ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0182.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: dinoflagellate; Karenia mikimotoi; glycolipids; monogalactosyldiacylglycerol; monogalactosylmonoacylglycerol; polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl ester; Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli; Candida albicans; anti-inflammatory activity
Online: 17 January 2020 (09:18:08 CET)
A New monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), a known monogalactosylmonoacylglycerol (MGMG) and a known polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl ester (PUFAME) were isolated from the marine dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi. The planar structure of the glycolipids was elucidated using MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses and comparisons to the known glycolipid to confirm its structure. The isolation of PUFAME strongly supports the polyunsaturated fatty acid fragment of these glycolipids. The relative configuration of the sugar was deduced by comparisons of 3JHH values and proton chemical shifts with those of known glycolipids. All isolated compounds MGDG, MGMG and PUFAME (1-3) were evaluated for their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity. All compounds modulated macrophage responses, with compound 3 exhibiting the greatest anti-inflammatory activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0184.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Acrosome reaction; Polyunsaturated fatty acid; Sperm; Pigs
Online: 15 May 2019 (10:35:25 CEST)
This study investigated the relationship of acrosome reactions and fatty acid composition on fertility in boar sperm. The acrosome reaction of sperm was induced via methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD), and acrosome reaction, plasma membrane integrity, and fertility were analyzed. The fatty acid composition of the excess acrosome reacted sperm was determined via gas chromatography. The results showed that the acrosome reaction in sperm was induced over 85% of the time by 60 mM MBCD treatment, and the plasma membrane integrity was significantly decreased and was dependent on the MBCD level. The acrosome reacted sperm resulted in significantly higher saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and lower unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than the non-acrosome reaction group. Moreover, the acrosome reacted sperm from 60 mM MBCD significantly decreased in vitro fertility and blastocyst formation relative to non-acrosome reacted sperm, and the acrosome reaction was positively correlated with SFAs and negatively correlated with PUFAs. Of these fatty acids, C22:5n-6 (docosapentaenoic acid [DPA]) and C22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) were directly negatively correlated with the acrosome reaction (r = -0.982 and -0.947, respectively). In conclusion, the excessive acrosome reactions may occur by reducing the PUFAs, which may then dramatically decrease sperm fertility in pigs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0595.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanoemulsion; oral delivery; ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid derivative; MDA-MB-231; triple-negative breast cancer
Online: 30 September 2018 (05:14:34 CEST)
Lipid-based drugs are emerging as an interesting class of novel anticancer drugs with the potential to target specific cancer cell metabolic pathway linked to their proliferation and invasiveness. In particular, ω−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) derivatives such as epoxides and their bioisosteres have demonstrated the potential to suppress growth and promote apoptosis in triple-negative human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. In this study 16-(4’-chloro-3’-trifluorophenyl)carbamoylamino]hexadecanoic acid (ClFPh-CHA), an anticancer lipid derived from ω−3,17,18-epoxyeicosanoic acid, was formulated as a stable nanoemulsion with size around 150 nm and narrow droplet size distribution (PDI<0.200) through phase-inversion emulsification process followed by high pressure homogenization in view of an oral administration. The ClFPh-CHA-loaded nanoemulsions were able to significantly decrease the relative tumor volume in mice bearing an intramammary tumor xenograft at all doses tested (2.5, 10 and 40 mg/kg) after 32 days of daily oral administration. Furthermore, absolute tumor weight was decreased to 50% of untreated control at 10 and 40 mg/kg, while intraperitoneal administration could achieve a significant reduction only at the highest dose of 40 mg/kg. Results suggest that oral administration of ClFPh-CHA formulated as a nanoemulsion has a sufficient bioavailability to provide an anticancer effect in mice and that the activity is at least equal if not superior to that obtained by a conventional parenteral administration of equivalent doses of the same drug.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0115.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; colorectal cancer; cancer immune therapy
Online: 10 April 2018 (08:05:27 CEST)
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have been found to be modulators of immune function. Additionally, they may affect the growth of colorectal cancer (CRC). With the advent of novel treatment approaches in oncology targeting immune checkpoint inhibition and aiming to boost the immune response against tumors the exact role of n-3 and n-6 PUFA in inflammation as well as in CRC needs to be re-evaluated in order to understand potential interactions with these new treatment paradigms. Interestingly, for the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor aspirin a possible synergistic effect together with a PD1-Ligand antibody has been shown. However, could n-3 PUFA be disadvantageous in the context of immune tumor therapy due to an immune suppressive effect that has been described for these fatty acids in the past, or could they also enhance the effect of immune checkpoint inhibition? In this paper, we discuss the current data regarding the immune modulatory as well as the anti-CRC effect of n-3 PUFA. Arguing towards an immune-activating effect of n-3 PUFA, we demonstrate the results of a pilot study. Here, we show that incubation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) significantly decreases CRC-cell supernatant-triggered secretion of IL-10 and increases secretion of TNF-a, while the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) arachidonic acid (AA) reduced TNF-a secretion. These changes in cytokine secretion upon incubation with DHA demonstrate a possible enhancing effect of n-3 PUFA on an anti-tumor immune response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: omega-3; polyunsaturated fatty acids; painful diabetic neuropathy; metabolism; metabolomics
Online: 28 December 2021 (10:58:38 CET)
Background: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are increasingly reported to improve chronic neuroinflammatory diseases in peripheral and central nervous systems. Specifically, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) protects nerve cells from noxious stimuli in vitro and in vivo. Recent reports link PUFA supplementation to improving painful diabetic neuropathy (pDN) symptoms. However, the molecular mechanism behind omega-3 PUFAs ameliorating pDN symptoms is lacking. Therefore, we sought to determine the distinct cellular pathways that omega-3 PUFAs dietary supplementation promotes in reducing painful neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) patients. Methods: Forty volunteers diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the "En Balance-PLUS" diabetes education study. The volunteers participated in weekly lifestyle/nutrition education and daily supplementation with 1,000 mg DHA and 200 mg eicosapentaenoic acid. The Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire validated clinical determination of baseline and post-intervention pain complaints. Laboratory and untargeted metabolomics analyses were conducted using blood plasma collected at baseline and after three months of participation in the dietary regimen. The metabolomics data was analyzed using random forest, hierarchical cluster, ingenuity pathway analysis, and metabolic pathway mapping. Results: We found that metabolites involved in oxidative stress and glutathione production shifted significantly to a more anti-inflammatory state post supplementation. Example of these metabolites include cystathionine (+90%), S-methylmethionine (+9%), glycine cysteine-glutathione disulfide (+157%) cysteinylglycine (+19%), glutamate (-11%), glycine (+11%) and arginine (+13.4%). In addition, the levels of phospholipids associated with improved membrane fluidity such as linoleoyl-docosahexaenoyl-glycerol (18:2/22:6) (+253 %) were significantly increased. Ingenuity pathway analysis suggested several key bio functions associated with omega-3 PUFA supplementation such as formation of reactive oxygen species (p = 4.38 × 10-4, z-score = -1.96), peroxidation of lipids (p = 2.24 × 10-5, z-score = -1.944), Ca2+ transport (p = 1.55 × 10-4, z-score = -1.969), excitation of neurons (p = 1.07 ×10-4, z-score = -1.091), and concentration of glutathione (p = 3.06 × 10-4, z-score = 1.974). Conclusion: The reduction of pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways following omega-3 PUFAS supplementation is consistent with using omega-3 PUFAs as a complementary dietary strategy as part of the overall treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0267.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) deficiency; mitochondrial function; polyunsaturated fatty acids; membrane permeabilization; oxidative damage markers; adenine nucleotide translocase
Online: 16 December 2021 (10:57:36 CET)
The fatty acid elongase ELOngation of Very-Long-chain fatty acids protein 2 (ELOVL2) controls the elongation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) producing precursors for omega-3, do-cosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and omega-6, docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn6) in-vivo. Expectedly, Elovl2-ablation drastically reduced the DHA and DPAn6 in liver mitochondrial membranes. Unexpectedly, however, total PUFAs levels decreased further than could be explained by Elovl2 ablation. The lipid peroxidation process was not involved in PUFAs reduction since malondial-dehyde-lysine (MDAL) and other oxidative stress biomarkers were not enhanced. The content of mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins remained unchanged. Still, membrane remodeling was associated with high voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and adenine nucleotide trans-locase 2 (ANT2), a possible reflection of the increased demand on phospholipid transport to the mitochondria. Mitochondrial function was impaired despite preserved content of the respiratory chain proteins and the absence of oxidative damage. Oligomycin-insensitive oxygen consumption increased, and coefficients of respiratory control were reduced by 50%. The mitochondria became very sensitive to fatty acid-induced uncoupling and permeabilization, where ANT2 is involved. Mitochondrial volume and number of peroxisomes increased as revealed by transmission elec-tron microscopy. In conclusion, the results imply that endogenous DHA production is vital for the normal function of mouse liver mitochondria and could be relevant not only for mice but also for human metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0265.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: adult neurogenesis; dentate gyrus; diet; microglia; bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide; LPS; Omega 3; polyunsaturated fatty acids; sexual dimorphism; systemic inflammation
Online: 22 February 2022 (09:44:55 CET)
Maternal intake of the polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 (n-3 PUFA) and omega-6 (n-6 PUFA) impacts hippocampal neurogenesis during development, an effect that may extend to adulthood by altering adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA are precursors of inflammatory regulators that potentially affect AHN and glia. Additionally, n-3 PUFA dietary supplementation may present a sexually dimorphic action in the brain. Therefore, we postulated that dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA balance shapes the adult DG in a sex-dependent manner influencing AHN and glia. We test our hypothesis by feeding adult female and male mice with n-3 PUFA balanced or deficient diets. To analyze the immunomodulatory potential of the diets, we injected mice with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS reduced neuroblast number, and its effect was exacerbated by the n-3 PUFA deficient diet. The n-3 PUFA deficient diet reduced the DG volume, AHN, microglia number and surveilled volume. Diet effect on most mature neuroblasts was exclusively significant in female mice. Colocalization and multivariate analysis revealed an association between microglia and AHN, and the sexual dimorphic effect of diet. Our study reveals that female mice are more susceptible than males to the effect of dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio on AHN and microglia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; Parkinson’s disease; Alzheimer’s disease; clinical trials
Online: 25 July 2019 (11:38:57 CEST)
A nutritional approach could be a promising strategy to prevent or slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease, since there is no effective therapy for these diseases so far. The beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids are now well established by a plethora of studies through their involvement in multiple biochemical functions, including synthesis of antinflammatory mediators, cell membrane fluidity, intracellular signalling and gene expression. This systematic review will consider epidemiological studies and clinical trials that assessed the impact of supplementation or dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Indeed, treatment with omega-3 fatty acids, being safe and well tolerated, represent a valuable and biologically plausible tool in the management of neurodegenerative diseases in their early stages.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0330.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: fatty acyl desaturase; Δ6 - desaturase; long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid; LC-PUFA; ω3; ω6; EPA; DHA; AA; essential fatty acid; health; fish; transgene
Online: 28 January 2020 (04:39:09 CET)
Fatty acid desaturase 2 (Fads2) is the key enzyme of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. Endogenous production of these biomolecules in vertebrates, if present, is insufficient to meet demand. Hence, LC-PUFA are considered as conditionally-essential. At present however, LC-PUFA are globally-limited nutrients due to anthropogenic factors. Attention of research is given therefore to find ways to maximize endogenous LC-PUFA production especially in production species, whereby deeper knowledge on molecular mechanisms of enzymatic steps involved is being generated. This review first briefly informs about the milestones in the history of LC-PUFA essentiality exploration before it focuses on the main aim – to highlight the fascinating Fads2 potential to play roles fundamental to adaptation to novel environmental conditions. Investigations are summarized, which elucidate the evolutionary history of fish Fads2 providing an explanation for the remarkable plasticity of this enzyme in fish. Further, structural implications of Fads2 substrate specificity are discussed and some relevant studies performed on organisms other than fish are mentioned in cases when such studies have so far not been conducted on fish models. The importance of Fads2 in the context of growing aquaculture demand and dwindling LC-PUFA supply is depicted and a few remedies in the form of genetic engineering to improve endogenous production of these biomolecules are outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0247.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: opioid; microbiome-brain axis; DHA; anxiety; polyunsaturated fatty acids; intravenous self-administration; mice
Online: 23 July 2019 (04:09:40 CEST)
Opioids are highly addictive substances with a relapse rate of over 90%. While preclinical models of chronic opioid exposure exist for studying opioid dependence, none recapitulate the relapses observed in human opioid addiction. The mechanisms associated with opioid dependence, the accompanying withdrawal symptoms and the relapses that are often observed months or years after opioid dependence are poorly understood. Therefore, we developed a novel model of chronic opioid exposure whereby the level of administration is self-directed with periods of behavior acquisition, maintenance and then extinction alternating with reinstatement. This profile arguably mirrors that seen in humans, with initial opioid use followed by alternating periods of abstinence and relapse. Recent evidence suggests that dietary interventions that reduce inflammation, including omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may reduce substance misuse liability. Using the self-directed intake model, we characterize the observed profile of opioid use and demonstrate that a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fat acids (PUFAs) ameliorates oxycodone-seeking behaviors in the absence of drug availability and reduces anxiety. Guided by the major role gut microbiota have on brain function, neuropathology, and anxiety, we profile the microbiome composition and the effects of chronic opioid exposure and DHA supplementation. We demonstrate that withdrawal of opioids led to a significant depletion in specific microbiota genera whereas DHA supplementation increased microbial richness, phylogenetic diversity, and evenness. Lastly, we examined the activation state of microglia in the striatum and found that DHA supplementation reduced the basal activation state of microglia. These preclinical data suggest that a diet enriched in PUFAs could be used as a treatment to alleviate anxiety induced opioid-seeking behavior and relapse in human opioid addiction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0563.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: diabetes; omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid; lipoprotein subfraction; dyslipidemia; randomized controlled trial
Online: 27 October 2020 (20:37:15 CET)
Objectives To determine the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) from animal and plant sources on glucolipid metabolism and lipoprotein subfractions in type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia. Methods Participants were recruited from the diabetes clinic at the Guanlin Hospital, Yixing City in Jiangsu province, China, from March 2017 through June 2017. Ninety participants were randomly assigned to take 3g/day fish oil (FO, containing EPA and DHA), 3g/day perilla oil (PO, containing ALA), or 3g/day blend oil containing fish oil and linseed oil (BO, containing EPA, DHA and ALA) for 3 months. The levels of serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), C-peptide, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), non-HDL, apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), lipoprotein a (Lp(a)), and free fatty acids were determined at baseline and after the 3 months. In addition, four fatty acids in serum and red blood cells membranes (RBCm) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Lipoprint System was used to determine the lipoprotein subfractions. Results All 90 participants completed the final 3-month follow-up at the end of the study. After three months of intervention, blood glucose and HbA1c levels in the PO group were significantly lower than those at the baseline (p < 0.05). On the other hand, in the BO group, the HbA1c, non-HDL, Apo A1 and Lp(a) levels were significantly lower, while the C-peptide levels were significantly higher after intervention compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). In the FO group, the HbA1c and TG levels were significantly lower after the intervention compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). In addition, at the end of the study, there was significant increase in the levels of DPA and DHA in serum and RBCm of the FO group (p < 0.05), while in the BO group, there was significant increase in the levels of EPA, DPA and DHA in RBCm (p < 0.05). Finally, the FO group had the highest levels of large HDL subfractions compared to the BO and PO groups, but had the lowest levels of small HDL subfractions among the three groups. Conclusion For patients with diabetes, plant-derived ω-3 PUFAs are more effective at controlling blood glucose than animal-derived ω-3 PUFAs. However, animal-derived ω-3 PUFAs play a critical role in controlling blood lipids. Particularly, fish oil can effectively increase the beneficial large HDL subfractions and reduce the nonbeneficial small HDL subfractions. Both the animal- and plant-derived ω - 3 PUFAs have practical value in improving glucose and lipids metabolism in T2DM patients with dyslipidemia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary substitution; CVD; saturated fatty acids; protein; monounsaturated fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; dairy fat; refined carbohydrates; whole grains
Online: 18 May 2017 (04:01:53 CEST)
Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein may also reduce CVD risk. While dairy fat (milk, cheese) is associated with a slightly lower CVD risk compared to meat, dairy fat results in a significantly greater CVD risk relative to unsaturated fatty acids. As research continues, we will refine our understanding of dietary patterns associated with lower CVD risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0563.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: mitochondrial metabolism; aging; monoacylglyceride; polyunsaturated fatty acids; oxidative stress
Online: 24 October 2018 (09:40:31 CEST)
During the last decade, essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) derived from marine sources have been investigated as nonpharmacological dietary supplements to improve different pathological conditions, as well as aging. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary n-3 PUFA monoacylglycerides (MAG, both EPA and DHA) on the mitochondrial metabolism and oxidative stress of a short-lifespan model, Drosophila melanogaster, sampled at five different ages. Our results showed that diets supplemented with MAG-EPA and MAG-DHA increased median lifespan by 14.6% and decreased mitochondrial proton leak resulting in an increase of mitochondrial coupling. The flies fed on MAG-EPA also had higher electron transport system capacity and mitochondrial oxidative capacities. Moreover, both n-3 PUFAs delayed the occurrence of lipid peroxidation, but only flies fed the MAG-EPA diet showed maintenance of superoxide dismutase activity during aging. Our study therefore highlights the potential of n-3 PUFA monoacylglycerides as nutraceutical compounds to delay the onset of senescence by acting directly or indirectly on the mitochondrial metabolism, and suggests that Drosophila could be a relevant model for the study of the fundamental mechanisms linking the effects of n-3 PUFAs to aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0169.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: European sardine; draft genome; teleosts; comparative genomics; long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
Online: 10 September 2018 (12:37:23 CEST)
Clupeiformes, such as sardines and herrings, represent an important share of worldwide fisheries. Among those, the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus, Walbaum 1792) exhibits significant commercial relevance. While the last decade showed a steady and sharp decline in capture levels, recent advances in culture husbandry represent promising research avenues. Yet, the complete absence of genomic resources from sardine imposes a severe bottleneck to understand its physiological and ecological requirements. We generated 69 Gbp of paired-end reads using Illumina HiSeq X Ten and assembled a draft genome assembly with an N50 scaffold length of 25579 bp and BUSCO completeness of 82.1% (Actinopterygii). The estimated size of the genome ranges between 655 and 850 Mb. Additionally, we generated a relatively high-level liver transcriptome. To deliver a proof of principle of the value of this dataset, we established the presence and function of enzymes (elovl2, elovl5 and fads2) that have pivotal roles in the biosynthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, essential nutrients particularly abundant in oily fish such as sardines. Our study provides the first omics dataset from a valuable economic marine teleost species, the European sardine, an essential resource for their effective conservation, management and sustainable exploitation.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0090.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Orphan crops; polyunsaturated fatty acids; α-linolenic acid; food security; traditional crops; oilseeds
Online: 6 May 2021 (14:53:18 CEST)
Plukenetia volubilis is an underutilized oilseed crop native to the Amazon basin, where it has been utilised by humans since Incan times. The large seeds contain approx. 45–50 % lipid, of which approx. 35.2–50.8 % is α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ω-3) and approx. 33.4–41.0 % is linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6, ω-6), the two essential fatty acids required by humans. The seeds also contain 22–30 % protein and have antioxidant properties. Due to its excellent nutritional composition and good agronomic properties, it has attracted increasing attention in recent years, and cultivation is expanding. When considering current global challenges, a reformation of our food systems is imperative in order to ensure food security, mitigation of climate change, and alleviation of malnutrition. For this purpose, underutilized crops may be essential tools, which can provide agricultural hardiness and reduced need for external inputs, climate resilience, diet diversification, and improved income opportunities for smallholders. Plukenetia volubilis is a promising up and coming crop in this regard and has considerable potential for further domestication; it has an exceptional oil composition, good sensory acceptability, is well suited for cultivation, and has numerous potential applications in, e.g. gastronomy, medicine, and cosmetics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0369.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Gut-retina axis, Gut microbiota, Dietary habits, Micronutrients, Fish oil, omega-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, Personalised medicine
Online: 16 October 2018 (17:39:27 CEST)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex multifactorial disease and the primary cause of legal and irreversible blindness among individuals aged >=65 years in developed countries. Globally, it affects 30-50 million individuals, with an estimated increase of approximately 200 million by 2020 and approximately 300 million by 2040. Currently, the neovascular form may be able to be treated with the use of anti-VEGF drugs, while no effective treatments are available for the dry form. Many observational studies, such as AREDS-1 and AREDS 2, have shown a potential role of micronutrient supplementation in lowering the risk of progression of the early stages of AMD. Recently, low-grade inflammation, sustained by dysbiosis and a leaky gut, has been shown to contribute to the development of AMD. Given the ascertained influence of the gut microbiota in systemic low-grade inflammation and its potential modulation by macro- and micro-nutrients, a potential role of diet in AMD has been proposed. This review discusses the role of the gut microbiota in the development of AMD. Using PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, we searched for recent scientific evidence discussing the impact of dietary habits (high fat and high glucose or fructose diets), micronutrients (vitamins C, E, and D, zinc, beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin) and omega-3 fatty acids on the modulation of the gut microbiota and their relationship with AMD risk and progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: preterm infant; enteral nutrition; lipids; omega-3 fatty acids; omega-6 fatty acids; Docosahexaenoic acid; Arachidonic acid; long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Online: 7 June 2018 (11:34:53 CEST)
Human milk fat is a concentrated source of energy and provides essential and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. According to previous experiments, human milk fat is partially lost during continuous enteral nutrition. However, these experiments were done over relatively short infusion times, and a complete profile of the lost fatty acids was never measured. Whether this lost happens considering longer infusion times or if some fatty acids are lost more than others remain unknown. Pooled breast milk was infused through a feeding tube by a peristaltic pump over a period of 30 minutes and 4, 12 and 24 hours at 2 ml/hour. Adsorbed fat was extracted from the tubes, and the fatty acid composition was analyzed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total fat loss (average fatty acid loss) after 24 hours was 0.6 ± 0.1%. Short-medium chain (0.7%, p=0.15), long chain (0.6%, p=0.56) saturated (0.7%, p=0.4), monounsaturated (0.5%, p=0.15), polyunsaturated fatty (0.7%, p=0.15), linoleic (0.7%, p=0.25), and docosahexaenoic acids (0.6%, p=0.56) were not selectively adsorbed to the tube. However, very long chain fatty (0.9%, p=0.04), alpha-linolenic (1.6%, p=0.02) and arachidonic acids (1%, p=0.02) were selectively adsorbed and therefore lost in a greater proportion than other fatty acids. In all cases, the magnitude of the loss was clinically low.