ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0089.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: EVs; PHEVs; penetration; adoption; barriers; preference; willingness; attitude
Online: 26 February 2017 (10:33:14 CET)
China planned to promote the large-scale adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in the thirteenth five-year plan, however, this target faces many obstacles. This paper was trying to analyze the main barriers to widespread adoption of EVs through a survey in Shenzhen, which has the biggest EVs market share in China major cities. Based on previous scholarly findings, this paper conducted a new study which collected 406 approved questionnaires among 500 participants. The study proposed five hypotheses to examine the main barriers to widespread adoption of EVs. The analysis conducted by statistical methods: two-way frequency tables, chi-square test, and factor analysis. The results noted that perception of EVs advantages and recharging access remained the main barriers to EVs large-scale penetration. Besides, financial incentives drop would not cause a significant decline of EVs adoption in future. The study proposed suggestions to carmaker and government policy administrator on the analysis and discussion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0616.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Renewable energy; mining industry; technologies; penetration rate political analysis
Online: 22 April 2021 (20:50:44 CEST)
La minería es una industria intensiva en energía que requiere una fuente estable de electricidad. Con el aumento de la demanda de minerales y la disminución de las leyes, se espera que la demanda de energía aumente en un 36% para el 2035. Este aumento de la demanda depende del uso de combustibles fósiles ya que la electricidad producida y comprada en las empresas mineras se basan principalmente en el caso de los combustibles fósiles, los costos de los sistemas de almacenamiento de energía solar y eólica han caído a una escala sin precedentes, lo que alienta a las empresas mineras a probar estas tecnologías.Entre los factores que influyen en el uso de energía renovable, se encuentra el beneficio a la comunidad en la etapa de operación y cierre o post-cierre de un proyecto minero, el siguiente factor es el perfil de consumo eléctrico o demanda es importante para el cálculo de su almacenamiento o no, de las energías renovables a utilizar. Como tercer factor está el cálculo del consumo en los procesos. Los rangos de penetración determinarán si es posible su almacenamiento de energía, y si es posible utilizar control híbrido (solar - eólico), para ello es importante el uso de herramientas digitales como el programa Holmer, es una herramienta importante que técnica y económica.El gobierno debe tener una perspectiva que ayude en los temas regulatorios necesarios para impulsar proyectos de energía renovable con diferentes incentivos e intereses según el contexto minero.
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Penetration mechanisms; gels, particles; mucus, biofilms; multi-scale modeling
Online: 7 August 2020 (04:03:13 CEST)
Biological gels (bio-gels) are hydrated polymer networks that serve diverse biological functions, which often lead to intentional or unintentional exposure to particulate matter. In this work, we derive a microscopically motivated framework that enables the investigation of penetration mechanisms into bio-gels. We distinguish between two types of mechanisms: spontaneous (unforced) penetration and forced penetration. Using experimental data available in literature, we exploit the proposed model to characterize and compare between the micro-structures of respiratory, intestinal, and cervicovaginal mucus and two types of biofilms. Next, we investigate the forced penetration process of spherical and ellipsoidal particles into a locally quadrilateral network. The proposed framework can be used to improve and complement the analysis of experimental findings in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. Additionally, the insights from this work pave the way towards enhanced designs of nano-medicines and allow to assess risk factors related to the nano-pollutants exposure.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: chloride penetration; pore water; electrical resistivity; service life; concrete durability
Online: 18 March 2019 (09:11:10 CET)
Since electrical resistivity of concrete can be measured in a more rapid and simple way than chloride diffusivity, it should be primarily regular quality control of the electrical resistivity of concrete which provides the basis for indirect of quality control of concrete durability during the concrete construction. If this is realized, the electrical resistivity of concrete can be a crucial parameter to establish maintenance strategy for marine concrete structures. Electrical resistivity of concrete is important to estimate two processes involved in corrosion of reinforcement: initiation (chloride penetration) and propagation (corrosion rate). The resistivity of concrete structure exposed to chloride indicates the risk of early corrosion damage, because a low resistivity is related to rapid chloride penetration and to high corrosion rate. Concrete resistivity is a geometry-independent material property that describes the electrical resistance, which is the ratio between applied voltage and resulting current in a unit cell. The current is carried by ions dissolved in the pore liquid. While some data exist on the relationship between moisture content on electrical resistivity of concrete, very little research has been conducted to evaluate the effect of chloride on the conduction of electricity through concrete. The purpose of this study is to examine and quantify the effect of pore water and chloride content on surface electrical resistivity measurement of concrete. It was obvious that chloride content had influenced the resistivity of concrete and the relationship showed a linear function. That is, concrete with chloride ions had a comparatively lower resistivity. Chloride can lead to underestimate the electrical resistivity of concrete. Conclusively, this paper suggested the quantitative solution to depict the electrical resistivity of concrete with various chloride contents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0331.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: capacitive imaging; skin hydration; solvent penetration; water content; solvent content
Online: 21 June 2018 (05:21:42 CEST)
Capacitive contact imaging has shown potential in measuring skin properties including hydration, micro relief analysis, as well as solvent penetration measurements. Through calibration we can also measure the absolute permittivity of the skin, and from absolute permittivity we then work out the absolute solvent content in skin. In this paper, we present our latest study of capacitive contact imaging for skin characterizations and vivo skin solvent penetration. We will show how to use capacitive occlusion measurements to characterize skin damages, and how to calculate the absolute water content and solvent content in skin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0288.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: ZEMAX; Thermoelectric coolers; Flyback transformer; High tension pump source; Penetration depth
Online: 19 July 2022 (13:28:19 CEST)
A low-cost medium power carbon dioxide (CO2) laser system is designed, constructed, and characterized to produce coherent, monochromatic laser radiation in the Infrared region. The laser cavity is simulated and designed by using ZEMAX optic studio. A switch-mode high tension pump source is designed and constructed using a flyback transformer and simulated using NI Multisim to study the voltage behavior at different node points. A prototype cooling system/chiller is designed and built using the Thermo-Electric Coolers (TEC) to remove the excess heat produced during laser action. Various parameters, like pumping mechanism, chiller stability, efficiency, output power, and current at different applied voltages, are studied. The chiller efficiency at different output powers of the laser is analyzed, which clearly shows that the chiller's cooling rate is good enough to compensate for the heat generated by the laser system. The center wavelength of the carbon dioxide laser is 10.6μm with FWHM of 1.2nm simulated in the ZEMAX optic studio. The output beam penetration through salt rock (NaCl), wood, and acrylic sheet at various output powers is analyzed to measure the penetration depth rate of the CO2 laser.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0191.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: nickelate superconductors; infinite-layer superconductors; London penetration depth; superconducting gap symmetry
Online: 15 December 2019 (14:02:04 CET)
Recently Li et al (2019 Nature 572 624) discovered a new type of oxide superconductor Nd0.8Sr0.2NiO2 with Tc = 14 K. To classify superconductivity in this infinite-layer nickelate experimental upper critical field, Bc2(T), and the self-field critical current densities, Jc(sf,T), reported by Li et al (2019 Nature 572 624), are analysed in assumption of s-, d-, and p-wave pairing symmetries and single- and multiple-band superconductivity. Based on deduced the ground-state superconducting energy gap, Δ(0), the London penetration depth, λ(0), the relative jump in electronic specific heat at Tc, ΔC/C, and the ratio of 2Δ(0)/kBTc, we conclude that Nd0.8Sr0.2NiO2 is type-II high-κ weak-coupled single-band s-wave superconductor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0154.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: penetration enhancement effect; molecular mechanism; coarse grain molecular dynamics; menthol; borneol; 5-FU
Online: 29 September 2017 (12:39:49 CEST)
Borneol and menthol were two terpenes wildly used as penetrate enhancer in transdermal drug delivery. To explore their penetration enhancement effect towards hydrophilic drug, 5-FU was selected as model drug. A method combined vitro permeation studies and coarse grain molecular dynamics was used to investigate their penetration enhancement effect towards 5-FU. As a result, although both borneol and menthol showed a penetration enhancement effect towards 5-FU, they differed a lot in the penetration enhancement mechanism, which was also thought to account for their different penetration enhancement effect. As for menthol, SC bilayer disrupting effect seemed to be its main mechanism. While for borneol, its mechanism seemed to be more complicated. Except for disrupting the SC bilayer, it could also increase the permeation of 5-FU by enhancing the diffusion rate of 5-FU or inducing the formation of transient pore. All of this enable us a molecular understanding of borneol and menthol’s penetration enhancement effect towards hydrophilic drug, which might provide some guidance in the latter research and application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0082.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: transdermal physical penetration technology; Fu’s Cupping Therapy; pharmacokinetics; SEM; TEM; stratum corneum; mechanism
Online: 15 December 2016 (10:57:46 CET)
Background: in this paper, a new physical penetration technology for transdermal administration with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) characteristics - Fu’s cupping therapy (FCT) - was established and studied by in-vitro and in-vivo experiments; the penetration effect and mechanism of FCT physical penetration technology (FCT-PPT) was preliminarily discussed. Method: Indomethacin (IM) as a model drug，by transdermal in vitro tests the establishment of the high，medium and low reference were finished as the chemical permeation system；chemical penetration enhancers and iontophoresis as a reference，the percutaneous penetration effect of FCT for IM patch was evaluated with 7 species diffusion kinetics model and in vitro drug distribution；naproxen as an internal standard，using UPLC-MS/MS technology，the IM quantitative analysis method in vivo was established，and pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC0-t，AUC0-∞，AUMC0-t，AUMC0-∞, Cmax and MRT) as indicators were used evaluate to FCT penetration role in vivo；in the same time，the group used 3K factorial design to study joint synergistic penetration effect on FCT and chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs)；by SEM and TEM，the skin micro and ultrastructural changes of the stratum corneum (SC) surface were observed, to explore pay tank penetration mechanism. Results: In vitro and in-vivo skin permeation experiments revealed that both the total cumulative percutaneous amount and in-vivo percutaneous absorption amount (AUC and AUMC) of indomethacin that permeated SD mouse skin using FCT techniques were greater than the amount observed using CPE and iontophoresis: Firstly, in contrast to the control group, the indomethacin percutaneous rate (PR) of the FCT lower group (FCTL) was 35.52%, and the enhancement ratio (ER) at 9h was 1.76X, which was roughly equivalent to the penetration enhancing effect of the CPEs and iontophoresis; secondly, the indomethacin PR of the FCT middle (FCTM) group and the FCT high intensity group (FCTH) were respectively 47.36% and 54.58%, ER at 9h were separately 3.58X and 8.39X; thirdly, pharmacokinetic studies showed that in-vivo indomethacin percutaneous absorption of the FCTs was higher than that of the control group, that of the FCTM group was slightly higher than that of the CPEs group, and that of the FCTM group was significantly higher than that of the others. Meanwhile, the variance analysis indicated that the combination of the FCT penetration enhancement method and the CPE method had beneficial effects in penetration enhancing of the skin: the significance level of the CPE method was 0.0004, which was apparently lower than the 0.001, meaning the difference was markedly significant; the significance level of the FCT was under 0.0001, its difference markedly significant; and the significance level of factor interaction A×B was lower than 0.0001, indicating that its difference of the synergism was markedly significant. Moreover, SEM and TEM images showed that the SC surfaces of SD rats treaded with FCT-PPT was damaged, and hard to observe the complete surface structure with its SC pores growing bigger and its special “brick structure” becoming looser, indicating that it broke the barrier function of skin, which revealed potentially a major route of skin penetration. Conclusion: FCT, as percutaneous penetration new technologies, has penetration effects significantly, with Chinese characteristics and highly clinical value, worth promoting development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0155.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: powder metallurgy; dynamic alloying; heat treatment; super-deep penetration; alloys; composite materials; mechanical properties
Online: 11 February 2022 (03:19:55 CET)
The dynamic effects observed in collisions represent a specific area of high-energy interaction located at the boundary of mechanics, hydrodynamics, shock wave physics, and alternating high-pressure regions. The paper shows that in the volume of a solid metal body, as a result of dynamic alloying by a high-speed stream of powder particles in the super-deep penetration mode (SDP), fibre structures of altering material arise, forming the framework of the composite material. The stream of powder particles in the metal obstacle following the path of least resistance and the impact of shock waves on particles results in a volumetric framework from the products of interaction between the injected and matrix materials. When using SDP, defective structural elements (channelled) - germs of reinforcing fibres arise. At the subsequent heat treatment, there is an intensive diffusion. The growth process of reinforcing fibres shifts to higher temperatures (as compared to the standard mode), leading to an increase in the bending strength of the fibre material up to 13 times for high-speed tool W6Mo5Cr4V2 steel. As a result of the completion of the growth of reinforcing fibres in the volume of the W6Mo5Cr4V2 steel, the material's bending strength in 1.2 times is realised. Simultaneously, it provides an increase of wear resistance 1.7-1.8 times.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Firm power generation; Energy storage; Irradiance forecasts; Implicit storage; Grid integration; ultra-high RE penetration
Online: 5 July 2020 (16:27:08 CEST)
We introduce firm solar forecasts as a strategy to operate optimally overbuilt solar power plants in conjunction with optimally sized storage systems so as to make up for any power prediction errors, hence entirely remove load balancing uncertainty emanating from grid-connected solar fleets. A central part of this strategy is plant overbuilding that we term implicit storage. We show that strategy, while economically justifiable on its own account, is an effective entry step to least-cost ultra-high solar penetration where firm power generation will be a prerequisite. We demonstrate that in absence of an implicit storage strategy, ultra-high solar penetration would be vastly more expensive. Using the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) as a case study, we determine current and future cost of firm forecasts for a comprehensive set of scenarios in each ISO electrical region, comparing centralized vs. decentralized production and assessing load flexibility’s impact. We simulate the growth of the strategy from firm forecast to firm power generation. We conclude that ultra-high solar penetration enabled by the present strategy, whereby solar would firmly supply the entire NYISO load, could be achieved locally at electricity production costs comparable to current NYISO wholesale market prices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0127.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: frequency-domain; ground penetrating radar; electromagnetic induction; penetration depth; inversion; non-destructive techniques; agricultural drainage systems
Online: 10 June 2020 (05:39:04 CEST)
Subsurface drainage systems remove excess water from the soil profile thereby improving crop yields in poorly drained farmland. Knowledge of the position of the buried drain lines is important: 1) to improve understanding of leaching and offsite release of nutrients and pesticides, and 2) for the installation of a new set of drain lines between the old ones for enhanced soil water removal efficiency. Traditional methods of drainage mapping involve the use of tile probes and trenching equipment. While these can be effective, they are also time-consuming, labor-intensive, and invasive, thereby entailing an inherent risk of damaging the drainpipes. Non-invasive geophysical soil sensors provide a potential alternative solution. Previous research has focused on the use of time-domain ground penetrating radar (GPR), with variable success depending on local soil and hydrological conditions and the central frequency of the specific equipment employed. The objectives of this study were 1) to test the use of a stepped-frequency continuous wave (SFCW) 3D-GPR (GeoScope Mk IV 3D-Radar with DXG1820 antenna array) for subsurface drainage mapping, and 2) to evaluate the performance of a 3D-GPR with the use of a single-frequency multi-receiver electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor (DUALEM) in-combination. The 3D-GPR system offers more flexibility for application to different (sub)surface conditions due to the coverage of wide frequency bandwidth. The EMI sensor simultaneously provides information about the apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) for different soil volumes, corresponding to different depths. This sensor combination was evaluated on twelve different study sites with various soil types with textures ranging from sand to clay till. While the 3-D GPR showed a high success rate in finding the drainpipes at five sites (sandy, sandy loam, loamy sand, and organic topsoils), the results at the other seven sites were less successful due to limited penetration depth (PD) of the 3D-GPR signal. The results suggest that the electrical conductivity estimates produced by the inversion of ECa data measured by the DUALEM sensor could be a useful proxy to explain the success achieved by the 3D-GPR in finding the drain lines. The high attenuation of electromagnetic waves in highly conductive media limiting the PD of the 3D-GPR can explain the findings obtained in this research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0007.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: human papillomavirus; HPV16; L2; subcellular trafficking; mitosis; transmembrane domain; translocation; membrane penetration; toxin; fusion peptide; gamma secretase; retromer
Online: 1 November 2017 (05:05:31 CET)
Beginning in 2012, our understanding of human papillomavirus (HPV) subcellular trafficking has undergone a drastic paradigm shift. Work from multiple laboratories has revealed that HPV has evolved a unique means to deliver its viral genome (vDNA) to the cell nucleus, relying on a myriad of host cell proteins and processes. The major breakthrough finding from these recent endeavors was the realization of L2-dependent utilization of cellular sorting factors for the retrograde transport of vDNA away from degradative endo/lysosomal compartments to the Golgi, prior to mitosis-dependent nuclear accumulation of L2/vDNA. An overview of current models of HPV entry, subcellular trafficking, and the role of L2 during initial infection is provided below, highlighting unresolved questions and gaps in knowledge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0189.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: antioxidants for the treatment of ROS; new ester of eugenol; cosmetic formulations with clove water; skin penetration; Franz cell
Online: 9 October 2020 (08:59:05 CEST)
The main focus of this work is to extend the knowledge about the complexity of issues of oxidative stress. Natural compounds play a serious role in multiple aspects of both human, leading to clear health-promoting effects. This work is focused on the potential application cosmetic formulations containing including but not limited to of clove water and isolated clove oils on their aid in the control of the diseases. The aim of our work was to prepare to evaluate cosmetic formulations containing clove oil, eugenol or new eugenol ester derivative (eugenyl dichloroacetate - EDChA) but also cosmetic formulations containing the aqueous phase obtained after separation of essential oil following the clove buds steam distillation. To evaluate the antioxidants transdermal delivery system, in vitro permeation experiments in a Franz diffusion cell were performed using pig skin. The antioxidative capacity of the cosmetic formulations obtained was determined by the DPPH free radical reduction method. In the next stage, the antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS, and Folin–Ciocalteu methods) of the fluid that penetrated through pig skin and of the fluid obtained after skin extraction, were also evaluated. For comparison, studies of cosmetic formulation containing alone dichloroacetic acid (DChAA) were as well carried out. The obtained cosmetic formulations were characterized by of antioxidant activity estimated after 24 hours of conducting the experiment, which indicates long-term protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the deeper layers of the skin. The results of this work contribute to the development of cosmetic formulations with antioxidant potential, emphasizing that the water phases are waste from the process of cloves steam distillation and are not used to prepare cosmetic formulations. The use of waste water from the clove buds steam distillation process is environmentally friendly and not allows us to waste, containing however valuable biologically active compounds (furfural, methyl salicylate, 4-allilofenol, eugenol, α- and β-caryophyllene, eugenyl acetate, β-caryophyllene oxide). Together, these results suggest that cosmetic formulations may be potential drug candidates for chemopreventive, antineoplastic and antimutagenic therapy.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: optical properties of tissues; tissue spectroscopy; differentiated pigment content; colorectal cancer; optical cancer detection; absorption coefficient; scattering coefficient; scattering anisotropy; light penetration depth
Online: 30 October 2020 (09:02:45 CET)
The study of the optical properties of biological tissues for a wide spectral range is necessary for the development and planning of noninvasive optical methods to be used in clinical practice. In this study, we propose a new method to calculate almost all optical properties of tissues as a function of wavelength directly from spectral measurements. Using this method and with the exception of the reduced scattering coefficient, which was obtained by traditional simulation methods, all the other optical properties were calculated in a simple and fast manner for human and pathological colorectal tissues. The obtained results are in good agreement with previous published data, both in magnitude and in wavelength dependence. Since this method is based on spectral measurements and not on discrete-wavelength experimental data, the calculated optical properties contain spectral signatures that correspond to major tissue chromophores such as DNA and hemoglobin. Analysis of the absorption bands of hemoglobin in the wavelength dependence of the absorption spectra of normal and pathological colorectal mucosa allowed to identify differentiated accumulation of a pigment in these tissues. The increased content of this pigment in the pathological mucosa may be used for the future development of noninvasive diagnostic methods for colorectal cancer detection.