REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: porosity; atmospheric plasma spraying; chromium oxide; porosity measurement; multi-layer coatings; nano-coatings
Online: 13 June 2019 (07:49:09 CEST)
Porosity in plasma sprayed coatings is vital for most engineering applications. It is either advantageous or disadvantageous depending on the functionality of the coating and the immediate working environment. Consequently, the formation mechanisms and development of porosity has been extensively explored to find out modes of controlling porosity in plasma sprayed coatings. In this work, a comprehensive review of porosity on plasma sprayed coatings is established. The formation and development of porosity on plasma sprayed coatings are governed by set spraying parameters. Optimized set spraying parameters have been used to achieve the most favorable coatings with minimum defects. Even with the optimized set spraying parameters, defects like porosity still occur. Here, we discuss other ways that can be used to control porosity in plasma sprayed coating with emphasis to atmospheric plasma sprayed chromium oxide coatings. Techniques like multi-layer coatings, nano-structured coatings, doping with rare earth elements, laser surface re-melting and a combination of the above methods have been suggested in adjusting porosity. The influences of porosity on properties of plasma sprayed coatings and the measurement methods of porosity have also been reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0559.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Ultra-low porosity tight sandstone; fluid identification; NMR logging; triple-porosity comprehensive method; integrated method
Online: 26 August 2020 (04:22:18 CEST)
The deep Cretaceous tight sandstone in Kuqa Depression of Tarim foreland basin is an ultra-low porosity and ultra-deep gas-bearing reservoir, which is characterized by small pores, fine throats, and poor connectivity. The wireline logging responses are so complex, and especially, it is difficult to identify fluid types from resistivity logs. Based on acoustic, density, and neutron logs response differences in gas and water layers, effective fluid sensitivity factors are constructed for gas layer identification. From conventional logs, acoustic-neutron porosity difference, density-neutron porosity difference, and triple-porosity ratio are all sensitive parameters to the gas layer. From the NMR logging response mechanism, the density and NMR porosity difference, and T2 geometric mean of the movable fluid are also two sensitive parameters to the gas layer. Based on these parameters, a series of fluid typing charts are constructed and their adaptabilities are analyzed and compared. By contrast, NMR log interpretation is better, and triple-porosity comprehensive method from conventional logs is also effective when NMR logging is not available. Finally, the comprehensive fluid typing strategy by combining some methods for ultra-low porosity tight sandstone is summarized and optimized. This study is another alternative for fluid identification using non-electrical logs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0023.v1
Online: 2 March 2018 (12:47:16 CET)
The article discusses the validation process of a certain method of balancing gas contained in the pore space of rocks. The validation was based upon juxtaposition of the examination of rocks' porosity and the effects of comminution in terms of assessing the possibility of opening the pore space. The tests were carried out for six dolomite samples taken from different areas of the 'Polkowice-Sieroszowice’ copper mine in Poland. Before the rock material was ground, it was examined using the porosimetric method and subsequently subjected to the SEM analysis. After grinding, the research material was subjected to the granulometric analysis. Prior to the grinding process, the rocks' porosity fell in the range of 0.3-14.8%, while the volume of the open pores was included in the 0.01-0.06 cm3/g range. The research material was also characterized by inhomogeneous distribution of the pore volume. The grinding process was performed using an original device – the GPR analyzer. The ground samples were characterized by similar particle size distribution and mean diameters D_3.2 of about 4.0-4.5 µm. The SEM analysis revealed pores of various size and shape on the surface of the rock cores, while at the same time demonstrating lack of pores following the grinding process. The grain size distribution curves were compared with the cumulative pore volume curves of the cores before grinding. The resulting intersection points of both curves were seen as testifying to the presence of openings in the rock pores and release of the accumulated gas. The opening percentage of the pore space was associated with the coordinates of the curves' intersections. In order to confirm the argument put forward in this paper – i.e. that comminution of a rock to grains of a size comparable with the size of the rock's pores results in the release of gas contained in the pore space – the amount of gas released as a result of the comminution process was studied. The results of gas balancing demonstrated that the pore space of the investigated dolomites was filled with gas in amounts from 3.19 cm3/kg to 45.86 cm3/kg. The obtained results of the rock material comminution to grains comparable – in terms of size – to the size of the pores of investigated rocks, along with asserting the presence of gas in the pore space of the studied dolomites, were regarded as a proof that the method of balancing gas in rocks via rock comminution is correct.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0344.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Silica dissolution; Silica solubility; Chemical EOR; Porosity; Permeability
Online: 16 August 2021 (13:58:28 CEST)
Chemical flooding is one of the effective methods to recover large volumes of oil from sandstone formations after primary depletion. However, silica dissolution often occurs during Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) flooding, affecting the petro-physical properties of the formation. To address this issue, samples from Berea sandstone formations were treated with various brine solutions, through static tube tests and core flooding experiments. Analytical tests such as DR/2800 spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscope were used to evaluate the silica solubility and the alteration in mineral content. The results indicated that the silicate contents decreased after the saturation due to silica solubility in the solution. Increasing brine salinity to 40,000ppm and introducing Magnesium and Calcium ions to the solution, reduces the silicate contents by 5.03 % and 7.32 %. Moreover, saturating the samples with ASP solution, further reduced the silicate contents by 14.86 %. This reduction is associated with a relative increase in silica solubility and pH of the solution. Silica dissolution affects the pore microstructure, which resulted in increasing the porosity and pore volume after the core flooding. The injection of the ASP solution increased the porosity by 5.83%, thus the pore volume increased from 17.72 to 18.76cc. This is associated with the high silica solubility and the increase of solution pH in the ASP solution. The permeability of the samples generally reduced after the core flooding, due to the silica solubility. However, injecting the ASP solution, resulted in a major reduction of the permeability by more than 75%. These changes in the petro-physical properties can lead to severe formation damage, and affect hydrocarbon production. This study assists in understanding the impact of silica dissolution during ASP treatment and addresses the factors involved. Efficient utilization of chemical flooding can help mitigating silicate scaling within the formation, and extend field productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0239.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Sava Depression; bootstrap; geostatistics; disposal formation water; porosity
Online: 6 November 2020 (10:33:27 CET)
In deep geological analysis of data, these are input data that are few and include a small set of data. In a small set of case data, it is necessary to obtain reliable data of individual geological variables from this type of data. The paper analyzes the possibility of applying the bootstrap method on variables that are important in the exploration and production of hydrocarbons. The variables analyzed were the following: porosity and total costs of disposal formation water. The case study was made on the data of reservoir "K", field "B" located in the western part of the Sava Depression. The analysis of the results showed the possibility of applying the bootstrap method in the analysis of deep geological data with the application of three different sizes of resampling dataset.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0070.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Semisolid casting; porosity, hydrogen, shrinkage, feeding; stirring; degassing
Online: 5 October 2020 (11:03:50 CEST)
Semisolid casting can provide excellent castings, but the nature of the pore-forming mechanisms has not been properly clarified. In the current communication, it was suggested that hydrogen precipitated during slurry making might have a decisive role in the formation of both gas and shrinkage porosity. Intensive stirring at the end of the slurry making process may act as a degassing step. Without the intense stirring, structures of primary slurry particles form around the hydrogen pores, strongly affecting pore formation and feeding during the intensification stage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0027.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: x-ray fluorescence, paleo-depositional environments; porosity correlation
Online: 3 January 2019 (13:54:22 CET)
The Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian Age) Smackover Formation is a significant source for hydrocarbon production in southwest Alabama. Brooklyn Field is in southeast Conecuh County, Alabama and has been a major producer of oil and natural gas for the state. The Smackover is a carbonate formation that is divided into seven distinct lithofacies. In southwest Alabama, the Smackover Formation is heavily influenced by paleotopography from the underlying Paleozoic rocks of the Appalachian system. The goal of this study is to determine elemental ratios in rock core within the Smackover Formation using a X-ray fluorescence (XRF) handheld scanner, to correlate between lithofacies in the Smackover Formation and elementally characterize the upper oolitic grainstone reservoir and the lower thrombolite boundstone. Eight wells were used for the study within Brooklyn Field and Little Cedar Creek fields. Cores from the eight wells were scanned on six-inch intervals. Chemical logs were produced to show elemental weights in relation to depth and lithofacies. Well data collected for chemical signatures within producing zones were correlated to reservoir lithofacies and porosity. Aluminum, silicon, calcium, titanium, and iron were the most significant (>95% confidence level) predictors of porosity and is related to the depositional environment and subsequent diageneses of the strata. XRF data suggests relative enrichments in iron, titanium, and potassium may be related to deposition in relatively restricted marine waters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; SLM technology; porosity research; microhardness research
Online: 22 October 2018 (04:09:54 CEST)
Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique. It allows to produce elements with very complex geometry using metallic powders. A geometry of manufacturing elements bases only on 3D CAD data. The metal powder is melt selectively layer by layer using ytterbium laser. The paper contains results of porosity and microhardness analysis made on specimens which were manufactured during specially prepared process. Final analysis helped to discover connections between changing hatching distance, exposure speed and porosity. There was no significant differences in microhardness and porosity measurement results in the planes: perpendicular and parallel to the machine building platform surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0308.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: porosity; multijetfusion; fluids; watertightness; 3Dprint; orientation; pressure; leakage;
Online: 17 July 2018 (11:10:14 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to explore the watertightness behaviour for high pressure applications using Multijetfusion technology and polyamide 12 as a material. It reports an efficient solution for manufacturing functional prototypes and final parts for water pressure applications. It provides manufacturing rules to engineers in the pressurized product development process up to 10 MPa of nominal pressure. The research findings show manufacturers the possibility of using additive manufacturing as an alternative to traditional manufacturing. Water leakage was studied using different printing orientations and wall thickness for a range of pressure values. An industrial ball valve was printed and validated with the ISO 9393 standard also meeting tolerance requirements. This paper is a pioneering approach to the additive manufacturing of high performance fluid handling components. This approach solves the problem of leakage caused by porosity in additive manufacturing technologies
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0052.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Vertisols; Volcanic Ash; Field Capacity; Air Porosity; Volumetric Swelling
Online: 2 December 2022 (13:44:59 CET)
The research aims to improve some of the physical and hydro-physical properties of some Vertisols in the southern region (part of the eastern Houran Plateau) in Sweda Governorate at the south of Syria. Using different quantities of volcanic ash, soil samples were collected from the Al-Thahallah village from a depth of (0-30) cm, The experiment was designed according to the complete random design with one factor that represents the ash quantity (1.25, 2.5, 5) %, with three replicates for each treatment in addition to the control treatment a0. The experiment was carried out within the plastic pots during agricultural season 2018/2019, in which the wheat of the Sham variety 3 were cultivated as a cover plant. The results showed that the addition of volcanic ash at the quantity of 5% led to a significant increase in the infiltration rate by (328.60) %,%, where the filtration rate increased from 0.42 cm/hr -1 to 1.80 cm.h-1, as well as for each of the air porosity by (89) % and the volume of infiltrate water by (40) %, compared with the control. The above-mentioned addition also resulted in a decrease in both dry bulk density, total soil porosity and volumetric swelling coefficient by (18.60, 5.80, 314) % Respectively, compared to the control. The addition also contributed to the reduce in the weighted moisture content when saturation and the field capacity, at the level of significance of 5%. The research recommends adding volcanic ash to the soil at a quantity of 5%, and adding enhancements with volcanic ash at various levels such as organic waste.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0669.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: porosity prediction; pore-water prediction; gravity; resistivity; combined inversion
Online: 27 May 2021 (13:16:28 CEST)
This work describes a method to carry out 2-D inversion of gravity data in terms of porosity and matrix density distribution using previous DC resistivity inversion results to constraint the fractional pore-water content in the rocks. The inversion is carried out using a controlled random search (CRS) algorithm for global optimization. The method was tested on synthetic data generated from a model representing a graben, and the results show that it can estimate accurate values of contrast-density and porosity. The method was also applied to gravity and dc experimental data collected in NE Portugal, showing results that agree quite well with the known geological information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0058.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air-entraining admixture, air-content, cement, mortar, concrete, porosity.
Online: 5 September 2019 (10:31:12 CEST)
Research results of the relationships between air-volume in air-entrained cement paste, mortar and concrete, all designed according to PN-EN 480-1 guidelines are presented in the paper. The cement paste, mortar and concrete, with w/c=0,5 ratio, were prepared using innovative air-entraining cement CEM II/B-V. The air-entraining cement CEM II/B-V was produced using two methods: mixed together with natural or synthetic aerated admixture. The air volume test of the volumetric method was carried out in case of fresh cement paste, mortar and concrete mix. Fresh concretes were evaluated in terms of stability of air entrainment and consistency for 5, 20 and 40 min. The porosity structure parameters, like summarized air-content, specific surface of air voids, air-voids spacing factor and micropores content of hardened concrete, were estimated using computed tomography with a resolution of 2-5 μm. The aim of the research was to determine the dependence between air-content of cement paste, mortar and concrete on the measurement of air-entrainment of cement paste or mortar with the same w/c ratio and type of cement, all designed according to PN-EN 480-1 guidelines. Test results proved that there is a good correlation between the measured air-content of the cement paste, mortar and concrete. Therefore, it is possible to predict the aeration of concrete on the air-entrainment of the mortar.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: bed permeability; Kozeny/Carman; Ergun; friction factor; porosity; UHPLC
Online: 9 July 2019 (05:07:49 CEST)
In this paper, the experimental protocol which we disclose is designed to identify the values for both the constant in the Kozeny/Carman model, which relates to the linear component of permeability, and the variable kinetic coefficient in the newly minted Q- modified Ergun model, which relates to the non-linear components of permeability, without involving any new theoretical development. Moreover, kinetic contributions to measured pressure gradient, which are not accounted for in some currently accepted empirical fluid flow equations, such as Poiseuille’s for flow in empty conduits and Kozeny/Carman for flow in packed conduits, but which nevertheless contribute to measured pressure drop and thus hamper the identification of the value of the constant relative to the laminar component, are captured and lumped together into a single variable kinetic parameter-the kinetic coefficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0023.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Packed beds; Thermal heat; Porosity effect; Thermal contact resistance
Online: 3 August 2016 (08:29:06 CEST)
Modelling water vapour flow, heat transfer and porosity in porous adsorbent is somewhat challenging simulation problem. Primary macroscopic water vapour flow models, such as Darcy's law, fail to predict the pressure drop entirely correctly for the reason that many of flow parameters not considered because of the simplifications that remain made for the multi-scale structure of the porous adsorbents. For one to develop a good physical understanding of such water vapour flows and the accuracy of existing 3D simulation models, there is a need for some accurate 3D geometry to be studied. This present work describes two-phase water vapour flow and adsorption/ desorption performed on porous adsorbent by a Dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). The CFD simulation results are associated with experiments results. It is decided that for such complex porous adsorbent CFD simulation problems the use of COMSOL Multiphysics and SolidWorks flow simulation will be utilised.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0059.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: microporous carbonates; multimodal porosity; primary drainage; capillary invasion; mixed wettability
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:03:11 CET)
Improved oil recovery from tight carbonate formations may provide the world with a major source of lower-rate power over several decades. Here we provide an overview of the Arab D formation in the largest oil field on earth, the Ghawar. We investigate the occurrence of microporosity of different origins and sizes using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pore casting techniques. Then, we present a robust calculation of the probability of invasion and oil saturation distribution in the nested micropores using mercury injection capillary pressure data available in the literature. We show that large portions of the micropores in Arab D formation would have been bypassed during primary drainage unless the invading crude oil ganglia were sufficiently long. Considering the asphaltenic nature of oil in the Ghawar, we expect the invaded portions of the pores to turn mixed-wet, thus becoming inaccessible to waterflooding until further measures are taken to modify the system’s chemistry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0002.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: biota colonization; weathering; rock porosity; Pleistocene moraines; moraine relative dating
Online: 1 March 2021 (12:30:16 CET)
For the Altai mountainous region, especially the arid south-eastern part, the history of glacier fluctuations in Pleistocene and Holocene is still poorly known. The key plots were located in the Kargy valley (2288-2387 m a. s. l.) that is not currently affected by glaciations. The relative dating method was applied to define Pleistocene moraine chronology and configuration in the Kargy valley. Taking into account that relative dating methods are primarily based on weathering pat-terns, the mineralogy, porosity, and specificity of biological colonization as an agent of weath-ering were obtained for the moraine samples. Three moraine groups of different age (presumably MIS 6, MIS 4, and MIS 2) were identifies based on detailed investigation of morphological features. The moraine age was indirectly confirmed by the mesostructure of the moraine samples repre-sented by fine-grained shale: the older sample is characterized by a more developed fractal sur-face than the younger one. The growth of biota (crustose lichen and micromycetes) leads to initial biomass accumulation and subsequent rock disintegration. The accumulation of autochthonous fine earth on the rock surface was considered the initial stage of fine earth formation affected by biota.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0614.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: ordinary Kriging; variogram; jack-knifing; upper miocene; northern Croatia; porosity
Online: 29 November 2018 (03:53:34 CET)
Presented is semivariogram and the Ordinary Kriging analyses of porosity data from the Sava Depression (Northern Croatia), as part of the Croatian part of the Pannonian Basin System. Data are taken from hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Lower Pontian (Upper Miocene) age, which belongs to the Kloštar-Ivanić Formation. Original datasets had been jack-knifed with purpose to “artificially” increased data and calculate the more reliable semivariograms. The results showed that such improvements can assist in the interpolation of more reliable maps. The both sets, made by original and jack-knifed data, need to be compared using geological recognition of non-allowed shapes (“bull-eyes”, “butterfly effects”) as well as cross-validation results. That comparison made possible to select the most appropriate porosity interpolation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0710.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: computational design; optimisation; porosity; pore networks; X-ray CT; 3D printing
Online: 30 October 2018 (07:27:29 CET)
This paper investigates the effects of air void topology on hydraulic conductivity in asphalt mixtures with porosity in the range 14%-31%. Virtual asphalt pore networks were generated using the Intersected Stacked Air voids (ISA) method, with its parameters being automatically adjusted by the means of a differential evolution optimisation algorithm, and then 3D printed using transparent resin. Permeability tests were conducted on the resin samples to understand the effects of pore topology on hydraulic conductivity. Moreover, the pore networks generated virtually were compared to real asphalt pore networks captured via X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) scans. The optimised ISA method was able to generate realistic 3D pore networks corresponding to those seen in asphalt mixtures in term of visual, topological, statistical and air void shape properties. It was found that, in the range of porous asphalt materials investigated in this research, the high dispersion in hydraulic conductivity at constant air void content is a function of the average air void diameter. Finally, the relationship between average void diameter and the maximum aggregate size and gradation in porous asphalt materials was investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0448.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: X-ray tomography; cold spray; porosity; stainless steel; three-dimensional imaging
Online: 24 July 2018 (07:50:30 CEST)
Cold gas-dynamic spray (cold spray) is an evolving coating deposition and restoration technology in which particles are deposited above the sonic speed. This paper presents the non-destructive three-dimensional characterization of cold sprayed stainless steel coating. The visualization of coating morphology and volumetric porosity, and the analyses of porosity size and spatial distributions confirmed that dense stainless steel coating with non-connected, micron-sized gradient porosity is successfully produced by cold spray. The suitability of X-ray tomography for characterizing cold sprayed coatings is assessed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0296.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Savonius wind turbine; Porous deflector; Porosity; Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); Self-starting
Online: 17 August 2022 (03:54:51 CEST)
The present study explores the effect of using two porous deflectors on the performance of the Savonius wind turbine compared to only one porous deflector. The numerical simulation is performed to solve the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations using the SST k-
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0280.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Porosity, permeability, skolithos, Ophiomorpha, lithofacies, reservoir, bioturbation, channel and coastal barrier systems.
Online: 25 April 2019 (11:16:30 CEST)
The controls of depositional environments on reservoir quality have been evaluated in terms of porosity and permeability of the Gabo Field, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Data used in this research include Well logs, Core data and photos, and grain size analysis for Wells 51 and 52 in the study area. Standard methods as applicable in petrophysical and sedimentological analysis has been adopted. Thirteen reservoir units have been identified in wells 51 and 52 which had 5 reservoirs cored each. The lithofacies units of the identified reservoirs across the study area, comprise pebbly sands, coarse -, medium -, fine- and very fine-grained sands, sandy mud, silty sands and heteroliths. The heteroliths – very fine-grained silty muds are highly bioturbated. Ophiomorpha and skolithos are the major trace fossils with sedimentary structures (ripple lamination, wavy lenticular and planar beds, cross bedded sands, coarsening and fining upward). The facies associations interpreted for the study area are Channel and Coastal barrier systems and the environment of deposition as distributary channel, upper and lower shoreface. The sedimentary processes that deposited facies ranged from high energy regimes, reworking by waves to low energy with periodic influx of silts and muds. The average porosity and permeability for reservoirs in Well 51 is 16.7% and 1317 Md, reservoirs in Well 52 is 28.2% and 2330Md whereas porosity range for the study area is 2% - 32% and permeability is 1.2 – 10600 Md. The reservoir quality reservoir of the sand units in Well 51 (7, 9 and 13) and Well 52 (5, 7, 9, 11 and 13) is excellent - good, this is because of the dynamics environments of deposition (upper shoreface and distributary channel) as well as the mechanisms that play out during deposition such as bioturbation, sorting, sedimentary structures formed. Whereas the poor quality across the reservoirs especially the lower shoreface and prodelta facies is as result of lack bioturbation, connectivity, multiplicity of burrows that may have been plugged by clay and intercalation of shale and sand (heteroliths). This research has shown that environments of deposition have direct influence the reservoir quality in terms of porosity and permeability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0114.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: biomass; bio-char; activation; activated carbon; thermal treatment; physical activation; porosity; specific surface areas
Online: 25 June 2018 (05:08:15 CEST)
Activated carbons can be produced from biomass in a thermal process either in a direct carbonization-activation process or by first carbonizing the biomass and later on activating the biochars into activated carbons. The properties of the ACs are dependent on the type of process used for production. In this study, the properties of activated carbons produced in a one-stage and a two-stage process are considered. Activated carbons were produced by physical activation of two types of starting materials, bio chars produced from spruce and birch chips in a commercial carbonization plant and from the corresponding raw chips. The activated carbons produced were characterized regarding specific surfaces, pore volumes and pore size distributions. The un-activated bio chars had some degree of surface area 190 and 140 m2g-1 for spruce and birch and pore volumes of 0.067 and 0.092 cm3g-1. According to the results obtained, two slightly different types of activated carbons are produced depending if a one-stage or a two-stage carbonization and activation process is used. The ACs produced in the one-stage process had higher specific surface areas compared to the ones produced in a two-stage process (761-940 m2g-1 vs. 540-650 m2g-1) . In addition, total pore volumes were higher in one-stage process but development of micropores is greater compared to two-stage process. There was no significant difference in total carbon content between one-stage and two-stage process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0534.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: non-destructive testing; process optimization; porosity; pore hotspots; image-based simulations; 3D image analysis
Online: 23 October 2018 (09:58:18 CEST)
This paper presents the latest developments in microCT, both globally and locally, for supporting the additive manufacturing industry. There are a number of recently developed capabilities which are especially relevant to the non-destructive quality inspection of additive manufactured parts; and also for advanced process optimization. These new capabilities are all locally available but not yet utilized to their full potential, most likely due to a lack of knowledge of these capabilities. The aim of this paper is therefore to fill this gap and provide an overview of these latest capabilities, showcasing numerous local examples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0237.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; laser metal deposition; hybrid machines; cutting fluid; coolant; lubricant; porosity; Inconel 718
Online: 25 January 2018 (05:19:37 CET)
Hybrid manufacturing processes that combine additive and machining operations are gaining relevance in modern industry thanks to the capability of building complex parts with minimum material and, many times, with process time reduction. Besides, as the additive and subtractive operations are carried out in the same machine, without moving the part, dead times are reduced and higher accuracies are achieved. However, it is not clear whether the direct material deposition after the machining operation is possible or intermediate cleaning stages are required because of the possible presence of residual cutting fluids. Therefore, different LMD tests are performed on a part impregnated with cutting fluid, both directly and after the removal of the coolant by techniques such as laser vaporizing and air blasting. The present work studies the influence of the cutting fluid in the LMD process and the quality of the resulting part. Resulting porosity is evaluated and it is concluded that if the part surface is not properly clean after the machining operation, deficient clad quality can be obtained in the subsequent laser additive operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0092.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: hyporheic zone; Darcian flux; channel bend; vertical hydraulic conductivity; stream topography; grain size; porosity
Online: 26 February 2017 (10:07:31 CET)
Channel bends are one of the most important characteristic features of natural streams. These bends often create the conditions for a hyporheic zone, which has been recognized as a critical component of stream ecosystems. The streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv), vertical hydraulic gradient (VHG) and Darcian flux (DF) in the hyporheic zone were estimated at 61 locations along a channel bend of the Beiluo River during July 2015 and January 2016. All the streambed attributes showed great spatial variability along the channel bend. Both upward fluxes and downward fluxes occurred during the two test periods, most of studied stream sections were controlled by downwelling, indicating stream water discharge into the subsurface. The average downward flux was higher at the downstream side than at the upstream side of the channel bend, especially in July 2015. The distribution of streambed sediment grain size has a significant influence on the variability of Kv; high percentages of silt and clay sediments generally lead to low Kv values. Higher Kv at the depositional left bank at the upstream site shifted toward the erosional right bank at the downstream site, with Kv values positively correlated with the water depth. This study suggested that the variabilities of Kv and VHG were influenced by the stream geomorphology and that the distribution of Kv was inversely related, to a certain extent, to the distribution of VHG across the channel bend. Kv and VHG were found to have opposite effects on the DF, and the close relationship between Kv and DF indicated that the water fluxes were mainly controlled by Kv.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0003.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: seasonally frozen soil; frost heave; soil moisture content; soil type; freezing depth; soil porosity
Online: 1 August 2016 (09:47:52 CEST)
Frost heave, which is the volumetric expansion of frozen soil, has great ecological significance, since it creates water storage spaces in soils at the beginning of the growing season in cold temperate forests. To understand the characteristics of frost heave in seasonally frozen soil and the factors that impact its extent, we investigated the frost heave rates of forest soil from different depths and with different soil moisture contents, using both lab-based simulation and in situ measurement in a broadleaved Korean pine forest in the Changbai Mountains (northeastern China). We found that frost heave was mainly affected by soil moisture content, soil type, and gravitational pressure. Frost heave rate increased linearly with soil moisture content, and for each 100% increase in soil moisture content, the frost heave rate increased by 41.6% (loam, upper layer), 17.2% (albic soil, middle layer), and 4.6% (loess, lower layer). Under the same soil moisture content, the frost heave rate of loam was highest, whereas that of loess was lowest, and the frost heave of the uppermost 15 cm, which is the biologically enriched layer, accounted for ~55% of the frost heave. As a result, we determined the empirical relationship between frost heave and freezing depth, which is important for interpreting the effects of frost heave on increases in the storage space of forest soils and for calculating changes in soil porosity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0461.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: additive manufacturing; fabrication temperature; porosity effects; carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer composites; mechanical properties; micro CT scan
Online: 26 December 2022 (02:33:37 CET)
The use of additive manufacturing in fabricating composite components has been gaining traction in the past decade. However, some issues with mechanical perfor-mance still need to be resolved. The issue of material porosity remains a pertinent one that needs more understanding to be able to determine viable solutions. Different re-searchers have examined the subject of porosity issues in AM-fabricated CFRP compo-sites. However, more research to quantitatively determine the effects of fabrication temperatures at the micro-scale is still needed. This study employed micro CT scan analysis to quantitatively compare the effects of fabrication temperatures at 230°C, 250°C, 270°C, and 290°C for CF-PA and CF-ABS composites. This followed an SEM evaluation which was used to determine the effects of the temperatures on interlayer and intralayer porosity generation. The porosity volume was related to the mechanical properties results in which it was determined how deposition temperatures affect the porosity volumes. It was also determined that semicrystalline composites are generally more affected by fabrication temperatures than amorphous composites, with the rela-tionship between porosity and mechanical properties also established. The overall po-rosity volume from the interlayer and intralayer voids was also determined, with the interlayer voids found to play a more determinant role in influencing the mechanical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: PET additives; recycled concrete; concrete porosity; polymeric resins; porosimetry of nitrogen (N2) gas adsorption; acoustic resonance spectroscopy
Online: 16 December 2016 (11:01:40 CET)
In the field of construction, materials referred to as sustainable are currently undergoing a process of technological development. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the behavior of the fundamental properties of concretes prepared with recycled coarse aggregates that incorporate in their matrix a polyethylene terephthalate-based additive in an attempt to reduce their high porosity. Techniques to measure the gas adsorption, water porosity and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate the effect of the additive on the physical, mechanical and microstructural properties of these concretes. Porosity reductions of up to 30.60% are achieved with the addition of 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9% of the additive, defining a new state in the behavioral model of the additive (the overdosage point) in the concrete matrix; in addition, the porous network of these concretes and their correlation whit other physical and mechanical properties are also explained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0451.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: nondestructive evaluation; THz time-domain spectroscopy; layer thickness measurement; thermal barrier coatings; surface roughness; porosity; polarization; yttria-stabilized zirconia
Online: 16 April 2021 (17:09:19 CEST)
Time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) in the Terahertz (THz) frequency range is gaining in importance in nondestructive testing of dielectric materials. One application is the layer thickness measurement of a coating layer. To determine the thickness from the measurement data, the refractive index of the coating layer must be known in the surveyed frequency range. For perpendicular incidence of the radiation, methods exist to extract the refractive index from the measurement data itself without prior knowledge. This paper extends these methods for non-perpendicular incidence, where the polarization of the radiation becomes important. Furthermore, modifications considering effects of surface roughness of the coating are introduced. The new methods are verified using measurement data of a sample of Inconel steel coated with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and with COMSOL simulations of the measurement setup. To validate the thickness measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the layer structure are used. The results show good agreement with an average error of 1% for the simulation data and under 4% for the experimental data compared to reference measurements.
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: atmospheric plasma spray (APS) process; particle size; thermal insulation; thermal barrier coating (TBC); thermal diffusivity; coating microstructure; coating porosity
Online: 3 July 2019 (14:49:12 CEST)
In the present work, three different atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) alumina coatings were fabricated using three fused and crushed alumina powders of different particle size fine, medium and coarse. The influence of the particle size on thermal properties and micro-structural features of the produced coating were investigated by thermal insulation test and detailed image analysis technique, respectively. The analyzed micro-structural features include the total porosity, pore size (fine, medium, and large) and cracks. All types of cracks were considered in calculations as voids and were evaluated according to their sizes as pores. All spray parameters except the particle size were fixed throughout the spraying process. The results revealed that the fine starting powder has produced the densest coating with the lowest total porosity and that the total porosity increases with an increasing particle size. This was expected as powders of smaller particle size will reach a higher in-flight temperature and velocity than powders of bigger particle sizes as long as the same spray parameters are applied. However, a detailed image analysis investigation on the three produced coatings showed that the fraction of fine pores and cracks versus the total porosity is substantially higher in coatings produced by using fine starting powders than those produced using medium and coarse powders. In this work, a connection between the thermal insulation and the porosity fraction, which includes fine pores and cracks, was revealed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0119.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Keywords: electrochemical corrosion, metallic coatings, electrolysis, diffusion, intermetallic compounds, phases formation kinetics, copper, aluminium, iron, Kirkendall-Frenkel porosity, Kirkendall sh
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:24:31 CEST)
Our investigations show that electrochemical corrosion of copper is faster than electrochemical corrosion of aluminium at temperatures below 100oC. Literature data analysis shows that the Al atoms diffuse faster than the Cu atoms at temperatures higher than 475oC, Al rich intermetallic compounds (IMCs) are formed faster in the Cu-Al system, and the Kirkendall plane shifts toward Al side. Electrochemical corrosion occurs due to electric current and due to diffusion. An electronic devise working time, for example, depends on initial copper cover thickness on aluminium wire, connected to the electronic devise, temperature, and volume and dislocation pipe diffusion coefficients, so copper, iron, and aluminium electrochemical corrosion rates are investigated experimentally at room temperature and at temperature 100oC. Intrinsic diffusivities ratios of copper and aluminium at different temperatures and diffusion activation energies in the Cu-Al system are calculated by proposed here methods using literature experimental data. Dislocation pipe and volume diffusion activation energies of pure iron are calculated separately by earlier proposed method using literature experimental data. Aluminium dissolved into NaCl solution as the Al3+ ions at room temperature and at temperature 100oC, iron dissolved into NaCl solution as the Fe2+ (not Fe3+) ions at room temperature and at temperature 100oC, copper dissolved into NaCl solution as the Cu+ ions at room temperature and as the Cu+ and the Cu2+ ions at temperature 100oC. It is founded experimentally that copper corrosion is higher than aluminium corrosion, and ratio of electrochemical corrosion rates, kCu/kAl>1, decreases with temperature increasing, although iron electrochemical corrosion rate doesn’t depend on temperature below 100oC. It is obvious, because melting point of iron is more higher then melting point of copper or aluminium. It is calculated that copper electrochemical corrosion rate is approximately equal to aluminium electrochemical corrosion at temperature about 300oC, so copper can dissolve into NaCl solution mostly as the Cu2+ ions at temperature about 300oC. Ratio of intrinsic diffusivities, DCu/DAl <1, increases with temperature increasing, and intrinsic diffusivity of aluminium could be approximately equal to intrinsic diffusivity of copper at temperature about 460oC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0191.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: UHMWPE; relative density; porosity; stress relaxation; operando analysis; Prony series; X-ray to-mography; Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS); Dyben 1.0 miniature 1 kN universal mechanical testing
Online: 10 November 2022 (05:58:50 CET)
The reported study was devoted to the investigation of viscoelastic behavior for solid and porous ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) under compression. The obtained experimental stress curves were interpreted using a two-term Prony series to represent the superposition of two coexisting activation processes corresponding to long molecular (~160 s) and short structural (~20 s) time scales, respectively, leading to good statistical correlation with the observations. In the case of porous polymer, the internal strain redistribution during relaxation was quantified using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) analysis. The strongly inhomogeneous deformation of the porous polymer was found not to affect the relaxation times. In order to generalize the results to three dimensions, X-ray tomography was used to examine the porous structure at the macro- and micro-scale levels. DIC analysis revealed positive correlation between the applied force and relative density. The apparent stiffness variation for UHMWPE foams with mixed open and closed cells was described using a newly proposed three-term expression. Furthermore, the in situ tensile loading and X-ray scattering study was applied for isotropic solid UHMWPE specimens to investigate their parameters of internal structure during orientation and stress relaxation process at another mode.