REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0758.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: penile cancer; lymph node dissection; timing; survival
Online: 12 September 2023 (10:29:17 CEST)
Background: The management of penile cancer patients has some grey zones, one of them being the timing of prophylactic pelvic lymph node dissection. Here, we review the impact of timing of prophylactic inguinal and pelvic lymph node dissection on patients’ outcome. Methods: Relevant databases were searched according to recommendations by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Before the systematic review we present a narrative review on the indications for lymph node dissection and the impact of pathological anatomical considerations on the timing of prophylactic lymph node dissection and patients’ outcome. The primary research questions were disease-free and overall survival rate in patients who underwent early or late lymph node dissection after penile cancer diagnosis. Results: Four clinical trials were included in the systematic review. Conclusions: The survival rate of patients with penile cancer is strictly associated with the timing of prophylactic pelvic lymph node dissection. Even though there are no randomized controlled trials we conclude that there is evidence for a strong recommendation that lymph node dissection should be performed as soon as possible after diagnosis with3 months as a realistic cut-off time between early and late. According to the present evidence base, lymph node dissection should be offered the sooner the better to all patients at high risk of lymph node metastasis.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Autoimmune diabetes; PD-1 inhibitor; Sintilimab; Penile carcinoma
Online: 20 July 2022 (06:09:13 CEST)
Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare disease. Treatment options for advanced penile cancer are often limited and prognosis remains poor. We reported a 52-year-old male recurrent and metastatic penile SCC patient with high PD-L1 expression(90%) and TMB(14.4 muts/Mb). He had undergone penectomy, bilateral inguinal lymph node dissection and excision of the abdominal wall mass during two surgeries. Despite cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy and sequential chemotherapy with docetaxel plus cisplatin were then carried out, the carcinoma still had progressed. The patient then obtained progression free survival exceeding 32 months with continuous sintilimab, although new onset of ICI-induced diabetes after 24 cycles of sintilimab and required sustained insulin treatment. He didn’t have positive type 1 diabetes associated autoantibodies, but had susceptible HLA genotype DR3-DQ2 haplotype. This is the first patient with radiation and multichemorefractory penile SCC obtained remarkable anti-tumor effect of partial regression exceeding 32 months during continuous sintilimab.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0196.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: comorbid diseases; erectile dysfunction; penile duplex doppler ultrasound; penile pathology; phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors
Online: 22 January 2018 (09:03:17 CET)
Relationship between the results of penile duplex doppler ultrasound (PDDU) and response to vardenafil was investigated in patients diagnosed with erectile dysfunction (ED). Data of 148 patients with ED were analysed retrospectively. Patients who did not respond to therapy were classified as Group I (n = 32), those responded partially were classified as Group II (n = 40) and complete responders were classified as Group III (n = 76). Age, comorbid diseases, vascular and penile pathology were compared among the three groups. While diabetes mellitus (DM) and dyslipedimia positivity adversely affect the response to treatment, the presence of hypertension (HT), peyronie's disease and priapism increase the therapeutic response to the treatment (p < 0.05). Arterial insufficiency was present in 20(30.3%), 25(37,9%) and 21(31.8%) of the patients in Group I, Group II and Group III, respectively (p = 0.001). Venous insufficiency was observed in 3(14.3%) patients in Group I and in 8(85.7%) patients in Group III (p = 0.001). Arterial/venous insufficiency was seen in 9(30%), 14(46.7%) and 7(23.3%) of the patients in Group I, Group II and Group III, respectively (p = 0.001). Response rate to treatment was highest in normal patients according to PDDU, followed by patients with venous insuffiency. Besides, it was found that DM decreased the response to treatment, whereas response was increased in cases with HT, priapism and Peyronie’s disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: microbiome; prostate cancer; bladder cancer; kidney cancer; testicular cancer; penile cancer
Online: 18 September 2023 (19:21:53 CEST)
The microbiome, once considered peripheral, is emerging as a relevant player in the intricate web of factors contributing to cancer development and progression. These often overlooked microorganisms, in the context of urological malignancies, have been investigated primarily focusing on the gut microbiome, while exploration of urogenital microorganisms remains limited. In light of this, our systematic review delves into the complex role of these understudied actors in various neoplastic conditions, including prostate, bladder, kidney, penile, and testicular cancers. Our analysis found a total of 37 studies, with prostate cancer-12, bladder cancer-20, kidney cancer-4, penile/testicular cancer-1, which reveals distinct associations specific to each condition, hinting at potential therapeutic avenues and future biomarker discoveries. It becomes evident that further research is imperative to unravel the complexities of this domain and provide a more comprehensive understanding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0542.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Peyronie's Disease; vacuum erection devices; penile curvature; surgery; quality of life
Online: 8 September 2023 (02:41:27 CEST)
Background: Peyronie’s disease (PD) represents a challenging urological disease, due to not optimal post-operative surgical outcomes. We aim to evaluate if vacuum erection devices (VED) treatment before pe-nile curvature surgery is able to improve the post-operative surgical outcomes. Methods: All enrolled patients were assigned to the following groups: a) treatment group, VED treatment (3 times per week) starting 3 months before surgery and (3 times per week) one months after surgery and b) control group, VED treatment (3 times per week) one months after surgery. Follow-up urologic visits were scheduled at 3 and 6 months after surgery and the two groups were compared. Results: Thirty-eight patients have been enrolled (median age 67 years, 57-74, IQR), 20 in the treatment group and 18 in the control group. At the follow-up visits, the two groups are different in terms of IIEF-5 (26 vs 24; p=0.02), ‘yes’ to SEP2 and 3 (85% vs 55%; p<0.001, 85% vs 50%; p<0.001, respectively) and PDQ (-16 vs -11; p=0.03). Complete correction of penile curvature was achieved in 36 patients (94.7%). In the treatment group, no hourglass deformity has been reported, while in the control group 1 patient reported a mild hourglass deformity. In the treatment group, we obtained a longer total penile length (median +1.5 cm). The overall satisfaction rate was 98% in the treatment group and 96% in the control group. Conclusions: The VED treatment before penile curvature surgery in patients affected by PD is able to improve the post-operative surgery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: STAT3; prostate cancer; bladder cancer; upper tract urothelial carcinoma; renal cell carcinoma; penile cancer; testicular cancer
Online: 8 August 2022 (15:09:21 CEST)
Nowadays molecular research is essential for the better understanding of tumor cells pathophysiology. The increasing number of neoplasms is taken under ‘the molecular magnifying glass’ therefore it is possible to discover complex relationships between cytophysiology and tumor cells. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) belongs to the family of latent cytoplasmic transcription factors called STATs which comprises seven members: STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT5A, STAT5B, STAT6. Those proteins play important role in cytokine-activated gene expression by transducing signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Abnormal prolonged activation results in tumorigenesis, metastasis, cell proliferation, invasion, migration and angiogenesis. Inhibition of this transcription factor inhibits previously mentioned effects in cancer cells whereas normal cells are not affected. Hence STAT3 might be a viable target for cancer therapy.