napping (58 ± 49% vs. 36 ± 48%, P <0.0001) with an incidence of 8% and 23% respectively. The sleep symptoms persisted beyond 12 months among 28% of the participants and were predominantly seen among women. Conclusions: Infection with SARS-CoV2 has negative effects on sleep, and a significant proportion of adults experience insomnia and daytime sleepiness beyond 12 months after recovering from the initial infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1487.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: biomarkers; COVID-19; epidemiology; laboratory; long COVID; pathogenesis; post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-19 infection (PASC); post COVID; post-COVID syndrome (PCS)
Online: 22 May 2023 (09:41:11 CEST)
Long COVID (LC) encompasses a constellation of long-term symptoms experienced by at least 10% of people after the initial SARS-CoV-2 infection, and so far has affected about 65 million people. The etiology of LC remains unclear; however, many pathophysiological pathways may be involved, including viral persistence; chronic, low grade inflammatory response; immune dysregulation and defective immune response; reactivation of latent viruses; autoimmunity; persistent endothelial dysfunction and coagulopathy; gut dysbiosis; hormonal dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction; and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. There are no specific tests for the diagnosis of LC, and clinical features including laboratory findings and biomarkers may not specifically relate to LC. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to develop and validate biomarkers that can be employed for the prediction, diagnosis and prognosis of LC and its therapeutic response. Promising candidate biomarkers that are found in some patients are markers of systemic inflammation including acute phase proteins, cytokines and chemokines; biomarkers reflecting SARS-CoV-2 persistence, reactivation of herpesviruses and immune dysregulation; biomarkers of endotheliopathy, coagulation and fibrinolysis; microbiota alterations; diverse proteins and metabolites; hormonal and metabolic biomarkers; as well as cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. At present, there are only two reviews summarizing relevant biomarkers; however, they do not cover the entire umbrella of current biomarkers or their link to etiopathogenetic mechanisms, and the diagnostic work-up in a comprehensive manner. Herein, we aim to appraise and synopsize the available evidence on the typical laboratory manifestations and candidate biomarkers of LC, their classification based on main LC symptomatology in the frame of the epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of the syndrome, and furthermore assess limitations and challenges as well as potential implications in candidate therapeutic interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Covid-19; Long Covid-19; Long Haulers Covid; Post Covid-19 Syndrome; Post-Acute Covid-19; Corona Virus; SARS-Cov-2; Novel Corona Virus 2019; Post-Acute SARS-CoV-2; PASC, Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19; Late Sequelae COVID-19
Online: 18 March 2021 (17:16:52 CET)
Introduction: Despite more than one year passed since the first cases of SARS-CoV-2 were reported, there is still no consensus on the definition and clinical management of post-acute-COVID-19. The condition has heterogeneously been named as Chronic COVID syndrome, Post COVID-19 Syndrome, post-acute sequela of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), and the more familiar long COVID. Method: In order to capture all relevant published studies, we undertook a multi-step search with no language restriction. The following four-step search strategy was utilized: First, a preliminary (limited) search was conducted on January 20, 2021, in Google Scholar and PubMed to identify the appropriate keywords. Then, on January 30, 2021, we adopted a search strategy of electronic databases from Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of sciences, using those keywords. Then, after duplicate removal, we screened all titles, abstracts, and full texts. This resulted in 66 eligible studies. Subsequently, after a forward and backward search of their references and citations an additional 54 publications were found, resulting in a total of 120 publications that formed the basis of the present analysis. The titles, abstracts, and full-texts of non-English articles were translated using Google Translate for further evaluation. We conducted our scoping review based on the PRISMA-ScR Checklist.Results: We found only one randomized clinical trial in our search. Of the 67 original studies, 22 were cohort and 28 were cross-sectional studies totaling 74.6% of the original studies. Of the total of 120 publications, 59 (49.1%) focused on signs and symptoms, 28 (23.3%) were focused on management, and 13 (10.8%) focused on pathophysiology. Ten (9%) publications focused on imaging studies. Ninety-one percent of the original investigations came from high and upper-middle-income countries, highlighting the scarcity of reports originating from low-income and lower-middle-income countries.Conclusion: The predominant symptoms among those with the so-called “Long COVID” were: fatigue, breathlessness, arthralgia, sleep difficulties, and chest pain. Recent reports also point to the risk of long-term sequela with cutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, mental health, neurologic, and renal involvement in those who survive the acute phase of the illness. The ambiguity and controversies in its definition have impaired proper recognition and management of those requiring additional support following the resolution of the acute phase of this infection. This has resulted in long-standing distress for the patients and their families. Our findings highlight the need for a multidisciplinary approach, support, and rehabilitation for these patients in terms of long-term mental and physical health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0408.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: hesitancy; covid-19; post-covid; medical doctors; indonesia
Online: 13 September 2022 (05:13:14 CEST)
This study is a cross-sectional survey involving physicians around Indonesia aimed to explore physician hesitancy to treat COVID-19 patients after experiencing COVID-19 infection coupled with associated occupational risk factors. The questionnaire was distributed via contact information from the Indonesian Physician Association database. Out of 383 participants, 25.6% suffered from moderate symptoms of COVID-19 and 2.9% were admitted for critical care. Hesitancy to treat suspected, probable, or confirmed COVID-19 patients was found in 20.3% of physicians. A higher hesitancy rate was found in older physicians and those with less experience in treating COVID-19 patients. Specialist trainees and those who work in public hospitals were physicians with the lowest hesitancy in treating COVID-19 patients. There is a significant hesitancy in treating COVID-19 patients among physicians who have suffered from COVID-19 which calls for further action by management and policy makers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID-19; ACE2; severity; post-COVID-19 patients; comorbidity.
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:36:06 CEST)
ACE2 impact on the severity of COVID-19 is widely discussed but still controversial. To estimate its role in aspects of the main risk factors and comorbidities, we involved post-COVID-19 patients in Ternopil region (Ukraine). Recruitment period was July 2020 to December 2021. Medical records, treatment modalities and outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Serum human ACE2 protein was measured with Cusabio ELISA kits (Houston, TX, USA). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS21.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The level of ACE2 serum protein was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in patients with mild symptoms compared to more severe course of disease, and inversely had changed from 1 to 90 days after recovery. In patients with mild COVID-19, ACE2 level significantly decreased over time, while among critical patients, it increased by 34.1percent. Such results could be explained by ACE2 shedding from tissues into circulation. Loss of the membrane-bound form of the enzyme decreases the virus entry into cells. Our studies did not identify any sex-related ACE2 serum levels correlation. The most common comorbidities were hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and diabetes mellitus. All comorbidities except respiratory diseases contribute to the severity of disease and correlate with ACE2 blood serum level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; post COVID; liver; aspartate aminotransferase; risk factors
Online: 8 February 2023 (10:47:25 CET)
The long-term laboratory aspects of the effects of COVID-19 on liver function are still not well understood. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the hepatic clinical-laboratory profile of patients with up to 20 months of long-term COVID-19. A total of 243 patients of both sexes aged 18 years or older hospitalised in the acute phase of COVID-19 were included in this study. Liver function analysis was performed. Changes were identified in the mean levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and ferritin. Inflammatory markers such as ferritin > 300 U/L were observed in the group that presented more changes in liver function markers (ALT, AST, and GGT). Age ≥ 60 years, male sex, AST > 25 U/L, and GGT ≥ 50 or 32 U/L were associated with ALT > 29 U/L. There was a correlation between ALT and AST, LDH, GGT, and ferritin. Our findings suggest that ALT and AST levels may be elevated in patients with long-term COVID, especially in those hospitalised in the acute phase. In addition, ALT > 29 U/L was associated with other markers of liver injury, such as LDH, GGT, and ferritin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1945.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: memory loss; long COVID; post COVID; depression; mental confusion; COVID-19
Online: 27 July 2023 (13:28:13 CEST)
Long Covid is a term used for patients who have recovered from COVID-19 but exhibit persistent cognitive dysfunction, including mental confusion, difficulties in attention, impairment in executive functions and slow movements, among other common symptoms. A study was conducted with 65 patients who had a positive RT-PCR diagnosis and reported symptoms of cognitive impairment, such as memory loss and attention difficulties after recovery. The patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation and completed questionnaires on cognition, mood, and quality of life. During the cognitive screening, 71% of the patients showed alterations, with deficits in visual memory (69%), language (54%), visuospatial construction (49%), verbal episodic memory (37%), executive functions (36%), attentional abilities (34%), and premorbid intelligence (12%). It is important to highlight the need for treatments and further studies to understand the long-term side effects of this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2032.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; post-COVID-19; pulmonary manifestations; spirometry; chest tomography.
Online: 28 July 2023 (12:48:47 CEST)
COVID-19 generated a scenario for global health with multiple systemic impairments. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical, radiological, and pulmonary functional evolution in 302 post-COVID-19 patients. Regarding post-COVID-19 pulmonary symptoms, dry cough, dyspnea, and chest pain were the most frequent. Of the associated comorbidities, asthma was more frequent (23.5%). Chest Tomography (CT) initially showed a mean pulmonary involvement of 69.7%, and the evaluation in the subsequent months showed an improvement in the evolutionary image, and with less than six months post-pathology, there was a commitment of 37 .7%, from six to twelve months, 20% and after 12 months, 9.9%. And as for most of the sample, 50.3% of the patients presented CT normalization in less than six months after infection, 23% normalized between six and twelve months, and 5.2% normalized the images after twelve months, with one remaining. Percentage of 17.3% who maintained post-COVID-19 pulmonary residual sequelae. Regarding spirometry, in less than six months after the pathology, 59.3% of the patients already showed a regular exam; 12.3% normalized their function within six to twelve months, and 6.3% concluded a normal exam after twelve months of post-pathology evaluation. Only 3.6% of the patients still showed some alteration in this period.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1317.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; long-COVID; post-COVID; cytokine storm; ACE-2
Online: 21 November 2023 (10:45:28 CET)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), instigated by the zoonotic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), rapidly transformed from an outbreak in Wuhan, China, into a widespread global pandemic. A significant post-infection condition, known as ‘long- COVID’, emerges in a substantial subset of patients, manifesting with a constellation of over 200 reported symptoms that span multiple organ systems. This condition, also known as 'post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection' (PASC), presents a perplexing clinical picture with far-reaching implications, often persisting long after the acute phase. While initial research focused on the immediate pulmonary impact of the virus, the recognition of COVID-19 as a multiorgan disruptor has unveiled a gamut of protracted and severe health issues. This review provides a summary of the primary effects of long COVID on the cardiovascular, nervous, and respiratory systems. It also delves into the mechanisms underlying these impacts and underscores the critical need for a comprehensive understanding of long COVID's pathogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1915.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: post-COVID-19 syndrome; diabetes; overweight; COVID-19 pneumonia; observational study
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:18:29 CEST)
In the aftermath of the COVID pandemic, post-COVID-19 syndrome (PCS) remains a challenge and may continue to represent a major health problem in the future. Moreover, the influence of type 2 diabetes and being overweight on PCS remains unclear. This study aimed to assess this influence. We performed an observational study from October 2020 to July 2022, which included 466 patients (269 males and 197 females) with a median age of 65. They were hospitalized due to COVID-19 pneumonia and had persistent symptoms after 1 month of COVID-19 infection. The patients were divided into four groups according to the study objectives: patients with type 2 diabetes, overweight patients, overweight patients with type 2 diabetes, and normal-weight patients without type 2 diabetes. The clinical and demographic data collected during hospitalization and regular visits at the Community Healthcare Center dr. Adolf Drolc Maribor were analyzed. Our results showed that type 2 diabetes patients had a more difficult course of treatment and longer hospitalization. Moreover, more type 2 diabetes patients underwent rehabilitation than the other study groups. The prevailing symptoms in our patients with PCS were dyspnea and fatigue, mostly in female patients with type 2 diabetes. Our study also showed that more women with type 2 diabetes and more overweight women with type 2 diabetes suffered from secondary infections. Further, more overweight patients were treated in the intensive care unit compared to the other groups. However, our study showed an interesting result that patients with type 2 diabetes had the shortest PCS durations. Type 2 diabetes and being overweight are risk factors for PCS onset and prolonged duration. Therefore, our data that revealed a shorter duration of PCS in type 2 diabetes patients compared to the other investigated groups was unexpected. We believe that answering this question regarding the results will enable us to improve PCS treatment in general.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1470.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; phospho-calcium; parathyroid hormone, post-COVID complications, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia.
Online: 21 July 2023 (09:23:41 CEST)
Phosphocalcium metabolism disorders have emerged as potential complications in individuals recovering from COVID-19. This abstract provides a concise summary of the current understanding of phosphocalcium metabolism disturbances post-COVID, their prevalence, clinical manifestations, and underlying mechanisms. The impact of COVID-19 on phosphorus, calcium, and parathyroid hormone levels is discussed, highlighting the importance of regular monitoring and appropriate management strategies. The abstract emphasizes the need for further research to enhance our understanding of these disorders and improve post-COVID patient care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; post-COVID pulmonary fibrosis; lung injury; anti-fibrotic agents
Online: 18 May 2021 (11:32:07 CEST)
Total 219 countries and territories globally suffering from the recent pandemic COVID-19 is now in its second wave with more brutality, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) . It has several symptoms like as persistent fever; respiratory illnesses; cough; fatigue; shortness of breath; loss of appetite; persistent pain or pressure in the chest; dysgeusia; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) etc., and here the things to worry about is the development of pulmonary fibrosis after COVID-19 in both peoples who had died of due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or those who survived. Due to COVID-19, dysregulated immune response and wound repair mainly in elderly patients causes this secondary pulmonary fibrosis. Thus using anti-fibrotic agents could be meaningful in these circumstances although their efficacy in treating COVID-19 is subject to more detailed laboratory research works. In this review article you will get to know about the lung fibrosis generation due to COVID-19 infection, about anti-fibrotic agents and the currents challenges of this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1520.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Post-COVID-19; Pandemic; Women's Sleep Patterns; Quality
Online: 23 November 2023 (11:06:39 CET)
The study aimed to evaluate the after-effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the sleep quality and patterns of women across different cultural settings within Iraq, spanning the period of 2022. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a diverse cohort of women from multiple provinces in Iraq. The survey measured various parameters, including sleep duration, onset latency, and disturbances. The post-pandemic period has seen a notable decline in sleep quality among the female population. Contributing factors include psychological stress, lifestyle changes due to the pandemic, and ongoing socio-economic challenges. The impact on sleep quality exhibited variation across different cultural groups, indicating a significant cultural influence on the pandemic's psychological aftermath. The study concludes that the post-pandemic phase has adversely affected the sleep health of women in Iraq, with cultural factors playing a critical role in these changes. There is a pressing need for culturally sensitive public health strategies to address sleep disturbances and mitigate their long-term effects on women's health. Public health initiatives should be tailored to address the specific cultural contexts within Iraq to improve sleep health among women. Further research is warranted to explore the long-term consequences of disturbed sleep patterns and the effectiveness of different intervention strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1633.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: post COVID-19 Sequelea; HIV; meta-analysis; covariates
Online: 23 August 2023 (05:48:24 CEST)
Aims: The aims of this meta-analysis were to assess: the prevalence of Post-Acute COVID-19 sequalae in HIV positive patients; average time of diagnosis; and meta-regress for possible moderators of PACS.Methods: A standard search strategy was used in PubMed, and then later modified according to each specific database to get the best relevant results. These included Medline indexed journals; PubMed Central; NCBI Bookshelf and publishers' Web sites in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis statement. Search terms included “long COVID-19 or post-acute COVID-19 syndrome/sequalae”, “persons living with HIV or HIV. The criteria for inclusion were published clinical articles reporting HIV in association with long COVID-19, further, the average time to an event of post-acute COVID-19 sequelae among primary infected patients with COVID-19. Random-effects model was used. Rank Correlation and Egger's tests were used to ascertain publication bias. Sub-group, sensitivity and meta-regression analysis were conducted. A 95% confidence intervals were presented and a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Review Manager 5.4 and comprehensive meta-analysis version 4 (CMA V4) were used for the analysis. The review/trial was PROSPERO registered (CRD42022328509).Results: A total of 43 studies reported post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. Of those, five reported post-acute COVID-19 sequalae in PLHIV. Prevalence of post-acute COVID-19 sequalae was 43.1% (95% CI 20.5% to 68.9%) in persons living with HIV (PLWH). The average time to PACS diagnosis was 4 months at 64% [0.64 (95% CI 0.230, 0.913) (P < 0.0000), I2= 93%] and at one year to PACS diagnosis was at 70 %, however with non-significant correlation (P > 0.05). On comorbidities, asthenia was associated with PACS at 17.6 % [0.176 (95% CI 0.067, 0.385) (P = 0.008), I2= 86%] while fatigue at 82%, however not related with PACS event incidence (P < 0.05). Americas, Asian and European regions showed PACS events rates of 82%, 43% and 19 % respectively (P<0.05) relative to HIV infection. Conclusion: PACS prevalence in PLWH was 43% occurring at an average time of 4 months at 64% and 70 % at 12 months however non-significant with PACS. Asthenia was significantly associated with PACS at 17.6 % while fatigue at 82%, however not related with PACS event incidence. Americas recorded the highest PACS event rates in PLWH.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; hypertension; blood pressure; endothelial dysfunction; long-covid; post covid
Online: 30 August 2023 (08:59:30 CEST)
Hypertension is one of the most common and significant cardiovascular risk factor. With the emergence of COVID-19, concerns have arisen about its potential to exacerbate cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several theories have emerged linking hypertension with COVID-19. However, the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and long-term risk of hypertension remains insufficiently explored. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 infection on blood pressure and long-term risk of hypertension developing. A comprehensive search was conducted in the PubMed and SCOPUS databases up to 10th August 2023 for relevant papers. The analysis included 35 eligible articles. The majority of the latest studies pointed to increase BP after COVID-19 infection. However, several observations contradicted the influence of SARS-CoV-2 on the hypertension development or suggesting a transient effect. The possible role of the loss of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, cytokine storm, increased sympathetic activity, and endothelial dysfunction were considered. On the other hand, BP changes following COVID-19 could be a consequence of lifestyle changes, which often accompanied COVID-19 infection. Our findings highlight the urgent need for comprehensive research on the COVID-19 and hypertension link. These insights are crucial for implementing effective prevention and management strategies for individuals with the history of COVID-19 infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1228.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome; COVID-19; Post-COVID; heart rate variability; autonomic dysfunction
Online: 20 November 2023 (07:51:21 CET)
Background There is a considerable overlap between clinical presentation of post-COVID-19 condition (PCC) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) . Many of their common symptoms can be linked to dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system (dysautonomia). This study aimed to objectively assess autonomic function in patients with PCC and in patients with ME/CFS whose disease was not related to COVID-19. Methods Synchronous recordings of an electrocardiogram, continuous dynamics of blood pressure in the digital artery using the Penaz method and ultrasound pneumotachography with the spirography function were obtained with spiroarteriocardiorhythmography method in 34 patients diagnosed with ME/CFS, in whom the onset of the disease was not associated with COVID-19, 29 patients meeting PCC definition and 32 healthy controls. Heart rate variability (HRV), systolic and diastolic blood pressure variability (RV), respiration variability were assessed at rest and in tests with fixed respiratory rates. At rest, indicators of baroreflex regulation were additionally determined (baroreflex effectiveness index and baroreflex sensitivity). Results The total power, power of very low frequency, low-frequency and high-frequency of RR interval variability at rest as well as baroreflex effectiveness index in up-ramps of arterial blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity were significantly lower both in PCC and ME/CFS patients compared to HC. Several diagnostic prediction models for ME/CFS were developed based on HRV parameters. During slow breathing HRV parameters return to normal in PCC, but not in ME/CFS. Correlation analysis revealed a close relationship of HRV, RV parameters and baroreflex sensitivity with fatigue, but not with HADS depressive/anxiety symptoms in ME/CFS and PCC. Conclusion A similar pattern of HRV and baroreflex failure with signs of a pathological acceleration of age-dependant dysautonomia was identified in ME/CFS and PCC. The clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these findings are discussed, in light of previously described relationship between inflammation, vascular pathology, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and autonomic dysfunction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0243.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Earnings Management, Financial distress, Pre-Covid era, Post-Covid era, Firm size
Online: 5 September 2023 (09:14:56 CEST)
Earnings management and financial distress are two critical facets of financial management in corporations that have lately been the focus of thorough research from both scholars and practitioners. The purpose of the research is to evaluate the influence of financial distress on the earnings management of companies listed at the NSE during the pre- and post-COVID eras. Multiple linear regression was applied in this study to examine the causal association between earnings management and financial distress. To assess the effect of financial distress on earnings management, the study analyzed data from 37 listed companies during the pre-COVID and post-COVID periods. The methodology also takes into account control factors like firm size, GDP, and inflation. The pre-COVID research indicates a significant positive correlation between financial strain and earnings management. In contrast, the correlation between financial distress and earnings management is not statistically significant in the post-COVID analysis. However, research shows that firm size has a statistically significant negative influence on managing earnings. The results of this study show that smaller firms are more inclined to engage in earnings management during the post-COVID era than bigger ones.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0325.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: autonomic failure; lean test; active stand; long covid; Post-COVID-19 condition
Online: 28 July 2022 (03:42:35 CEST)
Autonomic dysfunction is an increasingly recognised complication in chronic neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease , and other medical conditions, including diabetes mellitus, chronic fatigue syndrome, postural tachycardia syndrome with and without Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, fibromyalgia and recently Long Covid. Despite laboratory-based tests to evaluate normal and abnormal autonomic function, there are no home-based tests to record neuro-cardiovascular autonomic responses to common stimuli in daily life that are dependent on the normal functioning of the autonomic nervous system. We have developed an adapted blood pressure/heart Autonomic Profile (aAP) that can be used by an individual independently and repeatedly in a domiciliary setting to determine the physiological and symptomatic response to standing, food, and physical and mental (cognitive, emotional) activities. The aAP aids separating autonomic failure (often irreversible) from autonomic dysfunction. This helps the individual and attending healthcare professional understand the relationship between symptoms and common triggers in daily life and informs on self-management in debilitating conditions such as the postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS) and Long Covid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0120.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Pre-COVID-19; Post-COVID-19; Secondary Schools; Water Demand; Groundwater; Nigeria
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:22:37 CEST)
The prevalence of corona virus and the novel COVID-19 disease in the entire globe has exacerbated different impact on socioeconomic spectrum in the world, including water use pattern. Thus a research was conducted to examine the comparative use of water during pre- and post-COVID-19 lockdown pattern among post-primary schools in Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria. A survey was conducted among fifteen schools which were randomly selected, but with eight public and seven private schools for the investigation. Both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used in data analysis. The results revealed that the major source of water to the schools investigated is ground water which is obtained through hand-dug wells and boreholes. It was further discovered that there was increase in water use during post-COVID-19 lockdown era as a result of the directive by the government that clean water should be provided for hand-washing by all schools regardless of the owner to curtail the spread of COVID-19 disease in the country. One sample t-test also revealed that there was a significant difference in water use at (p<0.01) level. It is recommended that the government and other stakeholders in water sector to ensure that all-time and non-seasonal dependent source of water be provided rather than ground water source which is susceptible to variations in water yields from seasonal variations. This will enable continuous clean water supply, for all purposes, including COVID-19 protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; pathology; post-mortem biopsy
Online: 20 March 2020 (09:24:10 CET)
Data on pathologic changes of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are scarce. To gain knowledge about the pathology that may contribute to disease progression and fatality, we performed post-mortem needle core biopsies of lung, liver, and heart in four patients who died of COVID-19 pneumonia. The patients’ ages ranged from 59 to 81, including 3 males and 1 female. Each patient had at least one underlying disease, including immunocompromised status (chronic lymphocytic leukemia and renal transplantation) or other conditions (cirrhosis, hypertension, and diabetes). Time from disease onset to death ranged from 15 to 52 days. All patients had elevated white blood cell counts, with significant rise toward the end, and all had lymphocytopenia except for the patient with leukemia. Histologically, the main findings are in the lungs, including injury to the alveolar epithelial cells, hyaline membrane formation, and hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes, all components of diffuse alveolar damage. Consolidation by fibroblastic proliferation with extracellular matrix and fibrin forming clusters in airspaces is evident. In one patient, the consolidation consists of abundant intra-alveolar neutrophilic infiltration, consistent with superimposed bacterial bronchopneumonia. The liver exhibits mild lobular infiltration by small lymphocytes, and centrilobular sinusoidal dilation. Patchy necrosis is also seen. The heart shows only focal mild fibrosis and mild myocardial hypertrophy, changes likely related to the underlying conditions. In conclusion, the post-mortem examinations show advanced diffuse alveolar damage, as well as superimposed bacterial pneumonia in some patients. Changes in the liver and heart are likely secondary or related to the underlying diseases.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: macrophage-derived chemokine; MDC/CCL22, chemokines; novel coronavirus infection; COVID-19; post-COVID
Online: 6 May 2023 (10:40:04 CEST)
Macrophage-derived chemokine belongs to the CC subfamily. It is produced by dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages with or without external stimulation. We have previously shown a statistically significant depletion of MDC/CCL22 concentrations in a number of studies concerning COVID-19. These shifts in concentrations demonstrated stability unrelated to the SARS-CoV-2 genetic variant and remained noticeable even in convalescent patients. In this work, we analyze MDC/CCL22 dynamics in various diseases, including those that manifest with inflammation in lung tissue. In addition, we provide our hypothesis on such a decrease in MDC/CCL22 concentrations in COVID-19. If its secretion by producer cells is unperturbed, then it is possible for viral products to bind to this chemokine and to block its functional activity. There is, however, another possible explanation directly linked to depletion in DC subpopulations and the inhibition of their function. We also discuss MDC/CCL22's role in the immunology of novel coronavirus infection, based on both our own data and other studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0084.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: long COVID; Post COVID-19 condition; sleep disorders, SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus; children
Online: 14 October 2022 (10:13:22 CEST)
Acute SARS-CoV-2 infections in children and adolescents are usually mild. However, they can suffer from ongoing symptoms generally referred as long COVID. Sleep disorders are one of the most frequent complaints in long COVID although precise data are missing. We assessed the sleep behavior of children and adolescents who presented at our outpatient clinic between January 2021 and May 2022 with the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ-DE). We compared sleep behavior at three different time points: pre-COVID-19, post-COVID-19 at initial presentation and post-COVID-19 at re-presentation. Data from 45 patients were analyzed. Of those, 64% were female and the median age was 10 years (range 0-18 years). Asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 disease was experienced in 89% of patients, whilst 11% experienced moderate disease. Initial presentation occurred at a median of 20.4 weeks (6 weeks - 14 months) after infection. The CSHQ-DE score increased significantly from pre-COVID-19 (45.82+8.7 points) to post-COVID-19 (49.40+8.3 points; p=<0.01). The score then normalized at re-presentation (46.98+7.8; p=0.1). The greatest changes were seen in the CSHQ-DE subscale score "daytime sleepiness". Our data show that children and adolescents with long COVID often suffer from sleep disturbance. For most children and adolescents these sleep disorders decreased over time without further medical intervention, aside from a basic sleep consultation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0216.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Bioimpedance; COVID-19; E-health; Health Care Personnel; Pathophysiology; Post-COVID syndrome; Rheography
Online: 23 May 2022 (05:26:58 CEST)
At present, there are no hardware or biochemical systems allow to assess the severity of post-COVID syndrome in vivo. The hardware of the proposed biotechnical system is based on routine transthoracic electrical impedance rheography, which makes it possible to register the frequency characteristics of the patient's bioimpedance response to controlled stress stimulation, thereby simultaneously fixing the characteristics of his productive heart, the state of the hemomicrocirculatory bed, the efficiency of the gas transport function of his blood, and also reliably assess personal reactivity and adaptive potential. Subsequent mathematical approximation of the obtained biometric data by an original neural network makes it possible to rank the results obtained and automatically generate a program of medical rehabilitation for a particular patient, depending on the severity of his post-COVID syndrome. The study results proved two reliable physiological signs confirming the presence of latent post-COVID complications: a decrease in the base impedance value for light exercise and an increase in the length of the systolic arc of the rheocardiogram.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0474.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Covid-19; children and adolescents; Rwanda; structural inequalities; post colonialism
Online: 28 March 2023 (05:33:08 CEST)
COVID-19, the fear it engendered, and the policy measures to manage its spread have disproportionately impacted the wellbeing of children and adolescents (CAs). We present an intensive critical realist case study of the impact of COVID-19 on the health and wellbeing of CAs in Rwanda, seeing it as much a social and political crisis as a medical and public health one. To do this, we carried out interviews with a purposive sample of 25 leaders with a working knowledge of children and young people; they were more likely than the CAs themselves to observe changes across the CA population within their remit and more likely to be looking for general explanations rather than individual experiences. The findings show that CAs' responses to the changes wrought on their lives by Covid-19 were conditioned by their age, gender, social class and if they lived in urban or rural areas. However, Covid19 has not just revealed the structural weakness of the Rwandan health system but of education, social protection, child protection, employment, family, and financial systems. The pathway to (adverse) impacts of COVID-19 on CAs is conditioned by these institutions and their interactions together with structural socioeconomic inequalities both within Rwanda and globally.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: international tourism; coronavirus; COVID-19; post-viral tourism; recovery strategies
Online: 31 March 2020 (05:00:08 CEST)
The coronavirus pandemic will deeply affect the tourism and travel sector. It is already clear now that its economic impact would be more severe that in the case of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003. Although not as deadly as SARS, coronavirus infection has a longer incubation period and leaves about 85% of the infected without any (or with just mild) symptoms which makes it more difficult to track and to contain. Moreover, it appears to be much more contagious than its predecessor. The goods news is that most people recover from the disease and develop antibodies that can protect them from getting infected again (natural vaccination). Those cured might become the key element for the post-virus recovery strategies of tourism organisations. People with the acquired immunity to the virus would be capable of travelling freely without spreading the disease. Airlines, hotels and gastronomy should aim at this group offering them discounts and special offers. However, the problem is how to effectively ensure that everyone who claims to be cured from COVID-19 is telling the truth. Health tracking bracelets, apps, and other advanced technological solutions should be put in place. Recent best practices from Hong Kong, mainland China, or India might be applied.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0005.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Covid-19; post-COVID syndrome; neuroendocrine disorders; chronic fatigue; brain fog; phospholipids; phospholipid liposome; phosphatidylserine
Online: 15 August 2023 (05:03:11 CEST)
Long Covid is a heterogeneous clinical condition in which Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) and brain fog stand out among the different clinical symptoms and syndromes. The cerebral metabolic alterations and neuroendocrine disorders seem to constitute an important part of Long Covid. Given the substantial lack of drugs and effective therapeutic strategies, hypothalamic phospholipid liposomes which have been on the market for several years as adjuvant therapy of cerebral metabolic alterations resulting from neuroendocrine disorders, can be taken into consideration in an overall therapeutic strategy that aims to control the Long Covid associated symptoms and syndromes. Their pharmacological mechanisms and clinical effects strongly support their usefulness in Long Covid. Our initial clinical experience corroborates this rationale. Further research is imperative in order to obtain robust clinical evidence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2111.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; Post COVID syndrome; Concept map for management of long COVID; Health informatics; Public health; Management of long COVID
Online: 29 June 2023 (10:59:21 CEST)
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected millions of lives globally, with some individuals experiencing persistent symptoms even after recovering. Understanding and managing the long-term sequelae of COVID-19 is crucial for research, prevention, and control. As a result, to monitor the health of individuals affected by these conditions, they must maintain up-to-date health records using digital health informatics apps for surveillance. In this review, we provide an overview of the existing literature on identifying long COVID manifestations through hierarchical classification and the characterization of long COVID by different hierarchical groups based on the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). We outline the aspects of the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) and Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery (RECOVER) in artificial intelligence (AI) to identify long COVID. Knowledge exploration, using the concept map for the clinical pathways of long COVID presented in this paper, provides an overview of the data needed to explore tackling the long-term effect of COVID-19 by integrating innovative cohesive frameworks and designing health informatics-based applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to explore the potential incorporation of long COVID as a variable risk factor within a digital health informatics application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1199.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Religion Keywords: campus life; college students; educational engagement; exploring religiosity; post Covid-19
Online: 16 August 2023 (10:50:32 CEST)
Amidst the transformative backdrop of the post-Covid-19 context, the researcher embarks on a qualitative exploratory study to investigate the intricate interplay of religiosity, educational engagement, and campus life among college students at St. Michael's College, Iligan City. Guided by a theoretical framework integrating Vygotsky's sociocultural theory, Fredricks et al.'s engagement theory, and Pascarella & Terenzini's educational impact theory, this study delves into the dynamic fruition of religiosity in response to the pandemic's impact. Employing purposeful and maximum variation sampling, the investigation unravels narratives from interviews, focus group discussions, and observations. Through thematic analysis, themes of "Adaptive Integration," "Religious Resilience," "Community Nexus," "Challenges of Synchronization," and "Identity Negotiation" emerge. In the discourse of these themes, strategies students employ to navigate challenges arising from this confluence are unearthed. Rooted in a deep understanding of the context, this study presents implications for fostering holistic growth within an inclusive educational environment. As the findings and insights are presented, stakeholders are invited to reimagine the role of religiosity, educational engagement, and campus life in shaping the holistic student experience in a world forever changed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1903.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Fasting; autophagy; long-COVID; post-vaccination syndrome; spike protein; mitochondria; mitophagy
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:33:46 CEST)
Fasting, a practice with historical roots in various cultures, has recently garnered significant interest in the field of medicine. In this article, we delve into the mechanisms underlying fasting-induced autophagy and its therapeutic applications for spike protein associated pathology. We explore the therapeutic potential of fasting on spike protein-related pathology and the role of interventions to upregulate autophagy, including compounds like spermidine, resveratrol, rapamycin, and metformin. In conclusion, fasting, coupled with an understanding of its nuances, holds promise as a therapeutic intervention for spike protein related diseases; with broad implications for human health. This review presents the therapeutic possibility of using autophagy to treat spike protein related diseases, and details the interventions to deploy this therapeutic modality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Fasting; autophagy; long-COVID; post-vaccination syndrome; spike protein; mitochondria; mitophagy
Online: 19 June 2023 (07:39:57 CEST)
Fasting, a practice with historical roots in various cultures, has recently garnered significant interest in the field of medicine. In this article, we delve into the mechanisms underlying fasting-induced autophagy and its therapeutic applications for spike protein associated pathology. We explore the therapeutic potential of fasting on spike protein-related pathology. Additionally, we discuss factors that affect fasting, such as duration, type (dry vs. water), and the role of specific compounds like spermidine, resveratrol, rapamycin, and metformin. Furthermore, we analyse the interactions between fasting and other practices such as exercise, and highlight important considerations regarding participant characteristics, including pregnancy, breastfeeding, medication interactions, and metabolic disorders. In conclusion, fasting, coupled with an understanding of its nuances, holds promise as a therapeutic intervention with broad implications for human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0415.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: stigma; news frame; monkeypox; COVID-19; The Washington Post; online news
Online: 22 December 2022 (03:42:16 CET)
Abstract: Background: Stigma in health can result in a broad range of vulnerabilities and risk for patients and healthcare providers. The media plays a role in people’s understanding of health and stigma is socially constructed through many communication channels including via media framing. Among health issues that were affected by stigma recently were the Monkeypox and Covid-19. Objectives: This research aims to examine how The Washington Post framed stigma around mon-keypox and COVID-19. Guided by the framing theory and stigma theory, online news coverage for monkeypox and COVID-19 were analyzed to understand the construction of social stigma through the media reporting. Methods: This research employed a qualitative content analysis to compare news framing in The Washington Post online news regarding monkeypox and COVID-19. Results: Based on endemic, reassurance, and sexual transmission frames, the The Washington Post predominantly defined Africa as the source of the disease, blames gay communities, and empha-sizes no need to worry about the spread of the monkeypox virus. For the COVID-19 coverage, The Washington Post described China as the source of the coronavirus and constructs the image of panic towards the spread of the virus. Conclusions: The shifts in stigma discourse essentially manifest racism, xenophobia, and sexism in public health. This research affirms that the media reinforces stigma phenomenon in health through framing and offers constructive suggestions for mitigating this issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Depression; anxiety; stress; university healthcare workers; COVID-19; post–movement lockdown
Online: 16 November 2020 (13:46:33 CET)
This study investigated the prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, and stress and determined the association between various factors, social support, and depression and anxiety among university healthcare workers in Malaysia after the government lifted the movement control order (MCO) put in place to curb the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This online, cross-sectional survey recruited 399 participants from two university hospitals, and they were administered a self-reported questionnaire on demographic, personal, and clinical characteristics; COVID-19-related stressors; and coping. In addition, they completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) to measure perceived social support, as well as the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to assess depression, anxiety, and stress. We found that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress were 21.8%, 31.6%, and 29.1%, respectively. Participants with moderate to extremely severe depression, anxiety, and stress made up 13.3%, 25.8%, and 8.1% of the sample, respectively. Being single or divorced, fear of frequent exposure to COVID-19 patients, those who agreed that their area of living had a high prevalence of COVID-19 cases, and uncertainty regarding the prevalence of COVID-19 cases in the area of living were associated with higher odds of depression and anxiety. Conversely, having more than three children and greater perceived friend support were associated with lower odds of depression and anxiety. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress remained elevated even after the MCO was lifted.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0197.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD); victims; psychological problems; counseling
Online: 30 April 2020 (05:40:55 CEST)
Since January, the disease caused by the Sars Cov-2 virus has spread and following pandemic. In a few months, the virus is seriously affecting the health systems of the various countries of the world and placing people in difficult psychological conditions. Few scientific resources on mental health have been published but still no one has proposed an action plan to cope the future psychological problems.This manuscript provides a plan to easily frame the priorities of mental health area related to COVID-19 to be taken into consideration which should be disseminated and that should be known by all health professionals and also by the major administrators of public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0410.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Heart rate variability; COVID-19; post-COVID-19 condition; long COVID; autonomic dysfunction; vagal nerve activity; symptomatology; lung function
Online: 22 December 2022 (03:13:53 CET)
Persistence of symptoms beyond three months after COVID-19 infection, often referred to as post-COVID-19 condition (PCC), is commonly experienced. It is hypothesized that PCC results from autonomic dysfunction with decreased vagal nerve activity, which can be indexed by low heart rate variability (HRV). The aim of this study was to assess the association of HRV upon admission with pulmonary function impairment and number of reported symptoms beyond three months after initial hospitalization for COVID-19 between February and December 2020. Follow-up took place three to five months after discharge and included pulmonary function tests and the assessment of persistent symptoms. HRV analysis was performed on one 10s electrocardiogram obtained upon admission. Analyses were performed using multivariable and multinomial logistic regression models. Among 171 patients who received follow-up, and with an electrocardiogram at admission, decreased diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (41%) was most frequently found. After a median of 119 days (IQR 101-141), 81% of the participants reported at least one symptom. HRV was not associated with pulmonary function impairment or persistent symptoms three to five months after hospitalization for COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1383.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Mindfulness based stress reduction; mental health; mindfulness; sleep quality; post COVID period
Online: 20 July 2023 (05:16:48 CEST)
(1) Background: COVID-19 had devastating effects on both physical and mental well-being, prompting the need for interventions. This study aimed to explore the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction on mental health, mindfulness, and sleep disorders in COVID-19 survivors.; (2) Methods: In this interventional parallel study, the sample was selected university students in nursing and midwifery faculties using total population sampling. The intervention included providing counseling on mindfulness methods by trained experts. General health, mindfulness and sleep quality questionnaires were used for data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS22, descriptive and interferential statistic. A significance level of 0.05 was considered; (3) Results: In this study, the mean age of the students was 20.29 ± 2.03 years. 69.5% of the participants were female and 96% were single. 71.3% were studying nursing and 67% had a history of Corona infection. The intervention was only effective on general health questionnaire and the mean score of this questionnaire was 1.7 higher than the control group; (4) Conclusions: the study indicated that MBSR intervention improves mindfulness, mental health, and sleep quality in COVID-19 survivors. Regular assessment and use of this intervention can help address long-term challenges and improve overall well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome; post-COVID syndrome; postural orthostatic tachycardia; microcirculation; immune system
Online: 20 September 2022 (03:37:00 CEST)
A Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating chronic disease of unknown aetiology under growing interest now in view of the increasingly recognized post-COVID syndrome as a new entity with similar clinical presentation. We performed the first cross-sectional study of ME/CFS in community population in Russia and then described and compared some clinical and pathophysiological characteristics of ME/CFS and post-COVID syndrome as neuroimmune disorders. Of the cohort of 76 individuals who suggested themselves suffering from ME/CFS 56 subsequently were confirmed as having CFS/ME according to ≥1 of the 4 most commonly used case definition. Of the cohort of 14 individuals with post-COVID-19 syndrome 14 met diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS. The prevalence of clinically expressed and subclinical anxiety and depression in ME / CFS and post-COVID ME/CFS did not differ significantly from that in healthy individuals. Severity of anxiety / depressive symptoms did not correlate with the severity of fatigue neigther in ME / CFS nor in post-COVID ME/CFS, but the positive correlation was found between the severity of fatigue and 20 other symptoms of ME / CFS related to the domains of “post-exertional exhaustion”, “immune dysfunction”, “sleep disturbances”, "dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system", "neurological sensory / motor disorders" and "pain syndromes". Immunological abnormalities were identified in 12/12 patients with ME / CFS according to the results of laboratory testing. The prevalence of postural orthostatic tachycardia assessed by the active standing test was 37.5% in ME / CFS and 75.0% in post-COVID ME/CFS (the latter was higher than in healthy controls, p = 0.02) There was a more pronounced increase in heart rate starting from the 6th minute of the test in post-COVID ME/CFS compared with the control group. Assessment of the functional characteristics of microcirculation by laser doppler flowmetry revealed obvious and very similar changes in ME/CFS and post-COVID ME/CFS compared to the healthy controls. The identified pattern corresponded to the hyperemic form of microcirculation disorders, usually observed in acute inflammatory processes or in deficiency of systemic vasoconstriction influences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0374.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; children and adolescents; machine learning; post-hoc explainability; model calibration
Online: 22 December 2021 (16:21:19 CET)
The global spread of COVID-19 led the World Health Organization to declare a pandemic on 11 March 2020. To decelerate this spread, countries have taken strict measures that affected the lifestyle and economy. Various studies have been focused on the identification of COVID-19 impact to mental health of children and adolescents via traditional statistical approaches. However, a machine learning methodology must be developed to explain the main factors that contribute to the change of mood state of children and adolescents during the first lockdown. Therefore, to this study an explainable machine learning pipeline is presented focusing on children and adolescents in Greece, where a strict lockdown was imposed. The target group consists of children and adolescents, recruited from children and adolescent mental health services, who present mental health problems diagnosed before the pandemic. The proposed methodology imposes: (i) data collection via questionnaires; (ii) a clustering process to identify the groups of subjects with amelioration, deterioration and stability to their mood state; (iii) a feature selection process to identify the most informative features that contribute to mood state prediction; (iv) a decision-making process based on an experimental evaluation among classifiers; (v) calibration of the best performing model and (v) a post-hoc interpretation of the features’ impact on the best performing model. The results showed that a blend of heterogeneous features from almost all feature categories is necessary to increase our understanding regarding the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on the mood state of children and adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0473.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: mental health; perceived stress; university students; gender differences; COVID-19; post-lockdown; Romania
Online: 21 July 2021 (09:38:11 CEST)
The rapid spread of COVID-19 worldwide was accompanied by intense fears, confusion, worries, anger and stress threatening people’s mental health. Unprecedented measures to slow down and prevent the transmission of COVID-19 have had various impacts on the population’s health behaviour and mental health. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the lockdown’s effects on university students’ mental health in Romania. Based on a cross-sectional design, the survey data were collected from a sample of 722 participants (247 males; M = 21.1 years; SD ± 1.73). A path analysis was performed to verify the hypothesised direct and indirect effects included in the multiple mediation model. The findings showed a positive association between stress and boredom proneness, missing daily social interactions, spending more time on phone conversations and the increasing interest in following news about the pandemic. The path analysis revealed an excellent fit between the proposed multiple mediation model and the sample data. Boredom proneness and missing daily social interactions both affected stress, directly and indirectly, through more time spent on phone conversations. In addition, it was found that the increased interest in following news about the pan-demic mediated the relationship between boredom proneness and perceived stress. In terms of gender differences, our findings revealed that female students experienced significantly higher stress levels than male students, perceived to a greater extent the lack of daily social interactions and spent more time on phone conversations. Overall, the findings further extend the empirical evidence on university students’ mental health in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, universities need to organise support programmes focused on developing university students’ coping strategies to maintain their mental health even in adverse contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0690.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic; Finland; health care personnel; psychological distress; post-traumatic stress disorder
Online: 28 September 2020 (15:37:39 CEST)
On March 2020 strict measures took place in Finland to limit the COVID -19 pandemic. A majority of the Finnish COVID -19 –patients have been located in the southern Finland and consequently cared for in the HUS Helsinki University Hospital. During the ongoing pandemic, HUS personnel’s psychological symptoms are followed via an electronic survey, which also delivers information on psychosocial support services. The baseline survey in June 2020 was sent to 25494 HUS employees out of whom 4804 (19%) answered; altogether 62.4% of the respondents were nursing staff and 8.9% medical doctors. While the follow-up continues for a year and a half, this report shares the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents and the first results of psychological symptoms from the baseline survey. Out of those who were directly involved in pandemic patients` care, 43.4% reported potentially traumatic COVID-19 pandemic-related experiences vs. 21.8% among the other (p < 0.001). While over a half of the personnel was symptomless, a group of respondents reported pandemic work –related traumatic events and concurrent depressive, insomnia and anxiety symptoms. This highlights the need to ensure appropriate psychosocial support services to all traumatized personnel and PTEs were present especially among nursing staff.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0117.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: post-editing; machine translation; Portuguese; English; translationese; post-editese
Online: 8 December 2021 (09:43:11 CET)
In the present study, we investigate the post-editese phenomenon, i.e., the unique features that set machine translated post-edited texts apart from human-translated texts. We use two literary texts, namely, the English children's novel by Lewis Carroll Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (AW) and Paula Hawkins' popular book The Girl on the Train (TGOTT) translated from English into Brazilian-Portuguese to investigate whether the post-editese features can be found on the surface of the post-edited (PE) texts. In addition, we examine how the features found in the PE texts differ from the features encountered in the human-translated (HT) and machine translation (MT) versions of the same source text. Results revealed evidence for post-editese for TGOTT only with PE versions being more similar to the MT output than to the HT texts.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: Hypothesis, Fission, Heavy Post-Post-Fe Elements, Solar System
Online: 23 July 2019 (11:17:56 CEST)
Conventional models do not fully explain composition of the solar system – for example, the presence of p-nuclei and post-post-Fe-nuclei remains not yet understood (and is one of the great unresolved puzzles of nuclear astrophysics in general); other puzzles exist. We offer a hypothesis which can explain the appearance of non-native elements in the solar system, and a feasible scenario for its implementation. The hypothesis suggests that a nuclear-fission "event" occurred in the inner part of the solar system at the time currently defined as the birth of the system. Conventional models have never considered fission as a contributing nuclei-production mechanism. Upon examination of the existing models and factual data (presented in volumes of publications but never combined into an aggregate), we identified one plausible scenario by which a fission event (not demolishing the entire solar system) could occur: an encounter with a compact super-dense stellar "fragment" (with specific properties) and its "explosion" in fission-cascades. Such scenario also helps resolve other long-standing puzzles of the solar system. For example, it provides that the fission-produced nuclei subsequently transformed into the material that (eventually) accreted into the "rocky" objects in the system (terrestrial planets, asteroids, etc.) and enriched the pre-existed hydrogen-helium objects (the Sun and the gaseous giants) – this offers an explanation for the planets’ inner position and compositional differences within the predominantly hydrogen-helium rest of the solar system. Other implications also follow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0510.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; Post-Pandemic; Higher Education; Online Learning; Global Citizenship; Hiroshima; Japan; Students’ Perception
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:20:14 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has struck educational experience systems around the globe. This paper investigates and evaluates the student participants’ perceptions who joined the international exchange seminar on global citizenship and peace held at a University in Hiroshima, Japan. Approximately seventy students and faculty members from nine to ten different universities from around the globe joined this summer program in August 2021 (online) and 2022 (face-to-face). This study is a mixed-method study. The first part consists of a quantitative analysis of BEVI data obtained from the students in the seminar before COVID-19 and after. The research concludes that there are no changes in the way students learn. The second part consists of qualitative data. This data shows the perceptions of students of online teaching versus hybrid teaching. It compares the differences in participants’ perceptions reported in students’ feedback on the programs during and post-COVID-19. Our results confirm prominent differences exist in the students’ perceptions of their learning experience during the pre-pandemic and post-pandemic periods. The findings of this study suggest that universities need to strive and define a meaning and purpose of international seminars, which enables students to experience a high level of intercultural social interaction face-to-face.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0083.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: post-mining regeneration; succession; tropical dry forest; post-mining recovery
Online: 6 December 2018 (11:04:06 CET)
Open pit mining is a common activity in the Yucatan peninsula for the extraction of limestone. This mining is known under the generic name of quarries, and regionally as sascaberas (sascab=white soil in Mayan language). These areas are characterized by the total removal of the natural vegetation cover and soil in order to have access to the calcareous material. The present study shows the composition and structure of the vegetation in five quarries after approximately ten years of abandonment, and the conserved vegetation near to each one of the quarries in southeastern Quintana Roo. Using a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), the distribution of the species was determined in relation to the edaphic variables: soil depth, percentage of organic matter (OM), cationic exchange capacity (CEC), pH and texture. 26 families, 46 genera and 50 species were recorded in the quarries and 25 families, 45 genera and 47 species were recorded in the conserved areas. The dominant species in the quarries belong to the families Poaceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Anacardiaceae. The quarries with higher values of OM (1.63%), CEC (24.05 Cmol/kg), depth (11 cm) and sand percentage (31.33%) include the following species like Lysiloma latisiliquum, Metopium brownei and Bursera simaruba which are commonly found in secondary forests. On the other hand, quarries with lower values of OM (0.39%), CEC (16.58 Cmol/kg) and depth (5.02), and higher percentage of silt (42.44%) were dominated by herbaceous species belonging to the Poaceae family and by Borreria verticillata, which are typical in disturbed areas of southeastern Mexico. In all cases, the pH was slightly alkaline due to the content of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), characteristic of the soils of the region. The edaphic variables are significantly correlated with the development and distribution of vegetation, and with the structure of the communities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0418.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Biomarker; CTHRC1; extracellular matrix; interstitial lung disease; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; rheumatoid arthritis; post-COVID; pirfenidone
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:20:09 CEST)
Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive, and irreversible lung disease characterized by fibrotic scarring in the lung parenchyma. This condition involves the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (EM) due to a persistently activated wound-repair response. The aberrant activation of myofibroblasts in the alveolar environment by Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) and other signaling molecules is considered a key event in the development and progression of fibrosis. A primary target of TGF-β signaling in fibrosis is Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing 1 (CTHRC1), a secreted glycoprotein that plays a pivotal role in extracellular matrix deposition. CTHRC1 is transcriptionally regulated by TGF-β and inhibits both TGF-β and canonical Wnt signaling pathways. This dual function suggests that CTHRC1 is vital in regulating tissue remodeling during wound repair. In this review, we will highlight recent studies suggesting that CTHRC1 can serve as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for fibrosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease, systemic sclerosis, and post-COVID lung fibrosis. Notably, the expression of CTHRC1 is responsive to antifibrotic drugs such as pirfenidone indicating its potential as a therapeutic target. Collectively, these findings suggest that CTHRC1 may present new opportunities for the diagnosis, stratification, and treatment of patients with lung fibrosis.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0398.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: rotavirus; coronavirus; vaccine; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; cross immunity; trained immunity; vaccinated breakthrough infections; COVID variants; long-Covid; post-viral syndrome; chronic fatigue; booster
Online: 23 August 2022 (10:50:57 CEST)
This proposal was prepared in the very first weeks of 2020 because of the outbreak of COVID-19.There is good reason to suppose that rotavirus vaccine can be used as protection tool to effectively and safely fight and mitigate SARS-CoV-2 infection and the impact caused by COVID-19 in adult humans, due to the development of cross and trained immunity following rotavirus vaccination. Up-to-date, some rotavirus vaccines are available and approved, two of them have a large experience in results and safety. Little experience has been achieved in the use of rotavirus vaccine in adults. However, it can be expected that it would be safe and effective in adults and in the elderly as well. This proposal explains the background.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0491.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; exercise; autonomic nervous system; sympathetic nervous system; parasympathetic nervous system; COVID-19 vaccination; post-acute sequelae of COVID-19; communicable diseases
Online: 28 November 2022 (03:39:10 CET)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has detrimental multi-system consequences. Symptoms may appear during the acute phase of infection, but literature on long-term recovery of young adults after mild-to-moderate infection is lacking. Heart rate variability (HRV) allows observation of autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulation post SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, physical activity (PA) helps improve ANS modulation, where investigation of PA influence on ANS recovery is vital to reduce risk and severity of symptoms. Clinicians may use this research to aid development of non-medication interventions. At baseline, 18 control (CT) and 20 post-COVID-19 (PCOV) participants were observed where general amnamnesis was performed, followed by HRV and PA assessment. 10 CT and 7 PCOV subjects returned for follow-up (FU) evaluation 6 weeks after complete immunization (2 doses) and assessments were repeated. Over the follow-up period, decrease in sympathetic (SNS) activity (mean heart rate: p=0.0024, CI=-24.67- -3.26; SNS index: p=0.0068, CI=-2.50- -0.32) and increase in parasympathetic (PNS) activity (mean RR:p=0.0097, CI=33.72-225.51; PNS index: p=0.0091, CI=-0.20-1.47) were observed. At follow-up, HRV was not different between groups (p>0.05). Additionally, no differences were observed in PA between moments and groups. This study provides evidence of ANS recovery after SARS-CoV-2 insult in young adults over a follow-up period, independent of changes in PA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Adaptive Force; maximal isometric Adaptive Force; holding capacity; muscle function; Long COVID; post COVID syndrome; muscle weakness; fatigue; neuromuscular control; biomechanical parameter
Online: 22 November 2022 (03:04:41 CET)
Neuromuscular symptoms in long COVID patients are common. Since adequate diagnostics are still missing, investigating muscle function might be beneficial. The holding capacity (maximal isometric Adaptive Force; AFisomax) was previously suggested to be especially vulnerable for impairments. This longitudinal, non-clinical study aimed to investigate the AF in long COVID patients in recovery process. AF parameters of elbow/hip flexors were assessed in 17 patients at three timepoints (pre: long COVID state, post: immediately after first treatment, end: recovery) by an objectified manual muscle test. The tester applied an increasing force on the limb of the patient, who had to resist isometrically for as long as possible. The intensity of 13 common symptoms were queried. At pre, patients started to lengthen their muscles at ~50% of the maximal AF (AFmax), which was then reached during eccentric motion, indicating unstable adaptation. At post and end, AFisomax increased significantly to ~99% and 100% of AFmax, respectively, reflecting stable adaptation. AFmax was statistically similar for all three timepoints. Symptoms intensity decreased significantly from pre to end. In conclusion, maximal holding capacity seems to be impaired in long COVID patients and increases with substantial health improvement. AFisomax might be a suitable sensitive functional parameter to assess long COVID patients and to support therapy process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1554.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome; coenzyme Q10; fibromyalgia; Long COVID; mitochondrial dysfunction; myalgic encephalomyelitis; post-viral fatigue syndrome
Online: 24 November 2023 (11:27:34 CET)
Post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS) encompasses a wide range of complex neuroimmune disorders of unknown cause characterized by disabling post-exertional fatigue, myalgia and joint pain, cognitive impairments, unrefreshing sleep, autonomic dysfunction, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. It includes myalgic encephalomyelitis, also known as chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), fibromyalgia (FM), and more recently post-COVID-19 condition (Long COVID). To date, there are no definitive clinical case criteria and no FDA-approved pharmacological therapies for PVFS. Given the current lack of effective treatments, there is a need to develop novel therapeutic strategies for these disorders. Mitochondria, the cellular organelles responsible for tissue energy production, have recently garnered attention in research into PVFS due to their crucial role in cellular bioenergetic metabolism in these conditions. Accumulating literature has identified a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and low-grade systemic inflammation in ME/CFS, FM, and Long COVID. To address this issue, this article aimed to critically review the evidence relating to mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of these disorders; in particular, to evaluate the effectiveness of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on chronic fatigue and pain symptoms as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PVFS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0489.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: molecular mimicry; post-COVID-19 syndrome; SARS-CoV-2; human coronaviruses; autoimmunity; autoantigens of nervous system
Online: 7 July 2023 (10:41:49 CEST)
In post-COVID-19 syndrome, clinical presentation of the nerve fiber dysfunction plays an important role. The possibility of autoantigen cross-mimicry of coronavirus infection and the peripheral nervous system need to be investigated. The bioinformatic analysis was applied to search for possible common protein sequences located in the immunological epitopes. Among the autoantigens of the human nervous system, fibroblast growth factor receptor protein 3, myelin protein P0, myelin protein P2, sodium channel protein type 9, alpha protein subunit, plexin-D1 protein and ubiquitin-carboxyl-terminal hydrolase protein of the L1 isoenzyme were selected. The “Alignmentaj” program was created. The UniProt database, Protein Data Bank and AlphaFold databases were used. The analysis of protein sequence similarities of spike glycoproteins in human coronaviruses revealed common pentapeptides of the MERS-CoV-2 virus with the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 and myelin protein P2. Among seasonal coronaviruses, common peptide sequences were identified in HCoV-HKU-1 virus with sodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha and Plexin-D1, HCoV-OС43 with Plexin-D1, as well as HCoV-NL63 with Plexin-D1 and Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1. The data obtained make it possible to identify new potential targets for the development of autoimmune reactions that occur against the background of the activity of highly pathogenic and seasonal coronaviruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0427.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Hand sanitizer; COVID-19; alcohol; methanol substitution; gas chromatography; substandard products; falsified products; post-market surveillance
Online: 24 September 2021 (12:25:25 CEST)
The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has propelled the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers to the fore as a SARS-CoV-2 control measure. To be effective these products must comply with relevant quality parameters such as alcohol concentration, methanol limits and purity. The current study was designed to determine the quality of alcohol-based hand sanitizer products in the Nairobi metropolitan area. For this purpose, 74 commercially marketed samples were collected and subjected to analysis by gas chromatography. Only three samples (4.1%) complied with the regulatory specifications for alcohol content, methanol limits and pH. Five samples (6.8%) complied with the specification for alcohol content but did not meet methanol or pH limits. A total of 44 (59.5%) samples had methanol levels that exceeded threshold limits. Eleven samples (14.9%) were found with methanol substitution (i.e., methanol, instead of ethanol or isopropanol, was the main alcohol component). The results show that users of alcohol-based hand sanitizers are being exposed to substandard and falsified products which in addition to being non-efficacious pose harm due to unacceptable levels of toxic impurities. Regular, routine post-market surveillance is needed to prevent such products from reaching the market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2138.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: hypertension; SARS-CoV-2; post-COVID conditions; physical functional performance; autonomic nervous system diseases; heart rate control.
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:55:39 CEST)
Individuals diagnosed with systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) are considered risk groups for COVID-19 severity. This study assessed differences in cardiac autonomic function (CAF) and functional capacity (CF) in SAH individuals without COVID-19 infection compared to SAH individuals post-COVID-19. Participants comprised 40 SAH individuals aged 31 to 80 years old, grouped as SAH with COVID-19 (G1; n=21) and SAH without COVID-19 (G2; n=19). CAF was assessed via heart rate variability (HRV), measuring R-R intervals during a 10-minute supine period. Four HRV indices were analyzed through symbolic analysis: 0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, and 2UV%. FC assessment was performed by a 6-minute walk test (6MWT). G1 and G2 showed no difference between significant age, anthropometric, clinical and medication. G2 exhibited superior 6MWT performance, covering more distance (522±78 vs. 465±59 meters, p<0.05). Specifically, G2 demonstrated a moderate, positive correlation between 6MWT and the 2LV% index (r=0.58; p<0.05). Shorter walking distances were observed during 6MWT in SAH individuals post-COVID-19. However, the study did not find impaired cardiac autonomic function in SAH individuals post-COVID-19 compared to those without. This suggests that while COVID-19 impacted FC, CAF remained relatively stable in this population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0478.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; Long COVID; data acquisition source; post-infectious; longitudinal cohort study; patient-powered
Online: 25 November 2021 (13:51:54 CET)
ME/CFS (Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome) is a chronic, complex, heterogeneous disease that affects millions and lacks both diagnostics and treatments. Big data, or the collection of vast quantities of data that can be mined for information, has transformed the understanding of many complex illnesses like cancer (1,2) and multiple sclerosis (3,4), by dissecting heterogeneity, identifying subtypes, and enabling the development of personalized treatments. It is possible that big data can reveal the same for ME/CFS. Solve M.E. developed and launched the You + ME Registry to collect longitudinal health data from people with ME/CFS, people with Long COVID (LC) and control volunteers using rigorous protocols designed to harmonize with other groups collecting data from similar groups of people. The Registry is an invaluable resource because it integrates with a symptom tracking app, as well as a biorepository, to provide a robust and rich dataset that is available to qualified researchers. Accordingly, it facilitates collaboration that may ultimately uncover causes and help accelerate the development of therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0363.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: proepicardium, epicardium, transcriptional, post-transcriptional
Online: 9 October 2023 (15:04:52 CEST)
The embryonic epicardium originates from the proepicardium, an extracardiac primordium constituted by a cluster of mesothelial cells. In early embryos, the embryonic epicardium is characterized by a squamous cell epithelium resting on the myocardium surface. Subsequently, it invades the subepicardial space and thereafter the embryonic myocardium by means of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Within the myocardium, epicardial-derived cells present multilineage potential, later differentiating into smooth muscle cells and contributing both to coronary vasculature and cardiac fibroblasts in the mature heart. Over the last decades, we have progressively increased our understanding of those cellular and molecular mechanisms driving proepicardial/embryonic epicardium formation. This study provides a state-of-the-art review of the transcriptional and emerging post-transcriptional mechanisms involved in the formation and differentiation of the embryonic epicardium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0212.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: stroke; post-stroke dementia; anaemia
Online: 19 April 2019 (09:41:13 CEST)
Background: Whilst lack of concentration is a known symptom of anaemia, its association with post-stroke dementia is unclear. Methods: We used data from a UK regional stroke register. To be eligible, patient must have survived to discharge and had anaemia by WHO criteria. Dementia status and other prevalent co-morbidities were assessed using ICD-10 codes. Patients were followed till May 2015 (mean follow-up 3.7 years, total person years = 27,769). Hazard Ratio for incident dementia was calculated using Cox-proportional hazards model controlling for potential confounders. Fine and Gray model was additionally constructed using mortality as the competing risk. Results: A total of 7,454 stroke patients were included with mean age (SD) of 75.9(12.3) years (50.2% men). Those with anaemia were older, has higher disability and co-morbidity burden prior to stroke. We observed a large amount of variation in the dementia incidence rates over time and that the hazard ratio increased every year. The significant association between anaemia and dementia incidence was lost after controlling for pre-stroke Modified Rankin score (HR1.17(0.97,1.40)). With every 20g/dL increase in Hb was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of dementia after adjustment for age, sex, stroke factors and disability but lost significance after adjustment for vascular risk factors. Competing risk analyses showed similar results. Conclusion: Whilst we found no evidence of anaemia as a risk factor for post-stroke dementia, the findings may be limited by potential under recognition of post stroke dementia.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0680.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Acute febrile illness; Alphavirus; chikungunya virus; post-chikungunya musculoskeletal disorder; post-chikungunya chronic inflammatory rheumatism
Online: 29 March 2021 (10:56:13 CEST)
Chikungunya virus is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus. Outbreaks are unpredictable and explosive in nature. Fever, arthralgia, and rash are common symptoms during the acute phase. Diagnostic tests are required to differentiate chikungunya virus from other co-circulating arboviruses, as symptoms can overlap, causing a dilemma for clinicians. Arthritis is observed during the sub-acute and chronic phases, which can flare up, resulting in increased morbidity that adversely affects activities of daily living. During the 2019 chikungunya epidemic in Thailand, cases surged in Bangkok in the last quarter of the year. Here, we demonstrate the chronic sequelae of post-chikungunya arthritis in one of our patients 1 year after the initial infection. An inflammatory process involving edema, erythema, and tenderness to palpation of her fingers' flexor surfaces was observed, with positive chikungunya IgG and negative IgM tests and antigen. The condition produced stiffness in the patient’s fingers and limited their range of motion, adversely affecting daily living activities. Resolution of symptoms was observed with a short course of an anti-inflammatory agent. More research is required to determine whether sanctuaries enable chikungunya virus to evade the host immune response and remain latent, flaring up months later and triggering an inflammatory response that causes post-chikungunya arthritis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0154.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: post-stroke aphasia; pharmacotherapy; cholinergic treatment
Online: 11 July 2022 (08:58:05 CEST)
Despite the relative scarcity of studies focusing on pharmacotherapy in aphasia, there is evidence in the literature indicating that remediation of language disorders via pharmaceutical agents could be a promising aphasia treatment option. Among the various agents used to treat chronic aphasic deficits, cholinergic drugs have provided interesting results. In the current review, we focused on published reports investigating the impact of acetylcholine on language and further cognitive disturbances. It has been suggested that acetylcholine plays an important role in neuroplasticity and is related to several aspects of cognition, such as memory and attention. Moreover, cholinergic input is diffused to a wide network of cortical areas, which have been associated with language sub-processes. This could be a possible explanation for the positive reported outcomes of cholinergic drugs in aphasia recovery, and specifically in distinct language processes, such as naming and comprehension, as well as overall communication competence. However, evidence with regard to functional alterations in specific brain areas after pharmacotherapy is rather limited. Finally, despite the positive results derived from the relevant studies, cholinergic pharmacotherapy treatment in post-stroke aphasia has not been widely implemented. The present review aims to provide an overview of the existing literature in cholinergic pharmacotherapy interventions in post-stroke aphasia, following an integrated approach by converging evidence from neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuropsychology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0359.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: p53; post-translational modifications; alzheimer's disease
Online: 21 September 2021 (12:01:29 CEST)
Our understanding of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis has developed with several hypotheses over the last 40 years, including the Amyloid and Tau hypotheses, respectively. More recently, the p53 protein, well-known as ‘the guardian of the genome,’ has gained attention for its role in the early evolution of AD. This is due to p53’s central role in the control of oxidative stress and potential involvement in both Amyloid and Tau pathways. p53 is commonly regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs), which affect its conformation, increasing its capacity to adopt multiple structural and functional states, including those that can influence several processes in AD. The following review will explore the impact of p53 post-translational modifications (PTMs) on its function and consequential involvement in AD pathogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0694.v1
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:51:27 CEST)
Abstract Objectives To assess the causes and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult asylum seekers and refugees. To explore whether the causes and risk factors of PTSD, between male and female adult refugees/ asylum seekers is different. Study design Systematic review of current literature. Data Sources PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar up until February 2019 Method A structured systematic search was conducted in the relevant databases. Papers were excluded, if they failed to meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Afterwards, a qualitative assessment was performed on the selected papers. Results 12 Studies were included for the final analysis. All papers were either case studies/report or cross sectional studies. The number of traumatic events experienced by refugees/asylum seekers, is the most frequently reported pre-migration causes for PTSD development. Whilst acculturative stress, is the most common post migration stressor. There were mixed reports, regarding the causes of PTSD between both genders of refugees/asylum seekers. Conclusion This reviews’ findings, have potential clinical application into helping clinicians, to risk stratify refugees/asylum seekers for PTSD development and thus aid in embarking on earlier intervention measures. However, more rigorous research similar to this one, is needed for it to be implemented into clinical practice.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0300.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Post Quantum Cryptography, Oil and Vinegar
Online: 13 December 2020 (21:31:13 CET)
Public key encryption methods are often used to create a digital signature, and where Bob has a public key and a private key. In order to prove his identity, he will encrypt something related to the message with his private key, and which can then be checked with his public key. The main current methods of public-key encryption include RSA and ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography), and which involve computationally difficult operations. But these operations have not been proven to be hard in an era of quantum computers. One well-known hard problem is the solving of quadratic equations with $m$ equations with $n$ variables. This is a known NP-hard problem, even in a world of quantum computers. These can be used as post-quantum signature schemes and which involve multivariate equations. In order to understand these methods, this paper outlines a simple example of implementing the oil and vinegar method, and where we have a number of unknown oil variables and a number of known vinegar variables, and where the vinegar variables help convert the hard problem into an easy one.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: spontaneous; racemization; apoptosis; post translational modification
Online: 18 November 2020 (11:09:30 CET)
Biochirality is evident in the hierarchical relation of molecular and cellular physiology during organism development and aging. Chirality influences the higher levels of biological processes, such as perception, memory and cognition, through intermolecular interactions between DNA, proteins, and lipids. At the molecular level, an organism's aging is the accumulation of macro-molecules with the aberrant composition, chirality, and folding. Cellular aging is driven by the non-physiological phase transitions (PhTs) withing membrane-bound and membrane-less compartments. Genomic instability and protein aging, as the interconnected root-causes of cell and organism aging, share two essential feature – spontaneous nature and accumulation over a lifetime. Consequently, we will analyze the interaction between the enzymatic (Enz) and spontaneous (Sp) post-translational modifications (PTMsEnz and PTMs Sp). Both forms of PTMs significantly contribute to the balance of L- and D-amino acids (L/D-AAs) in organisms, modulating the functions of nervous and immune systems. The most abundant form of PTM - enzymatic phosphorylation is bio-chemically associated with the spontaneous racemization (RzSp). The crass talk of enzymatic phosphorylation and spontaneous racemization, as an essential determinant of protein aging and aggregation, associated with the aberrant autophagy, apoptosis, and cell signaling, is discussed in this review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0113.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Post-Acute COVID-19 Vaccination Syndrome; PACVS, G-protein-coupled receptor; receptor antibody; interleukin-6; dis-autonomy; chronic fatigue.
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:14:41 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination can entail chronic fatigue/dis-autonomy tentatively termed post-acute COVID-19 vaccination syndrome (PACVS). We explored receptor autoantibodies and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as somatic correlates of PACVS. Blood markers determined before and six months after first-time SARS-CoV-2-vaccination of healthy controls (N = 89, 71 females, mean/ median age 39/ 49 years) were compared with corresponding values of PACVS-affected persons (N= 191, 159 females, mean/median age: 40/39 years) exhibiting chronic fatigue/dis-autonomy (≥ three symptoms for ≥ five months after last SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination) not due to SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or confounding diseases/medications. Normal vaccination response encompassed decreases of 11 receptor-antibodies (by 25 - 50 %, p < 0.0001), increases in two receptor-antibodies (by 15 - 25 %, p < 0.0001) and normal IL-6. In PACVS, serological vaccination-response appeared significantly (p < 0.0001) altered, allowing discrimination from normal post-vaccination state (sensitivity = 90%, p < 0.0001) by increased angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibodies (cut-off ≤ 10.7 U/ml, ROC-AUC = 0.824 ± 0.027), decreased alpha-2B adrenergic receptor antibodies (cut-off ≥ 25.2 U/ml, ROC-AUC = 0.828 ± 0.025) and increased IL-6 (cut-off ≤ 2.3 pg/ml, ROC-AUC = 0.850 ± 0.022). PACVS is thus indicated as a somatic syndrome delineated/detectable by diagnostic blood markers
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0571.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: post‐stroke; dependence variable; telerehabilitation; review; telecare
Online: 8 November 2023 (16:14:02 CET)
Introduction: Outcome measures using telerehabilitation (TR) in the context of post-stroke rehabilitation is an area of emerging research. The current review assesses the literature related to TR for patients requiring post-stroke rehabilitation. The purpose of this study additionally is to survey the outcome measures used in TR studies and to define which parts of the International Organization of Functioning are measured in trials. Methods: TR studies were searched in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from 2016 to June 2023. Two reviewers individually assessed the full text. Disagreements about inclusion or exclusion were determined by consensus or by checking with a third reviewer. Results: A total of 24 studies were included in the current review. The results were synthesized and reported considering the implications of the results within clinical practice, areas of investigation, and strategic implementation. Conclusions: The current scoping review recognized a wide range of outcome measures used in TR studies and helped elucidate gaps in the current use of outcome measures in the literature. The scoping review also informs researchers and end users (i.e. clinicians and policymakers) regarding the most suitable outcome measures for TR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0955.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: dentin-bonding agent; chelators; fiber post; ultrasonics
Online: 16 October 2023 (10:55:26 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of Chitosan 0.2% in various final cleaning methods on the bond strength of fiberglass post (FP) to intrarradicular dentin. Ninety bovine incisors were sectioned to obtain root remnants measuring 18 mm in length. The roots were divided: G1: EDTA 17%; G2: EDTA 17% + PUI; G3: EDTA 17% + EA; G4: EDTA 17% + XPF; G5: Chitosan 2%; G6: Chitosan 2% + PUI; G7: Chitosan 2% + EA; G8: Chitosan 2% +XPF. After carrying out the cleaning methods, the posts were installed, and the root cleaved to to generate two disks from each root third. Bond strength values (MPa) obtained from the micro push-out test data were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner tests for multiple comparisons (α = 5%). Differences were observed in the cervical third between G1 and G8 (p=0.038), G4 and G8 (p=0.003), G6 and G8 (p=0.049), and Control and G8 (p=0.019). The final cleaning method influenced the adhesion strength of cemented FP to intrarradicular dentin. Chitosan 0.2% + XPF positively influenced adhesion strength, with the highest values in the cervical third.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0772.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: fruit ripening; post-harvest; ethylene; 1-methylcylcopropene
Online: 12 October 2023 (05:35:48 CEST)
Actively combating post-harvest food spoilage and waste can dramatically increase the efficiency of food utilization worldwide. In climacteric fruits, chemical treatments such as 1-MCP are an effective way of reducing post-harvest spoilage and waste by inhibiting the fruit’s ability to perceive ethylene. 1-MCP treatment is increasingly being used to explore the complex nature of ripening physiology at a fundamental level, however, differences in application and quantitation methods create difficulties in comparing conclusions across studies. Here we report an effective and reproducible method for 1-MCP application and quantitation for small-medium sized research applications. By use of surrogate alkene standards 1-butene and cis-2-butene, the highly volatile and elusive 1-MCP molecule can be identified and quantified by gas chromatography and subsequent standard curves may be developed. It is hoped that the methodology outlined here can help standardize consistent 1-MCP application for post-harvest research without excessive investment in specialized equipment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2124.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: wetland restoration; biodiversity; post-evaluation; ecological monitoring
Online: 1 August 2023 (03:34:04 CEST)
Post-evaluation of ecological redevelopment is a good method for its achievements. The eco-engineering technologies and achievements of landscape water reconstructed from aquaculture ponds in Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden have been introduced in this study. The sediments and water quality were also sampled and tested for basic physicochemical parameters and heavy metal concentration. The ecological redevelopment of landscape water reconstructed from aquaculture ponds was evaluated using the Nemero comprehensive pollution index method. The results shown that nutrients including organic matter, organic nitrogen and their ratio of sediment were found to be in a state of moderate pollution, while their ecological risk of heavy metals was low. Although total nitrogen and total phosphorus of water quality was really higher than that of other indexes, the decline trends of ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus was obvious presented over time. In general, this is a good example that redevelopment of water ecosystems from aquaculture ponds using eco-engineering technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0297.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Factor; Housing; Post-disaster resettlement; Residential satisfaction
Online: 6 July 2023 (03:21:02 CEST)
Residential satisfaction with post-disaster housing is crucial for the success and sustainability of a resettlement project. However, little attention has been given to this aspect in the permanent houses developed after the 2015 Gorkha earthquake. To bridge this gap, the study examined factors affecting residential satisfaction among poor displaced households resettled in the Panipokhari Integrated Settlement of Nepal. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey, interviews, and field observation. Internal consistency and reliability were assessed using Cronbach's Alpha test, while satisfaction was measured by mean satisfaction scores. The relative importance index ranked the factors, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analyzed their relationship with overall residential satisfaction. The study identified several crucial fac-tors influencing residential satisfaction, including the design and layout of the house, space for modification, provision of a kitchen garden and cattle shed, thermal comfort, completeness of the house, provision of a hearth, and spaces for rituals and cultural events. These findings shed light on the resettlement decisions of affected populations and provide valuable insights for policymakers, implementers, and researchers aiming for successful and sustainable resettlement outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2216.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer, moderate hypofractionation, post-prostatectomy radiotherapy
Online: 30 June 2023 (10:30:46 CEST)
Background: Optimal hypofractionated schedule of post-prostatectomy radiotherapy remains to be established. We evaluated treatment outcomes and toxicity of the moderately hypofractionated post-prostatectomy radiotherapy in 16 daily fractions delivered with IMRT/VMAT. The treatment schedule selection was motivated by limited technology resources. Methods: One hundred consecutive M0 patients with post-prostatectomy radiotherapy were evaluated. Radiotherapy indication was adjuvant (ART) in 19%, early salvage (eSRT) in 46% and salvage (SRT) in 35%. The dose prescription for prostate bed PTV was 52.8 Gy in 16 fractions of 3.3 Gy. The Common Terminology Criteria v.4 for Adverse Events scale was used for toxicity grading. Results: The median follow-up was 61 months. Five-year biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS) was 78.6%, distant metastases-free survival was 95.7% and overall survival was 98.8%. Treatment indication was the only significant factor for 5-year bRFS in multivariate analysis which was 84.6% vs. 67.6% for ART or eSRT vs. SRT respectively (HR 0.15, 95% CI 0.05–0.47, p=0.001). Acute GI toxicity grade 2 was recorded in 24%, grade 3 in 2% and acute GU toxicity grade 2 in 10% and no grade 3. Cumulative rate of late GI toxicity grade ≥2 was observed in 9% and late GU toxicity grade ≥2 in 16%. Conclusion: Observed results confirmed efficacy and acceptable toxicity of post-prostatectomy hypofractionated radiotherapy in 16 daily fractions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0214.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Post-harvest losses; Avocado; producer’s; Quantity; MLR
Online: 13 February 2023 (10:00:45 CET)
Current study was to estimation the post-harvest loss of avocado at the producer level using cross-sectional data obtained from 385 proportionately sampled respondents from Wolaita and Kembata Tembaro Zones, the SNNPR of Ethiopia. Descriptive and multiple regression analysis were used to the amount and determinant of post harvest loss of avocado fruits. Estimated total post harvest- loss of avocados was 24%; of which 5.7% unacceptable harvesting methods and 4.9% of improper storage practices. The respondent's sex, education, income, training, contact with extension agents, distance from the nearest road, and off-farm income were found to be negative determinants, whereas storage accessibility and avocado harvest techniques were found to be positive determinants of post-harvest loss of avocado fruits. Post-harvest management techniques for avocados need to be better understood and used by avocado growers if they are to minimize losses. Post-harvest losses contribute considerably to food insecurity and create a problem for the source of revenue for people and the economy of the country as well. Therefore, the use of a practical and effective post-harvest loss reduction technique could be a sustainable solution to increase food availability, eliminate hunger and improve farmers' livelihoods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0623.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: spontaneous post-translational modification, racemization, glycation, glycosylation.
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:35:48 CEST)
The universal chirality is the commonly accepted view of nature. Biological chirality is the distinct part of the more general phenomena. Following this view, all living organisms are characterized by the non-equilibrium state of their molecular constituents. From the thermodynamic perspective, the non-equilibrium state of biomolecular ensemble holds inevitable consequences being the substrate of spontaneous reactions directed to equilibrium (not associated with life) state. At the protein level, spontaneous biological reactions represent the natural part of proteins' post-translational modifications (PTMs). The essential contribution to the origin and maintenance of the non-equilibrium state belongs to prevalent bio-molecular chirality. Correspondently, spontaneous PTMs such as racemization and glycation, working against life-supporting prevalent chirality, are known as the significant determinants of protein misfolding, dysfunctions, and aggregation. Accumulation of aberrant protein during life-span allows consideration of time-dependent spontaneous racemization and glycation as protein aging. Spontaneous PTMs of proteins is occurring in the interaction with other forms of enzymatic and non-enzymatic PTMs. In this review, we are considering the contribution of spontaneous racemization and non-enzymatic glycosylation to protein aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0150.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: maternal smoking; post partum smoking; health education
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:15:54 CET)
Smoking during pregnancy remains one of the most significant risk factors for poor birth outcomes. The Loma Linda University Health Comprehensive Tobacco Treatment Program (CTTP) is the largest maternal tobacco cessation program in San Bernardino County – the largest county in the contiguous US. CTTP is an eight week, incentivized, behavioral intervention for tobacco cessation for pregnant smokers. As part of program evaluation, we used a retrospective cohort design to assess smoking abstinence and to identify predictors of relapse/smoking after enrollment. Among CTTP cohort enrollees (n=233) from 2012-2013 we found: 1) a 28.4% 8 week point prevalence abstinence (PPA), and at a median of 9 months of follow-up after the PPA, 81.6% continued to indicate tobacco cessation, and 2) a high rate of relapse or loss to follow-up (56%). Our modeling of relapse/smoking after enrollment indicated that this was higher in young mothers, non-Hispanic mothers (White, Black), first/third trimester mothers, and rural mothers. The evaluation identified efficacy of the behavioral model at 8 weeks, but that relapse/smoking was occurring in disparity populations. Formative research is needed to expand the programmatic outreach and enrollment of mothers wanting to quit smoking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0413.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: infant cry; post-partum depression; acoustic analysis
Online: 31 December 2019 (15:55:20 CET)
Postpartum depression (PPD), a condition that affects up to the 15% of mothers in high-income countries, reduces attention toward the needs of the child and it is among the first causes of infanticide. PPD is usually identified using self-report measures and therefore the diagnosis may not always be valid. Previous studies highlighted the presence of significant differences in the acoustical properties of the vocalizations of children of depressed and healthy mothers. In this study, cry episodes of infants of depressed and non-depressed mothers are analyzed to investigate the possibility that a machine learning model can identify PPD in mothers from the acoustical properties of infants' vocalizations. Acoustic features (F0, F1-4, Intensity) are first extracted from recordings of crying infants, then novel cloud-based artificial intelligence models are employed to identify maternal depression versus non depression from estimated features. Trained model shows that commonly adopted acoustical features can be successfully used to individuate Post-Partum Depressed mothers with very high accuracy (89.5%).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: paracetamol; breastfeeding; post; childhood; prophylactic; immunization; vaccination
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:09:16 CET)
Background: Paracetamol may be use as antipyretic agent for the treatment of fever, as well as an analgesic in the treatment of mild to moderate pain on post vaccination in infants. The use of Paracetamol during fever may be or may not be recommended since it may alter natural human body immune response although it may reduce pain. Objectives: This study described the relevancy of Paracetamol use post infants vaccination based on data collection systematic review analyses. This study aims to describe the effectiveness of breastfeeding in reducing pain and Paracetamol in reducing fever and pain post infants vaccination. Data Sources and Study Selection: Electronic literature search by hand searching six (6) databases which include Ovid LWW Total Access Collection and Medline, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Alled Health Literature) Plus with Fulltext, Science Direct, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, Proquest Education Journal and Proquest Health and Medical Complete. Additionally, manual reference checks of all articles on Paracetamol and breastfeeding post infants vaccination published in English Language between 1978 and 2017. Two level of screening were used on 9614 citations which include screening of abstracts and titles followed by full text screening. Data Synthesis: Data synthesis were tabulated into study characteristics, quality and effects. Authors of trials were not contacted for further details or provision of original data if the published report contained insufficient information. The study findings, as reported by the authors, were included in this review. The data in this research cannot be pool due to not enough data regarding odd ratio or relative risk as well as confidence interval in each study. Results: Systematic review of breastfeeding included three (3) studies from 9614 of database searching. The reviews of all these three (3) studies found significant benefit from breastfed in pain score and duration of crying as well as behavioral changes. None study stated the unbeneficial of breastfeeding before, during and after immunization. Meanwhile, systematic review of Paracetamol effectiveness included four (4) studies from 1177 of database searching. The reviews of two (2) studies found significant benefit from prophylaxis Paracetamol in fever and only one (1) study found significant benefit from prophylaxis Paracetamol in fussiness. On the other hand, there was one (1) study found not signifiant benefit from prophylaxis Paracetamol in fever. Other than that, there were two (2) studies evaluate the safety of prophylactic Paracetamol which revealed different outcomes, in which study by Prymula et. al. in 2009 found that antibody responses to several antigens were reduced significantly, and the other study by Uhari et. al. in 1988 found that antibody titres to DTP bacteria of placebo and PCM not differ significantly. Thus, Paracetamol seems to be not relevant post infants vaccination and breastfeeding was found to be beneficial post infants vaccination. Conclusions: The relevancy of giving Paracetamol post all types of vaccination may be questionable since the safety issue of this intervention may be arised. Breastfeeding before, during and after immunization are recommended for pain reduction as it was proved effectively. Finally, in deciding Paracetamol to be of rational use following infants immunization, it may need for further research which include in depth quantitative and qualitative studies to identify specific problem and causes regarding this issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0286.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: stainless steel; standard duplex steel; lean duplex steel; post-fire strength; post-fire ductility; retention factors; recovery factors
Online: 5 December 2023 (17:03:44 CET)
Experimental quantification of retention factors related to post-fire strength as well as post-fire ductility of intentionally selected stainless steel grades applied in construction is the objective of research presented here. These steel grades are characterized by a two-phase austenitic-ferritic microstructure of the duplex type. In this context two mutually corresponding chromium-nickel-molybdenum steel grades have been subjected to analysis, namely X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 steel belonging to the standard duplex group (DSS 22% Cr) and X2CrMnNiN21-5-1 steel belonging to the lean duplex group (LDSS). The similarities and differences in the mechanical properties exhibited by these steel grades after effective cooling, following more or less prolonged simulated fire action conforming to several development scenarios, have been identified and indicated. The resistance of given steel grade to permanent structural changes induced by the heating program proved to be the critical factor determining these properties and resulting in many cases in increased susceptibility to brittle fracture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1542.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: anxiety; neuromodulation; post-traumatic stress disorder; somatosensory; stimulation
Online: 25 September 2023 (05:12:00 CEST)
Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex condition that represents a significant burden in terms of individual disability and societal costs. Despite decades of research investigating treatment options, PTSD remains a major cause of quality-of-life impairment. We hypothesized that patients with PTSD might benefit from peripheral somatosensory stimulation (PSS) therapy. Methods Six adult patients with clinically diagnosed PTSD were enrolled to undergo daily PSS therapy over a 4-week period. Patients completed two surveys evaluating satisfaction with treatment and overall well-being (Survey 1) and severity of PTSD symptoms (Survey 2). Survey 1 was completed weekly during the course of the study. Survey 2 was based on the 9-question National Stressful Events Survey PTSD Short Scale (NSESSS) and was completed as a baseline prior to initiation of therapy and then at the conclusion of the trial. All data were analyzed by an independent statistician. Results Six male patients were enrolled in the study; all completed the trial. All patients demonstrated a decrease in symptoms within one week of initiation of therapy. This benefit was sustained and appeared to further improve over the course of the trial. For Survey 1, the overall median scores demonstrated a significant time-dependent improvement across measurement times (p < 0.001). For Survey 2, patients had statistically significant improvements from baseline regarding feelings of being emotionally upset and being overly alert. Results from a cumulative link mixed model demonstrated that treatment yielded a 38.2-fold higher likelihood of transitioning from a higher PTSD score at baseline to a lower (improved) score at week 4. No adverse events were described by the patients. Conclusions PSS stimulation appeared to improve symptoms in all six patients with PTSD symptoms in this trial. Patients had unanimous and clinically meaningful improvement in overall PTSD symptoms with treatment. By week 4, all patients responded that they enjoyed the treatment and would like to keep their device. We suggest that further investigation into the potential usefulness of PSS therapy in patients with PTSD is warranted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1847.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Post-traumatic stress disorder; MDMA; Psychotherapy; Breakthrough Therapy
Online: 28 August 2023 (09:56:04 CEST)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating mental health disorder that causes significant dysfunction in individuals. Currently, there are many approved Pharmacotherapy and Psychotherapy treatment options for PTSD, but unfortunately, half of the patients do not respond to traditional therapies. In this article, we reviewed clinical trials and research on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) assisted Psychotherapy in PTSD patients, its pharmacokinetics and current treatment guidelines for PTSD. Based on the results of the efficacy of MDMA assisted Psychotherapy from six phases II Randomized controlled trials. MDMA-assisted Psychotherapy for PTSD has received the “Breakthrough Therapy” designation from the FDA. MDMA can potentially reduce PTSD symptoms even in treatment-resistant cases by increasing certain neurohormones, i.e. dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine and oxytocin. It also modulates activities in the brain regions involved in fear and anxiety. Future research is needed to show whether the advantages outweigh the disadvantages and whether its use can be integrated into available treatment options for PTSD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0600.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: salivary proteins; top-down proteomics; post-translational modifications
Online: 8 August 2023 (04:04:59 CEST)
In this review we extensively describe the main post-translational modifications that give rise to the multiple proteoforms characterized to date in the human salivary proteome and their potential role. Most of the data reported were obtained by our group in over twenty-five years of research carried out on human saliva mainly by applying a top-down strategy. At the beginning we describe the products generated by proteolytic cleavages, which can occur before and after secretion. In this section the most relevant families of salivary proteins are also described. Next, we report the current information concerning the human salivary phospho-proteome and the limited news available on sulfo-proteome. Three sections are dedicated to the description of the glycation and enzymatic glycosylation. Citrullination and N- and C- terminal PTMs and a miscellaneous of other modifications are described in the last two sections. Results highlighting the variation in the level of some proteoforms in local or systemic pathologies are also reviewed along the sections of manuscript to underline the impact and relevance of this information for the development of new diagnostic biomarkers useful in clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: rubella vaccine; rhogam co-inoculation; post partum vaccination
Online: 19 July 2023 (03:21:40 CEST)
Abstract Congenital rubella syndrome is a constellation of birth defects that can have devastating consequences, impacting approximately 100,000 births worldwide each year. The incidence is much lower in countries that routinely vaccinate their population. In the US, postnatal immunization of susceptible women is an important epidemiological strategy for the prevention of rubella. However, concerns that co-administration of Rubella vaccine with other immunoglobins (i.e., Rhogam) could comprise vaccine efficacy has produced warnings that can delay the administration of Rubella vaccination postpartum, leaving women susceptible in a subsequent pregnancy. We aimed to address whether co-administration of Rubella vaccine and Rhogam decreased antibody responses as compared to those receiving only Rubella vaccination. This retrospective cohort study utilized clinical data from 80 subjects who received Rubella vaccine and Rhogam after delivery and 43 subjects received Rubella vaccine alone. Maternal demographics, pregnancy complications and rubella status at the start of a subsequent pregnancy were recorded for analysis. Overall, the two cohorts had similar baseline characteristics; however, lower parity was noted in the participants having both Rubella vaccination and Rhogam. Based on maternal antibody IgG index for rubella during the next pregnancy, we observed that 88% of the Rhogam + Rubella vaccine group had positive titers, which was not significantly different than the 81% in the Rubella vaccine only cohort (p=0.36). In conclusion, no differences in the rubella immunity status in a subsequent pregnancy were observed in those mothers administered both Rubella vaccine and Rhogam concurrently. Given these findings, warnings against co-administration of Rubella vaccine in combination with other immunoglobulins should be discontinued.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0844.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: cervical dysplasia; rectovaginal fistula; conization; complication post-conization
Online: 12 July 2023 (12:49:01 CEST)
(1) Background: High-grade cervical dysplasia is primarily caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Conservative surgery is the preferred treatment approach for this condition. The most commonly employed technique is the loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), which involves removing the affected portion of the cervix. Excisional treatments are often curative, and complications are typically rare and minor; (2) Methods: The loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) is the standard method used for conservative surgery in high-grade cervical dysplasia. It entails the excision of the specific area of the cervix where the abnormal cells are present. The procedure employs a wire loop carrying an electrical current to remove the affected tissue; (3) Results: Excisional treatments, such as LEEP, have shown to be effective in treating high-grade cervical dysplasia. They have a high success rate in eliminating abnormal cells and reducing the risk of cervical cancer. Complications associated with LEEP are infrequent and usually minor. Short-term complications may include bleeding, which can be managed easily. Long-term complications may involve cervical canal stenosis, which can impact fertility; (4) Conclusions: Conservative surgery, particularly the loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), is the preferred and effective treatment for high-grade cervical dysplasia caused by HPV infection. It offers a high cure rate with rare and minor complications. While short-term bleeding is a common occurrence, it is manageable. Long-term complications such as cervical canal stenosis may impact fertility. However, an extremely rare and possibly unique complication described in this case is the development of a vaginorectal fistula. This complication is likely due to indirect thermal injury resulting from compromised tissue. Further research is needed to better understand and prevent such complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1535.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: IBD; GERD; Mental-health; POST-SARS-CoV2-symdromes
Online: 23 May 2023 (02:37:42 CEST)
Abstract: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and mental health issues are significant public health concerns in globally. Although rising peaks observed post-COVID-19, there is a sever paucity in high quality data. Using descriptive analysis, we identified the frequency and associations of age- and gender, sport, genetic, and psychiatric consequences in the coexistence of GERD and IBD in 2067 participants 18 to >60 years with mean age of 26.8 ± 12.9 years. Most were 18 -29 years old (66%, n=1364) of which majority were young Saudi females (72.4%, n=1496). Estimated 1099 (53.2%) were students, 428 (20.7%) were unemployed, and 540 (26.1%) were. The majority were Saudis (94.7%, n= 1957). Psychological syndromes anxiety (60.7%), stress (60.7%), and depression (60.6%) were most frequent; whereas, IBD (48.7%) and GERD (36.3%), respectively were the second and third. In 51 % respondents depression, anxiety, and stress occurred first while in 33.9%, and 24.3% IBD and GERD, respectively, were the first signs. In most respondents (59.2%, n=1178), these signs first appeared recently and 33.6% (n=669) reported occurrence during adult life, and only in 7.2% (n=144) the signs noticed during childhood (7.2%, n=144)). Aggravating factors were 32.9% (n=681) genetic and other factors of which 476 (69.9%) inherited IBD while 215(31.6%) and 175 ((25.7), respectively, inherited psychological (depression, anxiety, and stress) and GERD. However, only 18.3% sought treatment (n=378) and only 66 (3.2%) had colectomy or a colostomy bag. Little over half of the studied population (58.1%, n=1201) were active in outdoor. GERD or IBS and psychological factors (anxiety, depression, and stress), were significantly associated with age (P value =.001).; GERD with old age, IBD with mid-age 40-49 years, and psychological disorders among younger ages. Thus, while mental health issues predispose young millennial women to neurogastroenterological disorders, the IBD and GERD initiate psychological problems in old and mid-ages, respectively. Intriguingly, despite the significantly mosaic global genetic population structures, their lifestyles, and nutritional habits, the pattern of these disorders remains similar. Thus, this is potentially consistent with notion that the gut nerve cells are conserved and that the changes in gut dysbiosis of gut microbiome signatures are responsible. These findings have significant clinical implications in the patient treatment strategies and tailored educational and awareness programs in lifestyle medicine. Future microbiome studies would reveal more insight into the mechanisms of disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0515.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Quantum Computing; Lattice-based cryptosystems; Post-Quantum Cryptography
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:27:49 CEST)
The rapid development of quantum computing devices promises powerful machines with capabilities that solve a wide range of problems that traditional computers cannot. Therefore, quantum computers generate new threats at unprecedented speed and scale and specifically pose an enormous threat to encryption. Lattice-based cryptography is considered to be the rival to a quantum computer attack and the future of post-quantum cryptography. So, cryptographic protocols based on lattices have a variety of benefits, like security, efficiency, lower energy consumption, and speed. In this work, we study the most well-known lattice-based cryptosystems while a systematic evaluation and comparison is presented also, and focuses on their strengths and weaknesses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0173.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Vibrio; Oysters; Post-harvest; Modelling; Temperature; Ice-treatment
Online: 9 March 2023 (09:40:44 CET)
Temperature is a critical factor that influences the proliferation of pathogens in hosts. The impact of temperature on pathogens is commonly explored in controlled and constant temperatures. Experiments under varying environmental temperature are becoming more frequent, however, testing every temperature scenario à la carte is unachievable. One example of this is the human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) in oysters. Here, a predictive model was developed for predicting the growth of Vp in oysters under varying ambient temperature. The model was fitted and evaluated against data from experiments studying growth and inactivation of Vp in oysters at eight constant temperatures. Once evaluated, Vp dynamics in oysters were estimated at different post-harvest varying temperature scenarios affected by water and air temperature, and different ice treatment timing. The model performed adequately under varying temperature, reflecting that (i) increasing temperature, particularly in hot summers, favors a rapid Vp growth in oysters, resulting in a very high risk of gastroenteritis in humans after consumption of a serving of raw oysters, (ii) pathogen inactivation due to day/night oscillations, and more evidently, due to ice treatments, (iii) ice treatment is much more effective limiting risk of illness when applied immediately onboard compared to dockside. The model results to be a promising tool for improving the understanding of the Vp-oyster system and support studies on public health impact of pathogenic Vp associated with raw oyster consumption. Although robust validation of the model predictions is needed, initial results and evaluation show the potential of the model to be easily modified to match similar systems where the temperature is a critical factor shaping the proliferation of pathogens in hosts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0093.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: septicemia; septic shock; post-sepsis syndrome; cytokines; inflammation
Online: 6 March 2023 (06:43:46 CET)
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition with high hospital mortality. Elevated mortality has also been observed in patients after hospital discharge due to post-sepsis syndrome (PSS). The etiology of PSS is still not entirely known, but it involves inflammation. Plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) are recognized as a unique mechanism of intercellular communication in inflammatory processes. It has been reported that EV microRNA (miRNA) production during the acute sepsis phase may persist until after disease resolution and is associated with PSS. We employed mass spectrometry and qPCR analysis to determine the protein and miRNA composition of plasma-derived EVs of 36 patients during sepsis-related hospitalization, immediately after ICU discharge (post-sepsis), and three, six, twelve, and up to 36 months post-sepsis. We determined that patients’ immune system cells were the primary EV source. Fifteen differentially expressed EV miRNAs (DEmiRs) were identified in samples from septic patients compared to the control group. Predictive analyses revealed that these DEmiRs could influence inflammation by modulating pathways mediated by NF-κB, STAT3, and TLR4 signaling activation. Thirteen miRNAs (-15b-5p,-16-5p,-20a-5p,-25-3p,-27a-3p,-29a-3p,-30d-5p,-93-5p,-146a-5p,-148a-3p,-191-5p,-195-5p,-223-3p) were downregulated in the death group compared to the survivor group, making them candidate prognostic markers of ICU survival. One year after ICU discharge, the expression of miR-21-5p and miR-195-5p were decreased in the survivor group. The miRNAs identified in the present study represent potential biomarkers for the survival prognosis of post-sepsis patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0571.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; plastid; co-maturation; post-transcriptional; Nanopore
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:48:48 CEST)
Plastid gene expression involves many post-transcriptional maturation steps resulting in a complex transcriptome composed of multiple isoforms. Although short read RNA-seq has considerably improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling these processes, it is unable to sequence full-length transcripts. This information is however crucial when it comes to understand the interplay between the various steps of plastid gene expression. Here, the study of the Arabidopsis leaf plastid transcriptome using Nanopore sequencing showed that many splicing and editing events were not independent but co-occurring. For a given transcript, maturation events also appeared to be chronologically ordered with splicing happening after most sites are edited.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Post-cardiac injury syndrome; pericarditis; percutaneous coronary intervention.
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:48:46 CEST)
Background: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is known as a very rare possible trigger of pericarditis. Most frequently it develops after a latent period or early in case of periprocedural complications. In this report, we present an atypical early onset of pericarditis after the uncomplicated PCI. Case Summary: A 58-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for the PCI of the chronic total occlusion of left anterior descending (LAD) artery. An initial electrocardiogram (ECG) was unremarkable. PCI attempt was unsuccessful. There were no procedure related complications observed at the end of PCI attempt and patient was symptom free. Six hours after interventional procedure the patient complained of severe chest pain. The ECG demonstrated ST-segment elevation in anterior and lateral leads. Troponin I was mildly elevated but coronary angiogram did not reveal impairment of collateral blood flow to the LAD territory. Because of pericarditic chest pain, typical ECG findings and pericardial effusion with elevated C-reactive protein, the diagnosis of acute pericarditis was established, and a course of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was initiated. Chest pain was relieved and ST-segment elevation almost completely returned to baseline after three days of treatment. The patient was discharged in stable condition without chest pain on the fourth day after symptom onset. Conclusions: Acute pericarditis is a rare complication of PCI. Despite the lack of specific clinical manifestation, post-traumatic pericarditis should be considered in patients with symptoms and signs of pericarditis and a prior history of iatrogenic injury or thoracic trauma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0107.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electronic, Optical And Magnetic Materials Keywords: Magnetic microwires; post-processing; hysteresis loops; magnetic anisotropy
Online: 7 July 2020 (02:41:20 CEST)
The influence of post-processing conditions on the magnetic properties of amorphous and nanocrystalline microwires have been thoroughly analyzed, paying attention on the influence of magnetoelastic, induced and magnetocrystalline anisotropies on the hysteresis loops of Fe-, Ni- and Co-rich microwires. We showed that magnetic properties of glass-coated microwires can be tuned by the selection of appropriate chemical composition and geometry in as-prepared state or further considerably modified by appropriate post-processing, which consists of either annealing or glass-coated removal. Furthermore, stress-annealing or Joule heating can further effectively modify the magnetic properties of amorphous magnetic microwires owing to induced magnetic anisotropy. Devitrification of microwires can be useful for either magnetic softening or magnetic hardening of the microwires. Depending on the chemical composition of the metallic nucleus and on structural features (grain size, precipitating phases) nanocrystalline microwires can exhibit either soft magnetic properties or semi-hard magnetic properties. We demonstrated that the microwires with coercivities from 1 A/m to 40 kA/m can be prepared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0131.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Morus sp.; cellulose; cymbopogon citratus; Post harvest quality
Online: 11 October 2019 (06:10:14 CEST)
Blackberry is a fruit that has high nutritional value, a factor that has expanded its consumption worldwide. However, due to the fragility of the fruits and the high incidence of postharvest diseases, the fruits have a short shelf life. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate whether the application of coatings based on microfibrillated cellulose (NC) and lemongrass essential oil (EO) nanoparticles can prolong the shelf life of blackberry fruits after harvest. EO-coated blackberry fruits at nanocellulose concentrations were analyzed as follows: 0; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6 and 0.8%, in addition to the control treatment of which neither essential oil nor nanocellulose was used, for each treatment five repetitions were used. The fruits were analyzed soon after the application of the cover and at three and six days after storage. Fruit quality was assessed by soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA), pH, fresh weight loss (FWL) and colorimetric parameters such as luminosity, hue angle and fruit peel chroma. Coating on EO (1000 ppm) blackberries combined with NC at concentrations of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% is promising in preserving blackberry fruits and reducing the process color reversal, up to six days of storage. The 0.4% NC + 1000 ppm EO conjugated coating showed no SS changes in blackberry fruits during the six days of storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0132.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rachis; traditional; post shooting approach; economic production; demand
Online: 11 April 2019 (05:41:39 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Due to huge demand and availability of Banana, innovative cost effective method is necessary to promote and smoothen the banana production among farmers commercially mitigating the demand. Method and Materials: In this study, we feed cow dung mixture along with Urea, TSP, MoP, water to the distal part of rachis after cutting down male bud as soon as the female flowers matured into fruits (T1). The effect of this method was then compared with two control groups; one with the same strategy except fertilizer applied on root following ring method (C1, Positive control) and another was male flower untouched without applying fertilizer on rachis or root (C2, Negative control). Results and Conclusion: T1 showed more than double increase in length than controls. In the same way, in case of shape (diameter), T1 (0.46 cm) showed twice as better growth in the C1 (0.22 cm) and C2 (0.18 cm). Trend analysis showed the test group T1 curve is much steeper than the control groups suggesting faster growth rate than the other two. Finally, the cost of fertilizers for T1 per plant was estimated 0.091 USD while for positive control C1 it was 2.9 USD. This study shows an approach to be effective and economic comparing to traditional method of fertilizer application, which can be adapted as a new method of banana production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0122.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: multicomponent reaction; MCR; post condensation modification PCM; post condensation cyclisation PCC; MFCR; multifunction catalysis; variability; diversity; complexity; efficiency of synthesis
Online: 26 January 2017 (10:04:55 CET)
Synergistic effects between reactions, reagents and catalysts can lead to minor heats of reaction and occur as an inherent result of multi-component reactions (MCRs) and their extensions. They enable syntheses to be performed at a low energy level and the number of synthesis steps to be drastically reduced in comparison with ‘classical’ two-component reactions. The very high potential for variability, diversity and complexity of MCRs additionally generates an extremely diverse range of products, thus bringing us closer to the aim of being able to produce tailor-made and extremely low-priced materials, drugs and libraries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Nursing; Voice Training; Post-Thyroid Surgery; Vocal Cord Paralysis
Online: 6 December 2023 (08:50:34 CET)
Objective: To assess the recovery of voice in patients with unilateral vocal cord paralysis after thyroid surgery following treatment with nursing intervention combined with voice training. Methods: Thirty patients with unilateral vocal cord paralysis and hoarseness for 6-12 months post-thyroid surgery were selected. They first underwent two weeks of psychological and cognitive intervention, followed by a psychological resilience assessment, and then proceeded with 12 weeks of voice training. This training primarily included muscle relaxation exercises, breathing training, and phonation exercises. A comparative analysis was conducted on the patients' voice parameters before and after the training, including jitter, shimmer, maximum phonation time (MPT), noise to harmonic ratio (NHR), and the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) scores. Results: After psychological and cognitive intervention, scores for optimism, resilience, and self-strength among the 30 patients increased. Post-voice training, reductions were observed in jitter, shimmer, NHR, and VHI scores, the Maximum Phonation Time (MPT) increased compared to pre-training, with the difference being statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Nursing intervention combined with voice training can effectively improve voice quality in patients with unilateral vocal cord paralysis after thyroid surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1429.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Post Mastectomy Pain Syndrome; pain; physical exercise; depression; anxiety
Online: 22 November 2023 (13:01:57 CET)
Background: Chronic post-surgical pain is a condition persisting at least three months after surgery. It is estimated that 25-60% of patients who underwent breast cancer removal surgery suffer from post-mastectomy pain syndrome and occurred anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance and catastrophizing. Physical activity can reduce the risk of chronic diseases and has a good impact on mood and cognitive function. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of physical activity on the intensity of pain, depression and anxiety in women underwent mastectomy for breast cancer removal. Methods: A prospective observational unicentric cohort study was performed. Patients were female underwent unilateral or bilateral mastectomy. Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), was used to assess pain intensity, Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI) for depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorders-7 (GAD-7), for anxiety evaluation. Physical activity was assessed by International Physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). Interleukin (IL)-17, IL-1β, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were also evaluated in the blood of patients. All the evaluation was assessed 3 and 6 months after the surgery. Results: Adequate physical activity reduced intensity of pain, depression and anxiety symptoms in women affected by post-mastectomy pain syndrome. Moreover, adequate active women, showed a reduction of biomarkers of inflammation, cortisol, ACTH and an increase of BDNF. Conclusions: Our results suggest that physical activity can improve quality of life, reducing intensity of pain, inflammatory markers and it can be useful in the reduction of associated anxiety and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1668.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: post-stroke; hyperbaric oxygen therapy; sequelae; feasibility; out-patient
Online: 25 October 2023 (16:14:17 CEST)
Keywords: Post-Stroke; Hyperbaric oxygen therapy; Sequelae; Feasibility; Out-patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0821.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Football; Post-career and well-being; Career Impacts; Interview
Online: 13 October 2023 (02:56:36 CEST)
Considering the importance of assessing the impacts resulting from a sport career, this study aimed at developing and validating a semi-structure interview guide suitable for quantifying the socio-demographic and epidemiological profile of former professional football players. Based on the theoretical frameworks and several methodological procedures, an interview guide was de-veloped, consisting of 3 areas of conceptual organization (A1. Biographical data; A2. Career data; and A3. Post-Career Transition data) and 8 data collection categories (C1. Personal data; C2. Pro-fessional data; C3. Socio-demographic pathway in the post-career; epidemiological pathway; C4. Epidemiological pathway; C5. Moment of leaving the career; C6. Socio-demographic pathway in post-career; C7. Epidemiological pathway in the post-career; and C8. Perceptions on post-career planning). The construction and validation of the interview guide following 4 steps: Ad hoc con-struction of the interview guide (step 1); Review of the interview guide by a panel of experts (step 2); Definition of procedures and protocol for the application of the interview (step 3); Application of the pilot study for face validation of the interview guide (step 4). Thus, in procedural terms, four stages were considered for the construction and validation of the interview guide, namely the Ad hoc construction of the interview guide (i), the review of the in-terview guide by a panel of experts (ii), definition of procedures and protocol for the application of the interview (iii), and the application of the pilot study for the face validation of the interview guide (iv). The results showed that the interview guide for the study of the impacts of the sports careers on the quality of life of Portuguese former football players shows reliability for the collec-tion of qualitative and quantitative information from the respective content analysis. The use of the interview guide characterizes the path of former player, providing information and knowledge on the socio-demographic and epidemiological impact factors resulting from their post-career (sports retirement).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0033.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: Christmas; future of festivity; Post-pandemic realm; qualitative study
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:15:32 CEST)
This study intricately explores the evolving tapestry of Christmas celebrations in a post-pandemic era, where tradition delicately intertwines with technology. The literature review presents a global panorama of Christmas observances, delving into varied religious perspectives. Within this exploration, a Southeast Asian country discreetly initiates its festivities as early as September—a nuanced response to the profound significance of Christmas. Navigating the digital age, the paper dissects the impact of virtual gatherings, the surge in e-commerce, and digital church services on festive traditions. Employing diverse research methods, including thematic analysis, nuanced insights are synthesized from extensive literature reviews, interviews, and observations. Scrutinizing challenges posed by the digital divide, the erosion of personal connections in virtual gatherings, and sustainability concerns in online celebrations, the qualitative research methodology reveals the interplay between tradition and technology. The paper contemplates the future of Christmas in this transformative era, offering implications for future celebrations, technology developers, policymakers, and beyond. This endeavor invites contemplation on the dynamic interplay shaping the festive landscape and prompting reflection on future celebrations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1967.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Music Keywords: Music’s Multidimensional Impact; Post-Pandemic World; Psychological Well-being
Online: 28 September 2023 (10:43:17 CEST)
In conclusion, this qualitative exploration has unveiled the profound and essential impact of music on psychological well-being, especially in the post-pandemic world. Through in-depth literature reviews, informal interviews, and observations with thirty CAS participants from SMC, the researcher uncovered ten salient themes that collectively illustrate music's multifaceted role as a potent remedy. These findings showcase how music serves as an emotional outlet, a cognitive enhancer, and a source of inspiration. The emotional depth and spiritual resonance participants associate with music underscore its capacity to address diverse human needs, making it an indispensable tool in navigating the complexities of our post-pandemic reality. Moreover, the cognitive benefits observed, such as improved concentration and focus, are particularly pertinent in the context of remote work and education, highlighting music's necessity in our daily lives. Additionally, this study emphasizes the vital role of virtual music communities in fostering social connections, even amidst physical isolation, further underscoring the enduring relevance of music in these challenging times. This research contributes to the expanding knowledge of music's impact on well-being, offering a holistic perspective encompassing spiritual, emotional, social, and cognitive dimensions. It enriches existing music psychology theories and invites further exploration into the mechanisms underpinning music's diverse effects. These insights have practical implications for fields such as mental health, education, and remote work, where music can be utilized as an essential tool for stress reduction and emotional regulation. This is highlighted further in the Suggested songs that can help sought the mind, body, spirit and soul. Looking ahead, future research could delve deeper into the long-term impact of music engagement on well-being and explore the universality of music's benefits through cross-cultural studies. Overall, music, as illuminated by this study, stands as a timeless and indispensable companion, offering solace, inspiration, vitality, and connection in the face of any contemporary challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0248.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: post-harvest; grape; wine; withering; stilbenes; aroma; Amarone; Corvina
Online: 9 June 2021 (09:03:25 CEST)
In the Valpolicella area (Verona - Italy) Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina is the main grape variety used to produce Amarone wine. Before starting the winemaking process, the Corvina grapes are stored in a withering (i.e., dehydrating) warehouse until about 30% of the berry weight is lost (WL). This practice is followed to have the chemical metabolites concentrate in the berry and enrich the Amarone wine in aroma and antioxidant compounds. In compliance with the guidelines and strict Amarone protocol set by the Consorzio of Amarone-Valpolicella, withering must be carried out by setting the grapes in a suitable environment, either under controlled relative air humidity (RH) conditions and wind speed (WS) – no temperature modification is to be applied – or, following the traditional methods, in open-air natural environmental conditions. In general, the two processes have different dehydration kinetics due to the different conditions in terms of temperature, RH, and WS, which affect the accumulation of sugars and organic acids and the biosynthesis of sec-ondary metabolites such as stilbenes and glycoside aroma precursors. For this study, the two grape-withering processes were carried out under controlled (C) and not-controlled (NC) condi-tions and the final compositions of the Corvina dried grapes were compared also to evaluate the effects on the organoleptic characteristics of Amarone wine. The findings highlighted differences between the two processes mainly in terms of the secondary metabolites of the dried grapes, which affect the organoleptic characteristics of Amarone wine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0153.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Shoah, Christology, post-Shoah Christology, religious pluralism, witness, genocide
Online: 10 May 2021 (09:50:57 CEST)
Post-Shoah Christology is embedded in the unique relationship of Jews and Christians, especially Jesus’ Jewishness and the Jewish roots of Christianity, as well as Christian moral failures towards Jews before and during the Shoah. Essential for contemporary Christianity, a vibrant post-Shoah Christology confronts three main challenges, each demanding a different response. The first challenge is the reality that soon there will be no more first-generation witnesses to the Final Solution. Such is an inevitable challenge that has to be faced and prepared for. Religious pluralism is the second challenge, and includes a number of related threads, yet should ultimately be embraced. The third challenge is the (inevitable?) loss of memory, passion, and urgency, a willful forgetfulness by Christians towards the importance of the Jewish-Christian relationship, and especially, Christian failure in the Shoah. This challenge demands robust refutation and ongoing struggle. Before addressing these challenges, I will first further define and highlight the need for a post-Shoah Christology and will conclude this article with three general and three concrete hopes for a viable post-Shoah Christology.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Azolium MOFs; Dye adsorption; Post modification; Cross-coupling reactions
Online: 30 November 2020 (14:14:52 CET)
Two ligands, 1, 3-bis(4-carboxyphenyl)imidazolium chloride and 4, 4՛-bipyridine, were employed to prepare nickel and zinc azolium based MOFs, 1 and 2 by the mixed ligand solvothermal approach. The positively charged azolium moieties in the imidazolium linker resulted in a charged environment in the as-synthesized frameworks. As a result, 1 and 2 demonstrated preferential adsorption of CO2 over methane molecules in the gas phase adsorption due to the higher quadruple moment of CO2, which interacts more with the positively charged frameworks. Besides, in aqueous media, 1 and 2 exhibited incredible adsorption efficiency for anionic dyes. In the following, MOF 1 was metallated at the carbene site of the azolium linker to generate the novel heterogeneous catalyst 1-Pd, which was successfully applied for Sonogashira and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions without losing its activity after three cycles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0240.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Post-mortem Cardiac magnetic resonance; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; sudden death
Online: 6 November 2020 (10:44:52 CET)
Post-mortem cardiac magnetic resonance (PMCMR) is an emerging tool supporting forensic medicine for the identification of the causes of cardiac death, as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We proposed a new method of PMCMR to diagnose HCM despite myocardial rigor mortis. Methods: we performed CMR in 49 HCM patients, 30 non-HCM hypertrophy and 32 healthy controls. In cine images, rigor mortis was simulated by the analysis of the cardiac phase corresponding to the 25% of diastole. Left ventricular mass, mean and standard deviation (SD) of WT, maximal WT, minimal WT and their difference, were compared for the identification of HCM. These parameters were validated at PMCMR, evaluating 8 hearts with HCM, 10 with coronary artery disease and 10 with non-cardiac death. Results: The SD of WT with a cut-off of > 2.4 had the highest accuracy to identify HCM (AUC 0.95, 95%CI 0.89-0.98). This was particularly evident in female population of HCM (AUC=0.998), with 100% specificity (95%CI 85-100%) and 96% sensitivity (95%CI 79-99%). Using this parameter, at PMCMR all the 8 patients with HCM were correctly identified with no false positive. Conclusions: PMCMR allows to identify HCM as cause of sudden death using the SD of WT >2.4 as diagnostic parameter.