REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0128.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: chronic pain; nociceptive pain; neuropathic pain; nociplastic pain; psychogenic pain; neuroinflammation; kynurenine
Online: 4 June 2021 (09:09:26 CEST)
Chronic pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience that persists or recurs more than three months and may extend beyond the expected time of healing. Recently nociplastic pain has been introduced as a descriptor of mechanism of pain, which is due to disturbance of neural processing without actual or potential tissue damage, appearing to replace a concept of psychogenic pain. An interdisciplinary task force of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) compiled a systematic classification of clinical conditions associated with chronic pain, which was published in 2018 and will officially come into effect in 2022 in the 11th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11) by the World Health Organization. ICD-11 offers the option for recording the presence of psychological or social factors in chronic pain; however, cognitive, emotional, and social dimensions in the pathogenesis of chronic pain are missing. Earlier pain disorder was defined as a condition with chronic pain associated with psychological factors, but it was replaced with somatic symptom disorder with predominant pain in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) in 2013. Recently clinical nosology is trending toward highlighting neurological pathology of chronic pain, discounting psychological or social factors in the pathogenesis of pain. This review article discusses components of the pain pathway, the component-based mechanisms of pain, central and peripheral sensitization, roles of chronic inflammation, and the involvement of tryptophan-kynurenine pathway metabolites, exploring participations of psychosocial and behavioral factors in central sensitization of diseases progressing into development of chronic pain, comorbid diseases that commonly present a symptom of chronic pain, and psychiatric disorders that manifest chronic pain without obvious actual or potential tissue damage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0374.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: pain; chronic pain; nociception; sensory neuron; pain neuroscience education
Online: 9 October 2023 (09:31:37 CEST)
Chronic pain has increasingly become a significant health challenge, not just as a symptomatic manifestation but also as a pathological condition with profound socioeconomic implications. Despite the expansion of medical interventions, the prevalence of chronic pain remains remarkably persistent, prompting a turn towards non-pharmacological treatments, such as therapeutic education, exercise and cognitive-behavioral therapy. With the advent of cognitive neuroscience, pain is often presented as a primary output derived from the brain, aligning with Engel's Biopsychosocial Model which views disease not solely from a biological perspective but also considering psychological and social factors. This paradigm shift, brings forward potential misconceptions and over-simplifications. The current review delves into the intricacies of nociception and pain perception. It questions long-standing beliefs like the cerebral-centric view of pain, the forgotten role of the peripheral nervous system in pain chronification, misconceptions around central sensitization syndromes, the controversy about the existence of a dedicated pain neuromatrix, the consciousness of the pain experience and the possible oversight of factors beyond the nervous system. In re-evaluating these aspects, the review emphasizes the critical need for understanding the complexity of pain, urging the scientific and clinical community to move beyond reductionist perspectives and consider the multifaceted nature of this phenomenon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: chronic pain; epigenetics; neuropathic pain; postoperative pain; thoracic surgery; video-assisted
Online: 10 November 2019 (09:29:13 CET)
Background: Elucidation of epigenetic mechanisms correlating with neuropathic pain in humans is crucial for the prevention and treatment of this treatment-resistant pain state. In the present study, associations between neuropathic pain characteristics and DNA methylation of the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1(TRPA1) gene were evaluated in chronic pain patients and preoperative patients. Methods: Pain and psychological states were prospectively assessed in patients who suffered chronic pain or were scheduled for thoracic surgery. Neuropathic characteristics were assessed using the Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) questionnaire. DNA methylation levels of the CpG island in the TRPA1 gene were examined using whole blood. Results: Forty-eight adult patients were enrolled in this study. Increases in DNA methylation rates at CpG -51 showed positive correlations with increases in the DN4 score both in preoperative and chronic pain patients. Combined methylation rates at CpG -51 also significantly increased together with increase in DN4 scores. Conclusions: Neuropathic pain characteristics are likely associated with methylation rates at the promoter region of the TRPA1 gene in human peripheral blood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0247.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: animal welfare; pain; farm animals; Pain-Track; Cumulative Pain; pain assessment; welfare foot-print; time; interspecific comparisons
Online: 15 August 2022 (03:57:59 CEST)
We describe a recently developed approach to quantify welfare loss in animals, the Cumulative Pain metric. It combines the two most relevant dimensions of negative affective experiences: intensity and duration. The metric enables estimating the time individuals spend in negative affective states of a physical or psychological nature (operationally referred to simply as ‘pain’) of different intensities as the result of one or more challenges (e.g., diseases, injuries, deprivations). A new notation protocol (the Pain-Track) is used in which the duration of the experience is represented along the horizontal axis and intensity is represented by four categories in the vertical axis. Pain experiences are partitioned into temporal segments, where hypotheses for the experienced duration and intensity are proposed based on existing welfare indicators (e.g., neurophysiological, behavioral, anatomical, evolutionary). This structure forces transparency about assumptions and uncertainties, highlights knowledge gaps, and enables estimates to be continuously adjusted. Because the Cumulative Pain metric is based on parameters with a broadly common biological meaning, it provides the much needed interoperability among assessments of animal welfare. It enables comparing the impact of practices and living conditions, policies and interventions, and the calculation of welfare footprints of animal-sourced products using a universal measurement unit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1945.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: KAP; NSAIDS; pain treatment; muskosceletonal pain; complications
Online: 30 November 2023 (10:38:06 CET)
(1) Background: It is crucial to provide safe and knowledgeable healthcare practices because no research has been done on the knowledge and usage patterns of NSAIDs among the Hail population. (2) Method: Structured questionnaires were utilized to gather data from 399 individuals in Hail, Saudi Arabia for the cross-sectional analysis. The study assessed participants' knowledge regarding NSAIDs, patterns of use, reasons for use, and awareness of potential side effects. (3) Results: In the study, the gender distribution indicated that 170 participants (42.61%) were male, while 229 (57.39%) were female. Gender, occupation, and marital status showed non-significant associations (p>0.01), except for menstrual cycle and joint pain, where marital status displayed significant associations. Age had significant associations with muscle pain, menstrual cycle, and joint pain (p<0.01). Education and monthly income exhibited non-significant associations for all the reasons. The regression analysis demonstrated that gender played a significant role, with females having higher odds of knowledge (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.10-2.88) than males. Age also had a notable impact, with individuals aged 50-59 (AOR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.07-0.66) exhibiting lower odds of knowledge. Education holding a Ph.D (AOR = 3.50, 95% CI 0.54-22.51) and business as an occupation (AOR = 6.12, 95% CI 1.10-35.10) had significantly higher odds of knowledge while housewives (AOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.25-2.27) had lower odds. Meanwhile, >50% of the participants had knowledge of adverse events related to the use of NSAIDs while 25% had no knowledge. Moreover, 59 (25.766%) participants reported discomfort with the use of NSAIDs. In addition, 50% and >75% of participants’ considered NSAIDs can cause peptic ulcers and damage kidneys, respectively (4) Conclusions: This study shed light on the knowledge and patterns of NSAIDs use in the population of Hail, Saudi Arabia. While NSAIDs are commonly utilized for pain management, there exists a need for improved public awareness regarding potential risks and safe usage practices. Healthcare providers and policymakers should consider these insights to develop targeted educational initiatives and healthcare interventions to promote safe and informed NSAID utilization in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0063.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: chronic pain; non-pharmaceutical pain management; interventions
Online: 1 June 2023 (08:13:11 CEST)
Background: Chronic, non-cancer pain represents a serious public health and economic issue affecting approximately 20% of the global population. Chronic pain can affect many aspects of patient’s lives, including mental health, employment, and relationships. Current medical management is largely focussed on investigating and managing acute pain. Patients and clinicians are now increasingly aware of the potential benefits of combined treatments or complex interventions in alleviating chronic pain. These approaches include both physical interventions, such as exercise or yoga, as well as psychological support including cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and talking therapies. Methods: This study used network meta-analyses to explore the prevalence of complex interventions in pain management, and the effects of these interventions on quality of life, using outcome measures including intensity of chronic pain, assessment of functional disability and participant’s psychological state. Results: Psychological interventions were associated with improvements in pain intensity and depression. Exercise and manipulation technique-based treatments provided a statistically significant reduction in pain intensity. This effect was enhanced when exercise and CBT were combined. Mensendieck somatocognitive therapy (MSCT) plus standard gynaecological treatment (STGT) treatments appeared to have a better effect on chronic pain than multimodal exercise plus CBT treatment. Combined MSCT and STGT treatment, and multimodal exercise plus CBT treatments, reduced pain intensity, whilst MSCT+STGT treatments had a slightly better effect than exercise plus CBT treatment.Conclusions: Complex interventions have become more popular with patients as the risks associated with other interventions including surgery and pharmacological management have become better understood. These interventions can have a significant positive effect both on the physical and psychological health of patients. The analysis presented in this study suggests that further work is warranted in this area and that additional studies are required, both in more geographically diverse locations, and with larger cohorts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cancer pain; breakthrough cancer pain; cluster analysis
Online: 21 July 2021 (09:50:29 CEST)
Breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) is a temporary exacerbation of pain that "breaks through" a phase of adequate pain control by an opioid-based therapy. The non-predictable BTcP (NP-BTcP) is a subtype of BTcP that occurs in the absence of any specific activity. Since NP-BTcP has an important clinical impact, this analysis is aimed at characterizing the NP-BTcP phenomenon through a multidimensional statistical technique. This is a secondary analysis based on the Italian Oncologic Pain multiSetting - Multicentric Survey (IOPS-MS) . A correlation analysis was performed to characterize NP-BTcP profile about its intensity, number of episodes per day, and type. The Multidimensional Correspondence Analysis (MCA) determined the identification of 4 groups (Phenotypes). A univariate analysis was performed to assess differences between the 4 Phenotypes and selected covariates. The four phenotypes represent the hierarchical classification according to the status of NP-BTcP: from the best (Phenotype 1) to the worst (Phenotype 4). The univariate analysis found a significant association between the onset time >10 min in the Phenotype 1 (37.3%) vs. the onset ≤ 10 min in Phenotype 4 (74.2%) (p<0.001). The Phenotype 1 was characterized by gastrointestinal type of cancer (26.4%) respect to Phenotype 4 where the most frequent cancer affected the lung (28.8%) (p<0.001). Phenotype 4 was mainly managed with rapid onset opioids, while in Phenotype 1 many patients were treated with oral, subcutaneous, or intravenous morphine (56.4% and 44.4%, respectively; p=0.008). The ability to characterize NP-BTcP can offer enormous benefits for the management of this serious aspect of cancer pain. This strategy can provide many indications for identifying the diagnostic and therapeutic gaps on NP-BTcP management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0564.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: psychiatric disorders; neuroimaging; biochemical; pain; pain biomarkers
Online: 21 June 2021 (16:39:16 CEST)
According to the literature, patients with chronic pain and mental disorders constitute a huge, heterogeneous group. However, it is known that social and psychological processes closely affect the level and expression of chronic pain. In this paper, we present a review of the literature, define methods of identifying pain biomarkers and consider the possibility of using them to assess pain in mental disorders. Group researchers searched PubMed, Scope, and Cochrane databases for "pain biomarkers in mental disorders" between 2011 and 2021. for available databases for full-text, peer-reviewed studies and review publications using the following keywords: pain biomarkers, neuroimaging pain, pain metabolomics, pain and psychiatric disorders, pain electroencephalography (EEG), serum pain biomarkers, saliva biomarkers, and diagnosis pain. The search included full-text articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, and systematic reviews. Was used part of the PRISMA method to review the literature systematically. A literature search identified 283 studies based on the initially set inclusion and exclusion criteria. In the subsequent selection stages, 11 studies were selected for analysis. There are three main areas of the possible use of biomarkers for the clinical assessment of pain in psychiatric patients, neuroimaging, changes in metabolite levels in body fluids, and changes in gene expression. As a result of the review, individual pain mediators were distinguished that may be markers of pain in psychiatric patients. Some mediators indicate the specificity of pain and are of diagnostic importance. However, despite significant advances in research, most of the described biomarkers found in clinical trials assessing the severity and frequency of pain have no practical significance in psychiatric disorders. It is possible to diagnose pain based on neuroimaging using various methods, genetic methods, body fluids: blood and urine. Of the many, body fluid biomarkers are the most advanced. Discussion: Biomarker research is a dynamically developing field. The review has proposed new ways to diagnose pain by identifying pain biomarkers. Work presented pain diagnostics in psychiatric disorders based on biomarkers from various neuroimaging methods, blood and urine analysis. The possibility of new, effective techniques gives hope for the correct diagnosis of pain, especially in patients with mental disorders, which would allow for appropriate and adequate therapeutic therapies. In clinical practice is limited to a few methods. Assessment of pain biomarkers in body fluids (serum, saliva, and urine) seems to be the most practical and promising method of clinical application. Conclusions: There are new techniques that give hope for the correct diagnosis of pain, especially in patients with mental disorders, which will allow for their proper and adequate therapy. According to the literature, patients with chronic pain and mental disorders constitute a huge, heterogeneous group. However, it is known that social and psychological processes closely affect the level and expression of chronic pain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: nerve hydrodissection; pain management; ultrasonography; neuropathic pain
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:09:56 CET)
Nerve hydrodissection (HD), a technique used when treating nerve entrapments, involves using an anesthetic or solution such as saline or 5% dextrose solution to separate the nerve from the surrounding tissue, fascia, or adjacent structures. This technique aims to treat neuropathic pain, or pain caused by the nerve. Ultrasound-guided HD of peripheral nerves has gained significant attention in the medical profession and pain management fields in recent years. This is due to a number of high impact publications of randomized control trials demonstrating the efficacy and safety of this technique for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Even the 20th edition of Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine textbook lists injection of 5% dextrose as an alternative local treatment that does not have the side effects of corticosteroids. At present, there is no review of the current literature on this technique. This manuscript will summarize and discuss the following: 1) the different approaches to doing ultrasound-guided HD of nervous structures, 2) its usages in different clinical situations, 3) its clinical pearls, 4) the solution used, and 5) the postulated mechanisms of action.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2075.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: probiotics; post-operative pain; microbiome; visceral pain; abdominal wall pain; inflammation; opioids; cannabinoids
Online: 31 October 2023 (10:50:24 CET)
Post-operative pain is the unpleasant sensory and emotional experience after surgery, its origin being both the inflammatory reaction induced by the surgical trauma on the abdominal wall, and the splanchnic pain, induced by the activation of nociceptors of the viscera, which are highly sensi-tive to distension, ischemia and inflammation. Nowadays, it is well recognized that there is a close relationship between the gut microbiome and pain perception, and that microbiome is highly af-fected by both anaesthesia and surgical manipulation. Thus, efforts to restore the disturbed micro-biome by supplementation with beneficial bacteria, namely probiotics, seems to be effective. In this article the knowledge gained mainly from experimental research on this topic is analyzed, the con-cluding message being that each probiotic strain works in its own way towards pain relief.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1845.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Low back pain; hip; strengthening; treatment; pain; disability.
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:22:58 CEST)
Low back pain (LBP) is a health problem that affects 70-80% of the population in Western countries. Because of the biomechanical relationship between the lumbar region and the hip, it is thought that strengthening the muscles of this joint could improve the symptoms of people with LBP. The objective of the study is to evaluate the current evidence on the efficacy of hip strengthening exercises to reduce pain and disability in people with LBP. Clinical trials were collected from PubMed, PEDro, and Scopus databases published up to September 2022. Based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and using CASpe and PEDro tools for methodological quality assessment, we selected studies that included hip strengthening exercises as part of LBP treatment and measured pain and/or disability parameters. Among the 966 records identified in the search, a total of 7 studies met the established selection criteria. Overall, participants who performed hip strengthening exercises had significantly improved in pain and disability. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed as “good”. In conclusion, the addition of hip muscle strengthening exercises iterating LBP effectively improving pain and disability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0599.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Survey; children; health knowledge; chronic pain; pain education.
Online: 26 February 2021 (09:30:20 CET)
(1) Background: Research has shown that thoughts about pain are important for the management of chronic pain in children. In order to monitor changes in thoughts about pain over time and evaluate the efficacy of treatments, we need valid and reliable measures. The aims of this study were to develop a questionnaire to assess a child’s concept of pain and to evaluate its psychometric properties; (2) Methods: This is a cross-sectional, two-phase, mixed-method study. A total of 324 individuals aged 8 to 17 years old responded to the newly created questionnaire. The Survey of the Concept of Pain (SOCOPA) was calibrated using the Rasch model. The chi-square test was used for the fit statistics. Underfit and overfit of the model were determined and a descriptive analysis of infit and outfit was conducted to identify who responded erratically. Internal consistency was measured using the Person Separation Index (PSI); (3) Results: Fit to the Rasch model was good. Suitable targeting indicated which items were simple to answer; Person Fit identified 9.56% children who responded erratically; PSI=0.814; (4) Conclusions: The findings suggest that SOCOPA is a measure of a child’s concept of pain that is easy to administer and respond to. It has a good fit and a good internal consistency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1429.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Post Mastectomy Pain Syndrome; pain; physical exercise; depression; anxiety
Online: 22 November 2023 (13:01:57 CET)
Background: Chronic post-surgical pain is a condition persisting at least three months after surgery. It is estimated that 25-60% of patients who underwent breast cancer removal surgery suffer from post-mastectomy pain syndrome and occurred anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance and catastrophizing. Physical activity can reduce the risk of chronic diseases and has a good impact on mood and cognitive function. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of physical activity on the intensity of pain, depression and anxiety in women underwent mastectomy for breast cancer removal. Methods: A prospective observational unicentric cohort study was performed. Patients were female underwent unilateral or bilateral mastectomy. Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), was used to assess pain intensity, Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI) for depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorders-7 (GAD-7), for anxiety evaluation. Physical activity was assessed by International Physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). Interleukin (IL)-17, IL-1β, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were also evaluated in the blood of patients. All the evaluation was assessed 3 and 6 months after the surgery. Results: Adequate physical activity reduced intensity of pain, depression and anxiety symptoms in women affected by post-mastectomy pain syndrome. Moreover, adequate active women, showed a reduction of biomarkers of inflammation, cortisol, ACTH and an increase of BDNF. Conclusions: Our results suggest that physical activity can improve quality of life, reducing intensity of pain, inflammatory markers and it can be useful in the reduction of associated anxiety and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1262.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: unilateral neck pain; myofascial stiffness; indentometry; pain pressure threshold
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:29:35 CEST)
(1) Background: Globally, neck pain is prevalent, affecting around thirty percent of the population annually. To better understand the influence of pain on the myofascial layers, the present study investigated these on the upper trapezius muscle in unilateral, more severe neck pain. (2) Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study. Forty patients (42.2 ± 14.7) with a confirmed diagnosis of unilateral neck pain were examined using durometry and indentometry. The study evaluated stiffness, elasticity, and pressure pain threshold of both sides of the neck (symptomatic side: SS; healthy side: HS). Furthermore, the range of motion of the cervical spine (lateral flexion, rotation) was quantified using a digital goniometer. (3) Results: A significant lateral discrepancy was observed in stiffness between groups (durometry: SS – 33.76 ± 7.78, HS – 29.75 ± 7.45, p<0.001; indentometry: SS – 59.73 ± 33.93, HS – 4.18 ± 12.69, p=0.024). In contrast, no differences were found between the comparison sides of the upper trapezius for the parameter’s elasticity (SS – 0.101 ± 1.09, HS – -0.006 ± 0.29, p=0.416), cervical spine mobility (lateral flexion: SS – 37.08 ± 8.15, HS – 37.73 ± 7.61, p=0.559; rotation: SS – 73.55 ± 12.37, HS – 72.85 ± 11.10, p=0.660) and algometry (SS – 36.41 ± 17.53, HS – 37.22 ± 17.00, p=0.657). (4) Conclusion: Overall, it can be concluded that more severe neck pain unilaterally shows differences in stiffness on the same side. Future research is needed to investigate the links.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1715.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: low back pain; musculoskeletal diseases; neck pain; physical therapy
Online: 24 August 2023 (07:16:49 CEST)
Background: Spinal pain is highly prevalent and in Spain it produces a very high economic cost and the scientific evidence supporting treatments shows low to moderate evidence for exercise. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a therapeutic group exercise protocol in reducing pain intensity and disability in patients with spinal pain in primary health care setting. Methods: A total sample of 149 patients who suffered from chronic non-specific spinal pain. Patients received a therapeutic exercise protocol, including exercises of auto-mobilization of the neck and lumbar regions, as well as core stabilization exercises. Pain intensity and disability were evaluated before and after the therapeutic exercise protocol. Results: Statistically significant differences (P<0.05) were shown for pain intensity and disability of patients with neck and low back pain with an effect size from moderate to large. Conclusions: A therapeutic exercise protocol may provide beneficial effects on disability and pain intensity in patients with chronic non-specific spinal pain, including neck and low back pain conditions. Clinicians should consider the use of self-administered exercise protocols, demonstrate great effectiveness, and be less costly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0339.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Neuralgia; Interventional Pain Management; Intractable Pain; Delphi Technique; Review
Online: 25 March 2022 (07:41:03 CET)
Interventional management of neuropathic pain (NP) is available to the many patients who do not attain satisfactory outcomes with pharmacotherapy, but evidence supporting this is sparse and fragmented. We attempted to summarize and critically appraise the existing data to identify strategies that yield maximum benefit, orient clinicians, and identify areas that merit further investigation. A two-round Delphi survey that involved pain clinic specialists with experience in the research and management of NP was done over an ad hoc 26-item questionnaire prepared by the authors. Consensus on each statement was defined as either at least 80% endorsement or rejection after the second round. Thirty-five and 29 panelists participated in the first and second round, respectively. Consensus was reached in 20 out of 26 statements. There is sufficient basis to treat postherpetic neuralgias and complex regional pain syndromes with progressive levels of invasiveness and failed back surgery syndrome with neuromodulation. Radiculopathies and localized NP could be treated with peripheral blocks and neuromodulation, or pulsed radiofrequency. Non-ablative radiofrequency and non-paresthetic neuromodulation are efficacious and better tolerated than ablative and suprathreshold procedures. A graded approach, from least to most invasive interventions has the potential to improve outcomes in many patients with common refractory NP conditions. Preliminary promising data warrant further research on new indications, and technical advances might enhance the safety and efficacy of current and future therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0040.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: pain assessment; pain recognition; deep learning; neural network; dataset
Online: 2 August 2020 (15:28:12 CEST)
The traditional standards employed for pain assessment have many limitations. One such limitation is reliability because of inter-observer variability. Therefore, there have been many approaches to automate the task of pain recognition. Recently, deep-learning methods have appeared to solve many challenges, such as feature selection and cases with a small number of data sets. This study provides a systematic review of pain-recognition systems that are based on deep-learning models for the last two years only. Furthermore, it presents the major deep-learning methods that were used in review papers. Finally, it provides a discussion of the challenges and open issues.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2089.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: pain; endometriosis; physiotherapy
Online: 31 August 2023 (02:28:07 CEST)
Feeling pain means feeling oneself, as the body feels discomfort as a kind of "disturbance experi-ence". Endometriosis is a disease in which the predominant symptom is pain felt by women pri-marily within the pelvis, but also outside of the body. The clinical biomarker used in the diagnosis of this disease is microRNAs. Treatment of endometriosis is complex and is based mainly on phar-macotherapy. Physiotherapy can complement pharmacological treatment in reducing pain using non-invasive treatments for the body. Therefore, databases have been searched to find the most effective forms of physiotherapy for the treatment of endometriosis. The literature review conducted here suggests that it is necessary to perform multicentre studies in order to establish which forms of physical therapy may be most effective in reducing pain and improving the quality of life of women suffering from endometriosis. Certainly, this type of research in conjunction with the assessment of pain and endometriosis markers would be of great clinical value in order to develop an interdisci-plinary treatment model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0803.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: low back pain; leg pain; disc herniation; clinical trial; radiography
Online: 13 October 2023 (02:57:31 CEST)
A multicenter, prospective cohort study conducted in 5 physiotherapy clinics in the UAE from January 2021 to March 2023 to assess coronal lumbar spine radiographic parameters as a predictor of conservative therapy outcomes in patients suffering from low back and leg pain due to lumbar disc herniation (HNP). Ninety patients (mean age 44 yrs., 54% male) with lumbar HNP underwent conservative therapy. All participants received lumbar spine MRI and radiography to assess spine alignment. Interventions included specific exercises, diathermy, traction, education, a home-based exercise pro-gram, and medications. Detailed demographic data was collected. Follow-up was 6-months after discharge. A successful outcome was based on a minimum of the following four outcomes: (1) reduction of pain by 17.5 points (0–100 NRS); (2) fatigue reduction by 7.5 points; (3) distress reduction by 5 points; and (4) interference reduction by 9.5 points. At 6-month follow-up it was found that patient age, education, and radio-graphic determined lumbosacral angle measures significantly affected the odds of a successful outcome. Increasing age 1-year significantly decreased the odds of success of improving pain, fatigue (OR = 0.85, p = 0.016) and interference scores (OR = 0.89, p = 0.042) by 15%, 15%, and 11% respectively. Lower education significantly increased the odds of success for improving pain, fatigue, and interference by 26.18, 26.18, and 7.5 (p = 0.006, = 0.006, and = 0.029 respectively). Increasing (worsening) the radiographic lumbosacral angle by each 1° significantly reduced the odds of success for improving pain, fatigue, distress, and interference by 3.52, 3.52, 27.99, and 2.55, respectively (p < 0.001, < 0.001, = 0.003, = 0.001). Our findings indicate that younger age, less education, and better coronal radiological lumbar spine alignment all had a substantial impact on the likelihood of success of 6-month outcomes in patients suffering from chronic lower back pain and radiculopathy due to HNP.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: cancer pain; cancer survivors; neuropathic pain; opioids; WHO analgesics ladder
Online: 14 June 2023 (15:05:53 CEST)
Pain is frequently reported during cancer disease, and still remains poorly controlled in 40% of patients. Recent developments in oncology have helped to better control pain. Targeted treatments may cure cancer disease and significantly increase survival. Thereby, a novel population of patients (cancer survivors) has emerged, also enduring chronic pain (27.6% moderate to severe pain). The present review discuss the different options currently available to manage pain in (former) cancer patients in the light of progress made in the last decade. Major progress in the field are recent development of a chronic cancer pain taxonomy now included in International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) and update of WHO analgesic ladder. Until recently, cancer pain management has mostly relied on pharmacotherapy, opioids being considered as mainstay. The opioids crisis has prompted the reassessment of opioids use, both in cancer patients and cancer survivors. The review focuses on the current utilization of opioids, on the neuropathic pain component often neglected and on techniques and non-pharmacological strategies available which help to personalize patient’s treatment. Cancer pain management is now closer to the management of chronic non-cancer pain i.e. “an integrative pain care” aiming to improve patient’s quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1867.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: knee pain; frequency of knee pain; exercise training; physical activity
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:38:21 CEST)
Abstract: Background: Adolescents frequently self-report pain, according to epidemiological research. The knee is one of the sites where the pain is most common. One of the main factors contributing to the number of years people spend disabled and having substantial personal, societal, and economic burdens globally is musculoskeletal disorders. Insidious, slowly building onset that neither the adolescent nor the parent is aware of . Patellofemoral Pain (PFP) is a clinical knee pain commonly affecting adolescents. In the present study, the authors aimed to estimate the frequency of knee pain in Saudi adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional survey carried out from June to November 2022 included 676 adolescents, ages 10 to 18. The data are presented as frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare means between groups, while the chi-square test was used for the comparison of categorical variables. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Adolescents were invited to take part in the study; 57.5% were female and 42.5% were male, and 68.8% were aged between 15 and 18. The prevalence of knee pain was considerably high among females (26%), while it was 19.2% among males. Moreover, age was a significant predictor for knee pain, and BMI was as well. We also found a significant difference between BMI classification and stiffness of the knee (p = 0.008). There is a difference between adolescents who do physical activities in leisure and difficulty bending (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Our study noted a high rate of knee pain among adolescents, so we need to raise awareness about risk factors. Adolescent knee pain can be prevented with conservative methods and some minor lifestyle/activity modifications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0663.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: heat therapy; low-back pain; musculoskeletal pain; non-pharmacological management
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:16:58 CEST)
Low back pain (LBP) is a leading cause of disability. It significantly impacts the patient’s quality of life, limits their daily living activities, and reduces work productivity. To reduce the burden of LBP, several pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options are available. This review summarizes the role of heat therapy in the management of LBP. First, we outline the common causes of LBP, then discuss the general mechanisms of heat therapy on (LB)P, and finally review the published evidence regarding the impact of heat therapy in patients with acute or chronic non-specific LBP. This review demonstrates that continuous, low-level heat therapy provides pain relief, improves muscular strength, and increases flexibility. Therefore, this effective, safe, easy-to-use, and cost-effective non-pharmacological pain relief option is still relevant in modern clinical practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0402.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: anesthesia; anesthesiology; big data; registries; database research; acute pain; pain management; postoperative pain; regional anesthesia; regional analgesia.
Online: 15 March 2021 (17:45:39 CET)
The digital transformation of healthcare is advancing, leading to an increasing availability of clinical data for research. Perioperative big data initiatives were established to monitor treatment quality and benchmark outcomes. However, big data analyzes have long exceeded the status of pure quality surveillance instruments. Large retrospective studies nowadays often represent the first approach to new questions in clinical research and pave the way for more expensive and resource intensive prospective trials. As a consequence, utilization of big data in acute pain and regional anesthesia research considerably increased over the last decade. Multicentric clinical registries and administrative databases (e.g., healthcare claims databases) have collected millions of cases until today, on which basis several important research questions were approached. In acute pain research, big data was used to assess postoperative pain outcomes, opioid utilization, and the efficiency of multimodal pain management strategies. In regional anesthesia, adverse events and potential benefits of regional anesthesia on postoperative morbidity and mortality were evaluated. This article provides a narrative review on the growing importance of big data for research in acute postoperative pain and regional anesthesia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0293.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Keywords: palliative care, child, brain, neoplasm, neuropathic pain, pain, symptoms, hospice
Online: 16 August 2018 (15:14:46 CEST)
Children with central nervous system (CNS) malignancies often suffer from high symptom burden and risk of death. Pediatric palliative care is a medical specialty, provided by an interdisciplinary team, which focuses on enhancing quality of life and minimizing suffering for children with life-threatening or life-limiting disease, and their families. Primary palliative care skills which include basic symptom management, facilitation of goals-of-care discussions, and transition to hospice can and should be developed by all providers of neuro-oncology care. This chapter will review the fundamentals of providing primary palliative care
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0186.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Gait; Pain; Back disorder; Outcome evaluations; Daily activity; Fear of pain
Online: 9 August 2018 (11:26:15 CEST)
Abstract: This study evaluates the effect of paravertebral spinal injection (PSI), utilizing both subjective and objective assessments in chronic low back pain (LBP) associated with facet joint arthrosis over a one-month duration. Subjective questionnaires included the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain, Oswestry Disability Index, Health Survey SF-12, and the short Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I). Objective assessments included in-clinic gait and timed-up-and-go (TUG) tests using wearable sensors, as well as 48-hour daily physical activity (DPA) monitored using a chest-worn tri-axial accelerometer. Subjective and objective measures were performed prior to treatment, immediately after the treatment, and one-month afterthe treatment. Eight LBP patients were recruited for this study (mean age = 54±13 years, body mass index = 31.41±6.52 kg/m2, 50% males). Results show significant decrease in pain (~55%, p<0.05) and disability (Oswestry scores, ~21%, p<0.05). In-clinic gait and TUG were also significantly improved (~16% and ~18% faster walking and shorter TUG, p<0.05); however, DPA (including percentage of physical activities (walking and standing) and the number of steps) showed no significant change after PSI (p>0.25; effect size≤0.44). We hypothesize that DPA may continue to be truncated by conditioned fear-avoidance, a psychological state that may prevent increase in daily physical activity to avoid pain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0612.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Pain; Vglut2; optomodulation; chemogenetic
Online: 20 April 2023 (05:46:06 CEST)
The physiological mechanisms that underlie the generation and maintenance of pain are diverse. There are afferent fibers that receive sensory information and transfer the information to the central nervous system. However, when trying to classify and determine their molecular characteristics, it becomes a difficult task due to the variety of markers that they share. With current technological advances, it is possible to specifically modulate the fibers that process pain signaling through optogenetics and chemogenetics. Nonetheless, to accomplish this aim it is necessary a specific identification of each neuron subtypes involved. This review addresses the molecular markers present in the nociceptive fibers responsible for sensory signals and the use of these molecular markers as optogenetics targets to modulate nociceptive behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0194.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: opiate; pain; neurotoxicity; misuse
Online: 14 September 2022 (05:55:26 CEST)
Background: Once a widely used analgesic in the United States (US), meperidine offered an alternative to other opioids as a pain reliever. However, within the last two decades, meperidine has gone from a drug to be utilized only when patients exhibit atypical reactions to opioids (e.g., morphine and hydromorphone) to being taken off the World Health Organization List of Essential Medications and receiving strong recommendations for the overall avoidance. The aim of this study was to identify changes in meperidine distribution in the US and regional disparities as reported to the Drug Enforcement Administration’s Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders System (DEA ARCOS) and Medicaid. Methods: Data related to the meperidine distribution was obtained through ARCOS (2001 –2021) and Medicaid public use files (2016 –2021). Heat maps were used to visualize regional disparities in distribution by state. States outside a 95% confidence interval were statistically significant. Results: Meperidine distribution between 2001 and 2021 decreased by 97.4% (R=.-97, P < .0001). There was a 34-fold state-level difference in meperidine distribution between Arkansas (16.8 mg/10 persons) and Connecticut (0.5 mg/ 10 persons) in 2020. Meperidine distribution in 2020 was elevated in Arkansas, Mississippi, and Alabama. In 2021, Meperidine distribution was highest in Arkansas ( 1.67 /10 persons) and lowest in Connecticut (0.08 /10 persons). Total prescriptions of meperidine as reported by Medicaid decreased by 73.8% (R= -0.67, P = 0.045) between 2016 and 2021. Conclusion: We observed a decrease in the overall distribution of meperidine in the past two decades with similar recent declines in prescribing to Medicaid enrollees. The shortage of some parenteral formulations is an important contributor to these declines. This data may reflect plans to phase out the use of this opioid, especially in the many situations where preferred opioids are available.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0164.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: pain; postural control; rehabilitation
Online: 12 May 2022 (08:52:45 CEST)
Motor control, movement impairment and postural control recovery targeted in rehabilitation could be affected by pain. The main objective of this comprehensive review is to provide a synthesis of the effect of experimental and chronic pain on postural control throughout the available literature. After presenting the neurophysiological pathways of pain, we demonstrated that pain, preferentially localized at low back or in the leg induced postural control alteration. While proprioceptive and cortical excitability seems modified with pain, spinal modulation assessment might provide new understanding of the pain phenomenon related to postural control. Literature highlight that the motor control of trunk muscles in patient presenting with low back pain could be dichotomized in two populations, where the first one over-activate trunk muscles, the second one under-activate trunk muscles, and both generating increase of tissues loading. Taking account all this findings, will help clinician to provide adapted treatment for managing both pain and postural control.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: neuralgia; earache; facial pain; neuropathic pain; geniculate neuralgia; nervus intermedius; otalgia; gabapentin
Online: 9 August 2022 (03:20:29 CEST)
(1) Background: Painful nervus intermedius neuropathy (e.g., geniculate neuralgia) involves continuous or near-continuous pain affecting the distribution of the intermedius nerve(s). The diagnosis of this entity is challenging, particularly when the clinical and demographic features do not resemble the typical presentation of this condition. To the best of our knowledge, only three case reports have described the occurrence of nervus intermedius neuropathy in young patients. (2) Case Description: A 13-year-old female referred to the Orofacial Pain clinic with a complaint of pain located deep in the right ear and mastoid area. The pain was described as a constant throbbing and dull, with an intensity of 7/10 on numerical rating scale, characterized by superimposed brief paroxysms of severe sharp pain. The past treatments included ineffective pharmacological and irreversible surgical approaches. After a comprehensive evaluation, a diagnosis of idiopathic painful nervus intermedius neuropathy was given, which was successfully managed with the use of gabapentin. (3) Conclusions and Practical Implications: The diagnosis and treatment of neuropathic pain affecting the nervus intermedius can be challenging due to the complex nature of the sensory innervation of the ear. The diagnosis can be even more challenging in cases of atypical clinical and demographic presentations, which in turn may result in unsuccessful, unnecessary, and irreversible treatments. Multidisciplinary teams and constant knowledge update are fundamental to provide good quality of care to our patients and to not overlook any relevant signs or symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0075.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Long Term Evolution, LTE; 4G; mobile phone; nociception; pain; thermal pain threshold
Online: 20 August 2018 (15:01:09 CEST)
Although the majority of mobile phone (MP) users do not attribute adverse effects on health or well-being to MP-emitted radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs), the exponential increase in the number of RF devices necessitates continuing research aimed at the objective investigation of such concerns. In this work, we investigate the effects of acute exposure from Long Term Evolution (LTE) MP EMFs on thermal pain threshold in healthy young adults. We use a protocol that was validated in a previous study in a capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia model, and was also successfully used to show that exposure from an RF source mimicking a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) MP led to mildly stronger desensitization to repeated noxious thermal stimulation relative to the sham condition. Using the same experimental design, we did not find any effects of LTE exposure on thermal pain threshold. The present results are in accordance with previous evidence suggesting that effects are likely to be placebo/nocebo effects and are unrelated to the brief acute LTE EMF exposure itself. The fact that this is dissimilar to our previous results on UMTS exposure implies that RF modulations might differentially affect pain perception, and points to the necessity of further research in the topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0527.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: PSPS; FBSS; chronic pain; health-related quality of life; mixture models analysis; personalized pain management; chronic pain after spinal surgery
Online: 27 August 2021 (15:23:27 CEST)
Persistent Spinal Pain Syndrome Type 2 (PSPS-T2), (Failed Back Surgery Syndrome), dramatically impacts on patient quality of life, as evidenced by Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) assessment tools. However, the importance of functioning, pain perception and psychological status in HRQoL can substantially vary between subjects. Our goal was to extract patient profiles based on HRQoL dimensions in a sample of PSPS-T2 patients and to identify factors associated with these profiles. Two classes were clearly identified using a mixture of mixed effect models from a clinical data set of 200 patients enrolled in “PREDIBACK”, a multicenter observational prospective study including PSPS-T2 patients with 1-year follow-up. We observed that HRQoL was more impacted by functional disability for first class patients (n=136) and by pain perception for second class patients (n=62). Males that perceive their work as physical were more impacted by disability than pain intensity. Lower education level, lack of adaptive coping strategies and higher pain intensity were significantly associated with HRQoL being more impacted by pain perception. The identification of such classes allows for a better understanding of HRQoL dimensions and opens the gate towards optimized health-related quality of life evaluation and personalized pain management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0545.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Composite score; Machine learning; PSPS; Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS); Chronic pain; Pain Intensity; Quality of Life; Pain Mapping; Pain Surface; Functional Capacity; Psychological Distress; Anxiety and Depression
Online: 30 August 2021 (13:04:51 CEST)
The multidimensionality of chronic pain forces us to look beyond isolated pain assessment such as pain intensity, which does not consider multiple key parameters, particularly in patients suffering from post-operative Persistent Spinal Pain Syndrome (PSPS-T2). Our ambition was to provide a novel Multi-dimensional Clinical Response Index (MCRI), including not only pain intensity but also functional capacity, anxiety-depression, quality of life and objective quantitative pain mapping assessments, the objective being to capture patient condition instantaneously, using machine learning techniques. Two hundred PSPS-T2 patients were enrolled in a real-life observational prospective PREDIBACK study with 12-month follow-up and received various treatments. From a multitude of questionnaires/scores, specific items were combined using exploratory factor analyses to create an optimally accurate MCRI; as a single composite index, using pairwise correlations between measurements, it appeared to better represent all pain dimensions than any other classical score. It appeared to be the best compromise among all existing indexes, showing the highest sensitivity/specificity related to Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC). Novel composite indexes could help to refine pain assessment by changing the physician’s perception of patient condition on the basis of objective and holistic metrics, and by providing new insights to therapy efficacy/patient outcome assessments, before ultimately being adapted to other pathologies.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: whole-body cryostimulation; phantom limb pain; phantom limb syndrome; neuropathic pain; central sensitization
Online: 3 November 2023 (04:12:43 CET)
Phantom Limb Pain (PLP) is a challenging condition affecting a significant proportion of amputees. In this article we describe the case of a 54-year-old Paralympic athlete with Phantom Limb Syndrome following right leg amputation and widespread sports-related enthesitic pain, who underwent a Whole Body Cryostimulation (WBC) cycle, an emerging treatment known for its rapid pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects. Assessments were conducted before and after a 10-session WBC cycle, including pain and quality of life assessment, and use of medications. A substantial reduction in enthesitic pain, PLP intensity, paresthesia, tingling related to atmospheric events and an improved function and quality of life were reported after the WBC cycle and lasted for two weeks. One month after WBC, the enthesitic pain following sports activity and PLP gradually returned but with lesser intensity. Similarly, the stump's sensitivity to atmospheric changes returned but with lower frequency. Pain at night remained lower than before WBC with significantly improved quality of sleep. This case study suggests that WBC could be a valuable adjuvant treatment for alleviating PLP. Controlled studies are warranted to validate the findings of this case-report and elucidate the mechanisms underlying the positive effects of WBC in this condition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0394.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: preoperative anxiety; postoperative pain; anesthetic use; pain perception; anxiety on anesthesia and surgery
Online: 9 October 2023 (09:32:41 CEST)
Anxiety is a complex emotional state that can arise from the anticipation of a threatening event, and preoperative anxiety is a common experience among adult patients undergoing surgery. In adult patients, the incidence of preoperative anxiety varies widely across different surgical groups, and it can result in a variety of psychophysiological responses and problems. Despite its negative impact, preoperative anxiety often receives insufficient attention in clinical practice. To improve pain management strategies, there is a need for further research on personalized approaches that take into account various factors that contribute to an individual's pain experience. These personalized approaches could involve developing tools to identify individuals who are more likely to experience increased pain and may require additional analgesia. To address this, regular assessments of anxiety levels should be conducted during preoperative visits, and counseling should be provided to patients with high levels of anxiety. Identifying and addressing preoperative anxiety in a timely manner can help reduce its incidence and potential consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0339.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Chronic Pain; Hypermobile Ehlers–Danlos syndrome; Linguistic content analysis; Metaphors; Pain; Symbolizing process
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:36:19 CEST)
Ehlers–Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders (HCTDs) characterized by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and tissue fragility. Among the different types, the hypermobile EDS (hEDS) is the most frequent, and includes generalized joint hypermobility as the major diagnostic criterion. Joint hypermobility in hEDS is often associated with pain that not always allow the use of effective pain-reducing treatments. Patients with hEDS always talk about pain using a lot of descriptions. Eighty-nine patients with diagnosis of hEDS were recruited and evaluated. They were asked to write down what grief was to them. The texts were analyzed through LIWC. Correlational analyses were conducted between pain perception and language. A comparison of high/low pain perception and quality of metaphors was carried out. The results showed, depending on the level of pain perception, different language quality is evidenced. The greater the pain the lesser the positive effects and the greater the negative effects and dehumanizing metaphors. Moreover, greater pain seems to be related to a verbal experience of greater isolation and less self-care. In conclusion, the use of metaphors is a useful tool for exploring illness experience and may help clinicians in the rehabilitation program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0010.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: infrared thermal imaging; infrared thermography; veterinary thermal imaging; pain assessment; osteoarthritis; canine back pain; canine brief pain inventory; photobiomodulation therapy; laser therapy
Online: 17 December 2021 (14:32:16 CET)
Historically, the evaluation and assessment of the clinical response to treatment for canine back pain is subjective and relies on owner and clinician assessment of pain. This study evaluated the use of sequential infrared thermal images as a measure of the response of canine patients with back pain to a prescribed series of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) treatments. Qualifying participants had histories of pain and dysfunction associated with spinal osteoarthritis or intervertebral disk disease, or of non-specific uni- or bilateral back pain along the paravertebral epaxial muscles. Each patient was initially thermally imaged prior to PBMT treatment and then received multiple PBMT treatments delivered to the appropriate spinal area on days 1, 2, 3, and 4. Participants were reimaged on day 7. Thermal images provided an objective measure of superficial temperature changes over the area of PBMT treatment of each patient after the PBMT regimen. The temperature correlated with statistically significant changes in Colorado State University Canine Chronic Pain Scale scoring (CPS) and owner assessment using the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI), which includes a Pain Severity Score (PSS) and Pain Interference Score (PIS). The correlation of objective thermal imaging data with more subjective outcome measures suggests thermal imaging may be a valuable additional tool in monitoring therapy outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1086.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Kinesiophobia; TKA; pain; functional recovery
Online: 16 November 2023 (11:39:28 CET)
Kinesiophobia (fear of movement) has been recognized as a significant barrier to recovery and rehabilitation in patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Our goal was to identify predictors of kinesiophobia and examine its correlation with early functional outcomes in TKA recipients. On the first and fifth postoperative days (POD1 and POD5), we evaluated pain using the International Pain Outcomes Questionnaire (IPO-Q) and created multidimensional pain composite scores (PROs). Functional status on POD 5 was determined by the Barthel index, 6-minute walking test, and knee range of motion. Kinesiophobia was measured on POD5 using the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) and multivariable logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with kinesiophobia. Among 75 TKA patients, 27% exhibited kinesiophobia. The final regression model highlighted PRO1 (OR=1.6, CI=1.1-2.5), PRO2 (OR=2.1, CI=1.3-3.5), and education level (OR=0.6, CI=0.04-10.6) as significant kinesiophobia predictors. On POD5, those with kinesiophobia showed increased dependency, slower gait, and poorer knee extension recovery. Pain is a significant predictor of kinesiophobia after TKA. Furthermore, kinesiophobia has a significant impact on early functional outcomes after surgery. Using composite pain scores for pain evaluation offers a more comprehensive approach to understanding the connection between pain and kinesiophobia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0156.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breathing exercises; pain; cancer survivors
Online: 10 March 2022 (15:17:07 CET)
Objective: To explore the efficacy and safety of breathing exercises for pain management in cancer survivors. Design: A systematic review. Data sources: Thirteen databases, including PubMed, EMBase, CENTRAL, Medline, CINAHL, JBI, Science Direct, Scopus, SocINDEX, Web of Science, PsycINFO, CNKI, and Wan Fang, were searched from inception to May 24, 2021. Review/analysis methods: Studies that focused on the efficacy of breathing exercises for pain management in cancer survivors were included. Cochrane tools were used for the quality appraisal of the included studies. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies, descriptive data analysis was used to summarize the results. Results: A total of 10 studies were included in this systematic review. Slow pursed lip breathing showed benefits for post-surgical pain. Contradictory findings were identified in the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery breathing exercise for post-surgical pain. Slow deep breathing and Hey-Hu regular breathing techniques were effective for pain management in pediatric cancer patients. The Active Cycle of Breathing Technique and five-minute mindful breathing did not have any statistically significant effects on pain relief. Quality of life was measured in three studies, with some improvement. Only one study addressed adverse events and reported that no adverse events associated with the breathing exercises occurred during the study. Conclusion: This review found some evidence of positive effects of breathing exercises for pain relief in cancer survivors. However, the unsatisfactory methodological quality of the studies prevents its generalizability. More large-scale studies are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of breathing exercises for pain relief in cancer survivors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: spirometry; VAS Pain; oncology rehabilitation
Online: 27 November 2019 (09:53:58 CET)
The aim of the following paper was to determine the influence of soft tissue therapy on respiratory efficiency and chest mobility of women suffering from breast cancer. This study was a controlled randomized trial. Tests were carried out in a group of patients (n=49), who were hospitalized in the Province Polyclinic Hospital, Konin, Poland. In the study group, irrespective of the standard physical therapy program, an additional therapy program was run. The program consisted in applying specific techniques of soft tissue treatment. All patients in the each term were subject to pulmonary function test, chest mobility and pain assessment. Statistical analysis of the obtained results of spirometry and chest mobility assessment have revealed no differences in the analyzed parameters between the examined groups in the period of joint therapeutic treatment. In the period between the 3rd examination and the end of the 11-month- rehabilitation treatment, statistically significant differences were observed in the analyzed spirometry parameters, however, there was no difference in the parameters describing airflow in small airways (MEF50,PEF) between individual groups, during consecutive examinations in the course of diversified therapeutic treatment. Chest mobility assessment of the patients, performed during diversified therapeutic treatment, revealed statistically significant differences between the groups. However, there was no difference between the examined groups, as far as pain sensation is concerned. Enhancing the regular rehabilitation program by including additional therapeutic methods, which are based on myofascial release and post-isometric relaxation techniques, had a beneficial effects regarding respiratory system efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0495.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: nephrectomy; Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory; patient-controlled analgesia; quadratus lumborum block; persistent postoperative pain
Online: 20 May 2021 (17:17:47 CEST)
Background: New regional techniques can improve pain management after nephrectomy. Methods: This study was a randomized controlled trial conducted at two teaching hospitals. Patients undergoing elective open and laparoscopic nephrectomy were eligible to participate in the trial. A total of 100 patients were divided into a quadratus lumborum block (QLB) group and a control (CON) group. At the end of surgery, but while still under general anesthesia, unilateral QLB with ropivacaine was performed on the side of nephrectomy for patients in the QLB group. The main measured outcome of this study was oxycodone consumption via a patient-controlled anesthesia (PCA) pump during the first 24 hours following surgery; other measured outcomes included postoperative pain intensity assessment, patient satisfaction with pain management, and persistent pain evaluation. Results: Patients undergoing QLB needed less oxycodone than those in the CON group (34.5 mg [interquartile range 23–40 mg] vs. 47.5 mg [35–50 mg]; p<0.001). No difference between the groups was seen in postoperative pain intensity measured on the visual analog scale, except for the evaluation at hour 2, which was in favor of the QLB group (p=0.03). Patients who received QLB were more satisfied with postoperative pain management than the CON group. Persistent postoperative pain was assessed with the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI) at months 1, 3, and 6 and was found to be significantly lower in the QLB group at each evaluation (p<0.001). We also analyzed the impact of the surgery type on persistent pain severity, which was significantly lower after laparoscopic procedures than open procedures at months 1, 3, and 6. Conclusions: QLB reduces oxycodone consumption in patients undergoing open and laparoscopic nephrectomy and decreases persistent pain severity months after hospital discharge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0569.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: red flags; clinical reasoning; back pain; cauda equina syndrome; spinal fracture; spinal infection; malignancy; serious pathology; Spinal pain; low back pain; diagnostic triage
Online: 8 June 2023 (07:25:53 CEST)
Background and Objectives: The relevance of red flags in serious spinal pathology (SSP) evolved throughout the last years. Recently, new considerations have been proposed to expand the consideration of red flags. The purpose of this study was to determine, approve and test a model for the triage and manage-ment process of SSP based on the latest data available in the literature. Materials and Methods: The SSP model was initially built on the basis of a literature re-view. The model was further determined and approved by an expert panel us-ing a Delphi process. Finally, clinical scenario were used to test the applicabil-ity of the model. Results: After three rounds of Delphi process, panellists reached a consensus on a final version of the model. The use of clinical scenari-os by experts bring about reflexive elements both on the determined model and on the evocative SSP of the clinical cases. Conclusions: The validation of the model and its implementation in the clinical field could help assess the skills of first-line practitioners managing spinal painful patients. To this end, the devel-opment of additional clinical scenarios fitting with the determined model should be further considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: chronic postoperative pain; erector spinae plane block; coronary artery bypass grafting; Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory
Online: 13 September 2022 (11:24:28 CEST)
Up to 56% of patients develop chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). CPSP can affect patients’ moods and decrease daily activities. The primary aim of this study was to investigate CPSP severity in patients following off-pump (OP)-CABG using the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI). This was a prospective cohort study conducted in a cardiac surgery department of a teaching hospital. Patients undergoing OP-CABG were enrolled in an erector spinae plane block (ESPB) group (n = 27) or a control (CON) group (n = 24). Before the induction of general anesthesia, ESPB was performed on both sides under ultrasound guidance using 0.375% ropivacaine. The secondary outcomes included cumulative oxycodone consumption, acute pain intensity, mechanical ventilation time, hospital length of stay, and postoperative complications. CPSP intensity was lower in the ESPB group than in the CON group 1, 3, and 6 months postsurgery (p < 0.001). Significant between-group differences were also observed in other outcomes, including postoperative pain severity, opioid consumption, mechanical ventilation time, and hospital length of stay in favor of the ESPB group. Preemptive ESPB appears to decrease the risk of CPSP development in patients undergoing OP-CABG. Reduced acute pain severity and shorter mechanical ventilation times and hospital stays should improve patients’ satisfaction and reduce perioperative complications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0350.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: fascia; in vivo; ex vivo; innervation; pain; thoracolumbar fascia; nociceptor; low back pain; scoping review.
Online: 17 August 2021 (08:31:33 CEST)
Nociceptive innervation of the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) has been investigated over decades, however these studies have not been compiled or collectively appraised. The purpose of this scoping review was to assess current knowledge regarding nociceptive innervation of the TLF to better inform future mechanistic and clinical TLF research targeting low back pain (LBP) treatment. PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane and Embase databases were searched in January 2021 using relevant descriptors encompassing fascia and pain. Eligible studies were: (a) published in English; (b) preclinical and clinical (in vivo and ex vivo) studies; (c) original data; (d) included quantification of at least one TLF nociceptive component. Two-phase screening procedures were conducted by a pair of independent reviewers, data were extracted and summarized from eligible studies. The search resulted in 257 articles of which 10 met inclusion criteria. Studies showed histological evidence of nociceptive nerve fibers terminating in low back fascia, suggesting a TLF contribution to LBP. Noxious chemical injection or electrical stimulation into fascia resulted in longer pain duration and higher pain intensities than injections into subcutaneous tissue or muscle. Pre-clinical and clinical research provides histological and functional evidence of nociceptive innervation of TLF. Greater knowledge of fascial neurological components could impact LBP treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: EEG; pain biometrics; stochastic analyses; micro-movements spikes; sensory over responsivity; standardized scale; personalized pain
Online: 16 December 2020 (13:19:42 CET)
The study of pain requires a balance between subjective methods that rely on self-reports and complementary objective biometrics that ascertain physical signals associated with subjective accounts. There are at present no objective scales that enable the personalized assessment of pain, as most work involving electrophysiology rely on summary statistics from a priori theoretical population assumptions. Along these lines, recent work has provided evidence of differences in pain sensations between participants with Sensory Over Responsivity (SOR) and controls. While these analyses are useful to understand pain across groups, there remains a need to quantify individual differences more precisely in a personalized manner. Here we offer new methods to characterize pain using the moment-by-moment standardized fluctuations in EEG brain activity centrally reflecting the person’s experiencing temperature-based stimulation at the periphery. This type of gross data is often disregarded as noise, yet here we show its utility to characterize the lingering sensation of discomfort raising to the level of pain, individually, for each participant. We show fundamental differences between the SOR group in relation to controls and provide an objective account of pain congruent with the subjective self-reported data. This offers the potential to build a standardized scale useful to profile pain levels in a personalized manner across the general population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0808.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: chronic pain; mental health; comorbidities; flourishing
Online: 10 August 2023 (07:31:40 CEST)
Pediatric chronic pain is an important public health issue given its notable impact on numerous domains of living. Pediatric chronic pain is also often comorbid with emotional, developmental, or behavioral conditions which can lead to more severe negative outcomes and an even greater reduction in positive outcomes compared to those without comorbidities. Flourishing is a positive outcome that chronic pain status has been shown to impact. We explored flourishing in children aged 6-17 years living with chronic pain as well as those with chronic pain and comorbidities using data from the 2018/2019 National Survey of Child Health. There were significant associa-tions between chronic pain condition status and all demographic variables (sex, age, race/ethnicity, poverty level, parental education, health insurance status). Results of hierarchical logistic regression found that chronic pain condition status significantly predicted flourishing. Children with chronic pain were 2.33 times less likely to flourish, and children with chronic pain plus an emotional, developmental, or behavioral comorbidity were 13 times less likely to flourish than typical peers. Given their significantly lower likelihood of flourishing, there is an urgent need for interventions targeted at children experiencing chronic pain and mental health comor-bidities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1696.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Pain; Nociception; Disorders of Consciousness; Consciousness
Online: 23 June 2023 (15:38:00 CEST)
Keywords: Pain; Nociception; Disorders of Consciousness; Consciousness
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0575.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Cancer pain; NSAIDs; paracetamol; adverse events
Online: 30 November 2022 (14:11:00 CET)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most frequently prescribed drugs for cancer pain. We used Delphi methodology to evaluate the opinions of clinicians on NSAIDs and paracetamol, with a specific focus on their safety profile. Consensus was reached on 7 statements. High level of consensus was reached regarding use of NSAIDs and gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal risk in patients taking low-dose aspirin and assessment of liver function during long-term treatment with paracetamol. Consensus was also reached that assessment and monitoring of eGFR is important in the elderly being administered NSAIDs. It was further agreed that NSAIDs can often play a key role in association with opioids in treatment of cancer pain and that paracetamol is the analgesic of first choice for patients with mild chronic pain. When NSAIDs are administered in combination with steroids, it was agreed that the risk of gastrointestinal damage is increased since steroids delay the healing of ulcers, and that paracetamol can be used during pregnancy and does not affect the health of the fetus. This Delphi study highlights that there is a poor agreement on how these drugs are routinely prescribed. However, the consensus was reached for 7 key statements and may represent a valid contribution to daily practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0489.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Occupational; Musculskeletal; pain; lifecourse; mathematical modeling.
Online: 30 September 2022 (11:27:07 CEST)
Introduction. Musculoskeletal disorders related to work might follow with a cumulative effect during working life. We aimed to develop a new model to allow to compare the accuracy of duration of work and intensity/frequency associations in application to severe knee pain. Methods. The CONSTANCES cohort is used with data from n=66553 subjects who were working at inclusion and coded. From a biomechanical job exposure matrix “JEM Constances”, intensity/frequency of heavy lifting and kneeling/squatting were used and applied to the work history in comparison to severe knee pain. An innovative model was developed and evaluated, allowing to compare the accuracy of duration of work and intensity/frequency associations. Results. The mean age is 49 years at inception with 46 percent of women. The G model developed was slightly better than regular models. In men, odds ratios of the highest quartile for the duration and low intensity were not significant for both exposures, whereas intensity/duration were for every duration. Results in women were less interpretable. Conclusion. Though increased duration increased strength of association with severe knee pain, intensity/frequency were important predictors among men. Exposure estimation along working history should have emphasis on such parameters, though other outcomes should be studied such as women.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: IDO, kynurenine, pain, Sjögren’s syndrome, tryptophan
Online: 1 October 2018 (14:59:23 CEST)
For decades, neurologic and other extra glandular manifestations have been described in Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). More recently, neuropathic, psychological and cognitive alterations are being considered part of the disease. The lacrimal glands (LG), the ocular surface (OS), salivary glands (SG) and the central nervous system (CNS) are integrated to modulate the autonomic functions and, not just those organs, but also the hippocampus, which is linked to the autonomic nervous system, and modulate behavior responses appears to be compromised in the SS. Recent studies confirm that the tryptophan/kynurenine pathway (TKP) can be stimulated by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and other cytokines, activating the indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in SS. This pathway interferes on serotonergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, mostly in the hippocampus, and other structures of the CNS. Although not demonstrated, it is plausible that this constant interference induces clinical signs of SS, and contributes to the discrepancy between symptoms and signs, towards manifestations of hyperalgesia and depression in patients with SS. Therapeutic strategies are being reexamined and new options designed and tested to regulate the involved steps of the TKP. In the future, the application of this concept may offer a clue to the mosaic of manifestations of SS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: breakthrough cancer pain; cancer-associated pain; cancer; health-related quality of life; sleep disorders; transmucosal fentanyl
Online: 14 February 2020 (03:36:53 CET)
Objectives: To explore the effect of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) treatment on quality of sleep and other aspects of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with cancer pain. Methods: In an observational, multicenter, cohort study, cancer patients from palliative care units, oncology departments, and pain clinics and affected by BTcP were included. Enrolled patients were assessed at the four visits: T0 (baseline), T7, T14, and T28. Well-controlled chronic background pain during the whole study period was mandatory. BTcP was treated through transmucosal fentanyl. Three questionnaires were used to measure the HRQoL: EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS). Results: In 154 patients, the HRQoL showed a significant improvement for all physical and emotional characteristics in the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL, except for nausea and vomiting (Linear p-value = 0.1) and dyspnoea (Linear p-value =0.05). The ESAS and PSQI questionnaires confirmed these positive results (p<0.0001 and p=0.002, respectively). Conclusions: This prospective investigation by an Italian expert group, has confirmed that careful management of BTcP induces a paramount improvement on the HRQoL. Because in cancer patients there is a high prevalence of BTcP and this severe acute pain has deleterious consequences, this information can have an important clinical significance
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1240.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: DNP; PNS; Diabetic neuropathic pain; Peripheral pain; Distal symmetric polyneuropathy; diabetic neuropathy; diabetes mellitus; DM; T1D; T2D; DPN; DPNP; Diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain; Diabetic peripheral neuropathy
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:55:11 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus is the global epidemic of the 21st century affecting millions worldwide. Usually, patients with long-standing type one diabetes (T1D) or type two diabetes (T2D) tend to develop complications. A common complication is the degenerative of the nerves in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). This complication is known as distal symmetric polyneuropathy or just diabetic neuropathy. A variety of symptoms can be experienced with this complication, including pain and numbness. One characterization of this complication is the sensory loss that begins in the lower extremities and spreads substantially to the fingers and hand. There is no clear mechanism for how this happens in diabetic patients. Studies have shown that nerve damage from this complication can be due to oxidative stress, sorbitol accumulation, and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Some of the most common medications being provided for diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) include amitriptyline and desipramine. Other medications also include gabapentin and duloxetine. There are noninvasive options, such as acupuncture, that could provide beneficial data if rigorous studies are conducted. A number of new studies are being completed to identify more effective treatments for this condition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: epigenetics; TRP channels; TRPA1; pain transmission; neuropathic pain; neurogenic inflammation; migraine; DNA methylation; histone modification; micro RNA
Online: 7 October 2022 (15:21:34 CEST)
Background: Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A member 1 (TRPA1) is expressed in trigeminal neurons and brain regions important in migraine pathogenesis and is activated by many migraine triggers. Epigenetic regulation of TRPA1 expression is important in pain transmission and neurogenic inflammation.Findings: TRPA1 channels change noxious stimuli into pain signals with the involvement of epigenetic regulation, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and effects of micro RNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs. TRPA1 may change epigenetic profile of many pain-related genes as it may modify enzymes establishing the epigenetic profile and expression of non-coding RNAs. TRPA1 may induce the release of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), from trigeminal neurons and dural tissue. Therefore, epigenetic regulation of TRPA1 may play a role in efficacy and safety of anti-migraine therapies targeting TRP channels and CGRP. TRPA1 is also involved in neurogenic inflammation, important in migraine. The fundamental role of TRPA1 in inflammatory pain transmission may be epigenetically regulated. Conclusions: Epigenetic connections of TRPA1 may play a role in efficacy and safety of anti-migraine therapy targeting TRP channels or CGRP and they should be further explored for efficient and safe antimigraine treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: low-back pain (LBP); guidelines; gaps; evidence-based; acute pain; analgesics; multimodal analgesia; fixed doses combination (FDC)
Online: 26 August 2022 (04:36:13 CEST)
Acute low back pain (LBP) stands as a leading cause of activity limitation and work absenteeism, and its associated healthcare expenditures are expected to become substantial when acute LBP develops into a chronic and even refractory condition. Therefore, early intervention is crucial to prevent progression to chronic pain whose management is particularly challenging and for which the most effective pharmacological therapy is still controversial. Current guideline treatment recommendations vary and are mostly driven by expertise with opinion differing across different interventions. Thus, it is difficult to formulate evidence-based guidance when relatively few randomized clinical trials did explore the diagnosis and management of LBP while employing different selection criteria, statistical analyses, and outcome measurements. This narrative review aims to provide a critical appraisal of current acute LBP management by discussing the unmet needs and areas of improvement from bench-to-bedside and proposes multimodal analgesia as the way forward to attain an effective and prolonged pain relief and functional recovery in patients with acute LBP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0141.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: low back pain; women; exercise; physical activity; health education; Oswestry Disability Index; Back Pain Functional Scale; ergonomics
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:07:50 CEST)
Back pain is a common symptom that affects all age groups across the globe, when left untreated may eventually lead to disability. A convenient sample selection method was used in this study due to the global Covid-19 pandemic lockdown which was effective in Turkey during the investigation period. Thus, virtual data collection and health education including some health risks were employed. A total population of two hundred adult women was involved in the study but one hundred and twenty-one responses were collected. Findings show that, for socio-demographic characteristics, the pain was found highest in women between the ages of 41-50 and obese/overweight individuals. Although, there was no significant difference recorded in the marital status category. Moreover, statistical mean differences were detected between the scales for ODI (4.18) and BPFS (6.09). Also, p<0.05, paired sample t-test was 0.001 ODI and 0.001 BPFS after the training exercise. This suggests that exercise training is inversely correlated with pain severity which implies that training has a significant influence on pain intensity. Thus, it could be concluded that there is a relationship between the training exercise and ODI/BPFS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0800.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: child; educational intervention; pain management; parents; perception
Online: 13 September 2023 (02:53:17 CEST)
Purpose: To explore parents’ perceptions of the educational intervention programme regarding their children’s postoperative pain management. Design and Methods: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Thirty-two parents whose children underwent inpatient elective surgery were recruited from the two intervention groups (received an educational booklet and a video, with or without an hour of face-to-face teaching session) for this qualitative evaluation of the intervention. Participants were asked to comment on the content and delivery methods of the intervention via individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes from the data. Results: Three themes were generated from 32 participants’ interview data: current pain management practices, experiences and benefits of the educational intervention, and suggestions to improve pain management. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that the educational intervention in children’s postoperative pain management was helpful for parents and their children. However, it is necessary to improve educational materials and equip healthcare professionals with non-pharmacological pain relief methods. Practice Implications: Our findings reveal the current challenges in extensively adopting non-pharmacological pain relief methods. Healthcare professionals can do more to routinely integrate pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain management strategies in relieving pain effectively. Future research could develop technology-based programmes to increase ease of access. Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN24910957.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1604.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: caudal block; ultrasound; rescue analgesic; pain management
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:10:23 CEST)
Introduction and Objective: Caudal block has been used in children for many years and is considered the gold standard for multimodal analgesia in the pediatric age group. Caudal block belongs to the category of central neuraxial blocks, which can provide both visceral and somatic analgesia. With the introduction of ultrasound into the clinical practice of anaesthesia, the caudal block is now performed under USG guidance. In our study, we aimed to compare the efficacy of a single caudal block in postoperative acute pain management, the need for additional analgesics, the incidence of side effects, the timing of initial analgesic administration, and the need for rescue analgesic administration (paracetamol 10 mg/kg) in circumcision surgery. Materials and Methods: 120 patients undergoing circumcision surgery were divided into 3 groups. The caudal block was performed in all cases under USG guidance. Only the caudal block was applied for cases in the Caudal group (Group C). The Caudal + paracetamol group (Group CP) received paracetamol 10 mg/kg intravenously (i.v.) and the caudal block. Patients in the Caudal + meperidine group (Group CM) received 1 mg/kg meperidine intravenously. The caudal block was performed in each case with a 0.5 ml/kg volume of 0.125% bupivacaine. Results: As a result of our study, it was found that the least postoperative pain occurred in 12.50% of the CM group (p=0.011). Significant results were obtained when weight and age variables were analyzed according to the groups (p-values p=0.011 and p=0.003, respectively). Significant differences were found between the input pulse values, 5-minute pulse values, 15-minute pulse values, and input SpO2 values (p values p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p=0.011, p=0.037, respectively). Only Wong-Baker pain scores at the 24th hour differed significantly from the periods measured after the groups (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the FLACC and Wong-Baker pain scores in the other periods. There was no difference between the groups regarding the time when postoperative analgesics were administered and the total amount of analgesics administered (rescue analgesic 10 mg/kg oral paracetamol) (p=0.408, p=0.238). Conclusion: Caudal block can be safely applied during circumcision. Ultrasound guidance increases the chances of success and reduces the complication rate. Caudal block can be safely used in pediatric surgery since it does not cause serious complications, has low postoperative pain scores, and reduces the number of postoperative analgesics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: external fixation; acupuncture; pain; orthopedic; Chinese medicine
Online: 2 May 2023 (10:49:26 CEST)
Introduction: The application of external fixation devices consists of wires insertion through the skin and soft tissue to the bone. We examined the possible analgesic effect of stimulating an acupoint by the fixation wires which mimics the acupunctures treatment. Material and methods: retrospective work. Between 2015 to 2018 107 patients were treated with an external fixation for a tibial fracture. 33 patient files were found to be eligible for the review. Patients were retrospectively divided into two groups: the study group included patients with a wire inserted through the ST36 (Zu San li) acupoint location, the control group had the wire inserted elsewhere. Patient's record was reviewed for 5 days following surgery. Data collected included analgesic consumption and pain level recorded on a visual analog scale (VAS). Results: 33 patients were included in the review. 20 patients in the study group and 13 served as the control group. In the study group VAS average was Mean (M)=1.4853 ± 1.30 while in the control group M=2.3885± 1.77 with no statistical relevance (P>0.05). Only on day 4 the study group had less pain than the control: M=0.40 ± 0.843, versus M=2.57 ± 2.149 (Mann=Whitney Z= -2.413, P<0.05). No statistical difference was found between groups in relation to analgesic consumption. Conclusions: In patients suffering from a tibial fracture treated with an Ilizarov external fixation device, locating a wire in the anatomical location of acupoint ST 36 had no effect on analgesic consumption and a minimal effect on patients’ pain levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0010.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: neuromodulation; baroreflex sensitivity; dmNTS; pain inhibition; fibromyalgia
Online: 1 September 2022 (07:32:51 CEST)
The study presents a novel approach of programing pain inhibition in chronic pain patients based on the hypothesis that pain perception is modulated by dysfunctional dorsal medial nucleus tractus solitarii (dmNTS) reflex arcs that produce diminished baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) resulting from a conditioned response. This study tested whether administration of noxious and non-noxious electrical stimuli synchronized with the cardiac cycle resets BRS, reestablishing pain inhibition. 30 pain-free normotensives controls (NC) and 32 normotensives fibromyalgia (FM) patients received two, ≈8 minute-epochs of cardiac-gated, peripheral electrical stimuli. Non-painful and painful electrical stimuli were synchronized to the cardiac cycle as the neuromodulation experimental protocol (EP) with 2 control conditions (CC1, CC2). BRS, heart-rate-variability (HRV), pain threshold and tolerance, and clinical pain intensity were assessed.Reduced BRS in FM at baseline increased by 41% during two, ≈8 minute-epochs of stimulation. Thresholds in FM increased significantly during the experimental protocol (all Ps<0.001) as did HRV. FM levels of clinical pain significantly decreased by 35.52% during the experimental protocol but not during control stimulations (P<0.001). Baroreceptor training may reduce FM pain by BRS-mediated effects on intrinsic pain regulatory systems and autonomic pain modulation. These processes seem to be linked by classical and operant conditioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0451.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: coping; pain; children; sedation; analgesia; treatment effects
Online: 31 January 2022 (11:43:26 CET)
Children with leukaemia experience difficulties adapting to medical procedures and to the chemotherapy’s adverse effects. Study’s objectives were to identify which coping strategies could be associated with the treatments’ factors and with the dosage of sedation analgesic drugs during bone marrow aspirates. 125 patients (M = 6.79 years; SD = 3.40), majority with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (90.4%) and their parents received, one month after diagnosis, the PPCI. Data on the severe treatment effects and on the dosage of drugs in sedation-analgesia were also collected. An ANCOVA model (R2=0.25) showed that, weighing the age factor (F=3.47; df=3; p=0.02), the number of episodes of fever (F=4.78; df=1; p=0.03), nausea (F=4.71; df=1; p=0.03) and mucositis (F=5.81; df=1; p=0.02) influenced the use of distraction. Cognitive self-instructions (R2=0.22) were influenced by the number of hospitalizations (F=5.14; df=1; p=0.03) and mucositis (F=8.48; df=3; p=0.004) and by child’s age (F=3.76; df=3; p=0.01). Children who sought parental support more frequently (F=9.7; df=2; p=0.0001) and who tended not to succumb to a catastrophic attitude (F=13.33; df=2; p=0.001) during the induction treatment phase required lower drug dosages, especially propofol. The clinical application of these results could be to encourage the use of cognitive self-instructions and search for social support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0158.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: low back pain; physical therapy; disability; hydrotherapy
Online: 12 January 2022 (08:23:24 CET)
Low back pain is a common problem in the active population, and the second reason for visiting a physician. In patients with lumbar disc protrusion, the nucleus pulposus bulges against the disc and the latter protrudes into the spinal column, but the annulus fibrosus remains intact. The purpose of this study was to prove that starting an early complex rehabilitation treatment results into pain and disability reduction, and increased muscle strength and mobility in patients with lumbar disc protrusions. We performed a prospective cohort study, enrolling 60 patients (25 men and 35 women) aged between 26 to 76 years, diagnosed with lumbar disc protrusion. Patients in the experimental group registered significant improvements in all studied variables (pain, mobility, muscle strength, disability) after 6 months of treatment. The results of our study suggest that, in the lumbar disc disease, a combined rehabilitation program may be more effective in terms of pain and disability reduction, if it starts early after diagnosis. The current study proves the importance of combining electrotherapy with hydrotherapy and physical therapy. Patients who received this treatment combination showed an extremely significant improvement in pain relief, and reduction of functional disability after 6 months of treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0468.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: aging; elderly; pain; opioids; dementia; cognitive impairment
Online: 29 December 2021 (13:42:02 CET)
Background: Assessment and management of pain in elderly people with cognitive impairment is particularly challenging. Physiological changes due to aging as well as comorbidities and polypharmacy are responsible for a complex clinical approach. Concomitantly, in cognitive impairment, including advanced dementia, changes in central nervous system along with changes in the peripheral nervous system due to aging have a significant impact in pain perception. Often clinicians decide to prescribe opioids in order to relief pain, also without a clear indication. Aim: This review aims to investigate the effect of opioids in elderly patients with cognitive impairment. Methods: A literature search of PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane databases was conducted using keyword searches to generate lists of articles which were screened for relevance by title and abstract to give a final list of articles for full-text review. Further articles were identified by snowballing from the reference lists of the full-text articles. Results: This review discuss the complex physiological and pharmacological changes in elderly as well as the neurological changes that affect pain perception in this population. Additionally, it focuses on cognitive impairment and pain in Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, the pain assessment in the elderly with cognitive impairment as well as the safety of opioid use in elderly. Information regarding opioid prescription in nursing homes as well as recorded indications for opioids use, type and dosing of opioid and compliance of treatment in advanced dementia are also provided. Conclusions: Opioid prescription in elderly population with cognitive impairment is particularly complex. All healthcare professionals involved in the care of such patients, need to be aware of the challenges and strive to ensure analgesic use is guided by appropriate and accurate pain assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Spinal Cord Injury; Oxidative stress; Antioxidants, Pain
Online: 2 July 2021 (09:05:08 CEST)
Introduction:In this study we evaluated the connivance of oxidative and antioxidative parameters in the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury (SCI). Although the etiology and pathogenesis of SCI remain to be fully understood, it has been suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of SCI. Furthermore, there is little information available in scientific literature about oxidative and antioxidative parameters in SCI patients. Methods:Oxidative stress was determined by measuring the levels of Lipid Peroxides (LPO) and Protein carbonyl in plasma and antioxidative parameters like Glutathione Reductase (GR), catalase and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in lysate in 40 SCI patients and 40 healthy subjects without SCI. However, pain was measured by McGill pain questionnaire. Results: Concentrations of catalase (p<0.01), GR (p<0.01) and GPx (p<0.01) were significantly lower in patients with SCI than in controls, and levels of oxidative stress parameters, LPO (p<0.01), Protein carbonyl (p<0.01) were significantly higher in patients than in controls. A significant positive correlation was found between LPO and pain score among SCI patients group. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was also found between Protein carbonyl and pain score among SCI patients group than in control group. Conclusion: The present results indicate that SCI patients are exposed to oxidative stress and this escalated oxidative stress may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, our results also show that increased oxidative stress parameters are more strongly amalgamated with pain in SCI patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0114.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Anxiety, complementary therapies, coronary artery disease, pain
Online: 15 April 2021 (12:56:29 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease is the first leading cause of death in the world. Patients with cardiovascular disease may experience various problems, including physiological and psychological problems. Apart from pharmacological therapy, complementary therapy is necessary as a support to conventional medicine. This review aims to describe complementary and alternative therapies for pain and anxiety in patients with cardiovascular disease. This review utilized data from ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and PubMed with search keywords of "Complementary" AND "Nursing" AND "Pain" AND "Anxiety" AND "Coronary artery disease". Ten articles that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed. The results show that nursing actions increasingly develop along with the patient needs. One form of holistic nursing action is complementary and alternative therapy (CAT) that consists of three categories: body-based methods, mind therapies, and sensory therapies. CAT has positive impacts on patients with heart disease. It can reduce anxiety and pain, lower blood pressure, and improve the quality of life. This review also shows that CAT has a positive impact on the recovery of patients with heart disease. Proper therapeutic management should be implemented to reduce the risks of physiological and psychological problems in patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0645.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: fascia; chronic low back pain; myofascial release
Online: 25 March 2021 (16:24:46 CET)
(1) Background: Although manual therapy for pain relief has been used as an adjunct in treatments for chronic low back pain (CLBP), there is still the belief that a single session of myofascial release would be effective. This study aimed to investigate whether a single session of a specific technique reduces pain and disability. (2) Methods: This was a crossover clinical trial in which 41 participants over 18 years old with CLBP were randomly enrolled into 3 situations - experimental, placebo, control, in a balanced and cross-over manner. The subjects underwent a single session of myofascial release on thoracolumbar fascia and compare it with the control and placebo. Outcome were pain and functionality, evaluated using the numerical pain rating scale (NPRS), pressure pain threshold (PPT) and Oswestry (ODI). (3) Results: There was no effects between-, within-tests, and interaction for all the outcomes, i.e., NPRS (η 2 = 0.32, F = 0.48, p = 0.61), PPT (η2 = 0.73, F = 2.80, p = 0.06), ODI (η 2 = 0.02, F = 0.02, p = 0.97). (4) Conclusion: A single trial of thoracolumbar myofascial release technique was not enough to reduce pain and disability in subjects with CLBP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0186.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: chronic pain; allodynia; trigeminocervical complex; glycine transporters
Online: 5 March 2021 (11:47:51 CET)
Craniofacial neuropathic pain affects millions of people worldwide and is often difficult to treat. Two key mechanisms underlying this condition are a loss of the negative control exerted by inhibitory interneurons and an early microglial reaction. Basic features of these mechanisms, however, are still poorly understood. Using the chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve (CCI-IoN) model of neuropathic pain in mice, we have examined the changes in the expression of GAD, the synthetic enzyme of GABA, and GlyT2, the membrane transporter of glycine, as well as the microgliosis that occur at early (5 days) and late (21 days) stages post-CCI in the medullary and upper spinal dorsal horn. Our results show that CCI-IoN induces a down-regulation of GAD at both postinjury survival times, uniformly across the superficial laminae. The expression of GlyT2 showed a more discrete and heterogeneous reduction due to the basal presence in lamina III of ‘patches’ of higher expression, interspersed within a less immunoreactive ‘matrix’, which showed a more substantial reduction in the expression of GlyT2. These patches coincided with foci lacking any perceptible microglial reaction, which stood out against a more diffuse areas of strong microgliosis. These findings may provide clues to better understand the neural mechanisms underlying allodynia in neuropathic pain syndromes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0171.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Mouse Grimace Scale; Pain; Validity; Methods; Reliability
Online: 7 December 2020 (15:13:05 CET)
The Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS) was developed 10 years ago to assess pain through characterisation of changes in five facial features or action units. The strength of the technique is that it is proposed to be a measure of spontaneous or non-evoked pain. A comprehensive scoping review of the academic literature was performed. The MGS has been employed mainly in evaluation of acute pain, particularly in the pain and neuroscience research fields. There has however been use of the technique in a wide range of fields, and based on limited study it does appear to have utility for pain assessment across a spectrum of animal models. Use of the method does allow detection of pain of a longer duration, up to a month post-initial insult. There has been less use of the technique using real-time methods and this is an area in need of further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0302.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: volunteer; peer groups; pain management; nursing homes
Online: 28 June 2019 (15:43:27 CEST)
Abstract Background: Chronic pain is common among older adults and is associated with adverse physical and psychological outcomes. Given the expected burden and limited healthcare resources, an innovative and cost-effective method to manage chronic pain should be developed. Peer volunteers (PVs) have been used as an affordable alternative to professional services to help patients manage their chronic conditions including pain with success and acceptance. The aim of this paper is to explore the experiences and perceptions of PVs in a peer-led pain management program among nursing home residents. Methods: This longitudinal study formed part of a wider research study, a clustered randomised controlled trial, which investigates the effectiveness of a 12-week peer-led pain management program (PAP) in relieving chronic pain and enhancing pain self-efficacy among nursing home residents. Quantitative data were collected from questionnaires (demographics, pain situation and pain knowledge) for all PVs. Qualitative data (PVs’ experiences in leading the PAP, their perceived benefits, limitations and barriers encountered, its usefulness to the participants and recommendations for improving the PAP) were collected from focus group for a selected sample at baseline (before attending the training) and at week 12 (upon completion of the PAP). Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences and NVivo 8. Results: A total of 46 PVs were recruited (34 female, 74%), with mean±SD age of 61.0±5.1 years. Thirty-one PVs reported to have chronic pain. Before the training, self-rated pain knowledge was 39.1±20.4 (maximum 100 points). When actual pain knowledge was assessed, a mean pain knowledge score of 86.1±10.6 points was found. There was a significant difference between the self-rated pain knowledge and the pain knowledge score (p<0.001). PVs reported to have improvement in their knowledge and skills. No PVs reported negative comments regarding their role in the PAP, although experienced barriers such as communication, space and privacy were reported. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence that peer-led pain management program is feasible. Barriers identified may benefit the design and planning of future PAP. Trial registration: ClincalTrials.gov (NCT03823495), 30 January 2019. (Retrospectively registered).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: musculoskeletal pain; body height; body weight; schoolchildren
Online: 8 November 2018 (11:07:54 CET)
Background Children often suffer the nonspecific musculosceletal pain as reported in literature. Aim To determine relationship between body weights with development of musculoskeletal pain and to determine whether growing in body height is associated with musculoskeletal pain in schoolchildren. Subjects/ Methods A prospective longitudinal study included 1315 school children aged 7-14 years (652 boys and 663 girls) and was performed in 13 elementary schools in B&H. Child body height and body weight were measured. The survey of perception of musculoskeletal pain in different body regions of subjects was conducted by adjusted Nordic Musculosceletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Results The highest prevalence of an overweight and obesity in the 10th year 35.7% and the lowest frequency 17.8% in the 14th year was. In the age 14th obesity was’nt found. Boys have more prevalence of overweight. Using logistic regression model, we found that school children with normal BMI were protected with increased body height of acute lower back pain (β= -0.089, 95%CI, -9.730- -0.023, P< 0.049), and increased body height was protector of obese school children of acute upper back pain (β= -0.356, 95%CI, -14.077- -3.878, P< 0.001) and chronic lower back pain (β= -0.356, 95%CI, -14.077- -3.878, P< 0.001). Conclusion Schoolchildren with normal weight more often have had musculosceletal pain than those with overweight or obesity. This can be associated with intense physical growth period in height, especially. The assumption is that the increase in height changes the relationship between excessive BMI and musculoskeletal pain in children of school age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0090.v1
Online: 24 February 2017 (07:18:39 CET)
While the majority of previous studies assessing pain-related variables in psychopaths used electric shocks, little is known about the effectiveness of alternative pain-inducing methods to increase emotional responses such as fear and anxiety. A small sample of healthy undergraduate men (N = 15) was recruited to assess the effectiveness of a heat stimulus to induce pain in an immediate versus delayed punishment paradigm. Although pain catastrophizing, anxiety, and threat of pain did not increase throughout the experiment, participants experienced a significant increase of fear of pain and pain intensity, indicating that the heat stimulus was effective in inducing pain. Furthermore, subjects were slower in initiating the pain stimulus during the first five trials, but no time difference was found during the 15 remaining trials. No correlation was found between psychopathic traits and pain-related variables, with the exception of inconsistent results within the Fearless Dominance factor. Findings are discussed in terms of improvement for a larger scale study involving psychopathic individuals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1816.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: intranasal administration; emergency department; migraine; primary headache disorder; analgesics; acute pain management; pain; ketamine; fentanyl; paracetamol; ketorolac; nsaid
Online: 28 August 2023 (08:22:31 CEST)
In the Emergency Department (ED), pain is one of the symptoms that is most frequently reported, making it one of the most significant issues for the emergency physician, but is frequently under treated. Intravenous (IV), oral (PO), and intramuscular (IM) delivery are the standard methods for administering acute pain relief. Firstly, we compared the safety and efficacy of IN analgesia to other conventional routes of analgesia to assess if IN analgesia may be an alternative for the management of acute pain in ED. Secondary, we analyzed the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs) and rescue analgesia required. We performed a systematic review-based keywords in Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Controlled Trials Register finding only twenty randomized Clinical trials eligible in the timeline 1992-2022. A total of 2098 patients were analyzed and compared to intravenous analgesia showing no statistical difference in adverse effects. In addition, intranasal analgesia also has a rapid onset and quick absorption. Fentanyl and ketamine are two intranasal drugs that appear promising and may be taken simply and safely while providing effective pain relief. IN is simple to administer, non-invasive, rapid onset and quick absorption; it might be a viable choice in a variety of situations to reduce patient suffering or delays in pain management. Analgesia needs to be tailored to each patient's features and type of pain: IN Fentanyl and Ketamine look promising and may be administered easily and safely while providing effective pain relief.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: spinal cord stimulation (SCS); peripheral nerve field stimulation (PNfS); SubQ-stimulation; hybrid stimulation; multidimensional pain assessment; pain mapping; pain software; persistent spinal pain syndrome - T2 (PSPS-T2); failed back surgery syndrome; failed spinal cord stimulation syndrome (FSCSS); salvage therapy; salvage algorithm
Online: 1 September 2021 (18:16:10 CEST)
While Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) provides satisfaction to almost 2/3 of Persistent Spinal Pain Syndrome-Type 2 (PSPS-T2) patients implanted for refractory chronic back and/or leg pain when not adequately addressed the back pain component, leaves patients in a therapeutic cul-de-sac. Peripheral Nerve field Stimulation (PNfS) has shown interesting results addressing back pain in the same population. Far from placing these two techniques in opposition, we suggest that these approaches could be combined to better treat PSPS-T2 patients. We designed a RCT (CUMPNS), with a 12-month follow-up, to assess the potential added value of PNfS, as a salvage therapy, in PSPS-T2 patients experiencing a “Failed SCS Syndrome” in the back pain component. Fourteen patients were included in this study and randomized into 2 groups (“SCS + PNfS” group/n=6 vs “SCS only” group/n=8). The primary objective of the study was to compare the percentage of back pain surface decrease after 3 months, using a computerized interface to obtain quantitative pain mappings, combined with multi-dimensional SCS outcomes. Back pain surface decreased significantly greater for the ”SCS+PNfS” group (80.2% ± 21.3%) compared to the “SCS only” group (13.2% ± 94.8%) (p=0.012), highlighting the clinical interest of SCS+PNfS, in cases where SCS fails to address back pain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0721.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Non-invasive direct current stimulation; Cortical, Suboccipital and Spinal stimulation; Quantitative sensory testing, Pain outcome measures, Endogenous pain modulation.
Online: 30 November 2020 (11:44:44 CET)
Background: Objectives. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of direct current stimulation (DCS) applied at the transcranial, suboccipital and spinal level on experimental sensory modalities and pain outcome measures in healthy subjects. The hypothesis of this study was that systematic analysis of the efficacy of DCS on modulating evoked thermal and mechanical pain modalities and mechanisms such as endogenous pain modulation in healthy individuals would reveal sensitive outcome measures help develop this technique for the control of chronic pain. Materials and Methods. Database searches were conducted up to December 2019 for randomized controlled trials that performed sham-controlled DCS of experimental sensory modalities and pain outcomes following transcranial, suboccipital and spinal locations in healthy participants. Standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for sensory modalities, including random-effect metanalysis. Results: Thirty-one studies were included for analysis (647 participants). A significant decrease in pain intensity for active vs sham transcranial stimulation was identified for pain intensity (n=158; SMD=0.79; 95% CI=0.56 to 1.02), a significant increase in heat pain threshold (n=222; SMD=1.16; 95% CI=0.95 to 1.37), and a significant increase in cold pain threshold (n = 155; SMD = 0.77, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.01). No significant modulation of pressure pain threshold was identified with DCS and only a limited number of studies focused on experimental pain modulation following neuromodulation at the suboccipital or spinal level. Conclusions: These results show significant transcranial DCS neuromodulation of pain intensity and on thermal pain modalities. Future studies should focus on endogenous pain and sensory modality modulation with sham-controlled DCS applied at transcranial, suboccipital and spinal locations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1875.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: headache; migraine; chronic cluster headache; neuromodulation; pain management
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:39:12 CET)
This narrative review aims to summarize evidence regarding the current utilization and future applications of neuromodulation in patients with headaches, with special attention paid to migraine and chronic cluster headache. We performed a narrative review of the literature to identify studies that detail the effectiveness of neuromodulation therapies in the treatment of headache syndromes. The literature was refined to predominantly focus on systematic reviews published in the last year that have the most robust reporting of research done on this topic. Patients with headache face several challenges, including medication overuse, cost burden, non-compliance to medications due to inability to tolerate side effects, or treatments that are ineffective. Neuromodulation is an emerging field that encompasses implantable and non-implantable technologies that intervene on the signaling and perception of pain. In recent years, this technology has been used as an analgesic, and has been shown to be effective for treatment-resistant headache, particularly when used in patients with migraine and chronic cluster headache.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0740.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Oxytocin; pain perception; social cognition; decision making; mediation
Online: 13 November 2023 (14:16:49 CET)
Oxytocin is well known for its role in relationships and social cognition and has more recently been implicated in pain relief and pain perception. Connections between prosocial feelings and pain relief are also well documented, however, effects of exogenous oxytocin on social cognition and pain have not been explored. The current study tested whether intranasally-delivered oxytocin affects pain perception through prosocial behaviors. Additionally, moderation of the effects of oxytocin by life history or genetic polymorphisms are examined. Young adults (n=43; 65% female) were administered intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) or placebo in a crossover design on two visits separated by a one-week washout period. Pain was delivered via cold-pressor. Baseline measures for decision-making and social cognition were collected, as well as pain sensitivity and medication history. Saliva samples were collected for analysis of genetic markers, and urine samples were collected to assess oxytocin saturation. Following oxytocin administration, participants reported increased prosocial cognition and decision-making. Pain perception appeared to be adaptive, with procedural order and expectation affecting perception. Finally, behavioral trust and cooperation responses were significantly predicted by genetic markers. Oxytocin may increase a patient’s trust and cooperation and reduce pain sensitivity while having fewer physiological side effects than current pharmaceutical options.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0659.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Low back pain (LBP); multiple sclerosis (MS); physiotherapy
Online: 9 November 2023 (14:51:37 CET)
Background. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the intensity and frequency of low back pain (LBP) in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and the patient's knowledge of physiotherapeutic methods of combating. Methods. In this study, patients with confirmed multiple sclerosis were selected. The study was carried out using an original survey questionnaire and a numerical pain intensity scale (Visual Analogue Scale). PwMS were divided into 3 age groups: 18-30 years, 31-50 years, and over 50 years. Results. Ninety PwMS (68 women and 22 men) aged 18 to 60 years were included in the study. The mean duration of the disease was 9.5±4.9 years, and the mean EDSS was 3.5±1.6. Most of the patients had a relapse-remitting form. 68.9% of PwMS felt lower back pain (n = 62). The relationship tested was statistically significant (p=0.0000012), and the strength of the relationship was high (rc=0.695). The average level of low back pain among PwMS was 4.7 out of 10 on the VAS scale. The prevalence of LBP was higher in female patients (p<0.001), with a secondary progressive form (p<0.001) and with a longer duration of the disease (p=0.023). The most widely used methods of LBP therapy were kinesitherapy and manual therapy. Conclusions. LBP is common in multiple sclerosis. A female sex, a secondary progressive form of MS, and a longer duration of the disease increased the risk of LBP. It is important to implement properly planned physiotherapy activities and educate patients on how to combat LBP.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1410.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Osteopathy; osteopathic manipulation; fascia; nonspecific neck pain; diaphragm
Online: 22 September 2023 (06:35:10 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death in the globally. Morbidity and disability related to non-fatal events are increasing exponentially. There are several symptoms that may arise after invasive therapeutic approaches such as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), including chronic pain in anatomical areas connected to the mediastinum; these pains can be found not only initially after surgery, but also years later. We present a case where non-specific neck pain (NNP), in a patient undergoing CABG five years earlier, was approached with an osteopathic technique, working the pericardial area. To the knowledge of the Authors, it is the first case report where osteopathy is associated with a gentle treatment on the pericardial area to resolve a NNP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0983.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: cervical pain; musculoskeletal manipulation; stretching; soft tissue mobilisation
Online: 15 September 2023 (05:30:06 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to investigate the effect of fascial manipulation (FM) of the deep cervical fascia (DCF) and sequential yoga poses (SYP) on pain and function in individuals with mechanical neck pain (MNP). Method: Following the predefined criteria, ninety-nine individuals with MNP were recruited, randomised and assigned to either the intervention group (IG) (n=51) or the control group (CG) (n=48). Individuals in the IG received FM (4 sessions in 4 weeks) along with the home-based SYP (4 weeks). The CG participants received the usual care (cervical mobilization and thoracic manipulation (4 sessions in 4 weeks) along with unsupervised therapeutic exercises (4 weeks). The participants underwent baseline and weekly follow-up measurements of pain using a numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) and elbow extension range of motion (EEROM) during upper limb neurodynamic test 1 (ULNT1). The baseline and the 4th session follow-up measurements of the Patient-specific Functional Scale (PSFS) and Fear-avoidance Behavior Questionnaire (FABQ) were also taken. Results: A repeated-measures ANOVA was performed. The mean differences between the IG and CG on NPRS 3rd and 4th sessions are -1.009 (p< 0.05) and -1.701 (p< 0.001), respectively; on EEROM in the 4th session is 20.120 (p< 0.001); on FABQ during the follow-up is -5.036 (p<0.001), showing a statistically significant difference, whereas on PSFS during follow-up is 0.263 (p=0.566), suggesting no significant differences in PSFS. Conclusion: FM and SYP can aid in reducing pain and fear avoidance behavior as well as improving the function and extensibility of the upper quarter region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1798.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: COMT gene polymorphism; labour; pain; anxiety; nitrous oxide
Online: 28 August 2023 (03:39:14 CEST)
Background: The COMT gene polymorphism is associated with neurological and psychiatric disorders and pain perception. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase) gene polymorphism, pain perception in parturients with inhaled nitrous oxide during labour, and anxiety as a personality trait. Methods: A total number of 181 woman who chose vaginal birth were enrolled in this study. To present the difference in pain perception, the parturients were divided into one group (n=80) that chose labour analgesia with inhaled nitrous oxide (50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen) and one group without analgesia. The blood samples were taken during the pregnancy as a part of routine pregnancy controls in the hospital. The COMT gene polymorphism was detected with the PCR technique. Pain perception of labouring women was self-evaluated two times according to the VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) and anxiety as a personality trait was determined with STAI-T (State Trait Anxiety Inventory). Pain perception as well as anxiety were compared according to COMT genotypes. Results: In the 181 pregnant women there were 40 women (22%) of wild homozygotes (GG) of COMT, 95 women (53%) of mutant heterozygotes (GA), and 46 women (25%) of mutant homozygote (AA). A negative association of pain perception with the GA (mutant heterozigote) polymorphism of the COMT gene versus the wild type (GG polymorphism) was observed. The GA polymorphism of the COMT gene was associated with 0.46 units lower pain perception compared to the wild type (GG). The anxiety trait score in group AA was lower than in groups GA and AA. The difference reached statistical significance only when comparing AA versus GA (P>0.042). Analgesic efficacy of nitrous oxide was noticed in 22% of labouring women who reported moderate pain (VAS score 4-7). Conclusions: The COMT gene polymorphism was associated with pain perception and anxiety among labouring women. The COMT gene polymorphism GA was associated with negative pain perception among labouring women. Nitrous oxide showed statistical significance in anxiolytic efficacy during labour in women with mild anxiety as a personality trait. Anxiolytic efficacy of nitrous oxide has shown better efficacy in labouring women with the COMT gene polymorphism AA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1753.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Chronic pain; Medical Devices; Neuromodulation; Clinical trials; Bayesian
Online: 25 May 2023 (07:27:31 CEST)
Chronic non-cancer pain is a highly debilitating condition affecting approximately 20% of the global population. Chronic pain may lead to significant physical disability, emotional distress, social isolation and financial burden. Whilst. pharmacological therapies remain the cornerstone of pain management in non-cancerous chronic pain, factors including the current opioid epidemic have led to non-pharmacological techniques becoming a more attractive proposition. We explored the prevalence of medical device use and their treatment efficacy in non-cancer pain management. A systematic methodology was developed, peer reviewed and published in PROSPERO (CRD42021235384). Key words of medical device, pain management devices, chronic pain, lower back pain, back pain, leg pain and chronic pelvic pain using Science direct, PubMed, Web of Science, PROSPERO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PorQuest and ClinicalTrials.gov. All clinical trials, epidemiology and mixed methods studies that reported the use of medical devices for non-cancer chronic pain management published between the 1st of January 1990 and the 30th of April 2022 were included. 13 studies were included in systematic review, of these 6 were used in the meta-analysis with 173 participants. Our meta-analysis for pain reduction in each study showed that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation combined with instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization treatment and pulsed electromagnetic therapy produced significant treatment on chronic lower back pain patients. Pooled evidence revealed the use of medical device related interventions resulted in 0.7 degree of pain reduction under a 0-10 scale. Significant improvement in disability scores, with a 7.44 degree reduction in disability level compared to a placebo using a 50 score range was also seen. The application of medical devices in patients with chronic pain has gained popularity due to increasingly cost effective techniques, minimally invasiveness and greater awareness of risks associated with pharmacological management. Our analysis has shown that the optimal use of medical devices in a sustainable manner requires further extensive research, needing larger cohort studies with greater gender parity, in a more diverse range of geographical locations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0745.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Thoracic spine; Neck pain; Kyphosis; Sensorimotor control; Posture
Online: 23 April 2023 (03:35:29 CEST)
There is great interest in thoracic kyphosis as it is thought to be a contributor to neck pain, neck disability, and sensorimotor control measures; though this has not been completely inves-tigated in treatment or case control studies. This case control design investigated participants with non-specific chronic neck pain. Eighty participants with a defined hyper-kyphosis (> 55°) were compared to 80 matched participants with normal thoracic kyphosis (< 55°). Participants were matched for age and neck pain duration. Hyper-kyphosis was further categorized into two distinct types: postural kyphosis (PK) and Scheuermann’s kyphosis (SK). Posture measures included formetric thoracic kyphosis and the craniovertebral angle (CVA) to assess forward head posture. Sensorimotor control was assessed by the following measures: smooth pursuit neck torsion test (SPNT), overall stability index (OSI) and left and right rotation repositioning accuracy. A measure of autonomic nervous system function included the amplitude and latency of skin sympathetic response (SSR). Differences in variable measures were examined using the Student’s t-test to compare the means of continuous variables between the two groups. Pearson correlation was used to evaluate the relationship between participant’s thoracic kyphosis magnitude (in each group separately and as an entire population) and their CVA, SPNT, OSI, head repositioning ac-curacy, and SSR latency and amplitude. Hyper-kyphosis participants had a significantly greater neck disability index compared to the normal kyphosis group (p < 0.001) with the SK group having greatest disability (p < 0.001). Statistically significant differences between the two kyphosis groups and the normal kyphosis group for all the sensorimotor measured variables were identified with the SK group having the most decreased efficiency of the measures in the hyper-kyphosis group, including: SPNT, OSI and left and right rotation repositioning accuracy. Also, there was a signif-icant difference in neurophysiological findings for SSR amplitude (entire sample of kyphosis vs. normal kyphosis, p < 0.001), but there was no significant difference for SSR latency (p = .07). The CVA was significantly greater in the hyper-kyphosis group (p < 0.001). The magnitude of the thoracic kyphosis correlated with worsening CVA (with the SK group having the smallest CVA; p < 0.001) and the magnitude of the decreased efficiency of the sensorimotor control measures and the amplitude and latency of the SSR. The PK group, overall, showed the greatest correlations between thoracic kyphosis and measured variables. Participants with hyper-thoracic kyphosis exhibited abnormal sensorimotor control and autonomic nervous system dysfunction compared to those with normal thoracic kyphosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0273.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Mint; Menthol; Digestion; Respiration; COVID-19; Sport; Pain
Online: 15 December 2022 (07:25:06 CET)
Mint and to a lesser extent menthol have been used since antiquity for medicinal purposes. Key components of mint and menthol use such as composition and intake, safety and traditional uses are discussed prior to a review of clinical and human performance outcomes in the areas of digestive and respiratory health; antibacterial and anti-fungal properties, nocioception, migraine and headache and emerging evidence regarding COVID 19. Evidence suggests benefit for patients with irritable bowel syndrome and related digestive issues, with analgesic and respiratory effects also noted. Perceptual characteristics relating to thermal comfort and sensation, taste sensitivity and alertness are also considered; these effects are predominantly driven by stimulation of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) activity resulting in sensations of cooling and freshness, with lesser influence on thirst. Finally, sport performance is considered as a domain that may further elucidate some of the aforementioned underpinning outcomes due to its systemic and dynamic nature, especially when performed in hot environmental conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0142.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Botulinum toxin type A; Myofascial pain; Temporomandibular disorders
Online: 9 June 2022 (10:59:51 CEST)
To demonstrate if botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) improves mandibular range of motion and muscle sensibility to palpation in refractory myofascial pain (MFP) patients. METHODS: Eighty consecutive female subjects with refractory MFP, were randomly divided into four equal groups (n=20): BoNT-A low (BoNTA-L/10 U in each temporalis and 30 U in each masseter), BoNT-A medium (BoNTA-M/20 U in each temporalis and 50 U in each masseter), BoNT-A high (BoNTA-H/25 U in each temporalis and 75 U in each masseter) and saline solution 0.9% (SS, placebo control group/0.4 mL in each temporalis and 0.6 mL in each masseter). Clinical measurements of the mandibular movements included: pain-free opening, maximum unassisted and assisted opening, and right and left lateral movements. Palpation tests were performed bilaterally in masseter and temporalis muscle. Results were expressed as median, minimum, maximum, and means ± standard deviation (SD). Chi-Square Test was used to compare differences among groups. A 5% probability level was considered significant in all tests RESULTS: Regardless of dose, all parameters of mandibular range of motion significantly improve after 180 days in BoNT- A groups, when compared to the control group. Pain to palpation on muscles, significantly reduced in all BoNT- A groups regardless of dose, when compared to the control group, after 28 and 180 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Independent of doses, BoNT-A improved mandibular range of motion and muscle sensibility to palpation in refractory MFP patients when compared to SS injections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0200.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Neuropathic Pain; Combination Therapy; Pharmacotherapy; Randomized Control Trial
Online: 2 August 2021 (14:52:46 CEST)
Pharmacological treatment is not very effective for neuropathic pain (NP). A progressive decrease in the estimated effect of NP drugs has been reported, giving rise to an increase in the use of the multimodal analgesic approach. We performed a new, independent review to assess whether more evidence and of better-quality has become available since the last systematic review. We evaluated the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of double-blinded, randomized, controlled trials involving only adult participants and comparing combination therapy (CT: ≥ 2 drugs) to a placebo and/or at least one other comparator with an NP indication. The primary outcome assessed was the proportion of participants reporting ≥50% pain reductions from baseline. The secondary outcome assessed was the proportion of drop-outs due to treatment-emergent adverse events. After removing duplicates, 2323 citations were screened, with 164 articles assessed for eligibility, from which 16 were included for qualitative analysis. From the latter, only five lasted for at least 12 weeks and only six complied with the required data for complete analysis. CT has been adopted for years without robust evidence. Efforts have been made to achieve better-quality evidence, but the quality has not improved over the years. In this regard, guidelines for NP should attempt to make recommendations about CT research, prioritizing which combinations to analyze.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Photobiomodulation; Low-level laser therapy; Pain; Orthodontic treatment
Online: 2 April 2021 (11:24:50 CEST)
Pain is an unpleasant emotional and sensory experience. For many years orthodontists have been looking for an effective method of reducing this feeling of discomfort. In recent years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has taken hold in the orthodontic field. Among the countless advantages it can modulate the painful feeling. The aim of this research is to identify the use of photobiomodulation in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment, to reduce the pain and discomfort that it causes. The research was conducted from the Web of Science, Pubmed and Scopus databases. Only 14 of all articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were therefore used to conduct the research. The different studies compared, in most cases, patients whose mouth was divided into a part treated with laser therapy and a placebo part. The results show a statistically significant difference in perceived pain between the irradiated arch and the non-irradiated arch. Three authors didn’t find statistically significant results in favour of low-laser therapy, but it is important to remember that they used different parameters. To obtain generally valid studies, with consistent and reproducible results, it is necessary to standardize the different parameters used that are independent by operator performing the procedure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0170.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Chronic musculoskeletal pain; Adolescents; functional disability; multidisciplinary rehabilitation.
Online: 3 November 2020 (15:41:07 CET)
(1) Background: Chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) in adolescents can negatively affect physical, psychological and social functioning, resulting in functional disability. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an outpatient rehabilitation program based on graded exposure in vivo (EP) compared with care as usual (CAU) in a RCT. The aim of the interventions (EP and CAU) is to improve functional ability in adolescents with CMP, CAU is interdisciplinary outpatient rehabilitation care, based on graded activity. (2) Methods: A pragmatic multicenter randomized clinical trial with a 12-month follow-up was used. Adolescents (12-21 years) with musculoskeletal pain were invited to participate. Primary outcome was functional disability (Functional Disability Inventory). Most important secondary measures: perceived harmfulness, pain catastrophizing and intensity. Data analysis was performed by intention-to-treat linear mixed model analysis. (3) Results: Sixty adolescents were randomized to EP or CAU and data of 53 adolescents (93% female) could be analyzed (25 EP, 28 CAU). Mean age was 16.0 years (SD=1.87). Adolescents in EP showed a clinically relevant and statistically significant decrease in functional disability (estimated mean difference at least -8.81,p-values≤0.01) compared with CAU at all time points. Significant differences in favor of EP were found for perceived harmfulness at all time points (p-values≤0.002), for pain catastrophizing (PCS) at 2 months follow-up (p-value=0.039) and for pain intensity at 4 and 10 months follow-up (p-values≤0.028). (4) Conclusion: The effectiveness of the trial is in favor of the EP and leads to a significant and clinically relevant decrease in functional disability compared to usual care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: children; adolescents; burns; dressing changes; virtual reality; pain.
Online: 2 October 2020 (15:29:05 CEST)
Children and adolescents with severe burns require dressing changes, associated with pain. As immersive virtual reality (VR) gained prominence as non-pharmacological adjuvant analgesia, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of full immersive VR on pain experienced during dressing changes in hospitalized children and adolescents with severe burns. This exercise included quality and risk of bias assessment. The systematic reviewsearch resulted in eight studies and 142 patients. This exercise included quality and risk of bias assessment. Due to missing data, four studies were excluded from the meta-analysis. Fixed effects meta-analysis of the four included studies (n = 104) revealed a large effect size (ES) (SMD=0.94; 95% CI=0.62, 1.27; Z=5.70; p<0.00001) for adjuvant full immersive VR compared to standard care. In conclusion, adjuvant full immersive VR significantly reduces pain experienced during dressing changes in children and adolescents with burns. We therefore recommend implementing full immersive VR as an adjuvant in this specific setting and population. However, this requires further research into the hygienic use of VR appliances in health institutions. Furthermore, due to the high cost of the hardware, a cost-benefit analysis is required. Finally, research should also verify the long term physical and psychological benefits of VR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0101.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: facial expressions; pain; grimace scales; mice; rat; rabbit
Online: 4 September 2020 (11:18:42 CEST)
Animals’ facial expressions have been widely used as a readout for emotion. Scientific interest in the facial expressions of laboratory animals has centered primarily on negative experiences, such as pain, experienced as a result of scientific research procedures. Recent attempts to standardize evaluation of facial expressions associated with pain in laboratory animals has culminated in the development of “grimace scales”. In the context of laboratory animals, these have been developed and evaluated for mice, rats, rabbits, sheep, and ferrets. The prevention or relief of pain in laboratory animals is a fundamental requirement for in vivo research to satisfy community expectations. However, to date it appears that the grimace scales have not seen widespread implementation as clinical pain assessment techniques in biomedical research. In this review, we discuss some of the barriers to implementation of the scales in clinical laboratory animal medicine, progress made in automation of collection, and suggest avenues for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0395.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: physical activity; elderly population; chronic pain; mediastinal lymphomas
Online: 30 December 2019 (09:44:54 CET)
Thoracotomy is one of the most painful types of incision a patient can experience. Pain is a very complex pathophysiological entity. Neuronal pathophysiological mechanisms are integrated with the immunological response, which amplify inflammation and pain. Prolonged inflammation induces a pathological response of the immune-system and constantly stimulate the nociceptive pathways generating chronic pain. The mechanisms are particularly altered in lymphomas, where pain following chest surgery often becomes chronic and reduces the quality of life. In this study 51 elderly patients who had undergone a transthoracic biopsy to verify the suspect of mediastinal lymphoma were examined for pain reduction with oral opioids, effect of epidural analgesia and paravertebral block. Subsequently, patients underwent tensed torsion exercises, progressively intensified. After the first few days, patients walked progressively for 20 minutes a day. Once discharged a program of patients started aerobic exercises to increase muscle endurance and to strengthen the extensor muscles of the legs and of the upper limbs. The systemic administration of opioids is the simplest and most common method of providing analgesia for postoperative pain, but early mobilization, respiratory rehabilitation, and muscle toning exercises are excellent support devices both for physical and psychological recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0557.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: orthodontics clear aligner, pain; vibration, high-frequency, HFA
Online: 24 October 2018 (08:14:49 CEST)
Evaluation of the effects of a high-frequency acceleration (HFA) device on patient pain response to orthodontic forces. A multi-centered trial investigating pain sensitivity to orthodontic forces on 75 subjects at 4 study centers. Subjects underwent clear aligner treatment, with or without adjunctive HFA and documented their pain intensity using the validated NRS10 numeric rating scale. In-Office and At-Home ratings were measured separately for each subject for immediate and extended effect evaluations. Use of HFA devices in conjunction with clear aligner orthodontic treatment demonstrated significant reduction in subjects’ recorded pain ratings vs controls within 5 minutes of aligner exchange, (p = 0.006) and significant reduction in recorded pain ratings vs controls over a 7-day period following aligner exchange (p = 0.018). A 99.6% daily compliance rate with at home use of the HFA device was recorded for all subjects in the study. HFA significantly reduces pain attributed to orthodontic force. HFA delivers clinically significant immediate pain relief, and clinically significant extended pain relief over the 7 days following adjustment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: PSPS; FBSS; SCS; surgical lead; SCS implantation; MAST (for Minimal Access Spine Technologies); TCIVA (for Target Controlled Intra-Veinous Anesthesia); composite score; pain mapping; neuropathic pain; chronic pain; quality of life; anesthesia; hypnosis
Online: 25 July 2022 (08:34:26 CEST)
Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) is an effective and validated treatment to address chronic refractory neuropathic pain in Persistent Spinal Pain Syndrome-Type 2 (PSPS-T2) patients. Surgical SCS lead placement is traditionally performed under general anesthesia due to its invasiveness. In parallel, recent works have suggested that Awake Anesthesia (AA), consisting in Target Controlled Intra-Veinous Anesthesia (TCIVA), could be an interesting tool to optimize lead anatomical placement using patient intra-operative feedback. We hypothesized that combining AA with Minimal Invasive Surgery (MIS) could improve SCS outcomes. The goal of this study was to evaluate SCS lead performance (defined by the area of pain adequately covered by paraesthesia generated via SCS), using an intraoperative objective quantitative mapping tool, and secondarily to assess pain relief, functional improvement and change in quality of life with a composite score. We analyzed data from a prospective multicenter study (ESTIMET) to compare the outcomes of 115 patients implanted with MIS under AA (MISAA group) or General Anesthesia (MISGA group), or by Laminectomy under General Anesthesia (LGA group). All in all, MISAA appears to show significantly better performance in terms of patient pain coverage, as well as improved secondary outcomes. One step further, our results suggest that MISAA combined with intra-operative hypnosis could potentialize patient intraoperative cooperation and could be proposed as a personalized package offered to PSPS-T2 patients eligible for SCS implantation in highly dedicated neuromodulation centers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1291.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Dairy products; Farming diversification; Musculoskeletal disorders; Pain; Risk analysis
Online: 19 October 2023 (16:45:14 CEST)
Background. In a changing European agricultural context, diversification of dairy farms is gaining attention. This study seeks to (1) assess musculoskeletal pain prevalence associated with tasks such as butter, yogurt, and cheese production; and (2) analyze associated risks. Methods. Observing 31 mostly female workers, it utilized the ERGOROM questionnaire, a methodology adapted from the Institut National de Recherche et de Sécurité, and Key Indicator Method forms. Results. Findings revealed that tasks like load carrying (42% of workers), manual work (17%), and awkward postures (14%) resulted in musculoskeletal pain, predominantly in the lower back (65%), neck (39%), and dominant upper limb areas (shoulder: 61%, elbow: 26%, and wrist: 65%). While psychosocial risks remained low, concerns arose from workload, hygiene standards, and resource unpredictability. Conclusions. As dairy farming evolves from artisanal to semi-industrial, the study emphasizes the importance of ergonomic adaptations to protect farmer health and prevent musculoskeletal disorders during diversification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1059.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Propofol; Psychological intervention; Painless colonoscopic colonic polypectomy EMR; Pain
Online: 18 October 2023 (03:10:38 CEST)
Objective: To evaluate the effect of propofol combined with psychological intervention on pain and emotional evaluation in painless colonoscopic colonic polypectomy patients undergoing endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR).Methods: A total of 80 patients who underwent painless colonoscopic colonic polypectomy with EMR treatment between June 2020 and June 2022 were selected in order of admission and divided into two groups. The control group received conventional analgesia, while the observation group received propofol combined with psychological intervention. Pain visual analog scale (VAS) and emotional scale were used to evaluate pain and emotions in both groups of patients. Adverse reactions and clinical efficacy were also compared between the two groups.Results: The two groups of patients were generally comparable with no significant differences (P > 0.05). The VAS score in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05), and the emotional scale score was also improved compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The number of patients with adverse reactions in the observation group was less than that in the control group. The clinical effective rate in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05).Conclusion: Propofol combined with psychological intervention can effectively alleviate pain and improve emotional status in painless colonoscopic colonic polypectomy patients undergoing EMR treatment, thereby increasing the comfort and success rate of the surgery. The number of patients with adverse reactions in the observation group was less than that in the control group, and the clinical effective rate in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0358.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: rotator cuff; shoulder; rehabilitation; physiotherapy; physical therapy; exercise, pain.
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:23:45 CEST)
Rehabilitation after rotator cuff repair is crucial for functional recovery and for minimizing the risk of retear. There are two rehabilitation protocols (early and traditional) and the debate about which is the best is still open. This umbrella review aimed to compare the effect of these rehabilitation protocols in terms of reduction of pain, functional recovery and retear risk. We selected systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between 2012 to 2022 dealing with the aim. Nineteen systematic reviews were included. No significant differences were found between early and traditional protocols in terms of pain reduction. Early rehabilitation provided better short-term results regarding Range of Motion improvement, but long-term functional outcomes were similar. Retear risk remains a significant concern for the early protocol. We found major differences between the analyzed protocols. This review suggests that both protocols are useful to recover global shoulder function, but the standard protocol has a greater safety profile for larger tears. On the other hand, the early protocol may be preferable for smaller lesions, allowing a faster recovery and having less impact on medical costs. Further research is needed to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies tailored to the individual patient's needs and characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0104.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Myofascial pain; temporomandibular joint; temporomandibular disorder; TMD; TMJ MRI
Online: 5 September 2023 (07:49:35 CEST)
Myofascial pain is the most common cause of chronic pain in the masticatory region and can be assessed through clinical analysis and muscle palpation. Generally, it appears with headache and orofacial pain associated with sensitive points (trigger points) due to the excessive contraction of the masticatory muscle fibres. The study aims to evaluate how a correct treatment of myofascial pain can improve the life quality of the affected patients. In this case series, 300 patients with myofascial pain were divided into two groups: 150 with intra- and extra-articular disorder and 150 with the only extra-articular disorder. Each group included 75 males and 75 females. All the patients were treated with gnathological therapy through passive aligners and biofeedback exercises for 4 months. They underwent pain assessment (through a visual analogue scale and muscular palpation test) before, during and after the treatment, and nuclear magnetic resonance of the temporomandibular joint before and after the gnathological treatment. The treatment considerably reduced the pain in all patients, without drugs, in 4 months, according to the visual analogue scales and the palpation test. The temporomandibular magnetic resonance in each patient was similar before and after the gnathological treatment. The improvement in pain did not depend on a change in the relationship between the articular condyle and the disc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1569.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Cervical Pain; Patient-Reported Outcome Measure; Validation Study; Poland
Online: 22 August 2023 (11:33:55 CEST)
This study aimed to translate and psychometrically validate the Neck Outcome Score (NOOS) in the Polish population according to the recommendations of American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) for the Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Health Status Measures. Participants completed the NOOS, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain assessment. The questionnaires were completed by 57 women and 32 men with cervical spine ailments. A retest was performed in all patients after 48 hours. The analysis confirmed the high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.95) of the Polish NOOS. No floor / ceiling effects were observed. The Polish NOOS showed a significant correlation with NDI (0.87; p<0.001) and VAS (0.79; p<0.001). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the test-retest was found to be high (0.97). The Polish version of NOOS can be used for clinical and research purposes as an equivalent to the original English version. This study contributes to the area of patient-reported outcome measures available in the Polish language.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1414.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: PNA6; angiotensin 1-7; Mas receptor; breast; cancer; pain
Online: 21 August 2023 (07:18:07 CEST)
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in cardiovascular homeostasis and hydro-electrolyte balance influencing organ function throughout the body. The classical view of RAS focused on a single biologically active metabolite, the octapeptide angiotensin (Ang)ll, created by the Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). The past two decades have revealed new functions for intermediate products of the RAS beyond their role as substrates. Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang-(1—7), a RAS peptide product with actions at the Mas receptor, reportedly prevents cardiovascular disease-induced cognitive decline and cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). However, Ang-(1—7) has a short half-life in vivo; here, we hypothesized that activating the MasR1 with a lactoside Ang-(1—7) analogue- PNA6-would attenuate inflammatory, cancer pain confined to the long bones, and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) for a longer-lasting efficacious therapeutic effect. PNA6, Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Ser-(O-β-Lact)-amide, was successfully synthesized on solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). PNA6 significantly reversed inflammatory pain induced by 2% carrageenan in mice. In a second study modeling a complex pain state, E0771 breast adenocarcinoma cells were implanted into the femur of female C57BLK/6J wild-type mice to induce cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). Both acute and chronic dosing of PNA6 significantly reduced the spontaneous pain behaviors associated with CIBP. A third murine model of platinum drug-induced painful peripheral neuropathy was established using oxaliplatin. Mice in the oxaliplatin-vehicle treatment groups demonstrated significant mechanical allodynia compared to oxaliplatin- PNA6 treatment group mice. These data suggest that PNA6 is a viable lead candidate for treating chronic inflammatory and complex neuropathic pain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1420.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: pain perception; discomfort; orthodontic appliances; visual analogue scale (VAS)
Online: 21 August 2023 (07:08:46 CEST)
Pain is a complex multidimensional feeling combined with sensorial and emotional features. The majority of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment reported various degrees of pain, which is perceived as widely variable between individuals, even when the stimulus is the same. Orthodontic pain is considered the main cause of poor-quality outcomes, patients' dissatisfaction, and lack of collaboration up to the interruption of the therapy. A deep understanding of pain and how it influences the patient’s daily life is fundamental to establishing proper therapeutic procedures and obtaining the correct collaboration. Because of its multifaced and subjective nature, pain is a difficult dimension to measure. The use of questionnaires and their relative rating scales is actually considered the gold standard for pain assessment. Depending on the patient’s age and cognitive abilities is possible to choose the most appropriate instrument for self-reported pain records. Although several scales have been proposed and a lot of them are applied, it remains uncertain which of these tools represents the standard and performs the most precise, universal, and predictable task. This review aims to give an overview of the aspects which describe pain, specifically the pain experienced during orthodontic treatment, the main tool to assess self-perceived pain in a better and more efficient way, the different indications for each of them, and their correlated advantages or disadvantages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0222.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: neuropathic pain; honokiol; Magnolia officinalis; antioxidant; cannabinoid receptor; neuroinflammation
Online: 4 July 2023 (12:14:02 CEST)
Neuropathic pain (NP) affects about the 8% of the general population. Current analgesic therapies have limited efficacy, making NP one of the most difficult to treat pain conditions. Evidence indicates that excessive oxidative stress can contribute to the onset of chronic NP and several natural antioxidant compounds have showed promising efficacy in NP models. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the pain-relieving activity of honokiol (HNK)-rich standardized extract of Magnolia officinalis Rehder & E. Wilson bark (MOE), well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model. The molecular mechanisms were investigated in spinal cord samples from SNI mice and in LPS-stimulated BV2. MOE and HNK showed antioxidant activity. MOE (30 mg/kg p.o.), produced an antiallodynic effect in the absence of locomotor impairment. MOE treatment reduced spinal p-p38, p-JNK1, iNOS, p-p65, IL-1ß and Nrf2 overexpression, increased IL-10 and MBP levels and attenuated the Notch signaling pathway by reducing Jagged1 and NEXT. All these effects were prevented by the CB1 antagonist AM251. HNK reduced the proinflammatory state of LPS-stimulated BV2 cells and reduced Jagged1 overexpression. MOE and HNK, by modulating oxidative and proinflammatory responses, might represent interesting candidates for NP management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0480.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: burning mouth syndrome; hypertension; pain; mood disorder; systemic comorbidities
Online: 26 December 2022 (08:36:26 CET)
Background: To assess the prevalence of Hypertension (HTN) in Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) patients and to investigate its relationship with sociodemographic factors, pain and the psychological profile. Methods: A case-control study was conducted by enrolling 242 BMS patients and 242 controls matched for age and gender. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were recorded, and all the participants completed the numeric rating scale (NRS), the short-form of the McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ), the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety and depression (HAM-A, HAM-D), the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Results: The BMS patients presented a statistically significant higher prevalence of HTN compared to the controls (55% versus 33.5%; p-value: <.001**) and higher median scores of the NRS, SF-MPQ, HAM-A, HAM-D, PSQI and ESS (p < .001**). Multivariate regression analysis in the BMS patients indicated positive correlations between HTN and age, systemic diseases, drug consumption and anxiety (p-value: <.001**) and these predictors were responsible for 11.3% of the HTN variance in the BMS patients, when considered together. Conclusions: The prevalence of HTN was significantly higher in the BMS patients, since ageing, the presence of comorbidities, drug consumption and anxiety were potential predictors. Further studies are needed to better investigate the relationship between BMS and HTN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Migraine; Headache; Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Chronic Pain; Saudi Arabia
Online: 18 August 2021 (11:21:40 CEST)
Migraine is a primary headache disorder with a prevalence of 11.6% globally and 27% in Saudi Arabia. Irritable bowel syndrome has a prevalence of 9.2% worldwide. The prevalence of IBS has not been established nationally. However, provincial studies for both migraine and IBS have been conducted across the nation. There is a significant link between migraines and IBS globally. This identifies an association that needs to be investigated in a nationwide manner. This study aims to observe the association and the relationship between migraine and irritable bowel syndrome in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2021 to June 2021 among the general population of Saudi Arabia, whose ages are 15 years old or greater. The data collection tools included MS-Q for migraine symptoms, MIGSEV scale for severity of migraine, and The IBS module of the Rome IV Diagnostic Questionnaire (R4DQ) for IBS symptoms and its subtype. With a total of 2802 participants, the majority of the study sample were males, who constituted 52.5%. Among the study's sample, the prevalence of migraine consisted of 27.4%, and the prevalence of IBS was 16.4%. The odds of having IBS in migraineurs were much higher than in those without migraines (OR 4.127; 95% CI 3.325-5.121), and the association was statistically significant (P<0.001). In conclusion, there is a strong association between migraine and irritable bowel syndrome in Saudi Arabia.