ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0115.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: triterpenoids; Acacia stem bark; polypharmacology; protein kinase inhibitors
Online: 3 June 2021 (13:04:47 CEST)
The purpose of this work is to investigate the protein kinase inhibitory activity of constituents from ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Acacia auriculiformis stem bark. Column chromatography, gel filtration and NMR spectroscopy were used to purified and characterized betulin from the extract. Betulin which is a known inducer of apoptosis was screened against a panel of 16 disease-related protein kinases. Betulin was shown to inhibit Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (ABL1) kinase, casein kinase 1epsilon (CK1epsilon), glycogen synthase kinase 3alpha/β (GSK-3alpha/β), Janus kinase 3 (JAK3), NIMA Related Kinase 6 (NEK6) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 kinase (VEGFR2) and with activity in µM range. The effect of betulin on the cell viability of doxorubicin-resistant K562R chronic myelogenous leukemia cells was then verified to underline its putative use as anti-cancer compound. Betulin was shown to modulate the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway similarly to imatinib mesylate, a well-known inhibitor of ABL1 kinase. The interaction of betulin and ABL1 was studied by molecular docking showing an interaction of the inhibitor with the ATP binding pocket. Altogether, these data demonstrate that betulin is a multi-target inhibitor of protein kinases, an activity that can contribute to the anticancer properties of the natural compound and notably for treatment of leukemia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0945.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Systems Pharmacology; Polypharmacology; Adverse Events; Drug Discovery; Functional genomics; Disease Modeling; Network analysis; Innovation
Online: 12 May 2023 (12:18:59 CEST)
In an era of unparalleled technical advancement, the pharmaceutical industry is struggling to transform data into increased research and development efficiency, and as a corollary, new drugs for patients. Here, we briefly review some of the commonly discussed issues around this counterintuitive innovation crisis. Looking at both industry and science related factors, we posit that traditional preclinical research is front-loading the development pipeline with data and drug candidates that are unlikely to succeed in patients. Applying a first principles analysis, we highlight the critical culprits and provide suggestions as to how these issues can be rectified through pursuit of a Human Data-driven Discovery (HD3) paradigm. Consistent with other examples of disruptive innovation, we propose that new levels of success are not dependent on new inventions, but rather the strategic integration of existing data and technology assets. In support of these suggestions, we highlight the power of HD3, through recently published proof-of-concept applications in the areas of drug safety analysis and prediction, drug repositioning, rational design of combination therapies and the global response to the Covid19 pandemic. We conclude that innovators must play a key role in expediting the path to a largely human focused, systems-based approach to drug discovery and research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0392.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: atrial-fibrillation; multi-target; drug promiscuity; druggable binding site; flecainide; Nav1.5; Kv1.5; binding site comparison; polypharmacology
Online: 30 May 2022 (10:10:41 CEST)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Its treatment includes antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) to modulate the function of cardiac ion channels. However, AADs have been limited by proarrhythmic effects, non-cardiovascular toxicities as well as often modest antiarrhythmic efficacy. Theoretical models showed that combined blockade of Nav1.5 (and its current INa) and Kv1.5 (and its current, IKur) ion channels yield a synergistic anti-arrhythmic effect without effect on ventricles. We focused on Kv1.5 and Nav1.5 to search for structural similarities in their binding site (BS) for flecainide (a common blocker and widely prescribed AAD), as a first step for prospective rational multi-target directed ligand (MTDL) design strategies. We presented a computational workflow for flecainide BS comparison in a flecainide-Kv1.5 docking model and a solved structure of flecainide-Nav1.5 complex. The workflow includes docking, molecular dynamics, BS characterization and pattern matching. We identified a common structural pattern in flecainide BS for these channels. The latter belongs to the inner cavity and consist of a hydrophobic patch and a polar region, involving residues from S6 helix and P-loop. Since the rational MTDL design for AF is still incipient, our findings could advance multi-target atrial-selective strategies for AF treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: drug repurposing; virtual screening; multiscale; multitargeting; polypharmacology; computational biology; drug repositioning; structural bioinformatics; molecular docking; proteomic signature
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:22:05 CEST)
Drug repurposing, the practice of utilizing existing drugs for novel clinical indications, has tremendous potential for improving human health outcomes and increasing therapeutic development efficiency. The goal of multidisease multitarget drug repurposing, also known as shotgun drug repurposing, is to develop platforms that assess the therapeutic potential of each existing drug for every clinical indication. Our Computational Analysis of Novel Drug Opportunities (CANDO) platform for shotgun multitarget repurposing implements several pipelines via large scale modelling and simulation of interactions between comprehensive libraries of drugs/compounds and protein structures. In these pipelines, each drug is described by an interaction signature that is then compared to all other signatures that are then sorted and ranked based on similarity. Pipelines within the platform are benchmarked based on their ability to recover known drugs for all indications in our library, and predictions are generated based on the hypothesis that (novel) drugs with similar signatures may be repurposed for the same indication(s). The drug-protein interactions in the platform used to create the drug-proteome signatures may be determined by any screening or docking method but the primary approach used thus far has been an in house similarity docking protocol. In this study, we calculated drug-proteome interaction signatures using the publicly available molecular docking method Autodock Vina and created hybrid decision tree pipelines that combined our original bio- and cheminformatic approach with the goal of assessing and benchmarking their drug repurposing capabilities and performance. The hybrid decision tree pipeline outperformed the corresponding two docking-based pipelines it was synthesized from, yielding an average indication accuracy of 13.3% at the top10 cutoff (the most stringent), relative to 10.9% and 7.1% for its constituent pipelines, and a random control accuracy of 2.2%. We demonstrate that docking based virtual screening pipelines have unique performance characteristics and that the CANDO shotgun repurposing paradigm is not dependent on a specific docking method. Our results also provide further evidence that multiple CANDO pipelines can be synthesized to enhance drug repurposing predictive capability relative to their constituent pipelines. Overall, this study indicates that pipelines consisting of varied docking based signature generation methods can capture unique and useful signal for accurate comparison of drug-proteome interaction signatures, leading to improvements in the benchmarking and predictive performance of the CANDO shotgun drug repurposing platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0574.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: activity cliff; activity landscape plotter; epigenetics; docking; drug discovery; D-tools; molecular dynamics; Epi-polypharmacology; SmART; structure-activity relationships
Online: 26 November 2018 (07:14:05 CET)
In this work we discuss the insights from activity landscape, docking and molecular dynamics towards the understanding of the structure-activity relationships of dual inhibitors of major epigenetic targets: lysine metiltransferase (G9a) and DNA metiltranferase 1 (DNMT1). The study was based on a novel data set of 50 published compounds with reported experimental activity for both targets. The activity landscape analysis revealed the presence of activity cliffs, e.g., pairs of compounds with high structure similarity but large activity difference. Activity cliffs were further rationalized at the molecular level by means of molecular docking and dynamics simulations that led to the identification of interactions with key residues involved in the dual activity or selectivity with the epigenetic targets.