ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: pheromones; androstenone; mouse deer; metabolic pathway; reproduction; hormones
Online: 18 October 2022 (02:44:00 CEST)
Two putative boar pheromones (Androstenone and Androstenol) were discovered in endangered mouse deer during captive breeding program. This study further examined the molecular characteristics, pheromone synthesis pathway, and the functional role of these pheromones in reproduction of mouse deer. CYP17A1 and CYB5 genes were cloned and expressed in HEK-293, COS-7 cell lines and gonads of mouse deer to investigate CYP17A1 gene’s andien-β-synthase activity towards synthesis of sex pheromones in mouse deer. An enzyme immunoassay was also developed and standardized to measure the fecal androstenone during reproductive cycles of mouse deer. Results showed that mouse deer’s CYP17A1 gene possesses andien-β-synthase activity and could transform pregnenolone into 5,16-androstadien-3β-ol. The expression of CYP17A1 gene upregulated in the testis and ovary, compared to other tissues in mouse deer. Significantly elevated pheromones and estrogens were recorded prior to delivery and postpartum estrus / mating in mouse deer. Further, there were weak correlations between fecal pheromones and estrogens/ androgens in mouse deer during breeding season. The findings suggest that the boar pheromones might play a direct role in the reproductive activities of mouse deer which might be used for breeding of mouse deer elsewhere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0105.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: rabbit; biostimulation; reproduction; urine; seminal plasma; chemocommunication; olfaction; pheromones
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:07:54 CET)
Biostimulation is an animal management practice that helps improve reproductive parameters by modulating animal sensory systems. Chemical signals, mostly known as pheromones, have a great potential in this regard. This study was conducted to determine the influence of short-term female rabbit exposure to different conditions, mainly pheromone-mediated, on reproductive parameters of inseminated does. Groups of 60 females/each were exposed to 1) female urine, 2) male urine, 3) seminal plasma and 4) female-female interaction, just before artificial insemination, and compared to isolated females controls (female-female separated). The following reproductive parameters were analyzed for each group: receptivity (vulvar color), fertility (calving rate), prolificacy and number of born alive and dead kits ⁄ litter. Our results showed that the biostimulation methods employed in this experiment did not significantly improve any of the analyzed parameters. However, female doe exposure to urine, especially to male urine, slightly increased fertility levels when compared to the rest of the experimental conditions. Female-female interaction before artificial insemination, which is a common practice in rabbit farms, did not have any effect, which suggests its removal to avoid unnecessary animal management and time cost. On the other hand, fertility ranges were lower for animals with pale vulvar color whereas no differences were noticed among the other three colours which measure receptivity (pink, red, purple), thus suggesting that these three colours could be grouped together. Additionally, equine chorionic gonadotropin injection could be replaced with various biostimulation methods, therefore reducing or replacing current hormonal treatments, and contributing to animal welfare and to a natural image of animal production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0068.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: olfaction, olfactory, odorants, pheromones, smell, electric field, electromagnetic radiation, electric field sensor, insect antennae
Online: 4 September 2018 (14:31:22 CEST)
The olfactory system is capable of distinguishing individual odorants from among a virtually unlimited number. Fish, for example, detect changes in the electric field environment induced by prey and other sources. Floral electric fields exhibit variations in pattern and structure, which can be discriminated by bumblebees. We have constructed an electric field sensor, which, in the course of focussing on achieving maximum sensitivity and consistency, ultimately resembles features of the insect sensorium. A “fingerprint” 3D plot ( time, frequency range, voltage amplitude), representing the emitted electric field profile, is presented for each of a variety of odorants and other chemicals. The substance-specific electric-field emission and identification is not impeded by containers or barriers or distance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0568.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Voice and sexual orientation; Human sex pheromones; Evolution of sexual orientation; Development of sexual orientation; Puberty; Causes of sexual orientation; Biology of sexual orientation
Online: 23 March 2021 (12:47:18 CET)
The biology of sexual orientations has intrigued people for generations. Many models have been providing insights to that topic, but there are still unanswered questions. In humans, sexual orientation has a learned component. Humans have to learn cues by which they identify the sex of their mates, and cues of the emotional messages that those mates broadcast. Many of those cues depend on arbitrary societal conventions. The cues are learned automatically and subconsciously during childhood, based on non-sexual experiences. When sexual orientation emerges at puberty, the youngsters cannot tell how and when they have acquired it. A model that deals with those phenomena is presented. A basic tenet of the model is that a sexual orientation is determined by the innate wirings of the brain. The model describes how the brain learns cues for identifying the sex of the mate, and cues for identifying emotional messages that the mate broadcasts. The learning mechanism is conditioning. The unconditioned stimulus is human voice. The unconditioned responses are the triggers of the physical and emotional manifestations of sexual activity. The model suggests that innate connections from auditory detectors of men’s and women’s voice onto brain centers that trigger sexual activities, such as the hypothalamus, determine the sexual orientation that emerges at puberty. Innate connections from those auditory centers to emotional centers, such as the amygdala, determine the learned emotional cues. It is also proposed that during evolution, the roles of the chemosensory system in identifying mates were taken over by the auditory system.