ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0453.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: pharmacophore; pharmacophore modelling; quantitative pharmacophore; QSAR; machine learning; pharmacophore optimization; NeuroDeRisk
Online: 29 July 2022 (08:47:49 CEST)
Pharmacophores are an established concept for the modelling of ligand-receptor interactions based on the abstract representations of stereoelectronic molecular features. They became widely popular as filters for the fast virtual screening of large compound libraries. Until today a lot of effort has been put into the development of sophisticated algorithms and strategies to increase the computational efficiency of the screening process. However, hardly any focus was put on the development of automated procedures that optimise pharmacophores towards higher discriminatory power, which until today still has to be done manually by a human expert. In the age of machine learning, the researcher has become the decision-maker at the top level, outsourcing analysis tasks and recurrent work to advanced algorithms and automation workflows. Here we propose an algorithm for the automated selection of features driving pharmacophore model quality using SAR information extracted from validated QPhAR models. By integrating the developed method into an end-to-end workflow, we present a fully automated method that is able to derive best-quality pharmacophores from a given input dataset. Finally, we show how the QPhAR-generated models can be used to guide the researcher with insights regarding (un-)favourable interactions for compounds of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0043.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: chalcone; cytotoxic activity; pharmacophore model
Online: 7 November 2016 (08:30:12 CET)
A series of novel isobutylchalcones (A1-A20) were prepared, evaluated for their cytotoxic activity and characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis data. The logic behind the design is to synthesize and compare chalcones containing electron releasing lipophilic isobutyl substituent on aromatic ring A and the B ring with aromatic ring containing a range of electron releasing and electron withdrawing groups as well as heteroaromatic rings for their cytotoxic activity. The compounds were tested against HT-29 (colon cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer) and DU-145 (prostate cancer) cell lines using methotrexate (IC50 12 ± 1 (HT-29), 9 ±1 (MCF-7) 5 ± 1 (DU-145)) as reference standard. Compound A6 having 2,4-difluorphenyl moiety was most potent of the series against all the three cell lines and notably A6 was mainly effective against DU-145 cell lines with an IC50 value of 18 µg/mL. The critical structural features required for the activity against all the cell lines were identified through pharmacophore model using PHASETM which has recognised a 5 point AHHRR model and is consistent with the cytotoxic activity of the tested compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0329.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; protease; docking; pharmacophore; Zinc15
Online: 19 April 2020 (05:33:03 CEST)
A big race for the search for novel lead has begun due to the emergence of COVID-19 across the globe. More than 6,00,000 cases of afflicted patients worldwide has been reported till date with high mortality and morbidity. At present no approved drugs are known for COVID-19. Phylogenetic analysis present strong nucleotide sequence similarity of around 80% with SARS-CoV. Therefore, the drugs used for treating SARS-CoV and MERS are being used for SARS-CoV-2 also. Recently, the crystal structure of COVID-19 is reported and hence, we have used this tom predict the binding affinity with SARS-CoV-2-main protease and prepared a pharmacophore that may be used for future design of novel inhibitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0270.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: drug design; falcipain; malaria; peptidomimetics; Plasmodium falciparum; virtual screening; pharmacophore.
Online: 12 July 2021 (14:48:13 CEST)
In this work antiparasitic peptidomimetics inhibitors (PEP) of falcipain-3 (FP3) of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) have been proposed using structure-based and computer-aided molecular design. Beginning with the crystal structure of PfFP3-K11017 complex (PDB ID: 3BWK), three-dimensional (3D) models of FP3-PEPx complexes with known activities (IC50exp) were prepared by in situ modification, based on molecular mechanics and implicit solvation to compute Gibbs free energies (GFE) of inhibitor-FP3 complex formation. This resulted in a quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) model based on a linear correlation between computed GFE (ΔΔGcomp) and the experimentally measured IC50exp: (pIC50exp=-(IC50exp/109) =-0.4517×∆∆Gcomp+4.0865 ; R2 = 0.89). Apart from the structure-based relationship, a ligand-based quantitative pharmacophore model (PH4) of novel PEP analogs where substitutions were directed by comparative analysis of the active site interactions was derived using the proposed bound conformations of the PEPx. This provided structural information useful for the design of virtual combinatorial libraries (VL), which was virtually screened based on the 3D-QSAR PH4. The end results were predictory inhibitory activities falling within the low nanomolar concentration range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0003.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; protease; virtual screening; pharmacophore; inhibitors; natural compounds
Online: 17 April 2020 (11:00:55 CEST)
Background: SARS-CoV-2 that are the causal agent of a current pandemic are enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Proteases of SARS-CoV-2 are necessary for viral replication, structural assembly and pathogenicity. The ~33.8KDa Mpro protease of SARS-CoV-2 is a non-human homologue and highly conserved among several coronaviruses indicating Mpro could be a potential drug target for Coronaviruses.Methods: Here we performed computational ligand screening of four pharmacophores (OEW, Remdesivir, Hydroxycholoquine and N3) that are presumed to have positive effects against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro protease (6LU7) and also screened 50,000 molecules from the ZINC Database dataset against this protease target.Results: We found 40 pharmacophore-like structures of natural compounds from diverse chemical classes that exhibited better affinity of docking as compared to the known ligands. The 10 best selected ligands namely, ZINC1845382, ZINC1875405, ZINC2092396, ZINC2104424, ZINC44018332, ZINC2101723, ZINC2094526, ZINC2094304, ZINC2104482, ZINC3984030, and ZINC1531664, are mainly classified as β-carboline, Alkaloids and Polyflavonoids, and all of them displayed interactions with dyad CYS145 and HIS41 from the protease pocket in a similar way as with other known ligands.Conclusion: Our results suggest that these 10 molecules could be effective against SARS-CoV-2 protease and may be tested in vitro and in vivo to develop novel drugs against this virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Quorum sensing; Virtual screening; E-pharmacophore; Drug discovery.
Online: 7 October 2019 (12:33:33 CEST)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an emerging opportunistic pathogen responsible for cystic fibrosis and nosocomial infections. In addition, empirical treatments are become inefficient due to their multiple-antibiotic resistance and extensive colonizing ability. Quorum sensing (QS) plays a vital role in the regulation of virulence factors in P. aeruginosa. Attenuation of virulence by QS inhibition could be an alternative and effective approach to control infections. Therefore, we sought to discover new QS inhibitors (QSIs) against LasR receptor in P. aeruginosa using chemoinformatics. Initially, a structure-based high-throughput virtual screening was performed using the LasR active site that identified 61404 relevant molecules. E-pharmacophore (ADAHH) screening of these molecules rendered 72 QSI candidates. In standard-precision docking, only 7 compounds were found as potential QSIs due to their higher binding affinity to LasR receptor (-7.53 to -10.32 kcal/mol compared to -7.43 kcal/mol of native ligands). The ADMET properties of these compounds were suitable to be QSIs. Later, extra-precision docking and binding energy calculation suggested ZINC19765885 and ZINC72387263 as the most promising QSIs. The dynamic simulation of the docked complexes showed good binding stability and molecular interactions. The current study suggested that these two compounds could be used in P. aeruginosa QS inhibition to combat bacterial infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1124.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: docking; binding free energy; pharmacophore; KPLS; QSAR; alkylhydrazide; histone deacetylases (HDAC)
Online: 16 May 2023 (08:26:45 CEST)
Histone deacetylases (HDAC) represent promising epigenetic targets for several diseases including different cancer types. The HDAC inhibitors approved to date are pan-HDAC inhibitors and most show a poor selectivity profile, side effects and especially hydroxamic acid based inhibitors lack good pharmacokinetic profiles. Therefore, the development of isoform-selective non-hydroxamic acid HDAC inhibitors is a highly regarded field in medicinal chemistry. In this study, we analyzed different ligand-based and structure-based drug design techniques to predict the binding mode and inhibitory activity of recently developed alkylhydrazide HDAC inhibitors. Alkylhydrazides have recently attracted more attention as they have shown promising effects in various cancer cell lines. In this work, pharmacophore models and atom-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were generated and evaluated. The binding mode of the studied compounds was determined using molecular docking as well as molecular dynamics simulations and compared with known crystal structures. Calculated free energies of binding were also considered to generate QSAR models. The models created show a good explanation of in vitro data and were used to develop novel HDAC3 inhibitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0022.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: HPPD inhibitors; pharmacophore model; molecule docking; HipHop model; virtual screening; ChemDiv
Online: 5 June 2017 (05:16:39 CEST)
p-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is not only the useful molecular target in treating life-threatening tyrosinemia type I, but also an important target for chemical herbicides. A combined in silico structure-based pharmacophore and molecular docking based virtual screening were performed to identify novel potential HPPD inhibitors. The complex based pharmacophore model (CBP) with 0.721 of ROC used for screening compound showed remarkable ability to retrieve known active ligands from decoy molecule. The ChemDiv database was screened using CBP-Hypo2 as a 3D query, and the best-fit hits subjected to molecular docking with two methods of LibDock and CDOCKER in Accelrys Discovery Studio 2.5(DS 2.5) to discern interactions with key residues at the active site of HPPD. 4 Compounds with top rank in HipHop model and well-known binding model were finally chosen as identification of lead compounds with potentially inhibitory effects on active site of target. The results provided powerful insight to the development of novel HPPD inhibitors herbicides using computational techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0174.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: AQP3 protein; molecular docking; molecular dynamics; MM-GBSA analysis; pharmacophore-based filter
Online: 16 October 2019 (04:37:31 CEST)
Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is one of the aquaglyceroporins, which is expressed in the basolateral layer of the skin membrane. Studies have reported that human skin squamous cell carcinoma overexpresses AQP3 and inhibition of its function may alleviate skin tumorigenesis. In the present study, we have applied a virtual screening method that encompasses filters for physicochemical properties and molecular docking to select potential hit compounds that bind to the Aquaporin-3 protein. Based on molecular docking results, the top 20 hit compounds were analyzed for stability in the binding pocket using unconstrained molecular dynamics simulations and further evaluated for binding free energy. Furthermore, examined the ligand-unbinding pathway of the inhibitor from its bound form to explore possible routes for inhibitor approach to the ligand-binding site. With a good docking score, stability in the binding pocket, and free energy of binding, these hit compounds can be developed as Aquaporin-3 inhibitors in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0427.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Pharmacophore; 3D-QSAR; virtual screening; D3R selective antagonist; molecular docking; CNS-like
Online: 23 July 2018 (14:09:10 CEST)
The dopamine D3 receptor is an important CNS target for the treatment of a variety of neurological diseases. Selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonists modulate the improvement of psychostimulant addiction and relapse. In this study, five and six featured pharmacophore models of D3R antagonists were generated and evaluated with the post-hoc score combining two survival scores of active and inactive. Among Top 10 models, APRRR215 and AHPRRR104 were chosen based on the coefficient of determination (APRRR215: R2training = 0.80; AHPRRR104: R2training = 0.82) and predictability (APRRR215: Q2test = 0.73, R2predictive = 0.82; AHPRRR104: Q2test = 0.86, R2predictive = 0.74) of their 3D-quantitative structure–activity relationship models. Pharmacophore-based virtual screening of a large compound library from eMolecules (> 3 million compounds) using two optimal models expedited the search process 100-fold speed increase compared to the docking-based screening (HTVS scoring function in Glide) and identified a series of hit compounds having promising novel scaffolds. After the screening, docking scores, as an adjuvant predictor, were added to two fitness scores (from the pharmacophore models) and predicted Ki (from PLSs of the QSAR models) to improve accuracy. Final selection of the most promising hit compounds were also evaluated for CNS-like properties as well as expected D3R antagonism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0144.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Molecular docking; molecular dynamics; pharmacophore; molecular modeling; XIAP protein; protein inhibitor; anticancer activity
Online: 9 June 2022 (11:08:29 CEST)
Herein, we are proposing two chalcone molecules, (E)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(p-tolyl) prop-2-en-1-one and (E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one, based on the anticancer bioactive molecule Xanthohumol, which are suitable for further in vitro and in vivo studies. Their ability to create stable complexes with the antiapoptotic X-linked IAP (XIAP) protein makes them promising anticancer agents. The calculations were based on ligand-based and structure-based virtual screening combined for the pharmacophore built. Additionally, the structures passed Lipinski's rule for drug use, and their reactivity was confirmed using density functional theory studies. The candidates were chosen between 10639400 compounds, and the docking protocols were evaluated using molecular dynamics simulations.