REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0189.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: acetaminophen; autism; paracetamol; neurodevelopment
Online: 13 October 2022 (08:00:33 CEST)
Evidence that early life exposure to acetaminophen causes neurodevelopmental injury in susceptible children has mounted for more than a decade. Evidence is diverse, including extensive work with laboratory animals, otherwise unexplained associations, factors associated with the metabolism of acetaminophen, and some limited studies in humans. Although evidence has reached an overwhelming level and has been reviewed in detail recently, some controversy remains. In this narrative review, some of those controversies are evaluated. First, the associations through time between acetaminophen use and the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders are considered. A systematic review reveals that the use of acetaminophen in the pediatric population was never tracked carefully, but historical events that affected use of the drug were documented and are sufficient to establish apparent correlations with changes in the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders. Second, problems with exclusive reliance on results from meta-analyses of large datasets and from studies involving small time frames of drug exposure are reviewed. Third, the potential bias in a study designed to separate the role of vaccines and acetaminophen in the induction of autism spectrum disorder (Autism 2008;12:293-307) is carefully evaluated. Finally, evidence demonstrating why some children are susceptible to acetaminophen-induced neurodevelopmental injury is examined. It is concluded that, at least among the factors considered, there is no valid rationale for controversy regarding the conclusion that early life exposure to acetaminophen causes neurodevelopmental injury in susceptible babies and small children.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0224.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: acetaminophen; paracetamol; autism; pediatrics; safety
Online: 30 March 2022 (05:47:18 CEST)
A growing body of literature suggests a causative relationship between severe adverse neurological outcomes and early life exposure to paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the presence of oxidative stress. Review of the literature revealed that, although its use is not regularly monitored, paracetamol has achieved near universal acceptance, with exposure in some pediatric populations exceeding 90%. In addition, use of the drug as well as associated adverse outcomes may have risen as a result of pharmaceutical advertising rather than need, and inappropriate use of the drug, both in terms of dose and indication, is widespread. These findings indicate that many clinicians and patients do not, at the present time, evenly weigh the potential risks with the potential benefits of paracetamol exposure early in life. Although retrospective studies might be envisioned to further address the neurodevelopmental risks of paracetamol use during early development, in silico simulations demonstrated that such studies can be thwarted by very high rates of use of the drug combined with associations between paracetamol use and oxidative stressors that act as cofactors in the induction of neurodevelopmental injury. These findings suggest that, despite persistent uncertainty, clinicians and patients should be more aware of available information pointing toward the potential dangers for neurodevelopment of early life exposure to paracetamol. Most importantly, health care workers need to provide a more balanced view, weighing both risks and benefits, when providing advice for patients regarding paracetamol use during periods of brain development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0115.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: acetaminophen; autism; infant; paracetamol; neurodevelopment
Online: 8 February 2022 (13:42:48 CET)
Acetaminophen use during pregnancy and early childhood was accepted in the 1970s, but is now a subject of considerable concern. Careful analysis shows that initial acceptance of the drug was based on false assumptions and ignorance of the impact of the drug on brain development. Fourteen studies now indicate that prenatal exposure to acetaminophen is associated with neurodevelopmental problems. Based on corrections for confounding factors applied to the analyses of available data, it can be concluded that prenatal exposure to acetaminophen causes statistically significant risks of one subtype of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In contrast, data regarding postnatal exposure to acetaminophen are limited, and several factors impede a classic multivariate analysis of data to resolve the issue. However, circumstantial evidence regarding postnatal exposure to the drug is abundant, and it can be concluded beyond a reasonable doubt that postnatal exposure to acetaminophen in susceptible children is responsible for many if not most cases of ASD. Circumstantial evidence includes at least three otherwise unexplained temporal relationships, data from laboratory animal studies, several miscellaneous and otherwise unexplained correlations, and the lack of alternative suspects that fit the evidence-derived profile.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: acetaminophen; paracetamol; autism; pediatrics; safety
Online: 4 November 2020 (08:24:52 CET)
Although widely believed to be safe for use in infants and children when used as directed, increasing evidence indicates that early life exposure to paracetamol (acetaminophen) may cause long-term neurodevelopmental problems. Further, recent studies in animal models demonstrate that cognitive development is exquisitely sensitive to paracetamol exposure during early development. In this study, evidence for the claim that paracetamol is safe was evaluated using a systematic literature search. Publications on PubMed between 1974 and 2017 that contained the keywords “infant” and either “paracetamol” or “acetaminophen” were considered. Of those initial 3096 papers, 218 were identified that made claims that paracetamol was safe for use with infants or children. Of these, a total of 103 papers were identified as sources of authority for the safety claim, and 36 of those contained actual experiments designed to test safety. The 36 experiments described had a median follow-up time of 24 hours, and none monitored neurodevelopment. Further, no trial considered total exposure to drug since birth, eliminating the possibility that the effects of drug exposure on long-term neurodevelopment could be accurately assessed. On the other hand, abundant and sufficient evidence was found to conclude that paracetamol does not induce acute liver damage in babies or children when used as directed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0297.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: lignin; drug release; paracetamol; disintegration
Online: 24 May 2019 (12:40:01 CEST)
The influence of lignin modification on drug release and pH-dependent releasing behaviour of oral solid dosage form was investigated using three different formulations. The first formulation contains microcrystalline cellulose (MCC101) as excipient and paracetamol as active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The second formulation includes Alcell lignin and MCC 101 as excipient and paracetamol, and the third formulation consists of carboxylated Alcell lignin, MCC 101 and paracetamol. Direct compaction was carried out in order to prepare the tablets. Lignin can be readily chemically modified due to the existence of different functional groups in its structure. The focus of this investigation is on lignin carboxylation and its influence on paracetamol control release behaviour at varying pH. Results suggest that carboxylated lignin tablets had the highest drug release, which is linked to their faster disintegration and lower tablet hardness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0575.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Cancer pain; NSAIDs; paracetamol; adverse events
Online: 30 November 2022 (14:11:00 CET)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most frequently prescribed drugs for cancer pain. We used Delphi methodology to evaluate the opinions of clinicians on NSAIDs and paracetamol, with a specific focus on their safety profile. Consensus was reached on 7 statements. High level of consensus was reached regarding use of NSAIDs and gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal risk in patients taking low-dose aspirin and assessment of liver function during long-term treatment with paracetamol. Consensus was also reached that assessment and monitoring of eGFR is important in the elderly being administered NSAIDs. It was further agreed that NSAIDs can often play a key role in association with opioids in treatment of cancer pain and that paracetamol is the analgesic of first choice for patients with mild chronic pain. When NSAIDs are administered in combination with steroids, it was agreed that the risk of gastrointestinal damage is increased since steroids delay the healing of ulcers, and that paracetamol can be used during pregnancy and does not affect the health of the fetus. This Delphi study highlights that there is a poor agreement on how these drugs are routinely prescribed. However, the consensus was reached for 7 key statements and may represent a valid contribution to daily practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: paracetamol; breastfeeding; post; childhood; prophylactic; immunization; vaccination
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:09:16 CET)
Background: Paracetamol may be use as antipyretic agent for the treatment of fever, as well as an analgesic in the treatment of mild to moderate pain on post vaccination in infants. The use of Paracetamol during fever may be or may not be recommended since it may alter natural human body immune response although it may reduce pain. Objectives: This study described the relevancy of Paracetamol use post infants vaccination based on data collection systematic review analyses. This study aims to describe the effectiveness of breastfeeding in reducing pain and Paracetamol in reducing fever and pain post infants vaccination. Data Sources and Study Selection: Electronic literature search by hand searching six (6) databases which include Ovid LWW Total Access Collection and Medline, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Alled Health Literature) Plus with Fulltext, Science Direct, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, Proquest Education Journal and Proquest Health and Medical Complete. Additionally, manual reference checks of all articles on Paracetamol and breastfeeding post infants vaccination published in English Language between 1978 and 2017. Two level of screening were used on 9614 citations which include screening of abstracts and titles followed by full text screening. Data Synthesis: Data synthesis were tabulated into study characteristics, quality and effects. Authors of trials were not contacted for further details or provision of original data if the published report contained insufficient information. The study findings, as reported by the authors, were included in this review. The data in this research cannot be pool due to not enough data regarding odd ratio or relative risk as well as confidence interval in each study. Results: Systematic review of breastfeeding included three (3) studies from 9614 of database searching. The reviews of all these three (3) studies found significant benefit from breastfed in pain score and duration of crying as well as behavioral changes. None study stated the unbeneficial of breastfeeding before, during and after immunization. Meanwhile, systematic review of Paracetamol effectiveness included four (4) studies from 1177 of database searching. The reviews of two (2) studies found significant benefit from prophylaxis Paracetamol in fever and only one (1) study found significant benefit from prophylaxis Paracetamol in fussiness. On the other hand, there was one (1) study found not signifiant benefit from prophylaxis Paracetamol in fever. Other than that, there were two (2) studies evaluate the safety of prophylactic Paracetamol which revealed different outcomes, in which study by Prymula et. al. in 2009 found that antibody responses to several antigens were reduced significantly, and the other study by Uhari et. al. in 1988 found that antibody titres to DTP bacteria of placebo and PCM not differ significantly. Thus, Paracetamol seems to be not relevant post infants vaccination and breastfeeding was found to be beneficial post infants vaccination. Conclusions: The relevancy of giving Paracetamol post all types of vaccination may be questionable since the safety issue of this intervention may be arised. Breastfeeding before, during and after immunization are recommended for pain reduction as it was proved effectively. Finally, in deciding Paracetamol to be of rational use following infants immunization, it may need for further research which include in depth quantitative and qualitative studies to identify specific problem and causes regarding this issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0292.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: paracetamol; ibuprofen; caffeine; classical least-square; simultaneous; spectroscopy
Online: 22 March 2022 (03:26:27 CET)
In this paper, the classical least square (CLS) method with molecular absorption spectrophotometric measurement was used to determine simultaneously of paracetamol (PAR), ibuprofen (IBU), and caffeine (CAF) in tablets. The absorbance spectra of the standard solutions and samples were measured over a wavelength from 220 to 300 nm with a 0.5 nm step. The concentration of PAR, IBU and CAF in the sample solutions were calculated by using a program called CLS-Excel written in Microsoft Excel 2016 and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The method and CLS-Excel program were tested on mixed standard laboratory samples with different PAR, IBU, and CAF concentration ratios, and they showed small errors and satisfying repeatability. An analytical procedure for tablets containing PAR, IBU, and CAF was developed. The reliability of the procedure was proved via the recovery and repeatability of the analysis results with an actual tablet sample and comparing the mean contents of active substances in the tablets obtained from the analytical procedure with the from the HPLC method. The procedure is simple with a reduced cost compared with the HPLC standard method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0163.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Polymeric beads; nanocomposite; graphene oxide; paracetamol removal; pharmaceutical contaminants.
Online: 3 November 2023 (03:30:11 CET)
This study introduces a promising and practical method for the removal of paracetamol from aqueous environments, employing graphene oxide-polymer nanocomposite beads. The approach involves the utilization of a straightforward and facile phase inversion method, offering a convenient and efficient one-step process for the creation of adsorbent beads by integrating polymers and graphene oxide (GO). The synthesized nanocomposite beads are tailored for the removal of paracetamol from simulated wastewater in batch systems. Extensive characterization techniques are employed to scrutinize the chemical properties and structural attributes of the prepared beads. The investigation explores the impact of critical parameters such as adsorbent dosage, adsorption duration, initial paracetamol concentration, and solution pH on the adsorption process. These nanocomposite beads exhibit an exceptional paracetamol removal efficiency, achieving up to 99% removal. This research not only contributes to the advancement of efficient and sustainable adsorbent materials for pollutant removal but also underscores their potential for environmentally friendly and cost-effective solutions in the domain of wastewater treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Hepatoprotective; ascorbic acid; α-tocopherol; paracetamol; ALT; MDA; Histology
Online: 9 June 2020 (11:40:38 CEST)
Background and objectives: The hepatoprotective activity of vitamin E and C is evident due to their ability of modulating the antioxidant pathway. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on paracetamol induced liver damage with offsetting various levels of drug treatment following an in vivo experimental protocol on Wistar albino male rats. Materials and Methods: The level of lipid peroxidation as well as histological examination of liver tissues were observed among 50 Wistar albino male rats to evaluate hepatoprotective effect of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on hepatocytes. The experiment was divided into 5 groups (10 rats in each group)- Basal control group (Group-I, with propylene glycol), Paracetamol treated control group (Group –II), α-tocopherol pretreated & paracetamol treated group (Group –III), Ascorbic acid pretreated & paracetamol treated group (Group –IV) and Ascorbic acid pretreated & paracetamol treated group (Group –IV). Results: The mean (± SD) Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were significantly reduced in α-tocopherol pretreated and paracetamol treated group (P<0.001), Ascorbic acid pretreated and paracetamol treated group (P≤0.05) and combined α-tocopherol with ascorbic acid pretreated & paracetamol treated group (P<0.001). Statistically significant differences in histological findings of rat liver were observed in paracetamol treated control group (P<0.001), ascorbic acid pretreated and paracetamol treated group (P<0.001). The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was also significantly higher in paracetamol treated group (P<0.001), α-tocopherol pretreated plus paracetamol treated group (P≤0.05) and in ascorbic acid pretreated plus paracetamol treated group (P<0.001). Conclusion: The combined pretreatment of α-tocopherol & ascorbic acid have better hepatoprotective effects than α-tocopherol or ascorbic acid alone against paracetamol induced liver damage. The decrement of free radicals produced by vitamin E could be a better hepatoprotective antioxidant than vitamin C in paracetamol induced toxicity.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19; paracetamol; NSAIDs; inflammation; lung injury; oxidative damage; glutathione; antioxidant.
Online: 7 August 2020 (11:02:20 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented sanitary threat: antiviral and host-directed medications to treat the disease are still urgently needed.A great effort has been paid to find drugs and treatments for hospitalized, severely ill patients. However, medications used for the domiciliary management of initial symptoms, notwithstanding their importance, have not been and are not presently regarded with the same attention. In analogy with other respiratory viral infections, COVID-19 patients in the early phase require specific antivirals (still lacking) and non-etiotropic drugs to lower pain, fever and control inflammation. Non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol (PAC) are widely used as non-etiotropic agents in these conditions and hence are both theoretically repurposable for COVID-19. However, a warning from some research reports and National Authorities raised NSAIDs safety concerns because of the supposed induction of ACE2 protein levels (the receptor used by SARS-CoV2 to enter host airways cells), the risk of bacterial superinfections and masking of disease symptoms. As a consequence, the use of NSAIDs was, and is, strongly discouraged while the alternative adoption of paracetamol is still preferred.On the basis of novel data and hypothesis on the possible role of scarce glutathione (GSH) levels in the exacerbation of COVID-19 and of the GSH depleting activity of PAC, this commentary raises the question of whether PAC may produce an oxidative imbalance which could be detrimental in COVID-19 clinical outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0121.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: bioremediation; bio-degradation; trace pharmaceuticals; acetaminophen/paracetamol; toxicity; biological anti-microbial activity; in silico; cheminformatics
Online: 7 March 2023 (02:35:38 CET)
We report the isolation of two novel degrading bacterial strains active against the potential environmental pollutant acetamino-phen/paracetamol. Streptomyces Chrestomyceticus (RS2) and Streptomyces Flavofuscus (M33) collected from El-Natrun Valley, Egypt, water, sediment, and sand samples were taxonomically characterized via conidiophores morphologic characterization under Trans-mission Electron Microscope (TEM). Genotypic identification, done based on their 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis followed by BLAST alignment and deposited on the NCBI as 2 novel strains. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using an appropriate software. Acetaminophen degradation-products chemical structure was identified by GC/LC MS. The biological antimicrobial activity of some selected acetaminophen degradation-products extracts and derived compounds was examined against panel of test micro-organisms and found to be have high anti-microbial effect. In addition, in silico cheminformatics Swiss ADMET evaluation of these selected deg-radation extract for gastric absorption, distribution, hepatic metabolism, renal excretion as well as distribution to CNS and finally not mutagenic/teratogenic or genotoxic virtually. In vitro cytotoxic activity of these selected bio-degradation products was performed against HepG2 and MCF7 cancer cell lines, revealing that M33 and RS2 extract effect on acetaminophen/paracetamol bio-degradation products are potentially safe with higher IC50 on HepG2 and MCF7, in comparison to acetaminophen/paracetamol with IC50 of 108.5 μg/ml. Moreover, the in vivo acute oral single dose toxicity experiment was conducted, being compared with acetamino-phen/paracetamol to confirm that the bio-degradation products have lower toxicity than acetaminophen in vivo and in silico.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: (S)-Practolol; paracetamol; (S)-pindolol; (S)-carteolol; Candida antarctica Lipase B; chiral chromatography; dimer formation
Online: 4 March 2021 (08:34:02 CET)
The -blocker (S)-practolol ((S)-N-(4-(2-hydroxy (isopropylamino)propoxy)phenyl)acetamide) was synthesized with 96% enantiomeric excess (ee) from the chlorohydrin (R)-N-(4-(3-chloro-2 hydroxypropoxy)phenyl)acetamide, which was produced in 97% ee and with 27% yield. Racemic building block 1-((1H-indol-4-yl)oxy)-3-chloropropan-2-ol for the -blocker pindolol was produced in 53% yield and (R)-1-((1H-indol-4-yl)oxy)-3-chloropropan-2-ol was produced in 92% ee. The chlorohydrin 7-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropoxy)-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one, a building block for a derivative of carteolol was produced in 77% yield. (R)-7-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropoxy)-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one was obtained in 96% ee. The S-enantiomer of this carteolol derivative was produced in 97% ee in 87% yield. Racemic building block 5-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropoxy)- 3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one, building block for the drug carteolol was also produced in 53% yield, with 99% ee of the R-chlorohydrin (R)-5-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropoxy)-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one. The yield of all four chlorohydrins increased by use of catalytic amounts of base. The reason for this was found to be less formation of the dimeric by-products compared to use of higher concentration of the base. An overall reduction of reagents and reaction time was also obtained compared to our previous reported data of similar compounds. The enantiomers of the chlorohydrin building blocks were obtained by kinetic resolution of the racemate in transesterification reactions catalyzed by Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB) from SyncoZymes Co, Shanghai, China. Optical rotations confirmed the absolute configuration of the enantiopure drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1816.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: intranasal administration; emergency department; migraine; primary headache disorder; analgesics; acute pain management; pain; ketamine; fentanyl; paracetamol; ketorolac; nsaid
Online: 28 August 2023 (08:22:31 CEST)
In the Emergency Department (ED), pain is one of the symptoms that is most frequently reported, making it one of the most significant issues for the emergency physician, but is frequently under treated. Intravenous (IV), oral (PO), and intramuscular (IM) delivery are the standard methods for administering acute pain relief. Firstly, we compared the safety and efficacy of IN analgesia to other conventional routes of analgesia to assess if IN analgesia may be an alternative for the management of acute pain in ED. Secondary, we analyzed the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs) and rescue analgesia required. We performed a systematic review-based keywords in Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Controlled Trials Register finding only twenty randomized Clinical trials eligible in the timeline 1992-2022. A total of 2098 patients were analyzed and compared to intravenous analgesia showing no statistical difference in adverse effects. In addition, intranasal analgesia also has a rapid onset and quick absorption. Fentanyl and ketamine are two intranasal drugs that appear promising and may be taken simply and safely while providing effective pain relief. IN is simple to administer, non-invasive, rapid onset and quick absorption; it might be a viable choice in a variety of situations to reduce patient suffering or delays in pain management. Analgesia needs to be tailored to each patient's features and type of pain: IN Fentanyl and Ketamine look promising and may be administered easily and safely while providing effective pain relief.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0367.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Fever; Beneficial fever; Infections; WHO; Fever Management; Guidelines; Antipyretic; Mortality; Heat Shock; Inflammation; COVID-19; Respiratory diseases; Paracetamol
Online: 16 July 2021 (09:40:35 CEST)
Fever remains an integral part of the acute clinical diseases management, esp. viral, for which effective therapeutics remain desired. However, the presence of often confusing fever reduction recommendations for COVID-19 in the public domain during the pandemic, as late as 28 April 2021, seems to suggest the reduction of any ‘uncomfortable’ fever ranging from 37.8 - 39oC, as opposed to WHO fever reduction guidelines (≥39oC), urgently need attention. The confusion could percolate down into different agencies who look up to these agencies for guidance in framing their own, denying the benefits of fever to populations, and effectively undo whatever successive WHO’s guidelines have achieved in the last two decades. The existence of conflicting guidelines in public domains which are open to interpretations has consequences to public health and the healthcare infrastructure, on implementation. For controlling acute infectious diseases, esp. viral, the fever remains the most important enabler. Historically, our chief obstacles to harnessing the benefits of fever in acute clinical diseases with limited therapeutics had been: a) widespread myths about ‘fevers’ arising from a general misunderstanding of basic facts; b) presence of confusing guidelines by different agencies which are open to alternate interpretation. The article attempts to briefly indicate the benefits of fever in disease resolution, dispel myths, underline vagueness in illustrative national guidelines and the need to align them with evidence-based WHO guidelines, as it has the potential to perpetuate myths/confusion in masses leading to adverse impact on disease management – more morbidity and mortality from diseases including COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0095.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: paracetamol; laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; cyanide; carbon Swan bands; principal component analysis; Raman spectroscopy; Fourier-Transform-infra-red spectroscopy
Online: 11 June 2019 (10:42:58 CEST)
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of pharmaceutical drugs that contain paracetamol is investigated in air and argon atmospheres. Characteristic neutral and ionic spectral lines of various elements and molecular signatures of CN violet and C2 Swan band systems are observed. The relative hardness of all drug samples is measured as well. Principal component analysis, a multivariate method, is applied in data analysis for demarcation purposes of the drug samples. The CN violet and C2 Swan spectral radiances are investigated for evaluation of possible correlation of the chemical and molecular structures of the pharmaceuticals. Complementary Raman and Fourier-transform-infra-red spectroscopies are used record molecular spectra of the drug samples. The applicationof the above techniques for the drug screening are important for identification and mitigation of drugs that reveal additives that may cause adverse side-effects.