ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: placenta-derived stem cells; placenta; stem cells; proteostasis; heat-shock; chaperones; HSPA1B; HSPA1A
Online: 7 May 2022 (03:37:17 CEST)
Placenta-derived stem cells (PDSCs) offer the advantages of possessing mesenchymal and embryonic traits, broad differentiation potential, large-scale availability, and no ethical constraints in their utilization in therapeutic applications. Elevated protein synthesis and consequently enhanced protein maintenance networks become necessary both due to the requirement to maintain stemness and respond to different stresses. This study aimed to identify the primary determinants of proteotoxic stress response in PDSCs. We generated heat-induced dose-responsive proteotoxic stress models of three stem cell types DBMSCs, DPMSCs, and pMSCs, and measured stress induction through biochemical and cell proliferation assays. RT-PCR array analysis of 84 genes involved in protein folding and protein quality control led to the identification of Hsp70 isoforms HSPA1A and HSPA1B as the prominent ones among 17 significantly expressed genes and with further analysis at the protein level through western blotting. A 24-hours’ time series analysis of stress-response allowed a detailed kinetic analysis of HSPA1A and HSPA1B gene and protein expression. More prominent differences between the two Hsp70 isoforms were detected at the translational level eluding to a potential higher requirement for HSPA1B during proteotoxic stress in PDSCs. To conclude, consideration should be given to the manipulation of definitely characterized chaperones at their expression or functional levels when utilizing PDSCs in therapeutic and regenerative applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1094.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: cattle; placenta morphology; ERVs (endogenous retroviruses)
Online: 17 October 2023 (12:19:42 CEST)
Viviparity is made possible by the placenta, a structure acquired relatively recently in the evolutionary history of eutherian mammals. Compared to oviparity, it increases the survival rate of the fetus, owing to the eutherian placenta. Questions such as “How was the placenta acquired?” and “Why is there diversity in placental morphology among mammalian species?” remain largely unsolved. Our present understanding of the molecules regulating placental development remains unclear, owing in no small part to the persistent obscurity surrounding the molecular mechanisms underlying placental acquisition. Many genes that characterize eutherian placental morphology likely evolved to be expressed at the fetal-maternal interface concurrently with those during embryogenesis. Therefore, identifying these genes, how they were acquired, and how they came to be expressed specifically at the fetal-maternal interface will shed light on some crucial molecular mechanisms underlying placental evolution. Exhaustive studies support the hypothesis that endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) could be evolutional driving forces for trophoblast cell fusion and placental structure in mammalian placentas including those of the bovine species. This review focuses on bovine ERVs (BERVs) and their expression and function in the placenta.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Glyphosate; Roundup; formulants; toxicity; placenta; human
Online: 6 July 2021 (12:23:50 CEST)
Glyphosate (G)-based herbicidal formulations, such as the most commonly used one, Roundup (R), are major pesticides used worldwide on food and feed. Pregnant women may thus be frequently exposed to R compounds. These are composed of G, which is declared as the active principle, and other products contained in formulations, named formulants, which have been declared as inerts and diluents by the manufacturers. These formulants have, in fact, been demonstrated to be much more toxic than G, in particular to placental and embryonic human cells. In this work, we thus compared the effect of G and R, using placental perfusion ex vivo. R, but not G alone, was demonstrated to alter the placental permeability of a known small model molecule, antipyrine. Similar results were observed for the fetal venous flow rate. The transfer of G alone increases with time, but is significantly decreased in presence of its formulants. The perfusion of R provokes a destruction of fetal vessels, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. Formulants obviously alter the fetal-placental circulation and placental integrity according to time of exposure. Therefore, G does not appear to be the main toxic agent of R. Formulants, although undeclared, include polyoxyethanolamines, PAHs, or heavy metals, and may be responsible for this toxicity. These compounds are also present in other pesticides. The progressive blood flow reduction due to the toxic compounds of formulations may diminish the nutrient supply to the fetus, alter the development, and may enhance the poisoning effects. Although these are preliminary results, they could at least partially explain some adverse pregnancy outcomes in mothers exposed to pesticides or other environmental pollutants. The debate on glyphosate alone is proven insufficient for the understanding of the toxicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1736.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Organotherapy; Placenta; Peptides; Nano-peptides; Integrative Medicine
Online: 24 August 2023 (09:58:31 CEST)
For several millennia, doctors and healers used therapeutic ingredients extracted from minerals, plants, and animals. Among the active remedies derived from animals, the placenta was among the most popular ones. The use of placenta-based remedies has retained its significance in our time. The placenta-based therapeutics are indicated for stimulating immunity, wound healing, reduction of skin pigmentation, treatment of various patients suffering from gynecological disorders, etc. By the beginning of the 21st century, the majority of specific functions and chemical ingredients of the placenta were identified and described. However, only now active proteins and peptides with molecular weight of about ten kDa were revealed. Presumably, they play an essential role during the therapeutic application of placental extract. Hopefully, this discovery will start a new era in the research and clinical application of organotherapeutic remedies, including placenta.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0453.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Gestational diabetes; obesity; placenta; syncytiotrophoblast; matrix metalloprotease
Online: 28 October 2022 (10:04:45 CEST)
Background: During placental formation, cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) fuse into multinucleate, microvilli-coated syncytiotrophoblasts (STBs), which contact maternal blood, mediating nutrient, metabolite, and gas exchange between mother and fetus, and providing a barrier against fetal infection. Trophoblasts remodel the surrounding extracellular matrix through the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Maternal obesity and diabetes mellitus can negatively impact fetal development and may impair trophoblast function. We sought to model the impact of metabolic stress on STB function by examining MMP and hormone secretion. Methods: The BeWo CTB cell line was syncytialized to STB-like cells with forskolin. Cell morphology was examined by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence; phenotype was further assessed by ELISA and RT-qPCR. STBs were exposed to a metabolic stress cocktail (MetaC: 30 mM glucose, 10 nM insulin, and 0.1 mM palmitic acid). Results: BeWo syncytialization was demonstrated by increased secretion of HCGβ and progesterone, elevated syncytin gene expression (ERVW-1 and ERVFRD-1), loss of tight junctions, and increased surface microvilli. MetaC suppressed HCGβ and progesterone and altered both MMP-9 and MMP-2. Conclusions: Metabolic stress modeling diabetes and obesity altered BeWo STB hormone and MMP production in vitro. These results compel further study into the potential impact of metabolic stress on trophoblast formation and function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0291.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Succinate; SUCNR1; GDM; Placenta; Endothelial cells, Angiogenesis
Online: 20 October 2021 (12:35:18 CEST)
Placental hypervascularization has been reported in pregnancy-related pathologies such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Nevertheless, the underlying causes behind this abnormality are not well understood. In this study, we addressed the expression of SUCNR1 (cognate succinate receptor) in human placental endothelial cells and hypothesized that succinate-SUCNR1 axis might play a role in the placental hypervascularization reported in GDM. We measured significantly higher succinate levels in placental tissue lysates from women with GDM relative to matched controls. In parallel, SUCNR1 protein expression was upregulated in GDM tissue lysates as well as in isolated diabetic fetoplacental arterial endothelial cells (FpECAds). A positive correlation of SUCNR1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels in tissue lysates indicated a potential link between succinate-SUCNR1 axis and placental angiogenesis. In our in-vitro experiments, succinate prompted hallmarks of angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) such as proliferation, migration and spheroid sprouting. These results were further validated in fetoplacental arterial endothelial cells (FpECAs), where succinate induced endothelial tube formation. VEGF gene expression was increased in response to succinate in both HUVECs and FpECAs. Yet, knockdown of SUCNR1 in HUVECs led to suppression of VEGF gene expression and abrogated the migratory ability and wound healing in response to succinate. In conclusion, our data underline SUCNR1 as a promising metabolic target in human placenta and as a potential driver of enhanced placental angiogenesis in GDM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0351.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: PPARgamma first trimester placenta; decidual macrophages; miscarriage
Online: 24 May 2018 (13:24:08 CEST)
PPARgamma belongs to the group of nuclear receptors which is expressed in the trophoblast and together with other factors is responsible for the maintenance of pregnancy. Apart from that PPARgamma is also a main factor for macrophage polarization. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined expression pattern and frequency of PPARgamma under physiological circumstances and in spontaneous and recurrent miscarriages in the trophoblast and in maternal macrophages of the decidua. Human placental tissues of the first trimester (15 physiologic pregnancies, 15 spontaneous abortion & 16 recurrent miscarriage placentas) were analyzed for expression of the nuclear receptor PPARgamma. Expression changes were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR in trophoblast and in maternal macrophages of the decidua. Maternal macrophages were identified by double immunofluorescence using CD68 as marker for macrophages. The intermediate villous trophoblast revealed a significantly lower PPARgamma expression in spontaneous and recurrent abortion. Maternal macrophages express PPARgamma. Their number is significantly enhanced in the decidua of spontaneous miscarriages whereas in recurrent miscarriages maternal macrophages seem to express PPARgamma only in very few cases. PPARgamma is associated with an M2 polarization state that is common for decidual macrophages. The lack of PPARgamma in recurrent miscarriage decidual macrophages seems to be associated with a specific inflammatory response against the fetus.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1404.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: molar pregnancy; cervical pregnancy; placenta accreta spectrum; hysterectomy
Online: 21 August 2023 (10:37:19 CEST)
Background: Coexisting monozygotic twin molar pregnancies with a living second fetus are known in the literature, with various outcomes and treatment options. Methods: Clinical praesentation of two separate throphoblastic diseases that became directly conditioned. Results: A 33-year-old nuliparous woman, after autolog insemination one blastocysts with extremely high MoM free BHCG, and in the 17th week of pregnancy, bled profusely where ultrasound found a dilated cervix filled with a mass similar to molar tissue with intact second gestational sac. The gynecologists decided on a laparotomy, so they performed a corporeal hysterotomy at the 19th week of pregnancy. A year later, the patient became pregnant spontaneously with an orderly course of pregnancy until the 30th week. Due to the acute abdomen, an emergency caesarean section is indicated, and after the laparotomy, 1000 mL of fresh blood and clots are found with a 5 cm zone of cicatricial percretism. A freshly dead male newborn 1530 g/ 44 cm, without the effect of the resuscitation procedure. With regard to cicatricial percretism, the gynecologist on duty decides on a supracervical hysterectomy.; Conclusions: The treatment approach to molar pregnancy that influenced the outcome of the second pregnancy and the overall poor reproductive outcome is discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1102.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Maternal obesity; placenta; environmental adaptation; sex specificities; reproduction
Online: 28 April 2023 (04:06:35 CEST)
Maternal obesity is increasingly prevalent and is associated with elevated morbidity and mortality rates in both mothers and children. As the interface between the mother and fetus, the placenta has mediates the impact of the maternal environment on fetal development. Most of the literature data on the effects of maternal obesity on placental functions do not exclude potential confounding factors like metabolic diseases (e.g. gestational diabetes). Moreover, it is now clear that the placental response to maternal environment depends on the fetal sex. In this context, we reviewed how maternal obesity (in the absence of gestational diabetes) affects the human placenta in terms of (i) endocrine function, (ii) morphological characteristics, (iii) nutrient exchanges and metabolism, (iv) inflammatory/immune status, (v) oxidative stress, and (vi) transcriptome, with a focus on fetal sex specificities. A better understanding of sex-specific placental responses to maternal obesity is crucial for improving pregnancy outcomes and the health of mothers and children.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0210.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Obesity; gut microbiota; placenta; brain development; fatal development
Online: 14 October 2022 (10:15:21 CEST)
Obesity in pregnancy induces metabolic syndrome, low-grade inflammation, altered endocrine factors, placental function, and the maternal gut microbiome. All these factors impact fetal growth and development, including brain development. The lipid metabolic transporters of the maternal-fetal-placental unit are dysregulated in obesity. Consequently, the transport of essential long-chain PUFAs for fetal brain development is disturbed. The mother’s gut microbiota is vital in maintaining postnatal energy homeostasis and maternal-fetal immune competence. Obesity during pregnancy changes the gut microbiota, affecting fetal brain development. Obesity and a high-fat diet in pregnancy can induce placental and intrauterine inflammation and thus influence the neurodevelopmental outcomes of the offspring. Several epidemiological studies observed an association between maternal obesity and adverse neurodevelopment. This review discusses the effects of maternal obesity and gut microbiota on fetal neurodevelopment outcomes. In addition, the possible mechanisms of the impacts of obesity and gut microbiota on fetal brain development are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: preeclampsia; placenta; histopathology; cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular risk; postpartum
Online: 24 January 2022 (14:27:20 CET)
Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in later life. Postpartum cardiovascular risk screening could identify patients who would benefit most from lifestyle interventions. However, there are no readily available methods to identify these high-risk women. We propose that placental lesions may be useful in this regard. Here, we sought to determine the association between placental lesions and lifetime CVD risk. Placentas from 85 PE women were evaluated for histopathological lesions. At 6 months postpartum, a lifetime cardiovascular risk score was calculated. Placental lesions were compared between CVD risk groups and the association was assessed using odds ratios. Multivariable logistic regression was used to develop prediction models for CVD risk with placental pathology. Placentas from high-risk women had more severe lesions of maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) and resulted in a 3-fold increased risk of screening high-risk for CVD (OR 3.10[1.20-7.92]) compared to women without these lesions. MVM lesion severity was moderately predictive of high-risk screening (AUC 0.63[0.51,0.75]; sensitivity 71.8%[54.6,84.4]; specificity 54.7%[41.5,67.3]. When clinical parameters were added, the model’s predictive performance improved (AUC 0.73[0.62,0.84]; sensitivity 78.4%[65.4,87.5]; specificity 51.6%[34.8,68.0]. The results suggest that placenta pathology may provide a unique modality to identify women for cardiovascular screening.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0288.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Exposure routes; Human breast milk; Human placenta; Microplastics; Nanoplastics
Online: 6 September 2023 (03:19:01 CEST)
Given the broad and intense use of plastic, society is being increasingly affected by its degradation and by-products, particularly by microplastics (MPs) -fragments smaller than 5 mm in size-, and nanoplastics (NPs) -with sizes less than 1 µm. MPs and NPs may enter the body primarily through inhalation, consumption, and skin contact. Once ingested, MPs can penetrate tissues, deviating to other parts of the body, and hence potentially affecting important cellular pathways such as nonconforming chemokine receptors that control the communication between the fetus and the mother. Consequently, the potential health harm induced by MP internalization is a major issue, evidenced by multiple studies demonstrating harmful consequences in diverse animal models and human cells. Here, an overview of the various modes of exposure to MPs and NPs is presented, including inhalation, placental transfer, ingestion, breastmilk consumption, and skin absorption, as well as placental and fetal toxicity due to plastic particles based on animal and in vitro studies. Though MPs in our environment are becoming more recognized, their developmental toxicity is still scarcely known. Besides negatively affecting pregnancy, MPs and NPs have been shown to potentially harm the developing fetus, given their ability to cross the placental barrier. Still, considerable gaps remain in our understanding of the dispersion and toxicity of these particles in the environment, as well as the precise types of NPs and MPs bearing the greatest dangers. As a result, we advocate for larger-scale epidemiological investigations, the development of novel approaches for measuring NP and MP exposures, and the necessity of understanding the toxicity of various kinds of NPs to guide future research efforts.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0087.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 RNA; mitochondria; placenta; padlock
Online: 6 January 2022 (12:35:00 CET)
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic dictated new priorities in biomedicine research. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. In this pilot study, we optimized our padlock assay to visualize genomic/subgenomic regions using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded placental samples obtained from a confirmed case of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was localized in trophoblastic cells. We also checked the presence of the virion by immunolocalization of its glycoprotein spike. In addition, we imaged mitochondria of placental villi keeping in mind that the mitochondrion has been suggested as a potential residence of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Indeed, we observed a substantial overlapping of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and mitochondria in trophoblastic cells. This intriguing linkage correlated with an aberrant mitochondrial network. Overall, to our knowledge, this is the first study that provides the evidence of a co-localization of the SARS-CoV-2 genome and mitochondria in SARS-CoV-2 infected tissue. These findings also support the notion that SARS-CoV-2 infection could reprogram mitochondrial activity in highly specialized maternal/fetal interface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0333.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; pregnancy; trophoblasts; interactome; placenta
Online: 21 May 2020 (03:38:05 CEST)
COVID-19 is a rapidly evolving medical emergency that has drawn global attention, unprecedented in any disease of its kind in recent times. The magnitude of the health crisis emerging from this pandemic has overwhelmed health care workers worldwide and called in for extraordinary measures to contain this virus. A simple Pubmed query on “COVID-19” returned with 12214 articles (as on May 17th, 2020), published just within a few months. A detailed survey revealed around 250 clinical reports, 8 clinical trials, 9 meta-analyses, and 906 reviews that were published during this time span. Combining the strings “COVID-19 and Pregnancy” yielded a total of 132 reports while querying “COVID-19 and Placenta” returned with just 11 articles Even taking into considerations that few materials are in the PrePrint Server, we still have a gross under-representation of studies addressing the effect of this disease on pregnancy outcome and maternal & child health. An essential aspect of a successful pregnancy is proper placentation, where transiently invasive placental trophoblast cells invade the maternal endometrium to establish a functional feto-maternal communication. Based on the elegant study by David. E. Gordon, et al. published in Nature (April 30, 2020), which identified 332 human host proteins interacting with SARS-nCoV2 using an affinity-based purification, we interrogated several gene expression data sets available at NCBI-GEO related to trophoblast invasion and differentiation. Both of these processes are indispensable for placentation and fetal survival. Our analysis showed several overlaps with the interactome proteins implying that SARS-CoV-2 infection can affect several proteins, which are crucial for trophoblasts function. GeneMANIA and STRING based functional analysis further revealed that several of that SARS-CoV-2 interacting trophoblast proteins as a hub for the protein-protein interaction network. Our study thus elucidates the possible effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on placenta formation and pregnancy outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0675.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Inflammatory Response Syndrome; VUE; chronic deciduitis; CD8; CD68; Placenta; gender
Online: 10 November 2023 (07:29:45 CET)
Long-term health consequences are influenced by circumstances that occur during pregnancy. The confluence of the maternal and fetal circulations occurs at the placenta, which is the first or-gan to develop. Placental pathology can provide an accurate diagnosis of inflammation inside the amniotic sac. The pathological alterations of preterm placentas provide evidence for the causes of numerous perinatal pathologies, including spontaneous preterm births. This retrospec-tive study aimed to re-examine placentas regarded as normal by the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department in our institution so that grading and staging of any evident inflammatory response could be evaluated and associated with baby gender. Eighty-four full-term placentas were col-lected after delivery. Placentas that were considered normal and were not sent to the histo-pathology department were taken. Morphological examination of fresh placenta was conducted. Full thicknesses of placenta samples were taken from central and marginal regions of placental disc. Fetal and maternal inflammatory responses syndrome were assessed. Villitis of unknown etiology (VUE) and chronic deciduitis also were evaluated in the placenta. Immunohistochemis-try (IHC) was also performed to evaluate patterns of inflammation in the placenta using an-ti-CD8 and anti-CD68 antibodies. The correlation between the silent pathologies and clinical complications or involvement of developing fetal inflammatory response syndrome was meas-ured. In this study, seventeen (20%) maternal inflammatory samples and ten (12%) fetal inflam-matory samples showed inflammatory responses. The frequency of chronic deciduitis and villi-tis of unknown etiology was more remarkable among Saudi pregnant women than the previ-ously reported findings in the literature of placental pathology. The prevalence of fetal and ma-ternal inflammatory response was greater in the placentas of mothers of males than in placentas of female mothers. Grading placental inflammation usually predict the degree of maternal an-ti-fetal cellular rejection. Fetal inflammatory response syndrome usually goes unnoticed in Sau-di Arabia. There are differences in the inflammatory response in the placenta based on the sex of the newborn. Increasing the number of placental samples that must be sent for microscopic in-spection may be preferable due to their significance in identifying the causes of chronic disor-ders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0466.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: maternal nutrition; placenta telomeres; newborn telomeres; premature birth; preterm infants
Online: 8 November 2023 (01:43:11 CET)
Preterm birth (PTB), a multi-causal syndrome, is one of the global epidemics. Maternal nutrition, but also neonatal and placental telomere length (TL), are among the factors affecting PTB risk. However, the exact relationship between these factors and the PTB outcome, remains obscure. The aim of this review, was to investigate the association between PTB, maternal nutrition and placental-infant TL. Observational studies were sought, with the keywords: maternal nutrition, placenta TL, newborn, TL, and PTB. No study was found that included all keywords simultaneously, and thus, the keywords, were searched in dyads, to reach assumptive conclusions. The findings show that maternal nutrition affects PTB risk, through its influence on maternal TL. On the other hand, maternal TL independently affects PTB risk, and at the same time PTB is a major determinant of offspring TL regulation. The strength of the associations and the extent of the influence from covariates, remains to be elucidated in future research. Furthermore, the question of whether maternal TL, is simply a biomarker of maternal nutritional status and PTB risk, or a causative factor of PTB, to date, remains to be answered.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0759.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: fetal development; gut-brain axis (GBA); maternal gut bacteria; placenta
Online: 12 July 2023 (03:58:47 CEST)
Gut microbiota plays a critical role in physiological regulation throughout life and is specifically modified to meet the demands of individual life stages and during pregnancy. Maternal gut microbiota is uniquely adapted to the pregnancy demands of the mother and the developing fetus. Both animal studies in pregnant germ-free rodents and human studies have supported a critical association between the composition of maternal microbiota during pregnancy and fetal development. Gut microbiota may also contribute to the development of the fetal gut-brain axis (GBA), which is increasingly recognized for its critical role in health and disease. Most studies consider birth as the time of GBA activation and focus on postnatal GBA development. This review focuses on GBA development during the prenatal period and the impact of maternal gut microbiota on fetal GBA development. It is hypothesized that adaptation of maternal gut microbiota to pregnancy is critical for the GBA prenatal development and maturation of GBA postnatally. Consequently, factors affecting maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy, such as maternal obesity, diet, stress and depression, infection, and medication, also affect fetal GBA development and are critical for GBA activity postnatally. Altered maternal gut microbiota during gestation has been shown to have long-term impact postnatally and multigenerational effects. Thus, understanding the impact of maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy on fetal GBA development is crucial for managing fetal, neonatal, and adult health, and should be included among public health priorities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0211.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biomaterials; decellularization; extracellular matrix; placenta; placental-derived biomaterials; wound healing
Online: 2 June 2023 (14:14:07 CEST)
Chronic wounds are associated with considerable patient morbidity and present a significant economic burden to the healthcare system. Often, chronic wounds are in a state of persistent in-flammation and unable to progress to the next phase of wound healing. Placental-derived bio-materials are recognized for their biocompatibility, biodegradability, angiogenic, an-ti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-fibrotic, immunomodulatory, and immune privileged prop-erties. As such, placental-derived biomaterials have been used in wound management for more than a century. Placental-derived scaffolds are composed of an extracellular matrix (ECM) that can mimic the native tissue, creating a reparative environment to promote ECM remodeling, cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Reliable evidence exists throughout the literature to support the safety and effectiveness of placental-derived biomaterials in wound healing. How-ever, differences in source (i.e., anatomical regions of the placenta), preservation techniques, decellularization status, design, and clinical application have not been fully evaluated. This re-view provides an overview of wound healing and placental-derived biomaterials, summarizes the clinical results of placental-derived scaffolds in wound healing, and suggests directions for future work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0073.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: extravillous trophoblast; placenta; saturated fatty acid; in-utero environment; MRP1
Online: 3 August 2022 (04:21:58 CEST)
Normal function of placental extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs), which are responsible for uteroplacental vascular remodeling, is critical for adequate delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus and normal fetal programming. Proliferation and invasion of spiral arteries by EVTs depends upon adequate levels of folate. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), which is an efflux transporter, is known to remove folate from these cells. We hypothesized that palmitic acid increases MRP1-mediated folate removal from EVTs, thereby interfering with EVTs’ role in early placental vascular remodeling. HTR-8/SVneo and Swan-71 cells, first trimester human EVTs, were grown in the absence or presence of 0.5 mM and 0.7 mM palmitic acid, respectively, for 72 h. Palmitic acid increased ABCC1 gene expression and MRP1 protein expression in both cell lines. The rate of folate efflux from the cells into the media increased with a decrease in migration and invasion functions in the cultured cells. Treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) prevented the palmitic acid mediated upregulation of MRP1 and restored invasion and migration in the EVTs. Finally, in an ABCC1 knockout subline of Swan-71 cells, there was a significant increase in invasion and migration functions. The novel finding in this study that palmitic acid increases MRP1-mediated folate efflux provides a missing link that helps to explain how maternal consumption of saturated fatty acids compromises the in-utero environment.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: embryogenesis; blastocyst; trophoblast; stem cell; differentiation; placenta; Ovo-like 2
Online: 8 March 2020 (04:11:35 CET)
Trophoblasts are the first cell-type to be specified during embryogenesis, and they are essential for placental morphogenesis and function. Trophoblast stem (TS) cells are the progenitor cells for all trophoblast lineages; control of TS cell differentiation into distinct trophoblast subtypes is not well understood. Mice lacking the transcription factor OVO-like 2 (OVOL2) fail to produce a functioning placenta, and die around embryonic day 10.5, suggesting that OVOL2 may be critical for trophoblast development. Therefore, our objective was to determine the role of OVOL2 in mouse TS cell fate. We found that OVOL2 was highly expressed in mouse placenta and differentiating TS cells. Placentas and TS cells lacking OVOL2 showed poor trophoblast differentiation potential, including increased expression of stem-state associated genes (Eomes, Esrrb, Id2) and decreased levels of differentiation-associated transcripts (Gcm1, Tpbpa, Prl3b1, Syna). Ectopic OVOL2 expression in TS cells elicited precocious differentiation. OVOL2 bound proximate to the gene encoding inhibitor of differentiation 2 (ID2), a dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein, and directly repressed its activity. Overexpression of ID2 was sufficient to reinforce the TS cell stem state. Our findings reveal a critical role of OVOL2 as a regulator of TS cell differentiation and placental development, in-part by coordinating repression of ID2.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0538.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: placenta; mitochondria; preeclampsia; disease subclasses; pregnancy; hypertension; reactive oxygen species; therapies
Online: 10 February 2023 (04:09:05 CET)
The placenta is a vital organ of pregnancy, regulating adaptation to pregnancy, gestational-parent/fetal exchange and ultimately fetal development and growth. Not surprisingly, in cases of placental dysfunction - where aspects of placental development or function become compromised - adverse pregnancy outcomes can result. One common placenta-mediated disorder of pregnancy is preeclampsia (PE), a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy with a highly heterogeneous clinical presentation. The wide array of clinical characteristics observed in pregnant individuals and neonates of a PE pregnancy are likely the result of distinct forms of placental pathology underlying the PE diagnosis, explaining why no one common intervention has proven effective in the prevention or treatment of PE. The historical paradigm of placental pathology in PE highlights an important role for utero-placental malperfusion, placental hypoxia and oxidative stress, and a critical role for placental mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis and progression of the disease. In the current review, the evidence of placental mitochondrial dysfunction in the context of PE will be summarized, highlighting how altered mitochondrial function may be a common feature across distinct PE subtypes. Further, advances in this field of study and therapeutic targeting of mitochondria as a promising intervention for PE will be discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0406.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: DHA; Brain; MFSD2a; SPM; Fetus; Placenta; infacnts; Neurogenesis; Pregnancy; Pre-term
Online: 20 October 2020 (08:37:41 CEST)
Dietary components are important for the structural and functional development of the brain. Among these, docosahexaenoic acid,22:6n-3 (DHA) is critically required for the structure and development of the growing fetal brain in utero. DHA is the major n-3 long-chain fatty acid in brain gray matter representing about 15% of all fatty acids in the human frontal cortex. DHA affects neurogenesis, neurotransmitter, synaptic plasticity & transmission, and signal transduction in the brain. Studies in animals and humans show that adequate levels of DHA in neural membranes are important for cortical astrocyte maturation and vascular coupling, and helps cortical glucose uptake and metabolism. In addition, specific metabolites of DHA are bioactive molecules that protect tissues from oxidative injury and stress in the brain. A low DHA level in the brain results in behavior changes and is associated with learning problems and memory deficits. In humans, the third trimester-placental supply of maternal DHA to the growing fetus is critically important as the growing brain obligatory requires DHA during this window period. Besides, DHA is also involved in the early placentation process, essential for placental development. This underscores the critical importance of maternal DHA intake for the structural and functional development of the brain. This review describes DHA's multiple roles during gestation, lactation, and the consequences of its lower intake during pregnancy and postnatally on the children's brain development and function.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2168.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Mollusc; bivalve; Windowpane oyster; Placuna placenta; by-product; food; bio-active compounds; circular economy
Online: 31 August 2023 (10:08:16 CEST)
The windowpane oyster Placuna placenta, lives in brackish coastal waters and has long been economically important to the Philippines because of its durable and translucent shell, which is used as a glass substitute and material for making windowpanes and handicrafts. There has been considerable degradation of the windowpane oyster fishery in past decades. Moreover, there are waste and under-exploited by-products such as the meat, which though nutritious and edible, currently has a very low value; its use being confined to dishes consumed by families in the fishing community. Historically there are instances of excellent practice in terms of regulating the windowpane oyster fishery, while in recent times there have been local initiatives to restore this and to develop high value food products from the meat. These initiatives have, however, never been followed through at a provincial or national level. Research on other molluscs and marine organisms highlights that these also contain high value pharmaceutical products. This review compiles evidence to establish the groundwork for an essential and comprehensive multidisciplinary research program centred around the windowpane oyster, which would ensure a high value for all parts of the oyster, including those currently discarded. By fostering a sustainable and circular economy within this fishery sector and its associated industry, its economic value would be amplified. This is particularly important for oyster harvesters in the Philippines, who often find themselves at the economic ladder's lower rungs. By integrating the principles of a circular economy, this initiative would not only aim to uplift the economic prospects of these harvesters but in doing so would drive the restoration of the windowpane oyster to its former range.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2030.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Angiogenesis; blood vessels; endothelial cells; fetal cells; Flk1; migration; placenta; pregnancy; trophoblast; vasculogenesis; VEGF; VEGFR2
Online: 29 September 2023 (04:40:03 CEST)
Pregnancy entails bidirectional interactions between the developing fetus, the maternal tissues, and the organ systems. To this end, the phenomenon of migration of fetal cells (FCs) into the maternal circulation is poorly understood. Here, we review literature underlying the migration of FCs from the placenta to the maternal circulation, which is likely a dynamic process, including trophoblast invasion, placental angiogenesis, modulation of maternal immune responses, and enlargement of maternal organs. As placental neovascularization fosters direct connections between fetal and maternal circulatory systems, the trophoblast, a pivotal to placental development, adeptly deploys an array of invasive strategies to breach maternal tissue barriers, facilitating FC escapade into the maternal circulation. The intricate balance struck by the maternal immune system, which both acts as a guardian against potential foreign cell threats and orchestrates a niche conducive to FC survival and differentiation, is facilitated by finely tuned interactions among regulatory T cells, cytokines, and inhibitory receptors. FC presence in mothers’ circulation may be clinically relevant and unveil novel molecular participants like lncRNA, exosomes, and intricate signaling pathways that drive innovative clinical approaches for diagnostics and therapeutics. Ongoing research should reshape our knowledge of pregnancy and maternal-fetal health by improving our understanding of fetal-maternal interactions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1807.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); ovary; uterus; placenta; mitochondria; biogenesis; mtDNA; metabolism; mitochondrial dynamics; oxidative stress
Online: 21 August 2023 (10:16:55 CEST)
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex, but relatively common endocrine disorder associated with chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and micro-polycystic ovaries . In addition to reduced fertility, people with PCOS have a higher risk of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic disease , all comorbidities that are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. This review summarizes human and animal data that report mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic dysregulation in PCOS to better understand how mitochondria impact reproductive organ pathophysiology. This in-depth review considers all the elements regulating mitochondrial quantity and quality, from mitochondrial biogenesis under transcriptional regulation of both the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome, to the ultrastructural and functional complexes that regulate cellular metabolism and reactive oxygen species production, to dynamics which regulate subcellular interactions that are key to mitochondrial quality control. When any of these mitochondrial functions are disrupted the energetic equilibrium within the cell changes, cell processes can fail, and cell death can occur. If this process is ongoing, it affects tissue and organ function to cause disease. The objective of this review is to consolidate and classify a broad number of PCOS studies to understand how various mitochondrial processes impact reproductive organs including the ovary (oocyte and granulosa cell), uterus, placenta, and circulation to cause reproductive pathophysiology. A secondary objective is to uncover the potential role of mitochondria in transgenerational transmission of PCOS and metabolic disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1012.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: PEG10; PEG11/RTL1; RTL/SIRH genes; placenta; brain; innate immunity; human disease; mammalian development and evolution
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:58:16 CEST)
Eutherians have 11 retrotransposon Gag-like (RTL)/sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog (SIRH) genes presumably derived from a certain retrovirus. Accumulating evidence indicates that the RTL/SIRH genes play a variety of roles in the current mammalian developmental system, such as in the placenta, brain and innate immune system in a eutherian-specific manner. It has been shown that the functional role of Paternally Expressed 10 (PEG10) in placental formation is unique to the therian mammals, as are the eutherian-specific roles of PEG10 and PEG11/RTL1 in maintaining the fetal capillary network and the endocrine regulation of RTL7/SIRH7 (aka Leucine Zipper Down-Regulated in Cancer 1 (LDOCK1)) in the placenta. In the brain, PEG11/RTL1 is expressed in the corticospinal tract and hippocampal commissure, mammalian-specific structures, and in the corpus callosum, a eutherian-specific structure. Unexpectedly, at least three RTL/SIRH genes, RTL5/SIRH8, RTL6/SIRH3 and RTL9/SIRH10, play important roles in combating a variety of pathogens, viruses, bacteria and fungi, respectively, suggesting that the innate immunity system of the brain in eutherians has been enhanced by the emergence of these new components. In this review, we will summarize the function of 10 out of the 11 RTL/SIRH genes and discuss their roles in eutherian development and evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0003.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: birth weight, birth length, head circumference, placenta weight, growth 43 parameters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, monohydroxylated PAH metabolites
Online: 6 October 2022 (14:39:33 CEST)
Background and objectives: The impact of prenatal exposure to polycyclicaromatic 17 hydrocarbons (PAHs) on birth outcomes as weight, length, head circumference, placenta 18 weight, and Apgar. Materials and Methods: Two cohorts of children born in the years 2013 and 19 2014 in Karvina (Northern Moravia, N=144) and Ceske Budejovice (Southern Bohemia, 20 N=198), were studied for the relationship between the prenatal exposure to PAHs and growth 21 parameters up to two years of age. PAHs exposure was evaluated according to the concentration 22 of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in polluted air and monohydroxylated PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) 23 in urine of newborns as well as their mothers. Data of growth parameters were obtained from 24 pediatric questionnaires up to 24 months. 25 Results: Concentrations of B[a]P were significantly higher in Karvina (p<0.001). OH-26 PAH metabolites were significantly higher in the mothers´ as well as in the newborns´ urine in 27 Karvina. The length was shorter in newborns in Karvina at birth (p<0.001), but this difference 28 was straightened out during next 3 to 24 months. Birth weight at the delivery did not differ 29 between newborns in Karvina and Ceske Budejovice. Newborns in both locations significantly 30 decreased their weight gain between birth and 3 months after delivery. OH-PAHs metabolites 31 in mother’s or newborn’s urine did not affect birth weight. Top 25% values of concentrations 32 of 2-OH-FLUO, 1-OH-NAP, 2-OH-NAP, 1-OH-PHEN, 2-OH-PHEN, 3-OH-PHEN, 4-OH-33 PHEN, and the sum of all-OH-PAHs higher than median in the newborns´ urine decreased their 34 length. 2-OH-PHEN top 25% of concentrations in the newborns´ urine decreased their head 35 circumference, 2-OH-FLUO, 1-OH-NAP, 2-OH-NAP, 1-OH-PHEN, 2-OH-PHEN, 3-OH-36 PHEN, 4-OH-PHEN, 9-OH-PHEN, 1-OH-PYR, and all-OH-PAHs decreased placenta weight; 37 2-OH-FLUO, 1-OH-NAP, 2-OH-NAP, 1-OH-PHEN, 2-OH-PHEN, 3-OH-PHEN, 4-OH-38 PHEN, and all-OH-PAHs decreased Apgar 5´. Conclusions: We observed that higher 39 concentration of PAHs determined as OH-PAHs metabolites in newborns´ urine decreased their 40 length, head circumference, placenta weight, and Apgar 5´, but did not affect birth weight.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0474.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: prenatal infection; virome; viral antibody; VirScan; ViroCap; maternal viral infection; viral protein; GBV-C; placenta; fetal viral infection
Online: 29 August 2022 (08:07:37 CEST)
Human pegivirus (HPgV) is best known for persistent, presumably non-pathogenic, infection and a propensity to co-infect with human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus. However, unique at-tributes, such as the increased risk of malignancy or immune modulation, have been recently recognized for HPgV. We have identified a unique case of a woman with high levels HPgV infection in two preg-nancies, which occurred 4 years apart, without evidence of human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus infection. The second pregnancy was complicated by congenital heart disease. A high level of HPgV infection was detected in maternal blood from different trimesters by RT-PCR and identified as HPgV type 1 genotype 2 in both pregnancies. In the second pregnancy, the decidua and intervillous tissue of the placenta were positive for HPgV by PCR but not the chorion or cord blood (from both pregnancies), suggesting no vertical transmission despite high levels of viremia. The HPgV genome sequence was remarkably conserved over the 4 years. Using VirScan, sera antibodies for HPgV were detected in the first trimester of both pregnancies. We observed the same anti-HPgV antibodies against the non-structural NS5 protein in both pregnancies, suggesting a similar non-E2 protein humoral immune response over time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of persistent HPgV infection involving placental tissues with no evidence of vertical transmission. Our results reveal a more elaborate viral-host interaction than previously reported, expand our knowledge about tropism, and opens avenues for exploring the replication sites of this virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0526.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: maternal pre-gestational obesity; placenta; lipid metabolism; fatty acid transporter proteins; isoprostanoids; neuroprostanes; isoprostanes; docosahexaenoic acid; arachidonic acid
Online: 23 July 2021 (08:04:47 CEST)
The rise in prevalence of obesity in women of reproductive age in both developed and developing countries might propagate intergenerational cycles of detrimental effects on metabolic health, contributing to substantial economic burden on society. Placental lipid metabolism might be disrupted by maternal obesity, which possibly affects the life-long health of the offspring. Here, we investigated placental lipid metabolism and handling from women with pre-gestational obesity as a sole pregnancy complication and compared to placental responses of lean women. Open profile and targeted lipidomics were used to assess placental lipids and oxidized products of docosahexahenoic acid (DHA), neuroprostanes, and arachidonic acid (AA), isoprostanes. Placental fatty acid transporters FABP1, FABP3 and endothelial lipase protein were measured. Despite no signs of overall alterations in lipid content, increased contents of DHA, AA, DHA-derived neuroprostanes and AA-derived isoprostanes and decreased content of FABP1 protein were found in placentas from obese women. Multivariate analyses suggested that these oxidised fatty acids are associated with maternal and placental inflammation and also with birth weight. These results might shed light on the molecular mechanisms associated with altered fatty acid metabolism and lipid handling in maternal pre-gestational obesity, placing these oxidized fatty acids as novel mediators of placental function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0195.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Placenta; trophoblast; SARS-CoV-2; Coronaviruses; COVID-19; Single cell RNAseq; scRNA-seq; ACE2; TMPRSS2; CD147; CTSL; inflammation
Online: 11 May 2020 (12:50:48 CEST)
Infection by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) results in the novel coronavirus disease COVID-19, which has posed a serious threat globally. Infection of SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy is associated with complications like preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes; a proportion of neonates born to the infected mothers are also positive for the virus. During pregnancy, the placental barrier protects the fetus from pathogens and ensures healthy development. However, whether or not SARS-CoV-2 can infect the placenta is unknown. Herein, utilizing single-cell RNA-seq data, we report that the SARS-CoV-2 binding receptor ACE2 and the S protein priming protease TMPRSS2 are co-expressed by a subset of syncytiotrophoblasts (STB) in the first trimester and extra villous trophoblasts (EVT) in the second trimester human placenta. The ACE2- and TMPRSS2-positive (ACE2+TMPRSS2+) placental subsets express mRNA for proteins involved in viral budding and replication. These cells also express mRNA for proteins that interact with SARS-CoV-2 structural and non-structural proteins in the host cells. We also discovered unique signatures of genes in ACE2+TMPRSS2+ STBs and EVTs. The ACE2+TMPRSS2+ STBs are highly differentiated cells and express genes involved mitochondrial metabolism and glucose transport. The second trimester ACE2+TMPRSS2+ EVTs are enriched for markers of endovascular trophoblasts. Further, both these subtypes abundantly expressed genes in Toll like receptor pathway, the second trimester EVTs (but not first trimester STBs) are also enriched for component of the JAK-STAT pathway that drive inflammation. To conclude, herein we uncovered the cellular targets for SARS-CoV-2 entry and show that these cells can potentially drive viremia in the developing human placenta. Our results provide a basic framework towards understanding the paraphernalia involved in SARS-CoV-2 infections in pregnancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2251.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: durum wheat pasta; by-products; zero-waste; plant protein sources; pepper seeds; pepper placenta; tomato waste; amino acids composition
Online: 31 May 2023 (13:02:32 CEST)
Background: Food waste has been a major social problem in recent years. Annually, 1.3 billion tons of food is wasted worldwide. It is recommended that food waste should be reduced at every stage of production. By-products from food processing have high nutritional value; therefore their use in the design of new products is advisable. Methods: By-products from tomato processing (tomato waste-TW) and pepper (defatted pepper seeds-DPS, pepper placenta-PP) were used at a level of 10-30% to produce extruded pasta. The farinographic characteristics, chemical composition, cooking quality, and color of the pasta were studied. Results: The results showed a significant up to 27% increase in the protein content in the TW30 samples, compared to the control. The TDF content increased over five times in DPS30 and TW30 (27.99% and 25.44%). The amino acid composition of the pasta improved with the fortification, but failed to achieve the complete protein by FAO. The DPS30, PP20, PP30, and all TW samples can be considered high-protein products according to the EU definition (min. 20% energy from protein). Conclusion: Vegetable waste can be a valuable additive for improvement of the nutritional value of food. Their addition is part of the zero-waste trend, which has a positive impact on the environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0850.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Reproductive Medicine Keywords: sirtuin-1; SIRT1; sirtuins; human placenta; placental physiology; placental pathophysiology; preeclampsia; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ; PPARγ; SIRT1/PPARγ signaling
Online: 13 October 2023 (07:58:19 CEST)
Sirtuins, especially SIRT1, play a significant role in the regulation of inflammatory response, autophagy, and cell response to oxidative stress. Since their discovery, sirtuins have been regarded as anti-aging and longevity-promoting enzymes. Sirtuin-regulated processes seem to take part in most prevalent placental pathologies, such as preeclampsia. Furthermore, more and more research studies indicate that SIRT1 may prevent pre-eclampsia development, or at least alleviate its manifestations. Having taken this into consideration, we have made a review of recent studies on the role of sirtuins, especially SIRT1, in the regulation of processes determining normal or abnormal development and functioning of the placenta.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: liver failure; microRNAs (miRNAs); placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs); phosphatase of regenerating liver-1 (PRL-1); regenerative medicine; stem cells homing; vascular remodeling
Online: 1 July 2019 (17:00:18 CEST)
Placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs) have been highlighted as therapeutic sources in several degenerative diseases. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) were mediated one of the therapeutic mechanisms of PD-MSCs in regenerative medicine. To enhance the therapeutic effects of PD-MSCs, we established functionally enhanced PD-MSCs with phosphatase of regenerating liver-1 overexpression (PRL-1(+)). However, the profile and functions of miRNAs induced by PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs in a rat model with hepatic failure prepared by bile duct ligation (BDL) remained unclear. Hence, the objectives of the present study were to analyze the expression of miRNAs and investigate their therapeutic mechanisms for hepatic regeneration via PRL-1(+) in a rat model with BDL. We selected candidate miRNAs based on microarray analysis. Under hypoxic conditions, compared with invaded naïve PD-MSCs, invaded PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs showed improved integrin-dependent migration ability through RHO family-targeted miRNA expression (e.g., hsa-miR-30a-5p, 340-5p, and 146a-3p). Moreover, rno-miR-30a-5p and 340-5p regulated engraftment into injured rat liver by transplanted PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs through the integrin family. Additionally, an increase in PDGFRA by suppressing rno-miR-27a-3p improved vascular structure in rat liver tissues after PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs transplantation. Furthermore, decreased rno-miR-122-5p was significantly correlated with increased proliferation of hepatocytes in liver tissues by PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs by activating IL-6 signaling pathway through the repression of rno-miR-21-5p. Taken together, these findings improve the understanding of therapeutic mechanisms based on miRNA-mediated stem cell therapy in liver diseases.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0499.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Acute and Chronic Inflammation; Bioenergetics; Constituent and Inducible Receptors; Fetus; Genomics; Glycolysis; Immunity; Immune compromised; Immune disorders; Infant; Inheritance; Mitochondrial; Newborn; Placenta; Power within; Power without; Sovereignty; Throphoblast; Tumorigenesis; Tumoricidal; Vaccines; Yin-Yang
Online: 23 February 2021 (07:59:36 CET)
A parallel between defense powers of sovereign nations and effective immunity that guards health is relevant to demonstrate vulnerability of immune system under external forces (vaccines, drugs). History demonstrated that sovereignty (power within) of small nations often threatened or destroyed by military might of powerful nations (power without) who use false-flags and propaganda for motives that are financial-control-driven. Similarly, we propose that body’s complex immune neuroplasticity (power within, adaptive, horizontal) is stretched-thin and weakened by the external forces, particularly by vaccination of the unborn/newborn or immune-compromised individuals. Validity of genomics (innate, perpendicular) as origins of ‘hereditary’ diseases (eg, allergies, diabetes, cancers) that for a century dominated research and treatment is also challenged. In conclusion, we propose that the pressure/power from within creates life with potential to sustain health, while the pressure/power from without, weaken and destroy life.