ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: corticospinal tract; optic radiations; tractography; transcranial magnetic stimulation; subdural strip electrodes; intra-operative neuro-monitoring; parietal lobe
Online: 17 August 2022 (05:08:09 CEST)
Background: The role played by the non-dominant parietal lobe in motor cognition, attention and spatial awareness networks has potentiated the use of awake surgery. When this is not feasible, asleep monitoring and mapping techniques should be used to achieve an onco-functional balance. Objective: This study aims to assess the feasibility of a dual-strip method to obtain direct cortical stimulation for continuous real-time cortical monitoring and subcortical mapping of motor and visual pathways simultaneously in parietal lobe tumour surgery. Methods: Single-centre prospective study between May’19-November’20 of patients with intrinsic non-dominant parietal-lobe tumours. Two subdural strips were used to simultaneously map and monitor motor and visual pathways. Results: Fifteen patients were included. With regards to motor function, a large proportion of patients had abnormal interhemispheric resting motor threshold ratio (iRMTr) (71.4%), abnormal Cortical Excitability Score (CES) (85.7%), close distance to the corticospinal tract – Lesion-To-Tract Distance (LTD) – 4.2mm, Cavity-To-Tract Distance (CTD) – 7mm and intraoperative subcortical distance - 6.4mm. Concerning visual function, the LTD and CTD for optic radiations (OR) were 0.5mm and 3.4mm, respectively; the mean intensity for positive subcortical stimulation of OR was 12mA±2.3mA and 5/6 patients with deterioration of VEPs>50% had persistent hemianopia and transgression of ORs. 12 patients remained stable, one patient had a de-novo transitory hemiparesis, and two showed improvements in motor symptoms. A higher iRMTr for lower limbs was related with a worse motor outcome (p=0.013) and a longer CTD to OR was directly related with a better visual outcome (p=0.041). At 2 weeks after hospital discharge, all patients were ambulatory at home and all proceeded to have oncological treatment. Conclusion: We propose motor and visual function boundaries for asleep surgery of intrinsic non-dominant parietal tumours. Pre-operative abnormal cortical excitability of the motor cortex, deterioration of the VEP recordings and CTD<2mm from the OR were related to poorer outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0749.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: parietal thinning; measurement reliability; bone defects; magnetic resonance imaging; computer tomography; osteology; rheumatology; rare disease
Online: 23 April 2023 (03:42:25 CEST)
Quantification of bone loss for follow-up comparisons has not been routinely performed in patients with parietal thinning so far. This study compares different methodological approaches including both 2- and 3-dimensional methods in computerized tomographies of a single patient. The 2-dimensional method provides accurate measurements of bone thickness, while the 3-dimensional method allows for a more comprehensive view of the bone's structure, including parameters like shape, size, and thickness. The techniques provided valuable data for the treating physician and suggest a possible effect of corticosteroids in this individual patient. The study concludes that 3-dimensional reconstruction of computerized tomographies with subsequent 2-dimensional analyses appears justified for routine radiological practice to increase clinical awareness of the size of the parietal bone defects and allow for quantification of bone loss during long-term follow-ups. Further validation of the proposed analytical approaches is warranted in larger studies to investigate patterns of bone thinning across the skull and changes in bone volumes over time, with specialized software to be approved for such analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0867.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Sex differences; Chronic Kidney Disease; Atherosclerosis; Foam Cells; Parietal Epithelial Cells (PECs); Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEi)
Online: 13 June 2023 (03:22:47 CEST)
Background: This study analyzes sex-based differences in renal structure and response to the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Methods: ApoE-/- mice (8 weeks old) received enalapril (5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous) or PBS as a control for an additional 14 weeks. Each group consisted of six males and six females. Results: Females exhibited elevated LDL-cholesterol levels, while males presented higher creatinine levels and proteinuria. Enalapril effectively reduced blood pressure in both groups, but proteinuria decreased significantly only in females. Plaque size analysis and assessment of kidney inflammation revealed no significant sex-based differences. However, males displayed more severe glomerular injury, with increased mesangial expansion, mesangiolysis, glomerular foam cells and activated parietal epithelial cells (PECs). Enalapril mitigated mesangial expansion, glomerular inflammation (particularly in females), and the hypertrophy of PECs in males. Conclusion: This study demonstrates sex-based differences in the response to enalapril in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Males exhibited more severe glomerular injury, while enalapril provided renal protection, particularly in females. These findings suggest potential sex-specific considerations for ACE inhibitor therapy in chronic kidney disease and atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease. Further research is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanism behind these observations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1830.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Apraxia of speech; Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome); transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS); Rapid Syllable Transition Training (ReST); Broca’s area; Wernicke’s area; supramarginal gyrus; Sylvian Temporal Parietal Junction
Online: 30 October 2023 (07:16:51 CET)
Apraxia of speech is a persistent speech motor disorder that affects speech intelligibility. Studies on speech motor disorders with transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) have been mostly directed to post-stroke aphasia. Only a few tDCS studies have focused on apraxia of speech or childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), and no study has investigated individuals with CAS and people with trisomy 21 (T21, Down Syndrome). This study examined the effects of tDCS combined with a motor learning task in developmental apraxia of speech co-existing with T21 (ReBEC RBR-5435x9). The accuracy of speech sound production of nonsense words (NSWs) during Rapid Syllable Transition Training (ReST) under 10 sessions of anodal tDCS (1.5 mA, 25 cm) over the Broca’s area with cathode over the contralateral region was compared to 10 sessions of sham-tDCS and 4 control sessions in a 20-year-old male individual with T21 presenting moderate-severe childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). The accuracy for NSWs production progressively improved (gain 40%) under tDCS only (sham-tDCS and control sessions showed <20% gain). A decrease in speech severity from moderate-severe to mild-moderate indicated transfer effects in speech production. The speech accuracy under tDCS was correlated with Wernicke’s area activation (P3 current source density), which in turn, was correlated with the activation of the left supramarginal gyrus and the Sylvian Parietal Temporal Junction. Repetitive bihemispheric tDCS paired with ReST may have facilitated the speech sound acquisition in a young adult with T21 and CAS, possibly by recruiting brain regions required for the phonological working memory.