ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0437.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: malnutrition; translation; physiologically based pharmacokinetics; PBPK; pediatrics
Online: 17 December 2020 (16:03:40 CET)
Malnutrition in children is a global health problem, particularly in developing countries. The effects of an insufficient supply of nutrients on body composition and physiological functions may have implications for drug disposition and ultimately affect the clinical outcome in this vulnerable population. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can be used to predict the effect of malnutrition as it links physiological changes to pharmacokinetic (PK) consequences. However, the absence of detailed information on body composition and the limited availability of controlled clinical trials in malnourished children complicates the establishment and evaluation of a generic PBPK model in this population. In this manuscript we describe the creation of physiologically-based bridge to a malnourished pediatric population, by combining information on a) the differences in body composition between healthy and malnourished adults and b) the differences in physiology between healthy adults and children. Model performance was confirmed using clinical reference data. This study presents a physiologically-based translational framework for prediction of drug disposition in malnourished children. The model is readily applicable for dose recommendation strategies to address the urgent medicinal needs of this vulnerable population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0275.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: intertropical cities; physiologically equivalent temperature; thermal comfort indices; urban heat island
Online: 20 June 2022 (16:20:47 CEST)
The urban heat island (UHI) is mostly due to urbanization. This phenomenon in concert with the high temperatures caused by global climate change may profoundly affect human thermal comfort, which can influence human productivity and morbidity especially in spring/summer period. The main objective of this investigation was to determine changes in degree of thermal comfort of Mexico City’s inhabitants and compare it with the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) to evaluate whether PET and its categorization are adequate to be applied in Mexico City. A series of microclimatological measurements to estimate PET were made in four sites including the city´s center. Concomitantly, a series of surveys of thermal perception were applied to 1300 passersby. The results show that PET has increased from 1990 to 2020 from 0.1208 °C/year to 0.1498 °C/year in the study sites, besides overestimating the degree of thermal comfort of people according to the stablished categories or classes. It is concluded that it is necessary to adjust thermal stress categories. Knowing the percentage of people without thermal comfort will lead us to determine different ranges in environmental parameters to define an acceptable environment for most people.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0564.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model (PBPK); Drugs; environmental chemicals; Adverse outcome pathway (AOP); machine learning
Online: 30 December 2022 (01:30:07 CET)
Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models (PBPK) are mechanistical tools generally employed in the pharmaceutical industry and environmental health risk assessment. These models are recognised by regulatory authorities for predicting organ concentration-time profile, pharmacokinetic and daily intake dose of xenobiotics. Extension of PBPK models to capture sensitive populations like pediatric, geriatric, pregnant females, fetus etc. and diseased population like renal impairment, liver cirrhosis etc. is a must. However, the current modelling practice and existing models are not mature enough to confidently predict the risk in these populations. A multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, experimental and modeler scientist is vital to improve the physiology, and calculation of biochemical parameters for integrating the knowledge and refining existing PBPK models. Specific PBPK covering compartments like cerebrospinal fluid, and hippocampus are required to gain mechanistic understanding about xenobiotic disposition in these sub-parts. The PBPK model assists in building quantitative adverse outcome pathways (qAOPs) for several endpoints like developmental neurotoxicity (DNT), hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. Machine learning algorithms can predict physicochemical parameters required to develop in-silico models where experimental data is unavailable. Integrating machine learning with PBPK carries the potential to revolutionize the field of drug discovery and development and environmental risk. Overall, this review tried to summarize the recent developments in the in-silico models, building qAOPs, use of machine learning for improving existing models along with a regulatory perspective. This review can act as a guide for toxicologists who wish to build their careers in kinetic modeling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling; propofol; low cardiac output; pharmacokinetics; neonate; developmental pharmacology; asphyxia; hypothermia; pediatrics; pharmacokinetics
Online: 8 August 2022 (06:12:36 CEST)
Background: pathophysiological changes like low cardiac output (LCO) impact pharmacokinetics, but its extent may be different throughout pediatrics compared to adults. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling enables further exploration. Methods: A validated propofol model was used to simulate the impact of LCO on propofol clearance across age groups using the PBPK platform, Simcyp® (version 19). The hepatic and renal extraction ratio of propofol was then determined in all age groups. Subsequently, dose explorations were conducted under LCO conditions, targeting a 3 µg/mL (80-125%) propofol concentration range. Results: Both hepatic and renal extraction ratios increased from neonates, infants, children to adolescents and adults. The relative change in clearance following CO reductions increased with age, with the least impact of LCO in neonates. The predicted concentration remained within the 3 µg/mL (80-125%) range under normal CO and LCO (up to 30%) conditions in all age groups. When CO was reduced by 40-50%, a dose reduction of 15% is warranted in neonates, infants and children, 25% in adolescents and adults. Conclusions: PBPK driven, the impact of reduced CO on propofol clearance is predicted to be age-dependent, proportionally greater in adults. Consequently, age group specific dose reductions for propofol are required in LCO conditions.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: In vitro–In vivo Correlation; Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model; BCS Class II; Rivaroxaban; Xarelto; Food Effect; Population Kinetics
Online: 25 January 2021 (09:41:41 CET)
The present work evaluates the food effect on the absorption of rivaroxaban (Riva), a BCS II drug, from the orally administered commercial immediate-release tablet (Xarelto IR) using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and conventional in vitro- in vivo correlation (IVIVC) models. The bioavailability of Riva upon oral administration of Xarelto IR tablet is reported to exhibit a positive food effect. The PBPK model for Riva was developed and verified using the previously reported in vivo data for oral solution (5 and 10 mg) and Xarelto IR tablet (5 and 10 mg dose strength). Once the PBPK model was established, the in vivo performance of the tablet formulation with the higher dose strength (Xarelto IR tablet 20 mg in fasted and fed state) was predicted using the experimentally obtained data of in vitro permeability, biorelevant solubility and in vitro dynamic dissolution data using United States Pharmacopeia (USP) IV flow-through cell apparatus. In addition, the mathematical IVIVC model was developed using the in vitro dissolution and in vivo profile of 20 mg strength Xarelto IR tablet in fasted condition. Using the developed IVIVC model, the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of the Xarelto IR tablet in fed condition was predicted and compared with the PK parameters obtained via the PBPK model. A virtual in vivo PK study was designed using a single-dose, 3-treatment cross-over trial in 50 subjects to predict the PK profile of the Xarelto® IR tablet in the fed state. Overall, the results obtained from the IVIVC model were found to be comparable with that from the PBPK model. The outcome from both the model pointed to the positive food effect on the in vivo profile of the Riva. The developed models thus can be effectively extended to establish bioequivalence for the marketed and novel complex formulations of Riva such as amorphous solid dispersions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0172.v4
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: RNA-dependent amplification of mammalian mRNA; physiologically occurring intracellular PCR, iPCR; RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RdRp; chimeric RNA; sense-strand RNA; antisense-strand RNA
Online: 12 June 2019 (12:21:59 CEST)
The transfer of protein-encoding genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein, a process formalized as the “Central Dogma of Molecular Biology”, has undergone a significant evolution since its inception. It was amended to account for the information flow from RNA to DNA, the reverse transcription, and for the information transfer from RNA to RNA, the RNA-dependent RNA synthesis. These processes, both potentially leading to protein production, were initially described only in viral systems, and although RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity was shown to be present, and RNA-dependent RNA synthesisfound to occur, in mammalian cells, its function was presumed to be restricted to regulatory. However, recent results, obtained with multiple mRNA species in several mammalian systems, strongly indicate the occurrence of protein-encoding RNA to RNA information transfer in mammalian cells. It can result in the rapid production of the extraordinary quantities of specific proteins as was seen in cases of terminal cellular differentiation and during cellular deposition of extracellular matrix molecules. A malfunction of this process may be involved in pathologies associated either with the deficiency of a protein normally produced by this mechanism or with the abnormal abundanceof a protein or of its C-terminal fragment. It seems to be responsible for some types of familial thalassemia and may underlie the overproduction of beta amyloid in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of the present article is to systematize the current knowledge and understanding of this pathway. The outlined framework introduces unexpected features of the mRNA amplification such as its ability to generate polypeptides non-contiguously encoded in the genome, its second Tier, a physiologically occurring intracellular polymerase chain reaction, iPCR, a Two-Tier Paradox and RNA Dark Matter. RNA-dependent mRNA amplification represents a new mode of genomic protein-encoding information transfer in mammalian cells. Its potential physiological impact is substantial, it appears relevant to multiple pathologies and its understanding opens new venues of therapeutic interference, it suggests powerful novel bioengineering approaches and its further rigorous investigations are highly warranted.