ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0088.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: WES; Thalassemia; phenotype
Online: 3 January 2023 (08:28:50 CET)
Thalassemia is a common monogenic autosomal disorder prevalent in India. HbE beta thalassemia is a compound heterozygous state of two different beta globin mutations (HBB), predominant in the Eastern India. In HbE-beta thalassemia (β+/β°) patients, one HBB mutation does not produce any functional protein (β°); another mutation produces a structural altered haemoglobin, variant E (β+). It has been observed that in HbE-beta thalassemia patients with same type of HBB mutations, there exist diverse phenotypic presentation ranging from very severe, with regular transfusion-dependence to clinically non severe requiring very less transfusion or no transfusion. To explore this phenotypic mystery, we performed trio based expanded whole exome sequencing (WES) of two extreme phenotypes of HbE beta thalassemia subjects with similar HBB genotype and their parents. For WES library preparation, Agilent Sure select V6+UTR kit was used and sequencing was done through the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. This study aimed to search for de novo or inherited variants associated with the clinical severity. Six significant inherited variants were found in the genes, ATOH8, TTLL4, P2RX7, PRSS54, SLC9C2 and VRK2 in severe subject, however only one significant inherited variant in MTRR gene was found in non-severe subject. Bioinformatic analysis also confirms that each variant significantly changes in respective protein structure. The identified genes were either associated with iron absorption, oxidative stress, hematopoietic stem cell differentiation, structural organization of RBC cytoskeleton or regulating anemia. No significant de novo variant were identified associated with clinical severity. The finding of this study indicates that the combined effect of mutation load in major pathways may responsible for severe phenotype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1295.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: cannabis; breeding; phenotype; correlations
Online: 20 September 2023 (02:35:37 CEST)
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) stands as a historically significant and culturally important plant, embodying economic, social, and medicinal relevance for human societies. However, years of prohibition and stigmatization have hindered the cannabis research community, which is hugely undersized and suffers from a scarcity of understanding of cannabis genetics and how key traits are expressed or inherited. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive phenotypic characteriza-tion of 176 drug-type cannabis accessions, representative of Canada's legal market. We assessed germination methods, evaluated various traits including agronomic, morphological, and canna-binoid profiles, and uncovered significant variation within this population. Notably, yield dis-played a negative correlations with maturity-related traits but positive correlation with fresh biomass. Additionally, the potential THC content showed positive correlation with maturi-ty-related traits but negative correlation with yield. Significant different were observed between plants derived from regular female seeds and feminized seeds, as well as between plants derived from cuttings and seeds for different traits. This study advances our understanding of cannabis cultivation, offering insights into germination practices, agronomic traits, morphological charac-teristics, and biochemical diversity. These findings establish a foundation for precise breeding and cultivar development, enhancing cannabis's potential in the legal market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0636.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Mucormycosis; Mucorales; Syncephalastrum; genotype; phenotype
Online: 11 October 2023 (03:35:24 CEST)
Mucormycosis is known to be a rare opportunistic infection caused by Syncephalastrum species, which are Mucorales fungi of the Zygomycetes class. These moulds are rarely involved in clinical diseases and are generally seen as contaminants in the clinical laboratory. However, in recent years, case reports of human infections due to Syncephalastrum have increased, especially in immunocompromised hosts. In this study, we describe two new Syncephalastrum species, which were isolated from human nails and sputum samples from two different patients. We used several methods of genomic and phenotypic characterisation. The phenotypic analysis, relied on morphological features, analysed both by optical and scanning electron microscopy. We used Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometry, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and BiologTM technology to characterise the proteomic, chemical mapping, and carbon source assimilation profiles, respectively. The genomic analysis relied on multilocus sequence analysis of the rRNA internal transcribed spacers and D1/D2 large-subunit domains, and fragments of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha, and the β-tubulin genes. The two novel species in the genus Syncephalastrum, namely S. massiliense PMMF0073 and S. timoneanum PMMF0107, have a similar morphology to S. racemosum, but each display distinct phenotypic and genotypic features. The polyphasic approach, combining the results of complementary phenotypic and genomic assays, was instrumental in describing and characterising these two new Syncephalastrum species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0903.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: leishmaniasis; immune response; macrophage phenotype
Online: 25 April 2023 (08:36:54 CEST)
Leishmaniasis is a complex infectious parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, belonging to a group of neglected tropical diseases. It poses significant global health challenges, particularly in socio-economically disadvantaged regions. Macrophages, as innate immune cells, play a crucial role in initiating the inflammatory response against the pathogens responsible for this disease. Macrophage polarization, the process of differentiating macrophages into pro-inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes, is essential for the immune response in leishmaniasis. The M1 phenotype is associated with resistance to Leishmania infection, while the M2 phenotype is predominant in susceptible environments. Notably, various immune cells, including T cells, play a significant role in modulating macrophage polarization by releasing cytokines that influence macrophage maturation and function. Furthermore, other immune cells can also impact macrophage polarization in a T-cell-dependent manner. Therefore, this review comprehensively examines macrophage polarization's role in leishmaniasis and other immune cells' potential involvement in this intricate process.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: consciousness; qualia; network; bacteria; learning; phenotype
Online: 15 September 2021 (15:58:51 CEST)
The relevance of bacteria to subjective experiences or qualia is under-appreciated. Here, I make four proposals. Firstly, living systems traverse sequences of active states that determine their behaviour; these states result from competitive coherence, which depends on a connectivity-based competition between a Next process and a Now process whereby elements in the active state at time n+1 are chosen between the elements in the active state at time n and those elements in the developing n+1 state. Secondly, bacteria should help us link the mental to the physical world given that bacteria were here first, are highly complex, influence animal behaviour and dominate the Earth. Thirdly, the operation of competitive coherence to generate active states in bacteria, brains and other living systems is inseparable from qualia. Fourthly, these qualia become particularly important to the generation of active states in the highest levels of living systems, namely, the ecosystem and planetary levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0210.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Parkinson’s; RBD; connectivity; phenotype; classification; network
Online: 18 December 2018 (03:58:08 CET)
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is often prodromal to Parkinson’s disease (PD). Thus there should be detectable in vivo functional signatures shared between RBD and PD that aid in disease classification. To assess common in-vivo phenotypes, resting state data was collected on a 3T clinical MRI platform and a novel functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) approach, which combined independent component analysis (ICA) and graph theory, was used to evaluate deficits in interconnectivity among 15 PD, 14 RBD and 13 control participants. Whole brain and network-level analyses revealed the largest deficits in network connectivity in PD compared with controls, with less severe differences between RBD and controls. Importantly, the network-level analysis demonstrated decreased network interconnectivity, with the greatest aberrant networks in PD, and a subset in RBD. Additionally, a disease classification algorithm predicted PD cases by being trained on RBD cases with 0.87 sensitivity and 0.68 specificity. The functional alterations in cortical networks in RBD extended beyond the brainstem. These findings demonstrate progressive reductions in connectivity between brain networks, with less severe deficits in RBD than PD. Moreover, RBD phenotypes can be used to predict PD status in a cross-sectional sample, which suggests RBD is an intermediate phenotype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Diagnosis delay; rare diseases; undiagnosed programs; standardized phenotype; phenotype ontologies; whole exome analysis; international data sharing
Online: 13 June 2018 (15:41:21 CEST)
One of the IRDiRC goals for 2017-2027 is to achieve definitive diagnosis for rare undiagnosed diseases within one year, as diagnosis delay remains one of the pending issues in the rare diseases field. The Spanish Undiagnosed Rare Diseases Program (SpainUDP) was created in response to this challenging scenario to cover patients’ needs and after seeing the success of the UDP in USA. SpainUDP offers a multidisciplinary approach to those patients who have long sought a diagnosis without any success. During a first phase of the protocol, undiagnosed cases are sent to SpainUDP by individual patients, patient organizations or hospitals. After a carefully analysis of phenotype, data from sequencing experiments (WES) is processed with a standard pipeline and a detailed standardized phenotypic information (mapped to HPO) is connected to genetic data. In addition, the participation of SpainUDP in international initiatives such as the European projects RD-Connect and Solve RD, the Undiagnosed Diseases Network International (UDNI), and the MatchMaker Exchange platform, allows the establishment of a global data sharing strategy across multiple projects submitting data to these international initiatives. From the official beginning of the program (at the end of 2015) until early 2018, 147 cases were accepted in SpainUDP. During this time, 37 cases (25 %) dropped out the program due to several reasons. The remaining 110 cases are distributed as follows: phenotypic and genotypic (WES) characterization was finished in 30 cases, of which 20 (67 %) were diagnosed; 21 cases are pending on variants validation by Sanger; in 25 cases, WES is ongoing and 34 cases are in a deep phenotypic characterization. As a conclusion, SpainUDP aims to achieve a diagnosis following two recommendations of the IRDiRC: the patients’ diagnosis in a period of time as short as possible and the promotion of data sharing (especially genomic) at the international level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0235.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alcohol; Ethanol; Epigenetics change; phenotype; offspring; Epigenome
Online: 4 July 2023 (13:25:47 CEST)
While DNA serves as the fundamental genetic blueprint for an organism, it is not a static entity. Gene expression, the process by which genetic information is utilized to create functional products like proteins, can be modulated by a diverse range of environmental factors. Epigenetic mechanisms, encompassing DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNAs, play a pivotal role in mediating the intricate interplay between the environment and gene expression. Intriguingly, alterations in the epigenome have the potential to be inherited across generations. Ethanol abuse poses significant health issues worldwide. Ethanol has the capability to induce changes in the epigenome, which can be inherited by offspring, thus impacting them even in the absence of direct ethanol exposure. This review article reviewed the alterations caused by ethanol on the epigenome. We thoroughly gathered all relevant papers investigating the behavioral and molecular consequences of parental ethanol exposure on their offspring. In conclusion, the comprehensive analysis of the literature supports the notion that ethanol exposure induces lasting epigenetic alterations, which can influence the behavior and health of future generations. This knowledge emphasizes the significance of addressing the potential transgenerational effects of ethanol and highlights the importance of preventive measures to minimize the adverse impact on offspring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Antibiotic resistance; Colonization; Prevalence; GBS; Resistance phenotype
Online: 22 August 2022 (08:04:16 CEST)
Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a commensal in the body, causes a wide range of infectious diseases. The colonisation levels of GBS and its resistance profile to antibiotics provide important information useful for orienting prevention strategies. There is little data available on the subject with determination of resistance phenotypes in Cameroon. We therefore aimed to determine the prevalence of colonization, antibiotic resistance, including patterns of inducible resistance to clindamycin of GBS in Yaounde. To achieve this goal, a prospective cross-sectional study with an analytical component was carried out from the 28th June to the 29th August 2020 at the BIOSANTE laboratory and the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetrics and Paediatrics hospital. Vaginal swabs and urine were collected on 163 women. This samples were analysed using 5% defibrinated sheep blood agar and chocolate plus polyvitex agar. The isolates were identified using the morphology of the colony, Gram staining, haemolysis, catalase test and latex grouping test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by disk diffusion method following the recommendations of the ACFSM 2019. The double disk diffusion method was used to identify isolates with clindamycin inducible resistance. Our data was analysed by the software SPSS version 2.1. The results obtained showed that the global prevalence of colonization by GBS was 37% (57/163), 40.35% in non-pregnant women and 59.65% in pregnant women. Pregnancy (P-value = 0.019) and gestational age (P-value = 0.025) constituted the risk factors of maternal colonization by GBS. In addition, the strains of GBS were resistant to all antibiotics tested. A D test showcased that 64.7% of GBS were resistant in a constitutive manner to clindamycin. We also note the presence of M phenotypes. As a whole, our results demonstrate that the rate of GBS colonization in this study was similar or higher than those in the previous report in Cameroon. All this indicates that attention should be paid to this bacterium in the monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and in the care of pregnant women and newborns.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0118.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: FAANG; farmed animal; genomics; genotype-to-phenotype
Online: 6 October 2020 (10:53:17 CEST)
Here we review and describe a set of research priorities to meet present and future challenges posed to farmed animal production that build on progress, successes and resources from the Functional Annotation of ANimal Genomes (FAANG) project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0034.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: the building and the environment; phenotype; genotype
Online: 3 May 2020 (08:10:53 CEST)
Phenotype variation is produced through a complex of interactions between genotype and environment. Phenotype, genotype, and environment are addresses the relationship between architecture and identity. The term genotype biology and phenotype have been adopted into architecture in the late twentieth century. Genotypes are abstract relational models that govern the arrangement of space, and the principle of organizing space and phenotypes is the real realization of genotypes in the physical environment. The genotype is a reflection that is not only about the spatial organization but also the nature of social and cultural patterns. Then this study purpose to an understanding of the connectedness variant phenotype from a genotype and environment. The repetition pattern being stable structure in variation phenotype uses as a database to finding an identity in architecture. The method used in this research was Levi Strauss's structuralism and multi-layer of a biological system. This research samples traditional Malay houses in West Borneo, Indonesia. These houses have a unique site and existing environment. The houses can be found mainly along the river. The results found from the phenotype, genotype, and environment have value and meaning as a traditional Malay house rule in West Borneo which was always handed down from generation to generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: ABO blood groups; antigen; allele frequency; phenotype
Online: 29 February 2020 (08:26:18 CET)
Approximately 300 different types of blood groups are identified so far, the ABO and Rh antigens are still the clinically most significant and genetically most polymorphic of all human blood group systems to date. A total of 200 unrelated individuals from Uttar Pradesh were studied for the phenotype and allele frequency distribution of ABO and Rh (D) blood groups. In total 200 samples analyzed, phenotype B blood type has the highest frequency 36.5% (n=73), followed by O (34.5%; n=69), A (20.5%; n=41) and AB (8.5%; n=17). The O, A and B frequencies were 0.5849, 0.1571 and 0.2580 respectively. The overall phenotypic frequencies of ABO blood groups were B>O>A>AB. The variation in phenotypic frequencies between male and female might be due to small sample size of male sample. The allelic frequency of Rh-negative was 0.2.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: multidisciplinary; Gaucher; genotype/phenotype correlation; genetic counselling
Online: 5 July 2018 (08:51:35 CEST)
Managing the multisystemic symptoms of type I Gaucher Disease (GD) requires a multidisciplinary team approach that includes disease-specific treatments, as well as supportive care. This involves a range of medical specialists, general practitioners, supportive care providers, and patients. Phenotype classification and the setting of treatment goals are important for optimizing the management of type I GD, and providing personalized care. The ability to classify disease severity using validated measurement tools allows the standardization of patient monitoring, and the measurement of disease progression and treatment response. Defining treatment goals is useful to provide a benchmark for assessing treatment response, and managing the expectations of patients and their families. Although treatment goals will vary depending on disease severity, they include the stabilization, improvement or reversal (if possible) of clinical manifestations. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is the standard care for patients with type I GD, but a novel substrate reduction therapy (SRT), Eliglustat has demonstrated safety and efficacy in selected patients. To ensure that treatment goals are being achieved, regular, comprehensive follow up is necessary.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1364.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Mites; Allergen Immunotherapy; Molecular Allergology; Allergens; Allergic Phenotype
Online: 22 November 2023 (14:45:35 CET)
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) with aeroallergens is the only disease modifying treatment for patients with different allergic conditions. Despite the effectiveness of AIT has been evidenced in both randomized controlled trials and real word studies, it remains underused in less than 10% of subjects with allergic rhinitis (AR) and/or asthma (A). We aimed to determine the current eligibility for house dust mite (HDM) AIT by means of a Precision Allergy Molecular Diagnosis (PAMD@) model in a selected cohort of youngsters with different allergic phenotypes according to the available evidence. A complex response to both HDM and storage mite allergens was depicted regardless of the subjects´ basal atopic condition. No solely specific IgE binding responses to Der p 1, Der p 2 and/or Der p 23 were found in the studied cohort. Despite patients with A and atopic dermatitis showed significantly higher serum titers to 6 mite allergens than subjects with AR, no specific molecular profile could be regarded as disease specific. Given the increasing complexity of specific IgE responses to the local prevailing aeroallergens, the identification and presence of such molecules are needed in commercially available AIT in the era of precision medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1502.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Phenotype Microarrays; Bacillus subtilis; L-arabinose; sporulation; transcriptome
Online: 24 October 2023 (13:28:42 CEST)
Bacillus subtilis NCD-2 showed a promising biocontrol effect against plant soil-borne diseases, and was developed as a commercial microbial fungicide against cotton verticillium wilt in China. Spores were main ingredient of the fungicide and played the crucial role in biological control of plant diseases. Therefore, the key to reducing the cost of fungicide was to find ways to increase the number of spores of strain NCD-2 during fermentation. In this study, 755 substances were evaluated by Phenotype Microarray technology, and 5 kinds of carbon sources and 1 kind of nitrogen source were found to promote the metabolism of strain NCD-2. Among carbon sources L-arabinose showed strongest ability to promote the bacteria growth and sporulation of strain NCD-2. When L-arabinose was used as a single carbon source, it could increase the bacteria concentration and the sporulation efficiency of strain NCD-2 by 2.04 times and 1.99 times, respectively, compared with D-glucose. Moreover, L-arabinose could significantly decrease the autolysis of strain NCD-2 revealed by microscopy observation. The mechanism for promoting the sporulation by L-arabinose was analysed by RNA-seq sequencing. Results showed that total of 790, 923 and 1270 genes were up-regulated and 639, 850 and 1001 genes were down-regulated under L-arabinose supplies when cultured at 8 h, 12 h and 16 h, respectively. Fourteen differentially expressed genes associated with arabinose transportation and sporulation were selected for qRT-PCR analysis, and the result showed basically consistent expression trend with transcriptome. Notably, genes associated with arabinose metabolism, sporulation, spore resistance to heat and spore coat formation were significantly up-regulated, and genes associated with sporulation-delaying protein were significantly down-regulated under L-arabinose supplies. msmX gene which was involved in arabinose transport in Bacillus genus was deleted, and the mutant decreased the growth and sporulation by 53.71% and 86.46%, respectively, when compared to strain NCD-2 wild type. Complementary of the mutant by importing intact msmX gene could restore the growth and sporulation of the mutant strain. In conclusion, arabinose played an important role in regulating the growth and sporulation of strain NCD-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1200.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: plant phenotype; soybean leaf; image segmentation; object detection
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:14:41 CEST)
Plant phenotype plays an important role in crop breeding and planting. Leaf phenotype is an important part of plant phenotype. In order to analyze the leaf phenotype, the target leaf is required to be segmented from the complex background image. In this paper, an automatic soybean leaf segmentation method based on object detection and interactive segmentation models is proposed. Firstly, the Libra R-CNN object detection algorithm is used to detect all soybean leaves in the image. Then, based on the idea that the target soybean leaf is located in the center of the image and the area is large, the detection bounding box of the target leaf is selected. In order not to destroy the segmentation result, the bounding box is optimized to completely enclose the whole leaf. Finally, according to the optimized bounding box, the prior channels of foreground and background are constructed using Gaussian model. The two channels together with the original image are as the input of the interactive object segmentation with inside-outside guidance model to segment the target soybean leaf. A large number of qualitative and quantitative experimental results show that the method has high segmentation accuracy and strong generalization capacity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1013.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Genotype; phenotype; sequencing; phenomics; data integration; metadata; standardization
Online: 14 June 2023 (08:30:52 CEST)
The Genotype-Phenotype Working Group was established in November 2021 as part of the AgBioData Consortium (https://www.agbiodata.org) with the goal of identifying current challenges in annotating and integrating large-scale genotype and phenotype data. Over the course of the year, the members of this working group identified different types of data sets, explored experimental platforms and methods for data generation, and examined how these data are annotated including the metadata requirements. We conducted a thorough review of publicly funded repositories for raw and processed data for each data type. We also examined several secondary databases and knowledgebases that enable the integration of heterogeneous data types in the context of the Genome Browser, Pathway Networks and tissue-specific gene expression. The review revealed a need for additional infrastructural support, standards, and tools to connect Genotype to Phenotype data and enhance data interoperability for knowledge synthesis and to foster translational research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0583.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: genetic association studies; extreme phenotype; genetic epidemiology; tinnitus
Online: 24 July 2020 (13:43:00 CEST)
Exome sequencing has been commonly used in rare diseases by selecting multiplex families or singletons with an extreme phenotype (EP) to search for rare variants in coding regions. The EP strategy covers both extreme ends of a disease spectrum and it has been also used to investigate the contribution of rare variants to heritability in complex clinical traits. We have conducted a systematic review to find evidence supporting the use of EP strategies to search for rare variants in genetic studies of complex diseases, to highlight the contribution of rare variation to the genetic structure of multiallelic conditions. After performing the quality assessment of the retrieved records, we selected 19 genetic studies considering EP to demonstrate genetic association. All the studies successfully identified several rare variants, de novo mutations and many novel candidate genes were also identified by selecting an EP. There is enough evidence to support that the EP approach in patients with an early onset of the disease can contribute to the identification of rare variants in candidate genes or pathways involved in complex diseases. EP patients may contribute to a better understanding of the underlying genetic architecture of common heterogeneous disorders such as tinnitus or age-related hearing loss.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1190.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: atopic dermatitis; endotype; extrinsic type; intrinsic type; subtype; phenotype
Online: 20 November 2023 (11:10:34 CET)
Since atopic dermatitis (AD) is a heterogeneous condition, subtyping of AD is a crucial issue. The classical subtypes of AD are represented by extrinsic and intrinsic subtypes, European American and Asian subtypes, and adult and pediatric subtypes. While subtyping of AD was historically conducted based on the phenotype, recent findings on the mechanisms of AD have revealed importance of the endotype, which can characterize individual patients more accurately. Considering the current development of AD therapies, AD endotyping is prerequisite for personalized therapeutic choice. Endotypes of AD can be stratified from different viewpoints, including cytokine expression patterns, allergen properties, epidermal barrier conditions, ceramide variation, involvement of innate immunity, and serum biomarkers. Among them, the cytokine-based endotype seems to be the most useful one and is categorized into type 2 cytokine (IL-4, IL-13 and IL-31)-high, type 1 cytokine (interferon-g)-high, and/or type 3 cytokine (IL-22 and IL-17)-high, or mixed subtypes. The recently biomarker-proposed endotyping aims at individualized treatment options, although the daily clinical use of endotypes is a future issue. To better understand the endotypes for clinicians, attempts to adjust each of the classical subtypes to the endotypes are required. This review will discuss the correspondence of the classical subtypes to the various endotypes that have recently been proposed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1932.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Anti-aging, DNA damage response, senescence-associated secretory phenotype
Online: 28 September 2023 (04:56:53 CEST)
Cellular aging has drawn the attention of researchers, scientists, and biotech businesses for the treatment of a number of medical conditions. Cellular aging is primarily defined by consistent cessation of proliferative development in response to internal and external stressors, including DNA damage, telomere shortening, mitochondrial dysfunction, and regulation of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Disturbances involving these factors may contribute to age-related disease development. Therefore, the current review aims to explore anti-aging factors targeting DNA damage response and SASP regulation and their detailed signaling networks. In addition, it provides an opportunity for researchers to identify not only anti-aging targets, but also anti-aging therapeutic strategies based on identified and non-identified targets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: severe asthma; phenotype; endotype; personalized medicine; targeted therapy; treatment
Online: 15 June 2023 (11:35:43 CEST)
Despite recent advances in optimizing reliever, controller and maintenance therapy in asthma, a large subgroup of asthmatic patients continues to suffer from severe asthma, affecting their psychosociological status, their quality of life and even their life expectancy. Identifying and recognizing the specific phenotypic and endotypic characteristics in asthma has provided the medical community to drive the development of targeted therapies that are proved to benefit patients in terms of symptom control, exacerbation rate, quality of life and lung function. Adopting a more tailored and targeted approach is proving to be the key factor in reforming severe asthma treatment, minimizing the patients’ burden, as well as the socioeconomical impact worldwide. In this review, we are going to describe the different phenotypes and endotypes of asthma, the currently approved targeted therapies in severe asthma as imprinted in Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2023, as well as other potential pharmacological agents and strategies investigated or currently under investigation for the treatment of severe asthma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: ANCA-associated vasculitis; Proteinase 3; Myeloperoxidase; Clinical Phenotype; Outcome
Online: 17 August 2022 (09:58:51 CEST)
The traditional nomenclature system for classifying Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV), based on clinical phenotype, described Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA), Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA) and Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA) as distinct clinical entities. This classification has proved its expedience in clinical trials and every day clinical practice, yet, a substantial overlap in clinical presentation still exists, and often causes difficulties in prompt definition and clinical distinction. Additionally, new insights into the AAV pathogenesis point out that PR3 and MPO-AAV may not represent expressions of the same disease spectrum but rather two distinct disorders, as they display significant differences. Thus, it is supported that a classification based on ANCA serotype (PR3-ANCA, MPO-ANCA or ANCA-negative), could be more accurate and also closer to the nature of the disease, instead of the phenotype-based one. This review aims to elucidate the major differences between PR3 and MPO-AAV, in terms of epidemiology, pathogenesis, histological and clinical manifestations, and response to therapeutic approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1256.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: inflammageing; senescence; pro-inflammatory stimulus; Senescence Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP)
Online: 20 November 2023 (16:15:05 CET)
Objectives: The term "inflammageing” describes the process of inflammation-induced aging that leads living cells to a state of permanent cell cycle arrest due to chronic antigenic irritation. This in vitro study aimed to shed light on the mechanisms of “inflammageing” on human oral cells. Methods: Primary cultures of human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) were exposed to variable pro-inflammatory stimuli, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFa), and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected from active periodontal pockets of systemically healthy patients. Inflammageing was studied through two experimental models, employing either late-passage (“aged”) cells (p.10) that were exposed to the pro-inflammatory stimuli or early-passage (“young”) cells (p.1) continuously exposed during a period of several passages (up to p.10) to the above-mentioned stimuli. Cells were evaluated for the expression of beta-galactosidase activity (histochemical staining), senescence-associated genes (qPCR analysis), and biomarkers related to a Senescence Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP), through proteome profile analysis and bioinformatics. Results: A significant increase (p<0.05) of beta-galactosidase-positive cells was observed after exposure to each pro-inflammatory stimulus. The senescence-associated gene expression included upregulation for CCND1 and downregulation for SUSD6, and STAG1, a profile typical for cellular senescence. Overall, pro-inflammatory priming of late-passage cells caused more pronounced effects in terms of senescence, than long-term exposure of early-passage cells to these stimuli. Proteomic analysis showed induction of SASP, evidenced by upregulation of several pro-inflammatory proteins (IL-6, IL-10, IL-16, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-2, M-CSF, MIP-1a, MIP-1b, TNFb, sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, TIMP-2) implicated in cellular aging and immune responses. The least potent impact on the induction of SASP was provoked by LPS and the most pronounced by GCF. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that long-term exposure of hGFs to various pro-inflammatory signals induced or accelerated cellular senescence with the most pronounced impact noted for the late-passage cells. The outcome of this analyses provides insights into oral chronic inflammation, as a potential confounder of age-related diseases.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1537.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: congenital anomalies; newborns; whole genome sequencing analysis; protocol; phenotype; registry
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:59:13 CEST)
Standardized protocols were specifically designed and developed for clinical information collection and obtaining trio genomic information from infants affected with congenital anomalies (CA) and their parents, as well as securing human biological resources. Two large areas of these protocols include clinical and genomic information collection on CA which were difficult to diagnose using pre-existing screening methods. The following are three essential items for the clinical information collection protocol: establishment of a consent system for collecting and utilizing research resources, establishment of criteria for target patient selection, and collection of clinical and epidemiological information. A total of 138 cases consisting of 45 families of infants with CA and their parent trios have provided human-derived resources and genomic information. Whole genome sequencing data have been generated for all participants, and standardized protocols for resource collection and manufacturing have been developed. Phenotype information according to the Human Phenotype Ontology term and major test findings were recorded. It is important to keep updating and recording clinical symptoms and genetic diagnosis that are newly added or changed over time. The unique significance of this study is to develop a protocol that enables long-term tracking by adding growth and development tests that reflect important characteristics of newborns. By using these clinical and genetic information collection protocols for CA, it will be possible to establish an essential platform for early genetic diagnosis and diagnostic research, and further present new genetic diagnostic guidelines in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2120.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Phenoconversion; Bariatric surgery; CYP450 Phenotype and Genotype; Cocktail; Personalized medicine
Online: 30 May 2023 (10:59:51 CEST)
The inter-individual variability of CYP450s enzyme activity may be reduced by comparing the effects of bariatric surgery on CYP-mediated drug elimination in comparable patients before and after surgery. The current research will use a low-dose phenotyping cocktail to simultaneously evaluate the activities of six CYP isoforms and P-gp.The results showed that following weight reduction after surgery, the activity of all enzymes increased compared to the obese period, which was statistically significant in the case of CYP3A, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP1A2. Furthermore, the activity of P-gp after surgery decreased without reaching a statistical significance (p-value>0.05). Obese individuals had decreased CYP3A and CYP2D6 activity than the control group, albeit only CYP3A was statistically important. In addition, there was a trend to increase activity for CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 in obese patients compared to the control group, without reaching statistical insignificance (p-value≥0.05). After six months (at least), all enzymes and the P-gp pump activity were significantly higher than the control group except for CYP2D6.Ultimately, a greater comprehension of phenoconversion can aid in altering the patient's treatment. Further studies are required to confirm the changes in the metabolic ratios of probes after bariatric surgery to demonstrate the findings' clinical application. As a result, the effects of inflammation-induced phenoconversion on medication metabolism may differ greatly across persons and drug CYP pathways. It is essential to apply these results to the clinic to recommend dose adjustments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0160.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Cellular Senescence Network; Normal Aging; Senescence; Senescence-associated secretory phenotype; SenNet
Online: 15 September 2022 (12:52:05 CEST)
Cells respond to a myriad of stressors by senescing, acquiring stable growth arrest, morphologic and metabolic changes, and a senescence-associated-secretory-phenotype (SASP). The heterogeneity of senescent cells (SnCs) and their SASP is vast, yet poorly characterized. SnCs have diverse roles in health and disease and are therapeutically targetable, making characterization of SnCs and harmonization of their nomenclature a priority. The Cellular Senescence Network (SenNet), a NIH Common Fund initiative, will leverage emerging single cell and spatial-omics to identify and map SnCs in numerous organs across the lifespan of humans and mice. A common coordinate framework will integrate the data, using validated, standardized methods, creating public 4-dimensional SnC atlases. Key SenNet deliverables include development of innovative tools/technologies to detect SnCs, biomarker discovery, common annotations to describe SnCs and extensive public data sets. The goal is to comprehensively understand and map SnCs for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes to improve human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0488.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: chemoradiation; preoperative; neoadjuvant; TN/HER-2+ phenotype; pathological response; breast cancer
Online: 29 August 2022 (10:47:34 CEST)
Primary systemic treatment (PST) downsizes the tumor and improves pathological response. The aim of this study is to analyze the feasibility and tolerance of primary concurrent radio-chemotherapy (PCRT) in breast cancer patients. Patients with localized TN/HER2+ tumors were enrolled in this prospective study. Radiation is delivered concomitantly during the first 3 weeks of chemotherapy, and it is based on a 15 fractions scheme (40.5Gy/2.7Gy per fraction to whole breast and nodal levels I-IV. Chemotherapy is based on Pertuzumab-Trastuzumab-Paclitaxel followed by anthracyclines in HER2+ and CBDCA-Paclitaxel followed by anthracyclines in TN breast cancers patients. 58 patients were enrolled, 25 patients (43%) were TN and 33 patients HER2+ (57%). With a median follow-up of 24.2 months, 56 patients completed PCRT and surgery. A total of 35 patients (87.5%) achieved >90% loss of invasive carcinoma cell in the surgical specimen. The 70.8% and the 53.1% of patients with TN and HER-2+ subtype respectively achieved complete pathological response (pCR). This is the first study of concurrent neoadjuvant treatment in breast cancer in which three strategies are applied simultaneously: fractionation of RT in 15 sessions, adjustment of CT to tumor phenotype and local planning by PET. The pCR rates are encouraging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1417.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: single nucleotide polymorphism; Parkinson’s disease; alpha-synuclein; phenotype, pathophysiology; PD-related variants
Online: 20 July 2023 (12:46:20 CEST)
Some studies show that patients with mutations in the SNCA gene, which codifies for the alpha-synuclein protein, show a particular phenotype. The effects of SNCA Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) in recently diagnosed, drug-naïve patients with PD have been less explored. Therefore, we set out to explore the differences in the clinical characteristics of recently diagnosed drug-naïve sporadic PD patients with or without SNCA rs3910105 or rs356181 SNPs. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of PD in the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) database entered the study. We excluded those with missing data, dementia, psychiatric conditions, a diagnosis change over the first five years from the initial PD diagnosis, or with a familial history of PD. Subjects were evaluated with the MDS-Unified PD Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), DAT imaging, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the SCOPA-AUT for autonomic function, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the RBD Questionnaire, and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). We included 308 PD patients fulfilling all inclusion and exclusion criteria. A logistic regression analysis and Machine-Learning models did not disclose any difference between patients either with or without the SNCA rs3910105 SNP or with or without the SNCA rs3910105 polymorphism. Our results suggest that the SNCA polymorphisms rs3910105 and rs356181 have no impact on the phenotype of idiopathic, sporadic, recently diagnosed, drug naïve PD patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1450.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; blood-brain barrier; metabolic phenotype; sleep behavior; Promethion cages; oleocanthal
Online: 20 June 2023 (14:31:29 CEST)
Aging is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD mouse models are frequently used to assess pathology, behavior, and memory in AD research. While the pathological characteristics of AD are well established, our understanding of the changes in the metabolic phenotypes with age and pathology is limited. In this work, we used the Promethion cage systems® to monitor changes in physiological metabolic and behavioral parameters with age and pathology in wild-type and 5xFAD mouse models. Then, we assessed whether these parameters could be altered by treatment with oleocanthal, a phenolic compound with neuroprotective properties. Findings demonstrated metabolic parameters such as body weight, food and water intake, energy expenditure, dehydration, and respiratory exchange rate, and the behavioral parameters of sleep patterns and anxiety-like behavior are altered by age and pathology. However, the effect of pathology on these parameters was significantly greater than normal aging, which could be linked to amyloid-β deposition and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. In addition, and for the first time, our findings suggest an inverse correlation between sleep hours and BBB breakdown. Treatment with oleocanthal improved the assessed parameters and reduced anxiety-like behavior symptoms and sleep disturbances. In conclusion, aging and AD are associated with metabolism and behavior changes, with the changes being greater with the latter, which were rectified by oleocanthal. In addition, our findings suggest that monitoring changes in metabolic and behavioral phenotypes could provide a valuable tool to assess disease severity and treatment efficacy in AD mouse models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0423.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Aging; cellular senescence; fibroblast; osteoarthritis; remodeling-associated secretory phenotype (RASP); remodeling activation
Online: 27 July 2022 (13:38:36 CEST)
One of the most striking findings in biogerontology in the 2010s was the demonstration that elimination of senescent cells delays many late-life diseases and extends lifespan in mice. This implied that accumulation of senescent cells promotes late-life diseases, particularly through action of senescent cell secretions (the senescence-associated secretory phenotype or SASP). But what exactly is a senescent cell? Subsequent to the initial characterization of cellular senescence it became clear that, prior to aging, this phenomenon is in fact adaptive. It supports tissue remodeling functions in a variety of contexts, including embryogenesis, parturition and acute inflammatory processes that restore normal tissue architecture and function, such as wound healing, tissue repair after infection, and amphibian limb regeneration. In these contexts such cells are normal and healthy, and not in any way senescent in the true sense of the word, as originally meant by Hayflick. Thus, it is misleading to refer to them as “senescent”. Similarly, the common assertion that senescent cells accumulate with age due to stress and DNA damage is no longer safe, particularly given their role in inflammation - a process that becomes persistent in later life. We therefore suggest that it would be useful to update some terminology, to bring it into line with contemporary understanding, and to avoid future confusion. To open a discussion of this issue, we propose replacing the term cellular senescence with remodeling activation, and SASP with RASP (remodeling-associated secretory phenotype).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0677.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: heart failure, phenotype, left ventricular ejection fraction, primary care, artificial intelligence, supervised analysis
Online: 27 May 2021 (14:08:53 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence are creating a paradigm shift in health care, being phenotyping patients through clustering techniques one of the areas of interest. Objective: To develop a predictive model to classify heart failure (HF) patients according to their left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), by using available data in Electronic Health Records (EHR). Subjects and methods: 2854 subjects more than 25 years old with diagnose of HF and LVEF measured by echocardiography were selected to develop an algorithm to predict patients with reduced EF using supervised analysis. Performance of the algorithm developed were tested in heart failure patients from Primary Care. To select the most influencing variables, LASSO algorithm setting was used and to tackle the issue of one class exceed the other one by a large proportion we used the Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE). Finally, Random Forest (RF) and XGBoost models were constructed. Results: Full XGBoost model obtained the maximized accuracy, a high negative predictive value and the highest positive predictive value. Gender, age, unstable angina, atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarct are the variables that most influence FE value. Applied in the EHR data set with a total 25594 patients with an ICD-code of HF and no regular follow-up in Cardiology clinics, 6170 (21.1%) were identified as those pertaining to the reduced EF group. Conclusion: The algorithm obtained is able to rescue a number of HF patients with reduced ejection fraction that can be take benefit for a protocol with strong recommendation to succeed. Furthermore, the methodology can be used for studies with data extracted from the Electronic Health Records.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0033.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; clinical mastitis; antibiotic resistance (AR) prevalence; AR phenotype; AR genotype; recent trend
Online: 22 January 2023 (06:50:19 CET)
This study was aimed to examine the recent trends of antibiotic resistance (AR) prevalence in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk of animals with clinical mastitis in areas of the Abruzzo and Molise regions in central Italy. Fifty-four S. aureus isolates could be obtained from routine testing for clinical mastitis agents carried out in the author institution in years 2021 and 2022. These were analyzed for phenotypic resistance to eight antibiotics recommended for testing by European norms and belonging to the antibiotic classes used for mastitis treatment in milk producing animals. Moreover, the presence of 14 transferable genetic determinants encoding resistance to the same antibiotics was analyzed by qPCR tests developed in this study. Phenotypic resistance to non-β-lactams was infrequent, with only one 2022 isolate resistant to clindamycin. However, low level resistance to the β-lactam cefoxitin was observed in 59.2% isolates in both years making these isolates classifiable as methicillin resistant. The AR genotypes detected were blaZ gene (50% 2021 isolates and 44.4% 2022 isolates), ermC/T- aphA3-blaZ (one 2021 isolate), ant6-ermC/T-aphA3-blaZ (one 2021 isolate), ermB-blaZ (one 2022 isolate) and mecA-mph (one 2022 isolate). An interview to the veterinarians who conferred the samples, regarding antimicrobials prescribed for mastitis treatment and criteria of usage, indicated a possible causal relation with the AR test results. The low prevalence of AR genotypes, not increasing in time, most probably reflecting the reported management of antibiotic therapies in farms. However, the frequently observed cefoxitin resistance needs to be explained genotypically, further monitored and limited by modifying antibiotic usage practices. The identification of a mecA positive isolate in 2022 suggests to investigate further if this genotype is emerging locally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0187.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: dioecious; DNA quality; flower type; sample preservation method; sex genotype; sex phenotype; visual assay
Online: 14 February 2020 (04:22:20 CET)
Methods for high-quality DNA extraction and knowledge of sex expression and flowering time are essential for applying genomic-assisted breeding and improve the success with hybridization in Guinea yam. A dioecious or monoecious pattern of flowering and sometimes non-flowering is a common phenomenon within and between the Dioscorea species. The flowering in yam plants raised from botanical seeds often takes an extended period, mostly till the first clonal generation after propagation from the tubers. The prolonged process of testing required to identify plant sex and flowering intensity in yam breeding often poses a challenge to realize reduced breeding cycle and apply genomic selection. This study assessed sample preservation methods for DNA quality during extraction and potential of DNA marker to diagnose plant sex at the early seedling stage in white Guinea yam. The predicted sex at the seedling stage was further validated with the visual score for the sex phenotype at the flowering stage. DNA extracted from leaf samples preserved in liquid nitrogen, silica gel, dry ice, and oven drying methods was similar in quality with a high molecular weight than samples stored in ethanol solution. Yam plant sex diagnosis with the DNA marker (sp16) identified a higher proportion of ZW genotypes (female or monoecious phenotypes) than the ZZ genotypes (male phenotype) in the studied materials with 74% prediction accuracy. The results from this study provided valuable insights on suitable sample preservation methods for quality DNA extraction and the potential of DNA marker sp16 to predict sex in white Guinea yam.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: predictive preventive personalized medicine; Lactobacillus; Bifidobacterium; probiotics, gut microbiota; patient phenotype, individualized medicine; metabolic syndrome
Online: 11 September 2018 (06:00:03 CEST)
The modification the gut microbiota in metabolic syndrome and associated chronic diseases is among leading tasks of microbiome research and needs for clinical use of probiotics. Evidence lack for the implications for microbiome modification to improve metabolic health in particular when applied impersonalized. Probiotics have tremendous potential in personalized nutrition and medicine to develop healthy diets. The aim was to to conduct comprehensive overview of recent updates of role of microbiota on human health and development of metabolic syndrome and efficacy of microbiota modulation considering specific properties of probiotic strain and particular aspects of metabolic syndrome and patient`s phenotype to fill the gap between probiotic product and individual to facilitate development of individualized / personalized probiotic and prebiotic treatments. We discuss the relevance of using host phenotype-associated biomarkers, those based on imaging and molecular and patrient`s history, reliable and accessible to facilitate person-specific appication of probiotics and prebiotic substances. Microbiome phenotypes can be parameters of predictive medicine to recognize patient`s predispositions and evaluate treatment responses; the number of phenotype markers can be effectively involved to monitor microbiome modulation. The studied strain-dependent properties of probiotic strains are potentially relevant for individualized treatment for gut and distant sites microbiome modulation. The evidence regarding probiotic strains properties can be taken to account via pathophysiology-based approach for most effective individualized treatment via gut, oral and vaginal and other sites microbiome modulation according to phenotype of the patient providing individualized and personalized medical approaches. Preventive potential of probiotics is strong and well-documented. Recommendations for individualized clinical use of probiotics, and for probiotic studies design have been suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0368.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: pancreatic cancer; cancer subtype identification; somatic point mutations; genotype and phenotype characterization; therapeutic targets; personalized medicine
Online: 17 August 2021 (22:24:57 CEST)
It has now known that at least 10% of samples with pancreatic cancers (PC) contain a causative mutation in the known susceptibility genes, suggesting the importance of identifying cancer-associated genes that carry the causative mutations in high-risk individuals for early detection of PC. In this study, we develop a statistical pipeline using a new concept, called gene-motif, that utilizes both mutated genes and mutational processes to identify 4,211 3-nucleotide PC-associated gene-motifs within 203 significantly mutated genes in PC. Using these gene-motifs as distinguishable features for pancreatic cancer subtyping results in identifying five PC subtypes with distinguishable phenotypes and genotypes. Our comprehensive biological characterization reveals that these PC subtypes are associated with different molecular mechanisms including unique cancer related signaling pathways, in which for most of the subtypes targeted treatment options are currently available. Some of the pathways we identified in all five PC subtypes, including cell cycle and the Axon guidance pathway are frequently seen and mutated in cancer. We also identified Protein kinase C, EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) signaling pathway and P53 signaling pathways as potential targets for treatment of the PC subtypes. Altogether, our results uncover the importance of considering both the mutation type and mutated genes in the identification of cancer subtypes and biomarkers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0083.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: drought-tolerance characteristics; maize breeding; maize drought tolerance; molecular markers; phenotype; screening of drought-tolerant plants
Online: 7 April 2020 (10:28:30 CEST)
Drought is among the most important abiotic stressors influencing food-crop production worldwide. Currently, drought-tolerant maize materials are rarely used for actual breeding because corn production primarily focuses on heterosis to generate desired varieties. In this article, we reviewed current work on assessing maize drought tolerance. We suggested that the development of enhanced screening techniques must clearly consider the connection between theory and application. We strongly recommend that agricultural scientists focus on translating the results of laboratory experiments into practical methods for improving crop productivity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0330.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: gene expression; gene regulation; evolution; allele specific expression; eQTL; RNAseq; ChIPseq; chromatin; ATACseq; genotype-phenotype map
Online: 28 May 2019 (10:29:26 CEST)
Research in various fields of evolutionary biology has shown that divergence in gene expression is a key driver for phenotypic variation. An exceptional contribution of cis-regulatory evolution has for instance been found to contribute to morphological diversification. In the light of these findings, the analysis of genome-wide expression data has become one of the central tools to link genotype and phenotype information on a more mechanistic level. However, in many studies, especially if general conclusions are drawn from such data, a key feature of gene regulation is often neglected. With our article, we want to raise awareness that gene regulation and thus gene expression is highly context dependent. Genes show tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression. We argue that the regulatory context must be considered when studying evolution of gene expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: AHCY deficiency, S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), LEF1, STAT3, MYC, metastasis, EMT, cancer cell phenotype, shRNA, Next-generation sequencing,
Online: 15 September 2023 (11:03:03 CEST)
Disorder of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (AHCY) activity leads to the potentially lethal rare disease AHCY deficiency, first described in 2004 by Baric and co-workers . In order to shed new light on molecular aspects of the disease, in particular changes at transcriptome level, we enabled knock-down of AHCY expression in model systems such as the colon cancer cell line SW480 to simulate the environment occurring in AHCY deficiency patients. Further, we per-formed deep sequencing of mRNA, followed by differential expression and molecular pathway analysis. Fifteen differentially expressed networks were identified, and interestingly, we found a predicted effect of AHCY down-regulation on the expression of the Lymphoidphoid enhanc-er-binding factor 1 (LEF1) gene, indicating changes in the TCF4/LEF1 complex. LEF1, a member of the T-cell Factor (TCF)/LEF1 family of high-mobility group transcription factors, is a down-stream mediator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway . LEF1 is essential in stem cell maintenance, and especially in its role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Western blot analysis of LEF1 protein expression confirmed our transcriptomic data predictions and revealed significantly increased LEF1 protein in AHCY- deficient cells, providing a novel link between AHCY and cancer cell phenotype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: apoptosis; evading apoptosis; expression variability; cancer functional pathway; prostate cancer phenotype; immortality; proliferation; P53 signaling; transcriptomic network
Online: 9 March 2021 (08:44:15 CET)
Prostate cancer is a leading cause of death among men but its genomic characterization and best therapeutic strategy are still under debate. The Genomic Fabric Paradigm (GFP) considers the transcriptome as a multi-dimensional mathematical object subjected to a dynamic set of expression correlations among the genes. Here, GFP is applied to gene expression profiles of three (one primary, and two secondary) cancer nodules and the surrounding normal tissue from a surgically removed prostate tumor. GFP was used to determine the regulation and rewiring of the P53 signaling, apoptosis, prostate cancer and several other pathways involved in survival and proliferation of the cancer cells. Genes responsible for the block of differentiation, evading apoptosis, immortality, insensitivity to anti-growth signals, proliferation, resistance to chemotherapy and sustained angiogenesis were found as differently regulated in the three cancer nodules with respect to the normal tissue. The analysis indicates that even histo-pathologically equally graded cancer nodules from the same tumor have substantially different transcriptomic organizations, raising legitimate questions about the validity of meta-analyses comparing large populations of healthy and cancer humans. The study suggests that GFP may provide a personalized alternative to the biomarkers’ approach of cancer genomics.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0321.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: trans-species O-glycosylation; trans-species functional bridge; phenotype-specific plasma glycosylation; glycosidic exclusion; ontogenetic Tn formation
Online: 12 January 2021 (12:33:29 CET)
The coevolution of species drives diversity in animals and plants and contributes to natural selection, whereas in host–parasite coevolution, a parasite may complete an incomplete evolutionary/developmental function by utilizing the host cell’s machinery. Analysis of related older data suggests that Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum), the pathogen of malaria tropica, cannot survive outside its human host because it is unable to perform the evolutionarily first protein glycosylation of serologically A-like, O-GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr-R, Tn antigen (“T nouvelle”) formation, owing to its inability for synthesizing the amino sugar N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc). This parasite breaks the species barrier via hijacking the host's physiological A-like/Tn formation through abundantly expressing serine residues and creating hybrid A-like/Tn structures, which in the human blood group O(H) are attacked by the germline-encoded nonimmune polyreactive immunoglobulin M (IgM), exerting the highly anti-A/B/H-aggressive isoagglutinin activities. These activities physiologically undergo the ABO(H) blood group phenotype formation, occurring on the surfaces of red blood cells (RBC), epithelial and endothelial cells and on plasma proteins by identical glycosylation, performed by the ABO(H)-allelic glycotransferases, phenotypically downregulating the anti-A/B/H-reactive IgM (isoagglutinin) activities in the non-O blood groups. ABO(H) phenotype diversity, this way glycosidically linked and molecularly connected to humoral immunity, becomes exposed to the evolution.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0574.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: evolution; evotype; engineering theory; genotype-phenotype maps; directed evolution; selection; synthetic biology; bioengineering; evolvability; self-adaptive systems
Online: 9 December 2020 (10:51:51 CET)
Biological technologies are fundamentally unlike any other because biology evolves. Bioengineering therefore requires novel design methodologies with evolution at their core. Knowledge about evolution is currently applied to the design of biosystems ad hoc. Unless we have a unified engineering theory of evolution, we will neither be able to meet evolution’s potential as a design tool, nor understand or limit its unintended consequences on our designs. Our concept of the evotype offers a conceptual framework for engineering the evolutionary potential of biosystems. We show how a biosystem’s evolutionary properties might be rationally designed by engineering aspects of genetic variation, designed function, and natural selection. This idea could apply to all biosystems – from individual proteins to communities of whole-cells or even entire ecosystems – whether the goal is to direct evolution in the design process, or to limit its impacts during application. These principles could even be used beyond the realm of bioengineering to design entirely synthetic evolving auto-adaptive technologies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0733.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: chronic kidney disease; uremic toxins; renal tubular transport; extracellular matrix remodeling; apoptosis resistance; inflammatory response; senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:49:19 CEST)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive condition of kidney dysfunction due to diverse causes of injury. In healthy kidneys, protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) are cleared from the systemic circulation by proximal tubule cells through the concerted action of plasma membrane transporters that facilitate their urinary excretion, but the endogenous metabolites are hardly removed with kidney dysfunction and may contribute to CKD progression. Accumulating evidence suggests that senescence of kidney tubule cells influences kidney fibrosis, the common endpoint for CKD with an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Senescence is a special state of cells characterized by permanent cell cycle arrest and limitation of proliferation, which promotes fibrosis by releasing senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors. The accumulation of PBUTs in CKD causes oxidative stress and increases the production of inflammatory (SASP) factors that could trigger fibrosis. Recent studies provide some clues that PBUTs may also promote senescence in kidney tubular cells. This review provides an overview on how senescence contributes to CKD and the involvement of PBUTs in this process, and how kidney senescence can be studied, Finally, some suggestions for future therapeutic options for CKD while targeting senescence are given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0192.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Phenome; Matrisome; Matreotype; Phenotype; Extracellular Matrix; Data Mining; SNP; PheWAS; GWAS; Electronic Health Records; Drug Repurposing; Precision Medicine; Collagen; Human
Online: 10 March 2023 (09:34:15 CET)
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is earning an increasingly relevant role in many disease states and the process of aging. Analyzing these disease states is possible with GWAS and PheWAS methodology, and through our analysis, we aimed to explore the relationships between polymorphisms in the compendium of ECM genes (i.e., matrisome genes) in various disease states. A significant contribution on the part of the ECM polymorphisms is evident in many varying types of diseases, particularly those in the core matrisome genes. Our results confirm previous links to connective tissue disorders, but also unearth new and underexplored relationships with neurological, psychiatric, and age-related disease states. Upon analysis of drug indications for gene-disease relationships, we identified numerous targets that may be repurposed for age-related pathology. The identification of ECM polymorphisms and their contribution to disease plays an integral role in future therapeutic developments, drug repurposing, precision medicine, and personalized care.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2051.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Lethal mutation; reproductively lethal mutation; reproductive bottlenecking; evolution; natural selection; phenotype; asexual reproduction; sexual reproduction; virus; bacterium; plant; insect, animal; eusociality
Online: 29 September 2023 (08:24:23 CEST)
Reproductively lethal mutations (RLMs) are mutations that, upon expression of the encoded lethal phenotypes, cause individuals carrying them to die or to be sterile. An underappreciated fact is that loss-of-function RLMs in protein-coding genes can be phenotypically shielded by favorable environments rendering these genes conditionally non-essential, or by their sister alleles in diploid organisms. Absent of rigorous mitigation, such phenotype-shielding causes the number of genes incurring RLMs to increase over time, and simultaneously allows each RLM to reach high allele frequencies in a conspecific population. Over-accumulation of RLMs then sets the population up for eventual concurrent expression of large numbers of RLMs, and massive deaths in rapid succession, possibly even population-level extinction. This hypothetical scenario in turn predicts that organismal lineages that evolved means to minimize the allele frequencies of phenotypically shielded RLMs are favored by natural selection. We argue that bottlenecking the genome copies destined for reproduction is a universal strategy adopted by all living beings to compel phenotype-based RLM purging. We further postulate that primitive RNA replicons must first evolve bottlenecked reproduction before evolving the capacity to encode diffusible products. In more complex, multicellular organisms, RLM management through bottlenecked reproduction gains additional reinforcement through sexual reproduction. In short, the evidence chronicled in this essay strongly suggest that the Bottleneck, Isolate, Amplify, Select (BIAS) principle, originally proposed to explain intracellular evolutionary dynamics of viruses, may be universally applicable to all living beings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0186.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: heat shock protein (HSP); extracellular vesicle (EV); exosome; oncosome; immune evasion; resistance-associated secretory phenotype (RASP); EMT; hypoxia; biomarker; liquid biopsy
Online: 17 August 2019 (16:15:01 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EV) released by tumor cells are a major aspect of the resistance-associated secretory phenotype (RASP), by which immune evasion can be established. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of molecular chaperones, which stabilize proteins, minimize protein misfolding and aggregation within the cell, besides facilitating protein translocation, refolding and degradation. (i) Releases of extracellular HSPs (ex-HSP) and EV-associated HSPs (EV-HSP) are essential in RASP, by which molecular cotransfer of HSPs with oncogenic factors into recipient cells can promote cancer progression and resistance against stress such as hypoxia, radiation, chemicals, and immune system. (ii) RASP of tumor cells can eject anticancer drugs, molecularly targeted therapeutics, and immune checkpoint inhibitors with EVs. (iii) Cytotoxic lipids can be also released from tumor cells as RASP. Nevertheless, ex-HSP and EV-HSP can play immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive roles by binding to receptors such as LRP1/CD91/A2MR, scavenger receptors, and toll-like receptors expressed on recipient cells. Liquid biopsy of HSPs in body fluids may be useful in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment in cancer. Regarding HSP90-targeted therapeutics, we summarize the pros, cons, and problem solutions in this review. Although production of HSPs are canonically induced by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), recent studies discovered that production of HSPs is also regulated by matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) and production of cochaperone CDC37 is reciprocally regulated by myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1) and SCAN-D1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1353.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: dopamine; D1-like dopamine receptors; D2-like dopamine receptors; prefrontal cortex; generalized epilepsy; absence epilepsy; audiogenic epilepsy; animal model; autism spectrum disorder; phenotype
Online: 20 September 2023 (08:51:40 CEST)
The involvement of the prefrontal cortical dopaminergic system in psychopathology of epilepsies and comorbid conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) still needs to be explored. We used autoradiography to study the D1-like (D1DR) and D2-like (D2DR) receptor binding density in the prefrontal cortex of normal Wistar rats and Wistar-derived strains with generalized convulsive and/or nonconvulsive epilepsies. WAG/Rij rats served as a model for non-convulsive absence epilepsy, WAG/Rij-AGS as a model of mixed convulsive/non-convulsive forms, and KM strain was a model for convulsive epilepsy comorbiding with ASD-like behavioral phenotype. Prefrontal cortex of rats with any of epileptic pathology studied, demonstrated profound decreases in binding densities to both D1DR, D2DR; the effects were localized in the primary and secondary anterior cingulate cortexi, and adjacent regions. The local decreased D1DR and D2DR binding densities were independent (not correlated) from each other. The particular group of epileptic rats with ASD-like phenotype (KM strain), displayed changes in the lateral prefrontal cortex and adjacent regions: D1DR were lowered, but those to D2DR elevated, in anterior dysgranular insular cortex and adjacent regions. Thus, epilepsy-related changes in the dopaminergic system of rat archeocortex were localized in the medial regions, whereas ASD-related candidates were seen in the lateral aspects. The findings point to putative local dopaminergic dysfunctions, associated with generalized epilepsies and/or ASD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0744.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: NIRS; Frailty; active stand; Frailty Phenotype; Frailty Index; Clinical Frailty Scale; cardiovascular; cerebrovascular; neurocardiovascular; statistical parametric mapping; SPM; blood pressure; heart rate; brain oxygenation; TSI
Online: 13 November 2023 (10:50:07 CET)
In this observational study, we compared continuous physiological signals during an active stand test in adults aged 50 years and over, characterized as frail by three different criteria, using data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). Four independent groups were identified: those characterized as frail only by one of the frailty tools used (the physical Frailty Phenotype (FP), the 32-item Frailty Index (FI), or the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) classification tree), and a fourth group where participants were not characterized as frail by any of these tools. Continuous non-invasive physiological signals were collected during an active stand test: systolic (sBP) and diastolic (dBP) blood pressure, as well as heart rate (HR), using digital artery photoplethysmography. Additionally, frontal lobe cerebral oxygenation (Oxy), deoxygenation (Deoxy), and tissue saturation index (TSI) were also non-invasively measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The signals were visualized across frailty groups and statistically compared using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping (SPM). A total of 1,124 participants (mean age 63.5 years, 50.2% women) were included: 23 were characterized as frail only by FP, 97 by FI, 38 by CFS, and 966 by none of these criteria. SPM analyses revealed that only the group characterized as frail by FI had significantly different signals (p<0.05) compared to the non-frail group. Specifically, they exhibited a lesser increase in HR between 5-15 seconds post-stand and larger deficits in sBP and dBP between 15-40 seconds post-stand, and possibly a lower Delta TSI at 20 seconds post-stand. In this comparison, the FI proved more adept at capturing distinct physiological responses to standing, likely due to its direct inclusion of cardiovascular morbidities in its definition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1385.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Lutein; post-COVID syndrome; mRNA vaccination injury syndrome; inflammatory response; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species; arrhythmogenic heart phenotype; antioxidant defense; bioavailability; extra virgin olive oil
Online: 20 September 2023 (10:07:58 CEST)
Lutein, a plant-derived xanthophyl-carotenoid, is an exceptional antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituent found in food. Elevated concentrations of lutein found in human blood and plasma, due to high dietary intake, are beneficial against eye disease and improve cardiometabolic health. Lutein plays an important protective role against the development of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). It has also been shown to be beneficial for liver, kidney and respiratory health. Lutein, acting as a very strong antioxidant, can alleviate oxidative stress and downgrade reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress is one of the key pathogenic mechanisms in post-COVID and mRNA vaccine injury syndromes. Recent in silico studies suggest that lutein and other naturally derived antioxidants, by docking at the site where the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SP) binds to the angiotensin enzyme type 2 (ACE2) receptor, may neutralize the SP-ACE2 interactions. Lutein can be added to a detoxification regimen to aid in clearing Spike protein and relieving symptoms. In agreement with Hippocrates’ dictum to “Let food be thy medicine,” this review establishes dietary lutein as a valuable therapy in the treatment of post-COVID syndrome, mRNA vaccine injury syndromes, and a wide range of other chronic illnesses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0386.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: resistance-associated secretory phenotype (RASP); extracellular vesicle (EV); exosome; oncosome; drug resistance; epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); heat shock protein (HSP); cell stress response; hypoxia; acidosis; tumor immunology
Online: 29 December 2019 (13:46:21 CET)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes or oncosomes are released with molecules unfavorable for survival from cells. In addition, accumulating evidence has shown that tumor cells often eject anti-cancer drugs such as chemotherapeutics and targeted drugs within EVs, a novel mechanism of drug resistance. The EV-releasing, drug resistance phenotype is often coupled with cellular dedifferentiation and transformation, cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and taking on a cancer stem cell phenotype. Recent studies have shown that the release of EVs is also involved in immunosuppression. The concept of the resistance-associated secretory phenotype (RASP) is reviewed herein.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1344.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: mediastinal gray-zone lymphoma; classical Hodgkin lymphoma; primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; NOS; EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; NOS; morphology; phenotype; gene expression profile; mutational landscape
Online: 18 May 2023 (12:25:07 CEST)
The concept of gray-zone lymphoma (GZL) has been progressively refined since its in-troduction in the literature in 1998. For several years, it was applied to a rather broad spectrum of conditions, posing the problem of the differential diagnosis between any type of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with special reference to primary mediasti-nal forms (PMBL). Officially recognized as a provisional entity in the 4th and revised 4th editions of the WHO Classification of Tumour of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues with the term “B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lym-phoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma”, it was limited to tumours, which showed either morphologic features reminiscent of classical HL (CHL) but carrying a complete B-cell pheno-type or conversely provided with a PMBL morphology but revealing CHL phenotypic charac-teristics. The definition of GZL has been further revised in the recently published International Lymphoma Classification and 5th Edition of the WHO Classification of Haemato-lymphoid Tu-mours, which have limited it to mediastinal neoplasms based on emerging molecular evidences. The aim of this review is to critically discuss the issue of GZL, also in the light of the suboptimal response to current therapies.