REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2104.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: pets; sentinels; humans; disease; environmental pollution; indoor pollution
Online: 30 June 2023 (03:23:18 CEST)
In this world that we share with them, they became unintended sentinels for the consequences of pollutant exposure, developing similar conditions to humans, and even earlier. This review focuses on the human-pet interaction and on the effects of the environment pets share with us. Alongside other species, canine and feline companions are veritable models in human medical research. The latency period for showing chronic exposure effects to pollutants is just a few years in them, compared to considerably more, decades in humans. Comparing the serum values of man's best friends to ours can indicate the degree of poisonous lead-load we are exposed to, for example, and of other substances as well. We can find 2.4 times higher perfluorochemicals from stain- and grease-proof coatings in canine companions, 23 times higher values for PBDEs in cats, and five times more mercury compared to the average levels obtained in humans. All these represent early warning signals. Taking into account all these, and the animal welfare orientation of today’s society, finding non-invasive methods to detect the degree of environmental pollution in our animals becomes paramount, alongside with the need to raise awareness on the risks carried by certain chemicals we knowingly use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.2008.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: essential oils; chemical constituents; toxicity; pets; safety considerations; bioactivity.
Online: 30 November 2023 (16:53:49 CET)
Essential oils (EOs) are highly concentrated and volatile blends of nonpolar substances, are derived from aromatic plant components and comprise terpenes, terpenoids and phenylpropanoids, exhibiting diverse biological and pharmacological properties. The burgeoning pet industry is interested in EOs as a potential solution for common health issues in domestic animals, particularly in addressing antimicrobial resistance. The present study summarizes the composition, properties, benefits, safety considerations, and effects of EOs on pets and animals. The applications of EOs range from antimicrobial effects to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities etc. Furthermore, EOs are used extensively in various industries, including beauty care products, detergents, and fragrances. The chemical constituents of EOs, exemplified by eucalyptus EO and rosemary EO, highlight their distinct aromatic profiles and potential benefits. Nevertheless, understanding the chemical makeup of EOs is fundamental in assessing their potential impacts on biological systems. Safety considerations, including potential toxicity, are essential when incorporating EOs into animal care routines. The feed additives incorporating EOs have shown promise in influencing gut microbiota balance, reducing inflammation, and acting as antioxidants. However, cautious application is paramount, considering the potential risks associated with high doses or multiple administrations. Preliminary studies suggest low toxicity levels, but further research is required to evaluate the safety of EOs. Though studies reported the beneficial effects of EOs on pets and animals, further research is needed to validate the findings in real-world conditions. The paper also discussed the regulatory considerations and future perspectives on applying EOs in veterinary medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Knowledge; One Health; Pet ownership; Pets; Portugal; Public Health; Zoonoses
Online: 3 November 2021 (09:21:40 CET)
Pet ownership is common in modern society. In Portugal, 38% and 31% of all households own, at least, one dog or cat, respectively. Few studies have ascertained the knowledge of pet owners about pet ownership and zoonoses, and none of them was carried out in Portugal. The aim of the present study was to assess household knowledge and practices related to pet ownership and zoonoses in the North of Portugal. A questionnaire was completed by 424 pet owners, during November 2019 to February 2020. Most respondents (97.2%) considered pets as an important part of the family, especially women (p = 0.036); 73.1% allowed their pets free access to indoors; 41.3% denied sharing the bed with their pets and 29% assumed they did it daily; 20.3% reported never kissing their pets/pets licking their faces; 73.6% considered animals as potential sources of diseases to humans, but only 25.9% reported knowing the definition of zoonoses; 96.9% considered important the role of veterinarians in protecting public health. The low level of knowledge of pet owners and the occurrence of high-risk behaviors indicate a need to strengthen communication between veterinarians, physicians, pet owners and the general public to reduce the risk of acquisition and transmission of zoonoses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: dog theft; pet theft; dogs; pets, crime; animal geography; GIS
Online: 28 March 2019 (06:40:57 CET)
Dogs are considered property under UK law, while current discourses of pet ownership place canine companions as part of an extended family. This means sentences for those who steal dogs are not reflective of a dogs’ sentience and agency, rather reflecting the same charges for those who steal a laptop or wallet. This is particularly problematic as dog theft is currently on the rise in England and Wales and led to public calls to change the law. Recognizing that a more robust analysis of dog theft crime statistics is required, we gathered dog theft data for 2015, 2016 and 2017 from 37 of 44 police forces through FOI requests. This paper uses this data to examine how dog theft crime statistics are constructed; assesses the strengths and weaknesses of this data; and categorizes, maps and measures dog theft changes temporally per police force in England and Wales. Our findings reveal there has been an increase in dog theft crimes, 1,294 in 2015, 1,525 in 2016 (+17.85%), and 1,678 in 2017 (+10.03%); and a decrease in court charges related to dog theft crimes, 62 (4.7%) in 2015, 48 (3.14%) in 2016, 37 (2.2%) in 2017. There were police force inconsistencies in recording dog theft crime which meant some data was unusable or could not be accessed or analysed. There is a need for a qualitative study to understand dog theft crime in different areas, and standardised approach to recording the theft of a dog by all forces across England and Wales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0941.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Pasteurella spp; pets; P. multocida; beta-lactams; skin and soft tissue infection; urinary tract infection
Online: 12 May 2023 (11:30:46 CEST)
Abstract: Pasteurella spp. is a gram-negative bacterium that is part of the oral and upper respiratory tract microbiota of many animals such as canids and felines. In humans it can produce pathology primarily associated with animal bites or scratches. In addition, members of this genus, and es-pecially Pasteurella multocida, may also be involved in systemic infections, mainly in immuno-compromised patients in close contact with pets. The aim of this study is to analyse the prevalence and clinical characteristics of infections caused by Pasteurella spp. as well as the sensitivity profile of these isolates obtained in the Microbiology laboratory of the Hospital Can Misses (Ibiza, Ibiza and Formentera Health Area, ASEF) in the period from January 2013 to December 2018. Retrospective descriptive study in which all Pasteurella spp. isolates were analysed in the Micro-biology Laboratory of Hospital Can Misses from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2018. Bacterial identification was performed by Vitek 2 automated biochemical test panel (bioMérieux, Spain) and antimicrobial susceptibility also by Vitek2 automated microdilution panel, interpreted based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards. Medical records were systematically reviewed by collecting demographic data of infected patients, comorbidities, epidemiological data and clinical features of the infection. A total of 22 isolates of Pasterurella spp. were obtained from 22 different patients, 62.8% female, from three different species: 18 P. multocida, 2 P. canis and 2 P. pneumotropica. Most isolates came from soft tissue infection samples: 7 wound exudates and 5 abscess material. The antibiotics tested with the highest sensitivity profile were gentamicin and cefepime (100% sensitivity
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0360.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; coronavirus; pets; companion animals; reverse zoonosis; veterinary; animal welfare; feline; One Health
Online: 4 August 2023 (14:48:06 CEST)
Although domestic cats are susceptible to infection with SARS-CoV-2, the role of the virus in causing feline disease is less well defined. We conducted a large-scale study to identify SARS-CoV-2 infections in UK pet cats, using active and passive surveillance. Remnant feline respiratory swab samples, submitted for other pathogen testing between May 2021 and February 2023, were screened using RT-qPCR. In addition, we appealed to veterinarians for swab samples from cats suspected of having clinical SARS-CoV-2 infections. Bespoke testing for SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies was also performed, on request, in suspected cases. One RT-qPCR-positive cat was identified from the active surveillance (1/549, 0.18 %), during the Delta wave (1/175, 0.57 %). Passive surveillance detected one cat infected with the Alpha variant, and two of ten cats tested RT-qPCR-positive during the Delta wave. No cats tested RT-qPCR-positive after the emergence of Omicron BA.1 and its descendants although 374 were tested by active and eleven by passive surveillance. We describe four cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pet cats, identified by RT-qPCR and/or serology, that presented with a range of clinical signs, as well as their SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences. Our results demonstrate that, although uncommon, clinical infections in cats can and do occur.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0121.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Allergy; Asthma; Wheeze; Rhinitis; Home Allergens; Household Dust; Mildew; Cockroach; Dust mites; Pets; Endotoxin; Population Study; Prevalence Study; NHANES
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:23:09 CEST)
Our study examines the association of the presence of mildew, cockroaches, and pets in homes as well as household dust allergens with the prevalence and/or severity of allergic diseases. No study has concurrently assessed home environment exposures in relation to allergic conditions in the general US population. Data from 5,409 participants from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey living in their current homes for ≥1 year were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses between home exposures and allergic diseases prevalence and severity were performed. In adjusted analyses, mildew was associated with higher current asthma, allergies, and allergic rhinitis prevalence; endotoxin, with higher current asthma prevalence), and dust Canis familiaris (Can f) 1, with higher allergic rhinitis prevalence. However, presence of cockroaches and dust Dermatogoides farinae (Der f) 1 were associated respectively with lower current asthma and allergies prevalence. Presence of mildew, dust Der f1, Dermatogoides pteronyssinus (Der p) 1, Feline domesticus (Fel d) 1, and endotoxin were all associated with asthma and/or wheeze severity. Non-atopic asthma was more frequent with mildew and/or musty smell dust and higher dust Fel d1 concentration, while atopic asthma was more prevalent with higher Can f1and endotoxin concentrations in dust. This study confirms previous relationships and reports novel associations, generating hypotheses for future research.