ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0039.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Affective Computing; Physiological sensors; Non-intrusive; Learner Modelling; User-centred systems
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:52:44 CET)
Emotion recognition is becoming very relevant in educational scenarios, since previous research has proven the strong influence of emotions on the student's engagement and motivation. There is no standard method for stating student's affect, but physiological signals have been widely used in educational contexts. Physiological signals have been proved to offer high accuracy in detecting emotions because they reflect spontaneous affect-related information, and which is fresh and do not require an additional control or interpretation. However, most proposed works use measuring equipment that limit its applicability in real-world scenarios because of their high cost and their intrusiveness. Expensive material means an economic challenge for schools and reduce the scalability of the experiments. Intrusive equipment can be uncomfortable for the students which can lead to errors in the collected data. In this work, we analyse the feasibility of developing a low-cost non-intrusive device that integrates easy-to-capture signals that guarantee high detection accuracy. The advantage of the approach also lies in using user’s centred information sources (intra-subject) in real-world situations, which provide better detection accuracy, by offering models adapted to each subject. To this end, we present an experimental study that aims to explore the potential application of Hidden Markov Models (HMM) to predict the concentration state from 4 commonly used physiological signals, namely heart rate, breath rate, skin conductance and skin temperature. We study the multi-fusion of every possible combination of these four signals and analyse their potential use in an educational context in terms of intrusiveness, cost and accuracy. Results show that a high accuracy can be achieved with three of the signals when using HMM-based intra-subject models. However, inter-subject models, which are meant to obtain subject-independent approaches for affect detection, fail at the same task. This work concludes that the implementation of a low-cost wrist-worn device for recognising relevant emotions from each student is possible and open the way to a wide range of practical applications in the context of adaptive learning systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0403.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: behavioral change prediction; learned features; deep feature learning; handcrafted features; bidirectional long-short term memory; autoencoders; temporal convolutional neural network; clinical decision support system; multisensory stimulation therapy; physiological signals.
Online: 31 March 2022 (08:38:58 CEST)
Predicting change from multivariate time series has relevant applications ranging from medical to engineering fields. Multisensory stimulation therapy in patients with dementia aims to change the patient’s behavioral state. For example, patients who exhibit a baseline of agitation may be paced to change their behavioral state to relaxed. This study aims to predict changes in behavioral state from the analysis of the physiological and neurovegetative parameters to support the therapist during the stimulation session. In order to extract valuable indicators for predicting changes, both handcrafted and learned features were evaluated and compared. The handcrafted features were defined starting from the CATCH22 feature collection, while the learned ones were extracted using a Temporal Convolutional Network, and the behavioral state was predicted through Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory Auto-Encoder, operating jointly. From the comparison with the state-of-the-art, the learned features-based approach exhibits superior performance with accuracy rates of up to 99.42% with a time window of 70 seconds and up to 98.44% with a time window of 10 seconds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0731.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: mitochondria; physiological uncoupling; permeability transition; reversibility
Online: 30 June 2021 (11:37:53 CEST)
Abstract: The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial unspecific pore (ScMUC) is an uncoupling unspecific pore that shares some similarities with the mammalian permeability transition pore (mPTP). When open, both channels deplete ion and proton gradients across the inner mitochon-drial membrane. However, the role of mPTP is to reversibly open to protect cells against stress. If mPTP remains stuck in the open position the cell dies. In contrast, ScMUC is probably dedicated to deplete oxygen from the medium in order to kill competing organisms. Such O2 depletion would be better achieved if oxidative phosphorylation is at least mildly uncoupled. Still, when oxida-tive phosphorylation is needed ScMUC should be able to close. To test this, the reversible opening and closing of ScMUC in the presence of different effectors was tested in isolated mitochondria from S. cerevisiae. Evaluations were conducted at different incubation times, monitoring the rate of O2 consumption, mitochondrial swelling and the transmembrane potential. It was observed that ScMUC did remain reversibly open for minutes. A low energy charge (ATP/ADP) closed the chan-nel. In addition, high Ca2+ promoted closing and it was a highly powerful effector.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1236.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Signal Processing Keywords: wearable technology; autism spectrum disorder; physiological signals
Online: 17 August 2023 (12:59:38 CEST)
Research on wearable solutions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been conducted to detect stress. However, studies on stress detection for an individual with ASD have been limited, especially on how it should design for individuals with ASD. Wearable solutions may be a tool for parents and caregivers for emotional monitoring for individuals with ASD who have a high risk of experiencing very stressful. However, wearable solutions for individuals with ASD may differ from those without ASD. Individuals with ASD have sensory sensitiveness; therefore, they do not tolerate any accessory type or discomfort to use. We used the Scopus, PubMed, WoS, and IEEE-Xplore databases to answer different research questions related to wearable solutions for individuals with ASD, physiological parameters, and algorithms of artificial intelligence used for stress detection studies found from 2013 to 2023. Our review found 34 articles; not all the studies considered individuals with ASD or were out of the scope.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: blood brain barrier; physiological; pathological; glioblastoma; intervention
Online: 14 July 2022 (15:02:52 CEST)
The blood brain barrier (BBB) is an essential component in regulating and maintaining the homeostatic microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS). During the occurrence and development of glioblastoma (GBM), BBB is pathologically disrupted with markedly increased permeability. Due to the obstruction imposed by the BBB, strategies currently employed for GBM therapeutics still obtain a very low success rate and lead to systemic toxicity. Moreover, chemotherapy could promote pathological BBB functional restoration, accompanied with a prominent decrease of intracerebral therapeutics transportion during GBM multiple administration, resulting in chemotherapy failure for GBM treatment. The effective delivery of therapeutics into the brain still faces with severe challenges. Regulation of pathological BBB for enhanced transporting of therapeutics across the barrier may provide new opportunities for effective and safe treatment of GBM. This article reviews the structure and function of BBB in physiological state, the mechanisms underlying BBB pathological fenestration during the development of GBM, and the therapeutic strategies of GBM based on BBB intervention and therapeutic drugs transporting across the BBB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0065.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: human-robot interaction; touch; physiological arousal; anthropomorphic framing
Online: 1 June 2023 (08:22:43 CEST)
The growing prevalence of social robots in various fields necessitates a deeper understanding of touch in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). This study investigates how human-initiated touch influences physiological responses during interactions with robots, considering factors such as anthropomorphic framing of robot body parts and attributed gender. Two types of anthropomorphic framings are applied: the use of anatomical body part names and assignment of male or female gender to the robot. Higher physiological arousal is observed when touching less accessible body parts than when touching more accessible body parts in both conditions. Results also indicate that using anatomical names intensifies arousal compared to the control condition. Additionally, touching the male robot resulted in higher arousal in all participants, especially when anatomical body part names were used. This study contributes to the understanding of how anthropomorphic framing and gender impact physiological arousal in touch interactions with social robots, offering valuable insights for social robotics development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0880.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Prunus mume; chilling requirement; physiological mechanism of dormancy
Online: 12 May 2023 (04:29:22 CEST)
Low-temperature plays a vital role in the growth and development of woody plants. In this research, based on the way of artificial low temperature to break dormancy, the Utah model was used to determine the chilling requirements of four early-flowering Prunus mume cultivars, which were widely planted in Henan area of China. At the same time, changes in the carbohydrates, antioxidant enzyme activities, and endogenous hormone contents of the flower buds (FBs) of the above P.mume cultivars were measured during the low-temperature storage process, and the physiological changes of the four cultivars during the low-temperature induction period were explored. The main research conclusions are as follows: (1) The chilling requirements of ‘Gulihong’, ‘Nanjing gongfen’, ‘Zaoyudie’ and ‘Zaohualve’ were 408CU, 396CU, 372CU and 348CU respectively. All the P.mume cultivars belonged to low chilling demand cultivars. The P.mume also bloomed 4 months earlier (2) During the process of releasing dormancy at low temperature, the contents of soluble sugar (SS) in the osmoregulation system of the four Prunus mume cultivars showed an upward trend, while the contents of starch (ST) basically showed an opposite trend with the increase of chilling. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the FBs of each cultivar gradually decreased with the accumulation of cold and maintained at a low level, the peroxidase (POD) activity showed the opposite trend, and the dynamic changes of the catalase (CAT) activity generally showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing. The content of abscisic acid (ABA) showed a trend of increasing first and then decreasing as a whole. The changing trend of gibberellin (GA3) content was similar to that of ABA. In addition, it was found that before dormancy was released, the SS and Pro contents of cultivars with lower chilling requirements and early FB germination were significantly higher than those of other cultivars with higher chilling requirements, and the contents of ST and SP were lower. The cultivars with higher chilling requirement and late flower bud germination had higher ABA content, lower GA3 contents, and their enzyme activities were significantly higher than those of the cultivars with lower chilling requirement. Therefore, the changes in the content of various substances in FBs are related to the amount of cooling required by the cultivar and the sooner or later the FBs germinate, and the changes in their contents can be used as one of the indicators for judging the dormancy process of FBs.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Meniscal injury; anatomical basis; physiological changes; biochemical changes
Online: 29 March 2021 (13:10:31 CEST)
The meniscus is a meniscus-shaped fibrocartilage tissue located between the femur and tibia，it is mainly composed of meniscus cells and related extracellular matrix.The synovial limbus area of the knee joint capsule near the meniscus is divided into red areas with rich blood vessels and white areas with less blood supply according to the distribution of blood vessels,there is a transition zone called the red and white zone between the two;Red zone has better self-repair ability,The injury in this area can be treated by conservative treatment or surgical suture;Once the white area of the meniscus is torn and involves the free edge area,It is often necessary to partially remove the damaged meniscus.When most of the entire meniscus is severely torn and involved,not only the course of the disease is very long, but it cannot be repaired by sutures,Often a subtotal or total meniscus resection is required,whether it is a partial meniscus resection, a subtotal meniscus resection or a complete resection.In the later period, it may cause quadriceps atrophy and osteoarthritis (OA）.OA is a refractory multi-system disease,involve the patient’s peripheral joints,it has high disability and teratogenicity, and is very harmful to human health.Chondrocyte pyrolysis, degradation, and inflammation play a vital role in the destruction of OA articular cartilage and chondrocyte apoptosis.Meniscus stem cells have strong proliferation and differentiation ability,has become one of the hot spots in the field of meniscus repair,this article studies the role of meniscal stem cells in the development of OA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0174.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: heart rate variability; dyads; physiological synchrony; relationship; emotion
Online: 15 November 2019 (06:09:04 CET)
The mere co-presence of another person synchronizes physiological signals, but no study has systematically investigated effects of type of emotional context and type of relationship in eliciting dyadic physiological synchrony. In this study, we investigated the synchrony of pairs of strangers, companions, and romantic partners while watching a series of video clips designed to elicit different emotions. Maximal cross-correlation of heart rate variability (HRV) was used to quantify dyadic synchrony. The findings suggest that an existing social relationship might reduce the predisposition to conform one's autonomic responses to a friend or romantic partner during social situations that do not require direct interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0223.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: hyacinthus; Caulerpa taxifolia; thermal stress; physiological processes; gene expression
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:05:02 CET)
An increasing ecological phase-shift from coral dominated reefs to macroalgae dominated reefs as a result of anthropogenic impacts, such as eutrophication, sedimentation, and overfishing, has been observed in many reef systems around the world. Ocean warming is a universal threat to both corals and macroalgae, which may alter the outcome of competition between them. Therefore, in order to explore the effects of indirect and direct exposure to macroalgae on the physiological, biochemical, and genetic expression of corals at elevated temperature, the coral Acroproa hyacinthus and highly invasive green algae Caulerpa taxifolia have been chosen. Physiologically, the results exhibited that distinguish from control and direct contact treatments, the density and chlorophyll a content of zooxanthella decreased by 53.1% and 71.2% respectively, when coral indirect contacted with algae at ambient temperature (27°C). Besides, enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in coral tissue were enhanced by interacting with algae. After an increase of 3°C, the density and chlorophyll a content of zooxanthella reduced by 84.4% and 93.8% respectively, whereas the enzmy activities of SOD and CAT increased by 2.3 and 3.1-fold. However, only the zooxanthellae density and pigment content decreased when C.taxifolia co-culture with A.hyacinthus at 30°C. Molecularly, different from the control group, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) such as Rab family, ATG family and Casp7 were significantly enriched in endocytosis, autophagy and apoptosis pathways , regardless whether A.hyacinthus was indirect or indirect exposure to C.taxifolia at 27°C. Under thermal stress without algae interaction, the DEGs were significantly enriched in microbial immune signal transduction pathways, such as Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and TNF signaling pathway, while multiple cellular immunity (IFI47, TRAF family) and oxidative stress (CAT, SODC, HSP70) genes were up-regulated. Inversely, compared with corals without interaction with algae at 30°C, the DEGs of corals interacted with C.taxifolia at 30°C, were remarkably enriched in apoptosis, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, including the transcription factors such as Casp family, TRAF family. In conclusion, the density and chlorophyll a content of zooxanthella remained a fading tendency induced by macroalgae at ambient temperature. The oxidative stress and immune response levels of coral has been elevated at 30°C, but macroalgae alleviated the negative effects triggered by thermal stress.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: clams; physiological status; stress; cold chain; free amino acid
Online: 30 June 2021 (11:58:19 CEST)
With the extension of the post-catch circulation time, a series of changes had taken place in the soft tissue of the live clams, resulting in the decline of its quality. This study investigated the quality changes of clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in cold chain and was mainly focused on the rehydration process, which included gradient heating rehydration (GR) and sudden heating rehydration (SR). It was found that the GR had a better effect on the quality of clams than the SR. The GR stage clams showed a higher survival rate, glycogen content and adenylate energy charge (A.E.C) value than the SR stage clams. Conversely, the GR stage clams showed lower lactic acid content and K-value than the SR stage clams. The results indicated that the gradient heating rehydration was beneficial to the quality of clams. The transportation and rehydration strategies benefited both producers and shellfish merchants to save total cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: ugenol; anaesthesia; crucian crap; physiological and biochemical indexes; histology; flavor
Online: 3 July 2023 (13:09:42 CEST)
Eugenol is a widely used fishery anaesthetic. This study investigated the effects of various concentrations of eugenol on blood physiological and biochemical indexes, and muscle flavor, in crucian carp (Carassius auratus). To determine the appropriate concentration of eugenol anesthetic for use in crucian carp transportation and production operations, we evaluated seven anaesthesia groups of 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 mg/L and one control group (without eugenol) to determine the effects on blood physiological and biochemical indexes, and muscle flavor. The red blood cells and platelets of crucian carp decreased significantly (P<0.05) with eugenol treatment. With increasing eugenol concentration, the white blood cells and hemoglobin did not change significantly, whereas lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase increased significantly (P<0.05). The content of phosphorus, magnesium and sodium increased after anaesthesia, whereas the content of potassium decreased with increasing eugenol concentration. After anaesthesia, the content of albumin and total protein in the serum decreased with increasing eugenol concentration (P<0.05); triglyceride first increased and subsequently decreased (P<0.05); blood glucose content first increased and then decreased (P<0.05); and no significant difference was observed in total cholesterol content (P>0.05). No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen and liver glycogen content after eugenol anaesthesia (P>0.05). The eugenol-based anaesthesia test did not indicate major liver histomorphological effects, but the very small number of gill sheet edema cases observed requires further study. Analysis of electronic nose data indicated that eugenol treatment affected the flavor of the fish. The anaesthesia concentration of 20–80 mg/L had little effect on the physiology and biochemistry of crucian carp, thus providing a reference for the application of eugenol in crucian carp transportation and experimental research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0062.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Bioinformatics analysis; Drought stress; Gene expression; Physiological parameters; Tomato; Transcriptome.
Online: 4 October 2021 (15:01:07 CEST)
Identification of the differentially-expressed genes is important for clarification of the complex molecular mechanisms under drought conditions. In this experiment, transcriptome profiles of sensitive and tolerant tomato genotypes under drought stress were analyzed. Three up-regulated genes were selected, included CAB3 (Chlorophyll a-b binding protein3), SAMDC (S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase proenzyme), and ACS9 (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 9). After bioinformatics analysis, tomato genotypes were subjected to drought stress and gene expression was determined using Real-Time-PCR. Physiological parameters of genotypes were also measured by spectrophotometer-based methods. According to the results, these three genes play a key role in stress tolerance. Expression of the CAB3 gene in both sensitive and tolerant genotypes was not significantly different compared to the control, but the SAMDC gene decreased in both genotypes and the ACS9 gene decreased in sensitive genotype and increased in tolerant genotype. The physiological analysis also showed that under stress conditions, the photosynthetic system of the plant was disrupted and the chlorophyll content was reduced, but, proline content and antioxidant enzymes activity increased, in which their quantity in the tolerant genotype was significantly higher than sensitive. Under drought stress, due to damage to the lipid membrane, Malondialdehyde content also increased, in which the sensitive genotype was more affected.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0489.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Heat stress; molecular responses; morphological responses; physiological process; reproductive activity
Online: 25 August 2021 (11:46:08 CEST)
An astonishing increase in temperature is posing several harmful impacts on crop plants. Heat stress is an abiotic environmental phenomenon that causes limits, inhibits plant growth, metabolism, and productivity worldwide, resulting in losses in production yields. Heat stress is caused by human activities and global warming,s such as greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapour. There are many pieces of evidence to support that heat stress reduces the crop plants yield worldwide, and the effects of heat stress are challenging to meet nutritional security and global food security for human beings. Heat stress has negative impacts on each developmental stage, including from germination to harvesting. Prevalent approaches for heat adaption is inadequate management that is unable either to increase the crop productivity or sustain ld. Several responses to dissect the relevant knowledge about heat stress mechanism involving morphological phenomena, physiological phenomena, reproductive replies, and molecular responses such as heat shock proteins act as mRNA synthesis, mRNA control (effects of genes during heat stress), the translation process, heat response element. There are such phenomena involving disseminating the knowledge concerning heat stress. In this review, we summarise the effect of heat stress on plant mechanisms, including morphological, biochemical and molecular responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0596.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: schizophrenia; neuro-immune; inflammation; physiological stress; bacterial translocation; psychiatry; LPS
Online: 27 July 2021 (09:16:54 CEST)
There is evidence that schizophrenia is characterized by activation of the immune-inflammatory response (IRS) and compensatory immune-regulatory (CIRS) systems and lowered neuroprotection. Studies performed on antipsychotic-naïve first episode psychosis (AF-FEP) and schizophrenia (FES) patients are important as they may disclose the pathogenesis of the disease. However, the interactome of FEP/FES is not well delineated. The aim of the current study was to delineate the characteristics of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of AN-FEP and its transition to FES and the biological functions, pathways, and molecular patterns, which are over-represented in FEP/FES. PPI network analysis shows that FEP and FEP/FES are strongly associated with a response to a bacterium, TNF, NFκB, RELA, SP1, JAK-STAT, death receptor and TLR4 signaling, and tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT proteins. Specific molecular complexes of the peripheral immune response are associated with microglial activation, neuroinflammation and gliogenesis. FEP/FES is accompanied by lowered protection against inflammation in part attributable to dysfunctional miRNA maturation, deficits in neurotrophin/Trk, RTK and Wnt/catenin signaling and adherens junction organization. Lowered neuroprotection due to reduced neurotrophin/Trk and Wnt/catenin signaling, and DISC1 expression and multiple interactions between lowered BDNF, CDH1, CTNNB, and DISC1 expression, increase the vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects of immune products including cytokines and complement factors. All pathways or molecular patterns enriched in the interactome of FEP/FES are directly or indirectly affected by LPS. In summary: FEP appears to be triggered by a biotic stimulus (e.g. Gram-negative bacteria) which may induce neuro-immune toxicity cascades especially when anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic protections are deficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0175.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: fruit transport; mechanical damage; physiological disorders; fruit maturity; colour; firmness
Online: 7 December 2020 (16:00:33 CET)
The study assessed the changes in the quality and physical and chemical parameters of apples of four cultivars (‘Gala’, ‘Idared’, ‘Topaz’, ‘Red Prince’) subjected to mechanical vibrations during transport under model conditions and after storage (shelf-life). Quality changes in apples were evaluated based on skin and flesh colour, total soluble solids, dry matter, firmness, titratable acidity, pH value, total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. The applied vibrations at a frequency of 28 Hz caused changes in the above parameters, which were visible also after storage and depended on cultivar, but did not show any clear trend or direction. Skin colour varied whereas flesh colour remained stable. Vibrations resulted in a decrease in firmness. The greatest stability of quality parameters, the highest content of bioactive compounds and the highest antioxidant capacity were observed for ‘Red Prince’ and ‘Topaz’ apples – this refers to the control and treated samples before and after storage. However, total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity increased in all studied cultivars as a result of vibrations and storage, which suggests that 28 Hz mechanical vibrations and short-term cold storage did not reduce the health promoting potential of the apples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0345.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: physiological helical flow; mechanical heart valve prostheses; aorta; PIV; trileaflet
Online: 16 October 2020 (11:54:53 CEST)
Background - Physiological helical flow in the ascending aorta has been well documented in the last two decades, accompanied by discussions on possible physiological benefits of such axial swirl. Recent 4D-MRI studies on healthy volunteers have shown indication of early generation of helical flow, early in the systole and already close to the valve plane. Objectives - Firstly, the aim of the study is to investigate the hypothesis of premature swirl existence in the ventricular outflow tract leading to already helical flow in the valve plane, and second to investigate the possible impact of two different mechanical valves design on the preservation of this early helical flow and its subsequent hemodynamic consequences. Methods - We use a pulse duplicator with an aortic arch and High Speed Particle Image Velocimetry to document the flow evolution in the systolic cycle. The pulse-duplicator is modified with a swirl-generating insert to generate early helical flow in the valve plane. Special focus is laid on the interaction of such helical flow with different designs of mechanical prosthetic heart valves, comparing a classical bileaflet mechanical heart valve, the St Jude Medical Regent valve (SJM Regent BMHV) with the Triflo trileaflet mechanical heart valve T2B version (Triflo TMHV). Results – When the swirl-generator is inserted, a vortex is generated in the core flow demonstrating early helical flow in the valve plane, similar as observed in the recent 4-D-MRI study taken for comparison. For the Triflo trileaflet valve, the early helical flow is not obstructed in the central orifice, similar as in the case of the natural valve. Conservation of angular momentum leads to radial expansion of the core flow and flattening of the axial flow profile downstream in the arch. Furthermore, the early helical flow helps to overcome separation at the outer and inner curvature. In contrast, the two parallel leaflets for the bileaflet valve impose a flow straightener effect, annihilating the angular momentum with negative impact on kinetic energy of the flow. Conclusion - The results imply better hemodynamics for the Triflo trileaflet valve based on hydrodynamic arguments under the discussed hypothesis. In addition, it makes the Triflo valve a better candidate for replacements in patients with pathological generation of nonaxial velocity in ventricle outflow tract.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: physiological indicators; reflectance spectra; Suaeda salsa; salt stress; coastal wetland
Online: 17 March 2020 (04:17:29 CET)
In order to understand the response mechanism between plant stress, physiological indicators and hyperspectral indices, pot experiments were conducted on Suaeda salsa seedlings collected from a coastal wetland area to reveal the effects of salt stress on the physiological indicators and reflectance spectra of Suaeda salsa at the canopy and leaf level. The Suaeda salsa seedlings were exposed to seven salt treatments of different concentrations (0 mmol/L (control), 50 mmol/L, 100 mmol/L, 200 mmol/L, 300 mmol/L, 400 mmol/L, and 600 mmol/L) in natural conditions. The physiological indicators of plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, leaf succulence, chlorophyll content, and carotenoid content were measured, in addition to the reflectance spectra of Suaeda salsa at both the canopy and leaf level. Firstly, the effects of salt stress on the physiological indicators and reflectance spectra were analyzed by the qualitative and quantitative methods. Then, physiological indicators sensitive to salt stress were further retrieved. Afterwards hyperspectral indices such as a/b and ((a-b)/(a+b) ) sensitive to salt stress were also extracted by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keuls (S-N-K) comparison test. Our results showed that plant height, root length, leaf succulence, biomass, Chl-a, and Chl-b were sensitive to salt stress, while carotenoids (Car) and relative water content on the root were not significantly affected by salt stress. At the salt concentration of 200 mmol/L, plant height, biomass, relative water content, leaf succulence peaked. With enhanced salt stress, physiological indicators decreased. The first-order derivative spectral reflectance has the highest correlation with salt stress, compared to the control. The spectral index most sensitive to the salt stress at the canopy level is (D903−D851)/(D903+D851), for which the multiple determination coefficient (r2) is 0.9216. While the most sensitive spectral index to the salt stress is (D442−D667)/(D442+D667) at the leaf level, for which the r2 is −0.898. In summary, the results indicated that there exists the quantitative relationship between the physiological indicators and spectra reflectance under salt stress and hyperspectral plant indices can effectively estimate the degree of salt stress. The inconsistency between the diagnostic hyperspectral plant indices at the canopy and leaf levels may be caused by the observation conditions, canopy structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0097.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: cryogenic milling; ginseng; particle size; physiological activity; roasting; water solubility
Online: 10 January 2020 (10:13:27 CET)
This study aimed to decrease the particle size of ginseng by roasting and cryogenic milling to increase its water solubility and physiological activity. The samples were roasted for different times (9–21 min) and generated in different sizes (10–50, and > 50 μm). All roasted samples revealed significantly smaller particle sizes than did non-roasted samples based on Sauter mean diameter (D [3,2], p < 0.05). Further, the particle sizes of roasted samples decreased till roasting up to 15 min. In terms of the water solubility index (WSI), antioxidant activity, total polyphenol content (TPC), and total polysaccharides according to particle size, 10-20 μm-sized samples showed the highest values when compared with >50 μm-sized samples. Based on roasting time, WSI values of all samples roasted for up to 15 min were higher than those of the control (not roasted) (p < 0.05). Antioxidant activity and TPC also increased with increasing roasting time. Total polysaccharide content was the highest upon roasting for 15 min except for the 10-20 μm sample. Ginsenoside content of roasted samples >20 μm size was higher than that of the control (not roasted) except after 15 min of roasting. Therefore, roasting and cryogenic milling are effective in producing ginseng root powder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0627.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Non-headed Chinese cabbage; heat stress; physiological mechanism; heat-resistant varieties
Online: 9 May 2023 (09:40:07 CEST)
Under the increasingly severe global heat threat, continuous high temperature has far-reaching effects on plant growth and development and become a major constraint to crop production. The development of heat-resistant varieties has become research hotspot in many fields, and it is also necessary to establish effective identification methods. In this study, twenty Brassica rapa varieties were selected to to investigate the physiological and biochemical characteristics under heat stress, explore the relationship between physiological response and the heat resistance mechanism, select some typical heat-resistant and heat-sensitive varieties. The effects of photosynthetic electron transfer and antioxidant pathway on heat resistance of Brassica rapa were identified. These findings will providing an important reference for the physiological regulation and identification method of high-temperature stress in plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: critical care; physiological measurement; nursing and nursing systems; naturalistic study; fatigue
Online: 15 November 2022 (03:18:01 CET)
Intensive care nurses are highly prone to occupational stress and burnout, affecting their physical and mental health. The occurrence of the pandemic and related events increased nurses’ workload and exacerbated stress and burnout. We conducted a prospective longitudinal mixed-methods study with a cohort of nurses working in a medical ICU (COVID unit; n = 14) and cardiovascular ICU (non-COVID unit; n = 5). Each participant was followed for six 12-hour shifts. Validated questionnaires measured occupational stress and burnout prevalence. Wrist-worn wearable technologies recorded physiological indices of stress. Participants elaborated on the contributors to stress via post-study questionnaire. Data were analyzed using statistical and qualitative methods. Participants who cared for COVID patients at the COVID unit were 3.71 times more likely to experience stress (p < .001) in comparison to non-COVID unit participants. No differences in stress levels were found when the same participants worked with COVID and non-COVID patients at different shifts at the COVID unit. The cohorts expressed similar contributors to stress including communication tasks, patient acuity, clinical procedures, admission processes, proning, labs, and assisting coworkers. Nurses in COVID units, irrespective of whether they care for a COVID patient, may experience high occupational stress and burnout.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0159.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: dormancy continuum; conditional dormancy; physiological dormancy; synchrony pattern; weed population dynamics
Online: 13 September 2022 (05:37:49 CEST)
In every agricultural setting, weed seeds can be found in every cubic centimeter of soil. Weed seeds, as a valuable trait underlying the fate of weed populations, exhibit differing levels of seed dormancy, ensuring their survival under uncertain conditions. Seed dormancy is considered as an innate mechanism that constrains germination under suitable conditions that would otherwise stimulate germination of non-dormant seeds. This work provides new insight into changes in germination patterns along the dormant to nondormancy continuum in seeds with physiological dormancy. Notable findings are: (1) germination synchrony can act as a new parameter that quantitatively describes dormancy patterns and subsequently weed population dynamics, (2) germination synchrony is dynamic, suggesting that the more dormancy decreases, the more synchrony is obtainable, (3) after-ripening and stratification can function as a synchronizing agent that regulates germination behavior. Brassica napus showed the most synchronous germination with the value of 3.14, while lower level of germination asynchrony was for Sinapis arvensis, with the asynchrony value of 2.25. After-ripening and stratification can act as a synchronizing factor through decreasing asynchrony level and increasing synchrony. Weed establish a firm relationship between dormancy cycling and germination synchrony patterns, ensuring their survival and reproductive strategies. By germinating in synchrony, which is accompanied by cycling mechanisms, weeds have more opportunities to persist. The synchrony model used in the present study predicts germination behavior and synchrony along the dormant to nondormancy continuum in weed seeds with physiological dormancy, suggesting a useful method for quantification of germination strategies and weed population dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0654.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Thermal Comfort; Outdoor Space; Microclimate Simulation; Street Orientation; Physiological Equivalent Temperature
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:02:05 CEST)
Lack of due attention to the orientation of streets and establishment of urban blocks without regard for climatic characteristics and conditions of the environment have an adverse effect on thermal comfort in open urban spaces. Construction of new settlements without taking into account climatic requirements undermines thermal comfort for pedestrians and other users, especially in cold regions. Considering the coldness of the region under study and the significance of the orientation of streets in absorbing radiation and providing heat to outdoor urban spaces, this study investigates the effect of the orientation of streets on microclimatic comfort in one of the residential towns of Hamadan City in Iran. For this purpose, microclimate simulation was performed using ENVI-met software. A residential block with four different orientations (the most common orientations of its surrounding buildings) were simulated in the coldest day of winter and the hottest day of summer. The results suggest that streets have different thermal behavior in different orientations. Orientation affects mean radiant temperature (Tmrt), the duration of exposure to direct sunlight, wind speed, and physiological equivalent temperature (PET), which are all important factors in thermal comfort. Based on these findings, north-south streets in Hamedan receive more radiant temperature during winter compared to other simulated orientations and provide more desirable thermal comfort. The average PET value on a winter day at a point on the north-south passage was 4.5-8 °C warmer than other orientations. In summer, streets with intercardinal orientations (i.e., northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast) provided the lowest PET (about 2 °C cooler than other orientations) and better thermal comfort
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1355.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: selenium; cadmium stress; cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata); photosynthesis; physiological characteristics
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:39:51 CEST)
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) plays a very important role in the annual national vegetable supply and export trade. In recent years, the cadmium content of agricultural soils has increased. As a result, cabbage yields and quality have declined significantly. Studies have shown that selenium can counteract the harmful effects of cadmium on plants and can alleviate the stress caused by cadmium during the growth of plants. However, the mechanism of exogenous selenium application in the alleviation of cadmium stress in cabbage seedlings has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, exogenous selenium (10μMol/L) was applied under cadmium (25μMol/L) stress and the physiological mechanisms such as biomass, photosynthetic pigment, leaf stomata parameters, selenium and cadmium content, chloroplast ultrastructure, active oxygen accumulation, leaf membrane esterification and antioxidant enzyme activity were determined. The protective mechanism of exogenous selenium on cabbage seedlings under cadmium stress was investigated. The re-sults showed that exogenous application of selenium could effectively alleviate the decrease in growth, photosynthetic pigment and gas exchange characteristics of cabbage seedlings under cadmium stress, im-prove cabbage root vitality, reduce root leaf cadmium content and alleviate cadmium stress-induced damage. Ultrastructural observation showed that cadmium stress caused the disruption of the internal structure of chloroplasts of cabbage leaves, while exogenous selenium treatment alleviated the chloroplast damage to some extent, improved the stability of the inner capsule membrane and alleviated the cadmium stress-induced damage to photosynthetic organs. Cadmium stress also caused oxidative damage and ex-cessive accumulation of ROS in the leaves of cabbage seedlings as evidenced by significant accumulation of O2-, H2O2, MDA and electrolyte leakage. On the other hand, after exogenous selenium treatment, cadmium stress- induced oxidative damage could be reduced by up-regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, POD and APX. At the same time, cadmium stress significantly increased GSH levels, and exogenous selenium treatment further increased GSH levels, thereby increasing the tolerance of cabbage to cadmium stress. In conclusion, by protecting the photosynthetic system, eliminating excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species in cadmium-stressed cabbage seedlings, alleviating oxidative stress and reducing cadmium levels in the plant, exogenous selenium can further improve cadmium tolerance in cabbage seedlings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1120.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: heterosis; heterobeltiosis; combining ability; half-diallel; correlation; grain yield; physiological traits; wheat
Online: 16 August 2023 (07:21:15 CEST)
To utilize heterosis and combining ability for grain yield and its attributing traits along with three physiological traits viz., leaf area index, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content in bread wheat (Tritium aestivum L.) the crosses were attempted during rabi, 2019-20 in a half diallel mating scheme among 8 wheat varieties and the study was carried out during rabi, 2020-21 at Block No. D-13 field of Mahua block, Simradha research farm, Rani Lakshmi Bai Central Agricultural University, Jhansi. Analysis of variance showed significant differences for treatments. Based on per se performance the hybrids NW 5054 x PBW 723 (23.3 g), and HI 1544 x NIAW 34 (23.14 g), were identified for the higher grain yield. The hybrid HI 544 x NIAW 34 (18.41 %) was identified as the best heterotic cross for grain yield per plant and its component traits. The hybrids HI 1544 x NIAW 34 (3.40) and HI 1544 x GW 322 (2.76), as well as the parents HD 3086 (21.85) and PBW 723 (20.68), were identified as superior economic hybrids and parents based on SCA/GCA effects, per se performance for grain yield per plant, and its component trait in bread wheat. Days to heading, flag leaf length, biological yield per plant, harvest index, number of grains per spike, 1000 grain weight, spike length, leaf area index, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll content were all positively correlated with grain yield per plant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0481.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; physiological monitoring; blood pressure; near-infrared spectroscopy
Online: 7 July 2023 (09:44:44 CEST)
Background: In recent years, the assessment and guidance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality using noninvasive and invasive monitoring techniques have been increasingly recommended. In this study, we introduce a new physiological monitoring system that simultaneously measures arterial pressure (AP), venous pressure (VP), and cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) during CPR. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted at a single center (Kagoshima City Hospital). Adult out-of-hospital patients aged ≥18 years with an intravenous femoral arterial line, venous line, and SctO2 monitor were included. We measured femoral arterial pressure (FAP) and femoral venous pressure (FVP) invasively if catheters were immediately inserted into the femoral artery and vein for potential candidates who require interventions such as extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation but did not receive such interventions as a result. Results: We observed several representative cases that provided the following insights: We presented several cases, including two patients with significant increases in FVP and low SctO2 values, and in both cases, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was not achieved. In contrast, we also presented two cases in which CPR resulted in higher FAP compared to FVP and an upward trend in SctO2 values was observed, and both instances achieved ROSC. Conclusion: We presented a simultaneous physiological monitoring system that can monitor AP, VP, and SctO2 during CPR. Further case accumulations will be necessary to assess the variations in hemodynamic status during CPR and the association between each hemodynamic status and outcomes after cardiac arrest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0370.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Seasonal Variance; Pedestrians Thermal Comfort; Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET); Adaptive Thermal Comfort
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:14:58 CET)
Season plays a key role in the development of outdoor spaces for pedestrians in hot humid cities. This research studies the influence of seasonal variations on pedestrian thermal comfort on the pedestrian level by means of meteorology and field observations of selected footpaths in the major tourist area of Malacca. This experiment was carried out on selected clear calm days indicative of each season during the development of a research project, and hourly meteorological transects from 10:00 am to 6:00 pm and questioned 200 respondents on their thermal awareness, comfort, and preferences were conducted. Adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, age, season and hour of the day were significant non-meteorological factors, apart from meteorological information. The findings of analyzes showed that the thermal experience and expectation existed and in different seasons people changed perceptions for the outside thermal environment. Almost 80% local tourist and 55 % international tourist was accepted Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) range affected by the local climate and thermal adaptation. The subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature generated an acceptable physiological equivalent temperature of 32.6°C to 36.8°C based on the seasonal variations for Malacca tourist zone in Malaysia. These findings shed light on the optimal design of outdoor spaces for increasing the utilization rate. The seasonal variation must be taken into account so that the outdoor landscape design provides more opportunities for different seasons to communicate with the atmosphere and so enhance thermal comfort and utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0164.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Arbutus unedo L. Artificial Pollination, Breeding, Drought stress, Microscopy, Pollen, Physiological performance
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:08:49 CET)
Arbutus unedo L. is a small Ericaceae tree with a circum-Mediterranean distribution. It has a huge ecological impact on southern Europe forests and a great economic importance, as a source of phytochemicals with bioactive properties and for fruit production. On the foreseen climate change context, breeding towards drought tolerance is necessary in order to ameliorate plant performance. The aim of this work was therefore to study the reproduction mechanisms of strawberry tree, obtain new genetic combinations by hybridization and select genotypes more tolerant to drought stress. A morphological analysis of flowers and pollen was carried out, and controlled pollinations performed both in vitro and ex vitro. The very first approach on strawberry tree breeding by means of hybridization is also presented. Several physiological parameters were evaluated on 26 genotypes submitted to a water deficit regime. Plant behavior under drought greatly varied among genotypes, which showed a high phenotype plasticity. Three genotypes that were able to cope with water restriction without compromising net CO2 assimilation were identified as highly tolerant to drought stress. The results obtained elucidate the reproduction mechanisms of strawberry tree and open the way for a long-term breeding program based on the selection of drought tolerant plants.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: autoimmune diseases; antinuclear antibodies; antinuclear factor; functional autoantibodies; natural autoantibodies; physiological autoimmunity
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:01:32 CET)
Incidence of autoimmune diseases increases. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) testing is a critical tool for their diagnosis. However, ANA prevalence in health increased over last decades, especially among young people. ANA in health occur in low concentrations, with prevalence up to 50% in some populations, which demands a cutoff revision. The review deals with origin and probable physiological or compensatory function of ANA in health, according to the concept of immunological clearance, theory of autoimmune regulation of cell functions and the concept of functional autoantibodies. Considering ANA titers ≤1:320 as a serological marker of autoimmune diseases seems inappropriate. The role of anti-DFS70/LEDGFp75 autoantibodies is highlighted as possible anti-risk biomarker for autoimmune rheumatic disorders. ANA prevalence in health is different in various regions due to several underlying causes discussed in the review, all influencing in additive combinations according to the concept of the mosaic of autoimmunity. Not only titer, but the HEp-2 IFA staining patterns, like AC-2, is also important. Accepting autoantibodies as a kind of bioregulators, not only upper, but also lower borders of their normal range should be determined. Not only their excess, but also lack of them or “autoimmunodeficiency” could be a reason of disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0169.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Acanthus species; flooding stress; physiological; comparative proteomics analyses; carbon and energy metabolism
Online: 7 December 2020 (15:09:37 CET)
The mangrove plant Acanthus ilicifolius and its relative, A. mollis, have been previously proved to possess diverse pharmacological effects. Therefore, evaluating the differentially expressed proteins of these species under tidal flooding stress is essential to fully exploit and benefit from their medicinal values. The roots of A. ilicifolius and A. mollis were exposed to 6 h of flooding stress per day for 10 days. The dry weight, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, anatomical characteristics, carbon and energy levels, and two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS technology were used to reveal the divergent flooding resistant strategies. A. ilicifolius performed better under tidal flooding stress, which was reflected in the integrity of the morphological structure, more efficient use of carbon and energy, and a higher percentage of up-regulated proteins associated with carbon and energy metabolism. A. mollis could not survive in flooding conditions for a long time, as revealed by incomplete cell structures of the roots, less efficient use of carbon and energy, and a higher percentage of down-regulated proteins associated with carbon and energy metabolism. Energy provision and flux balance played a role in the flooding tolerance of A. ilicifolius and A. mollis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0467.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: respiratory acidosis; CO2 narcosis; acute respiratory distress syndrome; hyperoxia; unexplained physiological event
Online: 26 April 2020 (03:26:09 CEST)
Over the last 20 years, there has been a significant increase in the number of unexplained physiological events (UPEs) reported by pilots of fighter jets across different fleets. The UPEs have resulted in grounding some types of aircraft, loss of airplanes, and even loss of life. Despite considerable research, no single agreed-upon root cause has been found that explains UPEs, and therefore no reliable corrective actions exist. The purpose of this review was to analyze the literature related to other industries in which artificial hyperoxic gas mixes are employed and similar adverse reports have been reported. Based on analysis of the literature, it is hypothesized that UPEs are caused by unlimited delivery of high-dose oxygen in excess of officially approved oxygen schedules in the presence of inadequate airflow rates, at a time when the positive pressure breathing feature of their oxygen regulator system is not used. During flight maneuvers such as climbs, turns, and descents, pulmonary vital capacity is impaired by G-maneuvers and oxygen- and G-induced atelectasis. At the same time, tidal volume is reduced by flight gear, and effective gas exchange is not supported by adequate ventilation. These factors combine to produce hypercarbia, respiratory acidosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, CO2 narcosis, and coma. In fact, reports from field data related to incidents in F-18S/H, showing that emergency oxygen did not correct the hypoxia-like symptoms including long-lasting periods of incapacitation and prolonged headaches, lend support to this hypothesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0155.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: cooling effect; urban park; thermal comfort; physiological equivalent temperature; perceived thermal comfort
Online: 16 September 2019 (01:17:53 CEST)
This empirical study investigates large urban park cooling effects on the thermal comfort of occupants in the vicinity of the main central park, located in Madrid, Spain. Data were gathered during hot summer days, using mobile observations and a questionnaire. The results showed that the cooling effect of this urban park of 140 ha area at a distance of 150 m is able to reduce temperature by an average of 0.63°C and 1.28°C for distances of 380 m and of 665 meters from the park. Moreover, the degree of the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) index at a distance of 150 meters from the park is on average 2°C PET and 2.3°C PET less compared to distances of 380 m and 665 m, respectively. Considering distance from the park, the correlation between occupant Perceived Thermal Comfort (PTC) and PET is inverse. That is, augmenting the distance from park increases PET, while the extent of PTC reduces accordingly. The correlation between these two factors at the nearest and furthest distances from the park is meaningful (P-value <0/05). The results also showed that large-scale urban parks generally play a significant part in creating a cognitive state of high-perceived thermal comfort spaces for residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0166.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: DArTseq; Groundnut; Linkage disequilibrium; Marker assisted selection; Marker trait association; Physiological traits
Online: 12 July 2019 (11:42:33 CEST)
In order to integrate genomics in breeding and development of drought tolerant groundnut genotypes, identification of genomic regions/genetic markers for drought surrogate traits is essential. We used SNP markers for a genetic analysis of the ICRISAT groundnut minicore collection for genome wide marker-trait association for some physiological traits and to determine the magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD) present in the genetic resources. The LD analysis showed that about 36% of loci pairs were in significant LD (P < 0.05 and r2 > 0.2) and 3.14% of the pairs were in complete LD. There was rapid decline in LD with distance and the LD was <0.2 at a distance of 41635 bp. The marker trait association (MTAs) studies revealed 20 significant MTAs (p <0.001) with 11 markers for leaf area index (4), canopy temperature (13), chlorophyll content (1) and NDVI (2). The markers explained 2 to 21% of the phenotypic variation observed. Most of the MTAs identified on the A subgenome were also identified on the respective homeologous chromosome on the B subgenome. The duplications of effect observed could be due to common ancestor of the A and B genome which explains the linkage detected between markers lying on different chromosomes seen in the current study. The present study identified a total of 20 highly significant marker trait associations with 11 markers for four physiological traits of importance in groundnut; LAI, CT, SCMR and NDVI. The markers identified in this study can serve as useful genomic resources to initiate marker-assisted selection and trait introgression of groundnut for drought tolerance. The identified markers in this study may be useful for marker assisted selection after further validation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0426.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice, abiotic stress, high temperature, drought, physiological responses, molecular mechanisms, systems biology
Online: 26 June 2018 (15:30:20 CEST)
Rice production, owing to its high-water requirement for cultivation, is very vulnerable to the threat of changing climate, particularly prolonged drought and high temperature. Such threats heighten the need for abiotic stress-resilient rice varieties with better yield potential. This review examines the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rice varieties to cope with stress conditions of drought (DS), high temperature (HTS) and their combination (DS-HTS). It appraises research studies in rice about its various phenotypic traits, genetic loci and response mechanisms to stress conditions to help craft new breeding strategies for rice varieties with improved resilience to abiotic stresses. This review consolidates available information on promising rice cultivars with desirable traits as well as advocates synergistic and complementary approaches in molecular and systems biology to develop new rice breeds that favorably respond to climate-induced abiotic stresses. The development of new breeding and cultivation strategies for climate-resilient rice varieties is a challenging task. It requires a comprehensive understanding of the various morphological, biochemical, physiological, and molecular components governing yield under drought and high temperature, but possible by implementing cohesive approaches involving molecular and systems biology approaches in genomics and molecular breeding, including genetic engineering.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1421.v1
Subject: Anatomy And Physiology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Physical endurance; renal function; exercise-induce dehydration, athlete health, urinary biomarkers, physiological stress.
Online: 21 September 2023 (08:49:56 CEST)
Endurance triathlons impose substantial physiological stress, yet effects of short-course formats remain relatively unexplored. In this preliminary study, we assessed proteinuria and hydration levels in 27 well-trained triathletes (41.9 [7.4] years) who completed a sprint triathlon consisting of a 1500-m swim, 26-km cycle, and 8-km run. Urine samples were collected before and after the race. The results showed an increase in cases of post-race proteinuria from four to nine (p=0.03). Also, one case of urobilinuria and ketoacidosis was observed after the race. Pre-race glucosuria, which was present in nine cases, decreased to three cases post-race. Although hematuria cases decreased from six to two (p=0.13), pre-race leukocyturia (found in two cases) resolved post-race. There was a significant increase in urine specific gravity (from 1.018 to 1.023, p=0.03), indicating dehydration. In conclusion, short-course triathlons were found to induce post-race proteinuria, urobilinuria, and dehydration without exacerbating pre-race glucosuria, hematuria, or leukocyturia. These preliminary findings contribute to our understanding of medical guidelines for sprint triathlons, an area of endurance sports that has received limited research attention. Further investigation, both mechanistic and longitudinal, is warranted in this regard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0545.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Physiological Computing; Data Acquisition Toolkit; Multi-user HCI studies; Biofeedback; Signal Quality Assessment
Online: 7 August 2023 (11:52:10 CEST)
The proliferation of physiological sensors opens new opportunities to explore interactions, conduct experiments and evaluate the user experience with continuous monitoring of bodily functions. Commercial devices, however, can be costly or limit access to raw waveform data, while low-cost sensors are efforts-intensive to setup. To address these challenges, we introduce PhysioKit, an open-source, low-cost physiological computing toolkit. PhysioKit consists of (i) a sensor and hardware layer that can be configured in a modular manner per research needs, (ii) a software application layer that enables data acquisition, real-time visualization and machine learning (ML)-enabled signal quality assessment. This also supports basic visual biofeedback configurations and synchronized acquisition for co-located or remote multi-user settings. In a validation study for photo-plethysmography (PPG) sensor with 15 participants, PhysioKit shows strong agreement with research-grade PPG sensors. Furthermore, we report usability survey results from 10 micro-project teams (44 individual members in total) who use PhysioKit for 4-6 weeks, providing insights into its use cases and research benefits. We conclude by discussing extensibility and potential impact of the toolkit on the research community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1083.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: mental effort; machine learning; multimodal physiological signals; sensor fusion; neuroergonomics; human-machine interaction
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:33:33 CEST)
Humans’ performance varies due to the mental resources that are available to successfully pursue a task. To monitor users’ current cognitive resources in naturalistic scenarios, it is essential to not only measure demands induced by the task itself but also consider situational and environmental influences. We conducted a multimodal study with 18 participants (nine female, M = 25.9 with SD = 3.8 years). In this study, we recorded, respiratory, ocular, cardiac, and brain activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) while participants performed an adapted version of the warship commander task with concurrent emotional speech distraction. We tested the feasibility of decoding the experienced mental effort with a multimodal machine learning architecture. The architecture comprised feature engineering, model optimisation, and model selection to combine multimodal measurements in a cross-subject classification. Our approach reduces possible overfitting and reliably distinguishes two different levels of mental effort. These findings contribute to the prediction of different states of mental effort and pave the way toward generalised state monitoring across individuals in realistic applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0565.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: foxtail millet 1; nitrogen use efficiency 2; varieties3; physiological parameters 4; transcriptomics 5.
Online: 9 May 2023 (04:41:12 CEST)
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv) is an important food and forage crop that is well adapted to nutrient-poor soils. However, little is known about how foxtail millet adapts to low nitrogen (LN) at the physiological and molecular levels. In the present study, two foxtail millet varieties with contrasting low nitrogen (LN) tolerance properties were investigated through integrative analyses of physiological featureparameters and transcriptomics. The physiological results showed that JG20 (high tolerance to LN) had higher biomass accumulation, nitrogen content and nitrogen use efficiency compared with JG22 (low tolerancesensitive to LN) under LN. JG20 had higher soluble sugar and soluble protein concentration in shoots compared with JG22 under LN, while contcentrations of soluble sugar and soluble protein contents were higher in the roots of JG22. Higher levels of CTK contentzeatin concentration were found in the shoots of JG20 com-pared with JG22, and a higher ABA contcentration was found in both the shoots and roots of JG22 compared with JG20 under LN. In the transcriptomics results, JG20 had more differentially ex-pressed genes (DEGs) than JG22 both in shoots and roots in response to LN. These LN-responsive genes were enriched in glycolysis, starch and sucrose metabolism, photosynthesis, biosynthesis of amino acids, hormone metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. Furthermore, the high-affinity nitrate transporter gene, SiNRT2.1, and glutamine synthetase gene, SiGS5, chlorophyll apoprotein of photosystem II gene, SiPsbQ, ATP synthase subunit gene, b, auxin-responsive protein gene, SiIAA25, and aldose 1-epimerase gene, SiAEP, in shoots, and high-affinity nitrate transporter gene, SiNRT2.3, SiNRT2.4, and glutamate synthase gene, SiGOGAT2, auxin-responsive protein gene, SiIAA4, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase gene, SiAEP5, in root, were important genes in-volved in the LN tolerance of foxtail millet. These results provide a detailed description of the physiological and transcriptome response of foxtail millet under LN condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0389.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Tomatoes; Night low temperature; Physiological traits; Fruit yield; Tomato breeding; 28 correlation coefficients
Online: 19 July 2021 (10:01:59 CEST)
Tomato is exposure to diverse abiotic stresses. Cold stress is one of harsh environmental stresses and abnormal low temperature affects tomato growth and development including physio- logical disorders, flower drops, and abnormal fruit morphology, causing the decrease of tomato yield and a fruit quality. It is important to identify low temperature-(LT) tolerant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars relying on different fruit types. This study focused on analyzing physiological traits of 35 tomato accessions with three different fruit types (cherry, medium, and large sizes) under night temperature set-points of 15°C for normal temperature (NT) and 10°C for LT, respectively. Plant heights (PH) of most tomato accessions in LT were remarkably decreased compared to those in NT. The growth of leaf length (LL) and leaf width (LW) was reduced depending on the genotypes under LT. In addition, the number of fruits (NFR), fruit set (FS), fruit yield (FY), and marketable yield (MY) were negatively affected in LT. The variation was further investigated by the correlation analysis, the principal component (PCA), and the cluster analysis. Interestingly, positive correlations between different vegetative and reproductive traits were uncovered. Multivariate analysis including the PCA and hierarchical clustering classified LT-treated 35 tomato accessions into four major groups. The identified accessions were associated with vegetative and reproductive parameters on positive directions and might be utilized for breeding programs on selecting LT-tolerant cultivars.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0228.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.); Mercury stress; Phytotoxicity; Physiological and bio-chemical response
Online: 11 May 2021 (10:18:21 CEST)
Cotton is a potential and excellent candidate to balance both agricultural production and reme-diation of mercury-contained soil, as its main production fiber hardly involve into food chains. However, there is known rarely about the tolerance and response to Hg environments in cotton. In this study, The biochemical and physiological damages, in response to mercury (Hg), were investigated in upland cotton seedlings. The results on cottonseeds germination, indicated the germination rate were suppressed by high Hg levels, as the decrease of percentage was more than 10% at 1000 µM Hg. Shoots and roots’ growth were significantly inhibited above 10 µM Hg. The inhibitor rates (IR) in fresh weight were close between shoots and roots, whereas that in dry weight the root growth was more obviously influenced by Hg. In comparison of organs, the growth inhibition ranked as root > leaf > stem. The declining of translocation factor (TF) op-posed the Hg level even as low to 0.05 at 50 µM Hg. The assimilation of cotton plants was af-fected negatively by Hg toxicity, as evidenced from the performances on photosynthesis pig-ments (chlorophyll a and b) and gas exchange (Intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), CO2 assimila-tion rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (Gs)). Sick phenotypes on leaf surface included small white zone, shrinking and necrosis. Membrane lipid peroxidation and leakage were Hg dose-dependent as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative conductivity (RC) values in leaves and roots. More than 10 µM Hg damaged antioxidant enzyme system in both leaves and roots (P<0.05). Concludingly, 10 µM Hg post negative consequences to upland cotton plants in growth, physiology and biochemistry, whereas high phytotoxicity and damage ap-peared at more than 50 µM Hg concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0399.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: scots pine; plus-trees; xylem; lignification; physiological condition; hereditary conditionality; factor analysis; cluster analysis
Online: 20 September 2018 (05:34:23 CEST)
An important moment in the establishment of forestry seed orchards is the formation of their optimal composition, avoiding inbreeding depression in the outgoing seed material which occurs due to crossbreeding between closely related plus trees, the clones of which comprise the orchards. It is possible to minimize the negative effect of inbreeding by considering the hereditary aspect of the heterogeneous seed orchard material. The purpose of our work is to provide a comparative assessment of the formation and lignification of xylem in annual shoots of the plus trees of Scots pine. We investigated the formation and lignification of xylem in the annual shoots of the plus trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), found in natural forests in the Nizhny Novgorod region of the Russian Federation. Their vegetative progeny were cultivated in the clone archive stationed in the same region. Analyzing the one-type of the 1-year shoots, the time that the shoots were cut from the branches corresponded to the presence of plants in the characteristic phenological phases of seasonal development. A histochemical study of xylem was conducted, using the qualitative reactions of phloroglucinol to lignin. The power of xylem development was estimated by counting, in the radial direction, the cell rows from the core to the cambium in the microscope’s field of view. A significant differentiation of plus trees was revealed in a complex of signs characterizing the level of xylem development and the degree of xylem cell lignification in the tissues of annual shoots. Phenotypic differences in the physiological state of plus trees appeared given a leveled ecological background, indicating their genotypic determinism. This was confirmed by an analysis of variance. The share of the influence of differences between the proper plus trees was between 25.16% ± 8.91% and 53.98% ± 5.48% of the total phenotypic variance of the signs of the seasonal state of xylem. Factor analysis was used to reduce the number of considered indicators of xylem physiological state. The results allowed a cluster analysis to be carried out on the basis of the normalized values of the initial xylem features as well as the principal components derived from them. The association of plus trees was done on the basis of the similarity of the multidimensional estimates of xylem seasonal condition. The objects that were the most remote from the others were identified. This information provides a reasonable approach to the formation of an assortment of Scots pine seed orchards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0274.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: asymmetry; mean skin temperature; non-uniform; outdoor environment; physiological response; skin temperature; solar radiation
Online: 16 July 2018 (10:46:36 CEST)
Depending on human body conditions and environmental conditions, it is sometimes difficult to conduct subject experiments. In such cases, it is effective to use a thermal manikin. There are few studies that investigate the effect of the non-uniform and asymmetric outdoor thermal environment on the mean skin temperature. The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of the non-uniform and asymmetric thermal radiation of short-wavelength solar radiation in an outdoor environment on the calculation of the mean skin temperature. The skin temperature of the front of the coronal surface, which was facing the sun and where the body received direct short-wavelength solar radiation, and the skin temperature of the rear of the coronal surface, which was in the shadow and did not receive direct short-wavelength solar radiation were respectively measured. The feet, upper arm, forearm, hand and lower leg, which are susceptible to short-wavelength solar radiation in a standing posture, had a noticeable difference in skin temperature between sites in the sun and in shade. The mean skin temperature of sites facing the sun was significantly higher than the mean skin temperature of those in the shade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0074.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: telomerase; TERT promoter; DNMT3B; pluripotent stem cells; characterization; epigenetic; meth-ylation; physiological oxygen; DNA methyltransferase
Online: 3 November 2022 (09:16:20 CET)
Telomere repeats at the ends of human chromosomes protect chromosomes from degradation, and telomerase has a prominent role in telomere maintenance. Telomerase also affects cell proliferation, DNA replication, differentiation, and tumourigenesis. TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase enzyme) is the catalytic subunit of telomerase and is critical for enzyme activity. TERT promoter mutations and promoter methylation are strongly associated with increased telomerase activation in cancer cells. Notably, TERT and telomerase are downregulated in stem cells during their differentiation. Therefore, the link between differentiation and telomerase provides a valuable tool for studying the epigenetic regulation of TERT enzyme. Oxygen tension affects several cellular behaviours including proliferation, metabolic activity, stemness, and differentiation. The role of oxygen tension in driving promoter modifications of the TERT gene in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is poorly understood either in vitro or in vivo. We adopted a monolayer ESCs differentiation model to explore the role of low, physiological, oxygen (physoxia) in the epigenetic regulation of telomerase and associated genes, including TERT, DNMTs, and HDACs. Cells were cultured in either air, a 2% O2 incubator, or a 2% O2 oxygen workstation to provide a fully defined 2% O2 environment. Pre-gassed media (pre-conditioned to 2% O2 in a HypoxyCool unit) was used in all 2% O2 experimentation. As anticipated, physoxia culture increased the proliferation rate and stemness of ESCs and a slower onset of differentiation in physoxia was evident. Further, downregulated TERT expression was correlated to reduced telomerase activity during differentiation. TERT expression and telomerase activity remained significantly elevated in physoxia during differentiation. A substantial increase in TERT promoter methylation levels was noted during differentiation. Chemical inhibition of DNMT3B reduced TERT promoter methylation and was associated with increased TERT gene and telomerase activity during differentiation. DNMT3B CHiP demonstrated that downregulated TERT expression and increased proximal promoter methylation were associated with DNMT3B binding to the promoter. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that DNMT3B can directly bind TERT promoter, change its methylation levels, and contribute to regulation of telomerase activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0402.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Bacillus nattokinase; Physiological and biochemical characteristics; Molecular structure; Molecular modifcation; Functional food and clinical application
Online: 29 June 2022 (09:39:07 CEST)
Thrombosis has threatened human health in past decades. Bacillus nattokinase is a potential thrombolytic drug without side-effect and low cost and has been introduced into the consumer market as a functional food or dietary supplement. This review firstly summarizes the biodiversity sources and fermentation process of nattokinase, and systematically expounds the structure, cata-lytic mechanism and enzymatic properties of nattokinase; In view of the problems of low fermen-tation yield, insufficient activity and stability of nattokinase, this review discusses the heterologous expression of nattokinase in different microbial hosts, and summarizes the protein and genetic en-gineering progress of nattokinase-producing strains; Finally, this review summarizes the clinical application of nattokinase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0458.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: machine learning; deep leaning; physiological maturity; computer vision; plant breeding; Phenology; Glycine max (L.) Merr.
Online: 19 September 2020 (10:08:43 CEST)
Soybean maturity is a trait of critical importance for the development of new soybean cultivars, nevertheless, its characterization based on visual ratings has many challenges. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) imagery-based high-throughput phenotyping methodologies have been proposed as an alternative to the traditional visual ratings of pod senescence. However, the lack of scalable and accurate methods to extract the desired information from the images remains a significant bottleneck in breeding programs. The objective of this study was to develop an image-based high-throughput phenotyping system for evaluating soybean maturity in breeding programs. Images were acquired twice a week, starting when the earlier lines began maturation until the latest ones were mature. Two complementary convolutional neural networks (CNN) were developed to predict the maturity date. The first using a single date and the second using the five best image dates identified by the first model. The proposed CNN architecture was validated using more than 15,000 ground truth observations from five trials, including data from three growing seasons and two countries. The trained model showed good generalization capability with a root mean squared error lower than two days in four out of five trials. Four methods of estimating prediction uncertainty showed potential at identifying different sources of errors in the maturity date predictions. The architecture used solves limitations of previous research and can be used at scale in commercial breeding programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1451.v1
Subject: Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: stored brown rice; energy and nutrient value; growth performance; physiological and metabolic characteristic; meat quality; pig
Online: 21 September 2023 (04:51:49 CEST)
Long-term storage may reduce the nutritional quality of brown rice, so the present study was aimed to evaluate the nutritive values and application in pig diets. In Exp.1, 18 Landrace × Yorkshire (L × Y) barrows with initial body weight (IBW) of 25.48 ± 3.21 kg were randomly assigned to three treatments, which included corn diet, one-year stored brown rice (BR1) diet and six-year stored brown rice (BR6) diet, to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) value of stored brown rice. In Exp. 2, 24 barrows (L × Y; IBW: 22.16 ± 2.42 kg) fixed with ileal T-cannula were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments, including corn diet, two stored brown rice diets and nitrogen-free diet, to evaluate the amino acid (AA) digestibility of stored brown rice. In Exp. 3 and 4, 108 crossbred weaned piglets (L × Y; IBW: 9.16 ± 0.89 kg) and 90 crossbred growing pigs (L × Y; IBW: 48.28 ± 3.51 kg) were allotted to 3 treatment diets, including control diet and two stored brown rice diets, respectively, to investigate the application of stored brown rice in weaned piglet and growing-finishing pig diets. Results showed that: 1) The DE and ME of corn and stored brown rice showed no significant differences (P > 0.05), while the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of arginine, histidine, aspartic acid, and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of arginine and histidine were higher in stored brown rice compared to corn (P < 0.05). 2) Compared with the control diet, the stored brown rice diets showed no significant effects on growth performance, nutrient apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and serum biochemical indices (P > 0.05), but decreased digestive enzymes activities in duodenum, jejunum and ileum of piglets (P < 0.05). 3) Compared with the control diet, the stored brown rice diets showed no significant effects on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, fatty acids profiles in the longissimus dorsi muscle of growing-finishing pigs (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the brown rice stored for 6 years under good conditions has no obvious changes in available energy and nutrient values. Although it may reduce digestive enzyme activity in small intestine of the piglets, the stored brown rice showed no obvious adverse effect on growth performance and meat quality, and can be effectively used in pig diet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0476.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Sum of active temperatures; SAT; CA storage; physiological disorders; TSS; length of growth; harvest date estimation
Online: 30 September 2022 (07:03:43 CEST)
The European pear is a climacteric fruit species characterized by high storability. 'Conference', a pear cultivar very popular on the market, can be stored in a CA room without major losses for half a year. However, for ‘Conference’ storage to be successful, the fruit must be harvested fully developed even before it enters the climatic maturation phase. Harvested too early or too late, pears will taste bad, have physiological disorders and will be poorly storable. Among the various methods used to determine the optimal harvest date, the degree-days method, which relies of the sum of active temperatures, seems to be relatively accurate and easy to apply. During 11 years of study, ‘Conference’ pears were harvested on 4 dates (every 4-5 days) chosen based on measurements and observations, and then, after a six-month storage period, the optimum harvest date was determined. During the growing season, temperature was measured using an automatic weather station to calculate the sum of active temperatures from full bloom to the optimal harvest date. Measurements made after storage were analysed and the sum of active temperatures needed for the proper development of ‘Conference’ pear was calculated to be 2469 degree days. The calculations are very accurate because the dispersion calculated using the standard deviation was only 20 °. The base temperature with the smallest error was 0 °. On the basis of the study results, this method can be recommended as useful for determining the optimal harvest date.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0032.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Organ-on-a-Chip (OoC); Micro-physiological systems (MPS); survey; usability; limitations; disease models; drug testing
Online: 2 February 2022 (12:20:19 CET)
Organ-on-a-Chip (OoC) systems bring together cell biology, engineering, and material science for creating systems that recapitulate the in vivo microenvironment of tissues and organs. The versatility of OoC systems enables in vitro models for studying physiological processes, drug development, and testing in both academia and industry. This paper evaluates current platforms from the end-user perspective, elaborating on usability, complexity, and robustness. We surveyed 165 peers in over 30 countries and grouped the responses according to preliminary knowledge and the source of the OoC systems that are used. The survey clearly shows that current commercial OoC platforms provide a substantial level of robustness and usability - which is also indicated by an increasing adaptation of the pharmaceutical industry but a lack of complexity can challenge their use as a predictive platform. Self-made systems on the other hand are less robust and standardized but provide the opportunity to develop customized and more complex models which are often needed for human disease modeling. This review serves as a guide for researchers in the OoC field and encourages the development of next-generation OoCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0674.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Stress; Wearable; Sensor; Physiological Signals; Galvanic Skin Response; GSR; Electrodermal activity; EDA; Valence and Arousal; Correlation
Online: 26 December 2020 (11:07:37 CET)
The Galvanic Skin Response (GSR, also widely known as electrodermal activity EDA) is one of the signals related to this emotional reaction. Given the sparsity of studies related to and the variety of devices, we experimented at the Human Health Activity Laboratory with 17 healthy subjects. The goal is to know the variability of detection changes in the electrodermal activity among a test group with heterogeneous respondents in response to valence and arousal stimuli, correlating GSR biosignals measured from different body sites. We experiment with the right and left wrist, left fingers, the right foot's inner side using Shimmer3GSR, and Empatica E4 sensors. Results indicate as the most promising homogeneous GSR measure place the left fingers and right foot. Results suggest that due to a significantly strong correlation among the inner side of the right foot and left fingers and moderate correlations with the right and left wrist, the foot is a good place to measure EDA. This paper also contributes knowledge about some wearable sensor technologies available in the market. Shimmer3GSR sensor may be better reliable to homogenous detecting electrodermal activity changes, as these have fewer anomalies among the respondents. However, we found some anomalies in signals from the Empatica E4 sensor, which we discuss in this work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0284.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Park cooling effect; Urban Heat Island; Thermal comfort; Perceived Thermal Comfort; Physiological Equivalent Temperature; Cognitive Maps
Online: 12 August 2020 (11:32:18 CEST)
The combined effects of global warming and increasing urban heat islands (UHIs) on air temperature and heat stress in cities are notable physical and mental health implications for citizens. With research having shown the effective role of urban green spaces in decreasing urban heat, this study investigated the cooling effect of a large urban park on thermal comfort outside the park area, from psychological and physiological perspectives. The studied park is located in the center of Madrid and adjacent to UHI. The study was performed by conducting field measurements and a survey with questionnaires. The measurements made on six summer days (with two-week intervals) showed that the park’s cooling effect could decrease the air temperature by 2.4-2.8°C right up to the edge of the heat island (600m), and decrease the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by about 3.9°C. By decreasing air temperature and PET, this park was also shown to increase the perceived thermal comfort (PTC) of the citizens from the psychological perspective in the defined area of effect. This perceived thermal comfort was found to have a significant inverse relationship with PET (P-value <0.05). The examination of cognitive maps drawn by citizens showed that out of the 145 respondents, 68.3% marked the park as the area that they perceive as having the greatest thermal comfort, and prefer as the place to spend time enjoying thermal comfort, irrespective of its distance from their location.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0235.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: abiotic stress; metro-scale; physiological acclimation; urban leaf morphology; red maple trees; stomate size; urban forests
Online: 15 April 2020 (09:32:30 CEST)
Environmental conditions, such as temperature, carbon dioxide, and nutrient availability, are altered by urban conditions at regional scales with potential for impact on tree leaf structure. Our goal was to compare leaf morphological characteristics driven by physiological acclimation in red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees in deciduous forests embedded in a small (Newark, DE) and a large (Philadelphia, PA) city. The study was conducted in six urban forests on eighteen mature red maple trees in a long-term urban forest network. We hypothesized that red maples in Philadelphia forests compared to Newark forests will have a thicker upper epidermal layer, spongy palisade and mesophyll layer, longer and wider stomates, and lower stomate density. Additionally, we hypothesized that red maples in Philadelphia forests compared to Newark forests will have lower leaf water content and specific leaf area, and greater leaf thickness, fresh leaf weight, dry leaf weight, and leaf dry matter content. Our results for stomate length and stomate width supported our predictions; red maple leaves had longer and wider stomates in Philadelphia forests than in Newark forests. The increased stomate size in red maple trees suggests potential altered gas exchange behavior and mutual abiotic stress mitigation responses in red maple to greater urbanization impacts in Philadelphia forests. This supports previous findings of possible physiological and biochemical acclimation of red maple trees to urban conditions. Furthermore, the findings from this study suggest red maple trees may be a good biomonitor of regional scale impacts in urban environments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0458.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: atopic eczema; dermatitis; allergy; itch; skin disease; treatment; prevention; epidemiology; ethnic differences; cellular; molecular; immunological; physiological therapeutic
Online: 27 February 2023 (08:30:54 CET)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease with high prevalence worldwide, including countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America, and in different ethnic groups. In recent years, more attention on AD heterogeneity associated on multiple factors, including patient’s ethnic background, has been posed, resulting in an increasing body of clinical, genetic, epidemiologic, and immune-phenotypic evidence that delineate differences among racial groups with AD. Filaggrin (FLG) mutations, the strongest genetic risk factor for the development of AD, are detected in up to 50% of European and 27% of Asian AD patients, while very rarely in Africans. The Th2 activation is a common attribute of all ethnic groups, though the Asian endotype of AD is also characterized by an increased Th17-mediated signal whereas African Americans own a strong Th2/Th22 signature and the absence of Th1/Th17 skewing. In addition, the ethnic heterogeneity may own important therapeutic implications as the genetic predisposition may affect treatment response and, thereby, a tailored strategy that better targets the dominant immunologic pathways in each ethnic subgroup may be envisaged. Nevertheless, white patients with AD represent the largest ethnicity enrolled and tested in clinical trials and the most treated in a real-world setting, limiting the investigation about safety and efficacy across different ethnicities. The purpose of this review is to describe the heterogeneity of pathophysiology across ethnicities and its potential therapeutic implications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0279.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: animal model; dietary components; feeding strategy; gene expression; lipid profile; nutrients; nutrigenomic; physiological processes; signaling pathways; transcription.
Online: 16 November 2021 (09:07:22 CET)
Studies on the influence of dietary components and their effects are fundamental for nutrigenomics, or the study of how nutrients can be cellular sensors, how they affect biological processes and gene expression in different tissues. Lipids are an important source of fatty acids (FA) and energy and are fundamental to biological processes and influence the regulation of transcription. Pigs are excellent model to study nutrigenomics, particularly lipid metabolism because the deposition and composition of FA in their tissues reflect the composition of FA in their diet. Recent studies show that FA supplementation is important in production systems, such as growing and finishing pigs, as it can improve the energy value of the feed, help reduce costs, improve animal welfare, and influence the nutritional value of the meat. Studies show that oleic (OA), linoleic (LA), docosahexaenoic (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids are associated with the regulation of transcription in tissues such as muscle, liver, adipose tissue, and brain. Other studies indicate that EPA and DHA are associated with changes in specific signaling pathways, altering gene expression and biophysical properties of membranes. This review, therefore, focuses on the current knowledge of the effects of dietary FA on production traits and gene expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0442.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: dyslexia; reading; children; background colour; overlay colour; text colour; sensors; physiological parameters; EEG; ECG; EDA; eye tracking
Online: 17 March 2021 (14:31:47 CET)
Reading is one of the essential processes during the maturation of an individual. It is estimated that 5-10% of school-age children are affected by dyslexia, the reading disorder characterised by difficulties in the accuracy or fluency of word recognition. There are many studies which have reported that colour overlays and background could improve the reading process, especially in children with reading disorders. As dyslexia has neurobiological origins, the aim of the present research was to understand the relationship between physiological parameters and colour modifications in the text and background during reading in children with and without dyslexia. We have measured differences in electroencephalography (EEG), heart rate variability (HRV), electrodermal activities (EDA), and eye movement of the 36 school-age children (18 with dyslexia and 18 of control group) during the reading performance in 13 combinations of background and overlay colours during the reading task. Our findings showed that the dyslexic children have longer reading duration, fixation count, fixation duration average, fixation duration total, and longer saccade count, saccade duration total, and saccade duration average while reading on white and coloured background/overlay. It was found that the turquoise, turquoise O, and yellow colours are beneficial for dyslexic readers, as they achieved the shortest time duration during the reading tasks when these colours were used. Also, dyslexic children have higher values of beta and the whole range of EEG while reading in particular colour (purple), as well as increasing theta range while reading on the purple overlay colour. We have observed no significant differences between HRV parameters on white colour, except for single colours (purple, turquoise overlay and yellow overlay) where the control group showed higher values for Mean HR, while dyslexic children scored higher with Mean RR. Regarding EDA measure we have found systematically lower values in children with dyslexia in comparison to the control group. Based on present results we can conclude that both colours (warm and cold background/overlays) are beneficial for both groups of readers and all sensor modalities could be used to better understand the neurophysiological origins in dyslexic children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0073.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: emotions; planning; participation; digital participation; physiological sensors; galvanic skin response; GSR; stress levels; emotional layer; urban; city
Online: 4 July 2018 (11:53:17 CEST)
Although our emotional connection with the physical urban setting is often valued, it is rarely recognised or used as a resource to understand future actions in city planning. Yet, despite the importance of emotion, citizens’ emotions are typically seen as difficult to quantify and individualistic, even though knowledge about people’s response to space could help planners understand people’s behaviours and learn about how citizens use and live in the city. The study explores the relationship between the physical space and emotions through identifying the links between stress levels, and specific features of the urban environment. This study aims to show the potential of integrating the use of galvanic skin response (GSR) within urban spatial analysis and city planning, in order to address the relationship between emotions and urban spaces. This method involved participants using a (GSR) device linked to location data to measure participant’s emotional responses along a walking route in a city centre environment. Findings show correlations between characteristics of environment and stress levels, as well as how specific features of the city spaces such as road crossing create stress ‘hotspots’. We suggest that the data obtained could contribute to citizens creating their own information layer - an emotional layer- that could inform urban planning decision-making. The implications of this application of this method as an approach to public participation in urban planning are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1059.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); Precision Livestock Farming (PLF); Animal welfare; Pig behavior; Mul-timodal data; Accelerometer sensors; Stress analysis; Gait analysis; Physiological monitoring; Sustainable farming practices
Online: 17 July 2023 (07:27:18 CEST)
This paper pioneers a novel exploration of environmental impacts in livestock farming, with a focus on pig farming's intersection with climate change and sustainability. It emphasizes the transformative potential of data-driven Artificial Intelligence (AI) methodologies, specifically the Internet of Things (IoT) and multimodal data analysis, in promoting equitable and sustainable food systems. The study observes five pigs, aged 86 to 108 days, using a tripartite sensor that records heart rate, respiration rate, and accelerometer data. The unique experimental design alternates between periods of isolation during feeding and subsequent pairing, enabling the investigation of stress-induced changes. Key inquiries include discerning patterns in heart rate data during isolation versus paired settings, fluctuations in respiration rates, and behavioral shifts induced by isolation or pairing. The study also explores potential detection of gait abnormalities, correlations between pigs' age and their gait or activity patterns, and the evolution of pigs' walking abilities with age. The paper scrutinizes accelerometer data to detect activity changes when pigs are paired, potentially indicating increased stress or aggression. It also examines the adaptation of pigs to alternating isolation and pairing over time, and how their heart rate, respiration rate, and activity data reflect this process. The study considers other significant variables, such as time of day and isolation duration, affecting the pigs' physiological parameters. Sensor data is further utilized to identify behavioral patterns during periods of feeding, isolation, or pairing. In conclusion, this study harnesses IoT and multimodal data analysis in a groundbreaking approach to pig welfare research. It underscores the compelling potential of technology to inform about overall pig welfare, particularly stress levels and gait quality, and the power of data-driven insights in fostering equitable, healthy, and environmentally conscious livestock production systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0108.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Nucleolar sequestration, nucleolus, physiological amyloids, ribosomal intergenic spacer, rIGSRNA, liquid-liquid phase separation, liquid-to-solid phase transition, complex coacervation, biomolecular condensates, beta-amyloid, MDM2, VHL, Cdc14, low complexity RNA, acidosis, heat shock
Online: 8 March 2019 (15:12:29 CET)
This year marks the 20th anniversary of the discovery that proteins with various cellular functions can be temporarily immobilized in the nucleolus, a process known as nucleolar sequestration. This review reflects on the progress made to understand the physiological roles of nucleolar sequestration and the mechanisms involved in protein immobilization. We discuss how nucleolar sequestration consists of a highly choreographed amyloidogenic liquid-to-solid phase transition that converts the nucleolus into Amyloid bodies (A-bodies). The study of solid condensates A-bodies will offer unique perspectives on cellular assembly of membrane-less compartments and provide alternative insights on pathological amyloidogenesis involved in neurological disorders.