ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0160.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Keywords: Developmental dyslexia; attentional dyslexia; Hebrew; migrations between words; phonological output buffer; orthographic-visual analyzer; reading
Online: 20 March 2023 (04:08:07 CET)
Abstract: Letter migrations between words in reading aloud (e.g., reading "cane love" as "lane love" or "lane cove") are known to result from a deficit in the visual-orthographic analysis and characterize attentional dyslexia. In spontaneous speech, individuals with impairment in the phonological output buffer may show migrations of phonemes between words. The purpose of this study was to examine whether migrations between words in reading aloud can also result from a deficit in the phonological output buffer, to explore the characteristics of migrations resulting from orthographic input and from phonological output deficits, and to examine methods to distinguish these two sources. Using tasks of reading aloud of 92-182 word pairs, we identified 18 adults and adolescents with developmental dyslexia who made between-word letter migrations in reading aloud, significantly more than age-matched controls (372 adults and 26 7th-graders). To distinguish between orthographic-input and phonological-output sources for these migrations, we administered a test assessing orthographic-input without spoken-output (written-semantic-decision on 140 migratable word pairs) and a test of repetition of 36 auditorily-presented migratable word pairs, assessing spoken output without orthographic-input (and word span tests). These tests indicated that the migrations of ten of the participants with dyslexia resulted from an orthographic-input deficit, and for the other eight participants, migrations resulted from a phonological-output deficit. We identified several differences between the two types of between-word errors: first, whereas the individuals with attentional dyslexia made omissions of a letter that appeared in the same position in the two words, the phonological output buffer group did not make such omissions. In addition, the groups differed in the origin of migration: orthographic input migrations involve letters that are orthographically adjacent, whereas phonological output migrations involve phonemes that have just been spoken or that are prepared together in the phonological buffer for production. This was manifested in that migrations from the line below and from two lines above occurred only in the orthographic input deficit group, and migrations occurred from a word vertically close to the target in the orthographic input group but from a word that has just been spoken (placed diagonally to the target) in the phonological output group. This study thus indicates that between-word migrations in reading-aloud can result not only from attentional dyslexia, but also from a phonological output buffer deficit, and offers ways to distinguish between the two.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0532.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Attention; phonological processing; space
Online: 7 June 2023 (10:04:25 CEST)
Spatial attentional biases can be observed during the processing of linguistic material. For example, we previously reported that healthy subjects overestimate the semantic distance between word stimuli in the right vs left space. Here we explored whether attentional biases are also observed in tasks requiring evaluation of phonological distance between words in the right and left hemispace. Forty-one healthy subjects were presented with triplets of words arranged in space and were asked to indicate the side of space in which the phonological distance between the middle word and an outer word was smaller. In Experiment 1 real words and pseudowords were used, while in Experiment 2 only pseudowords and consonant strings were used. Subjects overestimated the phonological distance between the middle and outer words in the right space. These findings were specific to word stimuli. These results are consistent with the idea that semantic and phonological information may be internally mapped onto spatial representations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0123.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: phonological awareness; phonology; word decoding ability; spelling
Online: 13 April 2022 (10:16:40 CEST)
This study focused on the level of Phonological awareness and Word Decoding ability among second year BSED English students in the University of Southeastern Philippines in terms of critical sound. Moreover, it aimed to recognize the significant relationship between the two variables. To verify, there were tests being employed to gather the necessary data. These were: listening test for measuring the respondents' level of awareness to words with critical sounds; phonetic transcription test to identify the respondents' level of awareness to sound-symbol relationship; and spelling test to know the respondents' level of ability for transcriptions to be translated to its Standard English spelling. After the data have been gathered, it was interpreted that the students have a moderate Phonological awareness. On the other hand, their Word Decoding ability resulted to high level. As being correlated, it is being found that there is a great significant relationship between the two variables. With these marks, the researchers encourage the schools in enhancing the students' sound-word relationship knowledge by primarily utilizing speech laboratory and establishing a speech club in the school for extending their exposure about these concepts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1233.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: SPARSAR = Specialized NLP system for English Poetry organized into ten feeding modules and over twenty dictionaries; Automatic Analysis of English Poems; Visualization of Linguistic and Poetic Content; Creating Clusters of Boxes of Different Dimension one for each poem according to linguistic content and positioning each box in a space; Computing Sound-Sense Harmony; Comparing Phonetic and Phonological Features with Meaning; Automatic Lexical and Semantic Sentiment Analysis of Poetry; Appraisal Theory Framework.
Online: 18 July 2023 (12:24:24 CEST)
We assume that poetic devices have an implicit goal: producing an overall sound scheme that will induce the reader to associate intended and expressed meaning to the sound of the poem. Sounds may be organized into categories and assigned presumed meaning as suggested by traditional literary studies. In my work, I have extracted automatically the sound grids of all the sonnets by William Shakespeare and have combined them with the themes expressed by their contents. In a first experiment I have computed lexically and semantically based sentiment analysis obtaining an 80% of agreement. In a second experiment sentiment analysis has been substituted by Appraisal Theory thus obtaining a more fine-grained interpretation which in some cases contradicts the first one. The computation for the second poet - regarded by many critics the best of last century - includes both vowels and consonants. In addition, it combines automatic semantically and lexically based sentiment analysis with sound grids. The results produce visual maps that clearly separate poems into three clusters: negative harmony, positive harmony and disharmony where the latter instantiates the need by the poet to encompass the opposites in a desperate attempt to reconcile them.