ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0559.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Police Treatment of Suspects, Community Partnership, Rule of Law; Police Station.
Online: 27 January 2021 (12:33:08 CET)
The police occupy a very important position in the entire criminal justice system in Nigeria. The nature of police relationship with the people and the manner in which the public were handled at the station and on the street daily within the community affects the way the people perceive them and the level of cooperation they get from the people in curbing crime in the society. The study took place in Zaria, Kaduna state, Northern Nigeria .The study population was the police in Zaria. Three police stations (Zaria City, Sabon Gari and Samaru police stations) were purposively selected reflecting the socio-cultural and demographic backgrounds of Zaria residence and population. The Divisional Police officers and police officers in-charge of crime were interviewed. The police crime and incidence records were examined while the general conduct and social atmosphere of the police and police stations were observed. Using in- depth interview, observational method and police records, it was discovered that the socio economic status of suspects affected how they were treated by the police in the police stations studied. Also the environment a suspect lives affected how they were treated too by the police. It was recommended that the police make the rule of law their guide in the handling of suspects in the police stations irrespective of socio-demographic variable or area of habitation of the suspects. Police brutality and violations of citizen’s rights should be checked by senior police officers while community-policing style should be implemented across communities in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0016.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Conditioning; Police; Anaerobic Fitness
Online: 1 September 2020 (12:07:42 CEST)
Law enforcement is an intermittently physically demanding job, interspersed with long periods of sedentary activity. To prepare for the physical demands of the job, law enforcement agencies enlist recruits into academies with a focus on physical training. Often academies focus on aerobic based exercise despite anaerobic fitness being strongly correlated to occupational tasks. The objective of this article is to analyse the changes in fitness of police recruits during academy training. Initial and final fitness test results, encompassing muscular power, strength, endurance as well as aerobic and anaerobic fitness, were measured to analyse changes in fitness. Dependent t-tests showed significant increases (p < 0.05) across all fitness tests, with a trend towards larger increases in aerobic and muscle endurance-based tests. Recruits from this academy tended to have higher fitness results compared to other academies and were either average or below average compared to age matched standards in the general populations. Physical training should persist for recruits beyond the academy to continue develop fitness throughout their career. Academies should add a focus on muscular strength and power training as these measures relate to occupational tasks, which may better prepare recruits for demands they will be expected to face in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0366.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Military Police; Efficiency; Police performance; Productivity; Decision making; Multicriteria; PROMETHEE II; MCDA
Online: 28 March 2022 (14:09:57 CEST)
Purpose: This research aims to model a police agency ordering problem based on criteria that measure the performance of operational and logistical variables, using a multicriteria method. Design/methodology/approach: The multicriteria method PROMETHEE II was used, which with the aid of the Visual PROMETHEE software, emulated the systematized data in the impact matrix and produced the final ordering of the most efficient police agencies in equalizing the operational, logistical, financial, and human resources applied in the combating crime and reducing criminal indices. Findings: The results confirmed that the resources made available to police agencies located in different municipalities in the metropolitan region of the state of Rio de Janeiro are better applied by managers compared to police units in the capital of Rio de Janeiro. Research limitations/implications: As implications of the research, it can be inferred that the use of multicriteria methods in modelling problems in public security can contribute to the rationalization of the use of available resources to fight crime in large cities. Research has shown that it is possible to use the multicriteria methodology in ordering police agencies that best equalize the available resources. Practical implications: The practical impact of this research lies in optimizing the resources available to law enforcement agencies in the fight against crime in general. Social implications: The results can influence the decision making of the local government in the allocation of resources, as well as offering sectors of the economy information relevant to local development. Originality/value: The results of the MCDA analysis can be used to help police agencies in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to be more efficient. In addition, the application of MCDA can be a new approach to measuring the efficiency of police services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0014.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis; Conditional Frontier Analysis; Multicriteria Decision Analysis; PROMETHEE II; Police Efficiency; Police Effectiveness; Crime; Pernambuco; Brazil.
Online: 1 December 2020 (11:22:46 CET)
Nonparametric assessments of police technical and scale efficiency is challenging because of the stochastic nature of criminal behavior and because of the subjective dependence on multiple decision criteria, which can lead to a more or less efficiency prospect depending on the regulation, necessity, or organizational objective. There is a trade-off between efficiency and effectiveness in many police performance assessments, i.e., efficient departments (producing more clear-ups with a given resource) are crime-specialized or cannot reproduce those good results effectively on more severe or complex occurrences. This study proposes a combined methodology for carrying out efficiency and effectiveness analysis of Police departments. A conditional non-parametric approach, which allows to include crime as an external factor in the analysis, is combined with a non-compensatory ranking based on the PROMETHEE II methodology for the approach illustrated on the multidimensional efficiency and effectiveness comparison of 145 Pernambuco (Brazil)'s police departments. The application results offer compelling perspectives for public administrations concerning the strategic prioritization of units for rewards or interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0061.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: body-worn cameras; police; activation; attitudes; principled agents
Online: 8 January 2019 (11:03:46 CET)
What drives an individual police officer to activate his body-worn camera (BWC)? Some evidence suggests officer attitudes and resistance to the technology contributes to the equivocal results in studies testing for BWCs effect on use-of-force, complaints, and other outcomes of interest. Leveraging a novel survey and administrative dataset, we investigate the predictors of BWC activation among 147 police officers in a single agency. With a test of three nested models, we find job function covariates offer robust predictive power of how often an officer activates her or his BWC. Neither demographic nor attitudinal measures significantly predict BWC activations, except for a negative relationship with how officers perceive BWC impacts on professional discretion. The study furnishes empirical support for understanding officers as Principled Agents: job function, guided by administrative policy is the most explanatory and parsimonious, while models of attitudes and demographics fail to improve upon the job function model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0683.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: school; security; police officer; trust; perception; sustainable; development; serbia
Online: 12 September 2023 (02:35:52 CEST)
The study aims to determine the trust and presence of police officers in schools in Serbia, as well as the perception of the principals and secretaries, teachers and staff, parents and students on how successful the certain police units dedicated to schools were in fulfilling their tasks. The ex–post analysis was conducted through PEST/SWAT analysis, mapping of the key actors and using batteries of online questionnaires. Besides interviews with the MOI representatives, there were conducted: Survey with personal interviewing, Computer–aided surveying and Desk analysis and content analysis. The survey was conducted in the period from September 2021 to June 2022. The research methods were implemented in 1140 schools in Serbia and 8,617 people were included in surveys: police officers (308); principals and secretaries (1085); the team for protection against discrimination (982); teachers and staff (2988); parents (938) and students (2316). The relationships between the covariates and perception were investigated using the t–test, one–way ANOVA, multivariate linear regression, and binary regression. The results showed that a project of school police officers was not fully recognized as one of the strategically important instruments for safe schools, trust is low but presence is high. Besides that, the results suggest that the entire public believe that a police is needed in schools and that it has a very positive effect on school safety. Regarding school safety policy, it is necessary to undertake three types of measures for sustainable development of trust and presence of police in school: regulatory, informa-tive-educational and institutional-organizational.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0382.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: living conditions; crime prevention; crime-exposed areas; strategic mapping; GIS; Police
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:04:19 CEST)
This paper presents a theoretically and methodologically grounded GIS-based model for the measurement and mapping of an index of living conditions in urban residential areas across Sweden. Further, the model is compared and evaluated using the Swedish Police’s assessment of crime-exposed areas. The results indicate that geographically measured vulnerable living conditions overlap to a large extent with the areas assessed to be crime-exposed by the Swedish Police. Over 61% of the police-defined crime-exposed areas are characterized by vulnerable living conditions. The results also show that the overlap is not perfect and that there are vulnerable areas that are not included in the police’s assessment of crime-exposed areas, but which are nonetheless characterized by vulnerable living conditions that could negatively affect the development of crime. It is also proposed that the model and the mapped index of living conditions provide a more well-grounded scientific basis for the police's assessment work. As a first step, the Swedish police have implemented the model and the mapped index in the work process employed in their annual identification of crime-exposed or at-risk areas. In addition to assisting the police, the model and the mapped index could also be used to support other societal actors working with vulnerable areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0408.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: covid-19 antibody; coronavirus; immunoglobulin; police officer; quality of life; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 19 August 2020 (09:55:16 CEST)
The coronavirus of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2), known as COVID-19, has spread rapidly around the world, leading to social detachment and the home office replacing face-to-face work. The performance of police officers faces limitations to the new requirements, while recognizing the need to ensure health and quality of life. Thus, the present study aimed to verify the panorama of the spread of COVID-19 among federal police officers by analyzing the presence of symptoms, individual protection measures (IPM), suspect screening measures (SSM) and examination for total antibodies (IgA, IgG and IgM). For this, data were collected through a questionnaire customized for this situation, blood for serological testing and measurements of clinical data from 56 federal police officers in the municipality of Marília (São Paulo, Brazil). There was no positive result in the Anti-SARS-CoV-2 serological test in any sample participant. The mean value of the Body Mass Index (27.2 ± 5.4 kg / m2) suggests overweight and obesity, in addition to the presence of hypertension in 16.1%, diabetes in 3.6%, asthma in 3.6 % and obesity by 25%, which represents an important risk of complications for COVID-19. The use of a mask is the most frequent IPM (96.4%) and most of the sample has used a cloth or home mask (90.9%). However, 47.3% have not performed the correct cleaning of the masks and 5.5% have not taken any care with mask hygiene. It can be concluded that care in relation to the professional activities of federal police to date has prevented the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and that they must be maintained or increased because risk factors, which involve quality of life and worsening of the contamination condition, were detected in the participants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0742.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Police; Jamaica; Stress; Work Support; Job Demands; Job Satisfaction; Well-being; Physical Health; Mediation
Online: 13 November 2023 (14:18:07 CET)
Policing is considered a high-stress occupation due to the demanding nature of the job. Addressing police stress requires a detailed understanding of how psychosocial risk factors influence various aspects of their well-being. Moreover, an analysis of the direct effects of work conditions and the mediating effects of cognitive appraisals is also warranted. Using the Demands-Resources-Individual Effects (DRIVE) model of work-related stress , this study investigated the direct effects of work conditions on well-being and also examined the intermediate role of perceived job stress and job satisfaction in the relationship between work conditions and well-being. Five hundred and seventy-eight police officers from the Jamaica Constabulary Force (J.C.F.) completed the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using hierarchical regressions and the Hayes Process tool for mediation analysis. Both perceived job stress and satisfaction mediated the relationship between work conditions and general physical health. Perceived job stress was an indirect pathway through which work conditions influenced psychological distress, whereas job satisfaction was not a significant mediator. In contrast, job satisfaction mediated the relationship between work conditions and positive well-being, but perceived job stress did not. These findings provide significant evidence for periodically monitoring and auditing perceptions of stress and job satisfaction as they are likely precursors to subsequent health problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1878.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: use of force; IMUS; body injuries; forensic medicine; police arrest techniques; criminology; operational tactical procedures
Online: 30 October 2023 (09:10:19 CET)
ABSTRACT(1) Background:. Because of the numerous debates about the training on the use of force provided to police officers, this study intends to evaluate several parameters (Police Ergonomic Parameters, PEP) in connection with such training. (2) Research method: : A smartsuit equipped with a set of 19 wireless sensors including triaxial accelerometers, Inertial Measurement Units (IMU), gyroscopes and geomagnetic sensors has been used. Biomechanics of Body (BoB) software application allowed to evaluate the risks associated to the basic technique number 1 of the Operational Tactical Procedures (OTP) with regard to the established parameters (PEP). The OTP basic technique number 1 was performed by 4 novice police officers. (3) Results: According to the evaluation of a number of specific parameters such as Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), asymmetry over the sagittal plane, compression force at the L5-pelvic junction, shear force at the L5-pelvic junction and total muscle power, it was observed that the measured values clearly varied depending on each individual's performance, although they remained consistent with the values established by Police Ergonomic Parameters, and were significantly different from the values measured when a police officer used a traditional physical intervention procedure, in which case, the values measured were indicative of higher risks. (4) Conclusions: In order to achieve lower and more uniform values in terms of risk, we believe that it is necessary to employ a greater number of hours to the training of police officers on the use of force and also the convenience of conducting further studies on a larger and more representative sample of officers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0777.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Ergonomic; Occupational Risk Prevention; Police Physical Intervention; Use of Force; Operational Tactical Procedure; Motion Capture Technology
Online: 23 April 2023 (05:07:05 CEST)
(1) Background: A set of relevant Police Ergonomics Parameters (PEP) has been used for the assessment and prevention of occupational risks involved in Police Physical Interventions (PITs). Through this set of PEPs, a comparison has been made between 2 traditional PITs against 2 novel OTPs (Operational Tactical Procedures). (2) Method: The data have been collected by means of a motion capture suit fitted with 19 Inertial Measurement Units, IMUs. A specific and powerful software package specific for ergonomic analysis has been used to manage the large amount of data registered and to generate a series of 3-dimensional plots. Traditional PITs and newer OTPs have been performed for their analysis. Specifically, the PEPs corresponding to the implementation of 4 PITs have been analyzed by collecting the measurements provided by a set of IMUs installed on a motion capture suit and their occupational risk assessments have been compared against those corresponding to newer OTPs. (3) Results: For the 4 PITs, the PEPs have been analyzed with the measured values from the IMUs, throughout the duration of each technique. The two traditional intervention techniques have scored higher than the new OTPs in the REBA system, the Assymetry angle, L5-Pelvis Shear and Joint Contac Forces, and the Total Muscle Power measurements. (4) Conclusions: It has been confirmed that the new OPTs minimize the risk of injuries, since their PEPs reached lower values than those corresponding to the traditional PITs, which are still being taught at Police academies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0771.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Use of force; IMUS; body injuries; forensic medicine; police arrest techniques; criminology; Op-erational Tactical Procedures
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:45:23 CEST)
(1) Background: the use of force by Public and Private Security Forces is currently an issue of great relevance because of the potential injuries that any excessive use of force by either the active or passive subjects or a deficit in the real mastery of the appropriate Physical Intervention Techniques (PIT) may cause. For this reason, certain traditionally used Physical Intervention Techniques have been questioned by scientific research studies and punished by justice. On the other hand, certain media have dealt with this matter in a biased and unfair manner by broadcasting videos where the use of force by police officer is displayed out of context. As a consequence, this problem has been brought under the spotlight, causing general uneasiness of the communities and rapidly spreading over social networks while favoring all sorts of parallel judgments. (2) Research method: A suit equipped with 19 Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) and a Biomechanics of Bodies software application for the Marras’ analysis of the data collected on trajectory, trunk twisting velocity, its sagittal angle, load, nature and severity of the injuries associated to the different intervention techniques that have been examined. (3) Results: according to the data registered, the implementation of Operational Tactical Procedures (OTP) reduces the probability of injuries and leads to a more satisfactory outcome. (4) Conclusions: the implementation of Operational Tactical Procedures, to-gether with the awareness on the risks associated to the excessive use of force by Public and Private Security Forces and Bodies, could reduce the risk of injuries suffered by both officers and citizens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: workplace health promotion; sleep quality; sleep hygiene; sleepiness; safety; insomnia; sleep deprivation; accidents; near miss; police
Online: 12 October 2020 (16:27:57 CEST)
A workplace sleep health promotion program was implemented in an Italian police unit from 2016 to 2017. Of the 242 police officers in the unit, 218 (90%) agreed to take part in the program. A crossover trial was made in which the police officers were divided into two groups that performed sleep health promotion activities in the first and second year, respectively. The first group of officers showed significant sleep improvements at the end of the first year, while the second group had similar or worse parameters than at baseline. At follow-up, a significant improvement in the quantity and quality of sleep was reported in both groups. Sleep improvements at follow-up were associated with a marked reduction in the frequency of accidents at work and near-misses. All sleep parameters showed a significant association with injuries and near-misses in univariate logistic regression analyses. Before the intervention, sleepiness was the best predictor of injuries (aOR 1.220; CI95% 1.044-1.426) and near-misses (aOR 1.382; CI95% 1.182-1.615). At follow-up, when sleep conditions had improved, insomnia symptoms were the most significant predictors of work accidents (aOR 13.358; CI95% 2.353-75.818). Sleep health promotion can be useful in police officers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0377.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Police Mental Health Act; Section 136; repeated detention; suicide and suicide prevention; trauma; personality disorder; lived experience
Online: 31 October 2019 (16:48:30 CET)
Most police Mental Health Act (Section 136) detentions in England and Wales relate to suicide prevention. Despite attempts to reduce detention rates, numbers have risen almost continually. Although Section 136 has been subject to much academic and public policy scrutiny, the topic of individuals being detained on multiple occasions remains under-researched and thus poorly understood. A mixed methods study combined six in-depth interviews with people who had experienced numerous suicidal crises and police intervention, with detailed police and mental health records. A national police survey provided wider context. Consultants with lived experience of complex mental health problems jointly analysed interviews. Repeated detention is a nationally recognised issue. In South East England it almost exclusively relates to suicide or self-harm and accounts for a third of all detentions. Females are detained with the highest frequencies. The qualitative accounts revealed complex histories of unresolved trauma that had catastrophically damaged interviewee’s relational foundations, rendering them disenfranchised from services and consigned to relying on police intervention in repeated suicidal crises. A model is proposed that offers a way to conceptualise the phenomenon of repeated detention, highlighting that long-term solutions to sustain change are imperative, as reactive-only responses can perpetuate crisis cycles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0185.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Sitting; intervention; feasibility; office workers; behaviour change wheel; police; QR codes; activity breaks; cardiometabolic risk; behaviour change; wellbeing
Online: 13 June 2022 (10:45:43 CEST)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a theory-derived sedentary workplace intervention (single arm, pre-post design) for police office staff. Twenty-four staff participated in an 8-week intervention incorporating an education session, team competition with quick response (QR) codes, team trophy, and weekly leaderboard newsletters, a self-monitoring phone app, and electronic prompt tools. The intervention supported participants to reduce and break up their sitting time with three minutes of incidental movement every 30 minutes at work. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed using mixed methods via the RE-AIM QuEST and PRECIS-2 frameworks. The intervention was highly pragmatic in terms of eligibility, organisation, adherence, outcome, and analysis. It was slightly less pragmatic on recruitment and setting. Delivery and follow-up were more explanatory. Reach and adoption indicators demonstrated feasibility among police staff, across a range of departments, who were demographically similar to participants in previous office-based multi-component interventions. The intervention was delivered mostly as planned with minor deviations from protocol (Implementation fidelity). Participants perceived the intervention components as highly acceptable. Preliminary results showed improvements in workplace sitting and standing, as well as small improvements in weight and positive affect. Evaluation of the intervention in a fully powered randomised controlled trial to assess behaviour and health outcomes is recommended.