ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0708.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Adolescents; high sensitivity C-reactive protein; Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins; Obesity; Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein; Predictive diagnostics
Online: 29 March 2021 (16:33:20 CEST)
Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are critical modulators of the metabolism. In adults, IGFBPs are associated with obesity and insulin resistance but the association of IGFBPs with metabolic homeostasis in children and adolescents is not fully characterized. In this study we investigated the association of plasma IGFBPs (IGFBP-1, 3 and 7) with weight status, central adiposity and cardiovascular disease markers Hs-CRP and Ox-LDL. A total of 420 adolescents (age 11-14 years) were randomly recruited from public middle schools in Kuwait. IGFBPs were measured using bead-based multiplexing while Hs-CRP and Ox-LDL were measured using ELISA. IGFBP-1 levels were significantly lower in obese and overweight participants compared to normal weight children. Only IGFBP-1 was negatively associated with waist circumference to height (WC/Ht) ratio. IGFBP-1 was negatively correlated with Hs-CRP while IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-7 were negatively correlated with Ox-LDL. These data demonstrate a robust negative association of IGFBP-1, but not IGFBP-3 or -7, with overweight and obesity, and the inflammation marker Hs-CRP. Central adiposity (WC/Ht ratio) was a stronger predictor of IGFBP-1 than BMI-for-age z-score. IGFBP-1 could thus be used as a sensitive predictive diagnostic tool for obesity and its subsequent effects in screening and monitoring of obesity-related metabolic complications in adolescents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: oxidized LDL; cNOS; iNOS; endothelial dysfunction
Online: 17 September 2018 (07:45:14 CEST)
The release of nanomolar concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) by endothelial cells (EC), via activation of constitutive NO synthase (eNOS), represents the pre-requisite for the vaso-protective role of vascular endothelium. On the other hand, exaggerated release of NO as a consequence of activation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), leads to endothelial dysfunction and, at the late stages, to the development of atherothrombosis. Oxidyzed LDLs (OxyLDL) represent the major candidate to trigger biomolecular processes accompanying endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation leading to atherosclerosis development though the pathophysiological mechanism still remains to be elucidated. Here, we summarize recent evidence suggesting that oxyLDL produce significant impairment in the balance in the eNOS/iNOS machinery, downregulating eNOS via HMGB1-TLR4-Caveolin-1 pathway. On the other hand, a sustained activation of the scavenger receptor LOX-1 leads to NFkB activation which, in turn, increases iNOS, leading to EC oxidative stress. Finally, these events are associated to reduced protective autophagic response and accelerated apoptotic EC death which activates atherosclerotic development. Taken togheter, these informations shed new light into the pathophysiological mechanisms of oxy-LDL-related impairment of EC functionality and open new perspective in atherothrombosis prevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0371.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: olive phenolics; hydroxytyrosol; oxidized LDL; ox-LDL; isoprostanes; F2-isoprostanes
Online: 23 September 2022 (10:23:51 CEST)
In the present study we report the efficacy of food matrices derived from olives in preventing oxidation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and lipid peroxidation. To this end, 12 healthy volunteers were divided into 3 groups and cross-received a single dose of olive phenolics, mainly hydroxytyrosol (HT), provided as a liquid dietary supplement (30.6 or 61.5 mg HT), or as fortified extra virgin olive oil (12.19 mg HT + tyrosol). Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline and up to 12 hours after ingestion. Plasma oxidized LDL levels were measured by ELISA using a monoclonal antibody, while F2-isoprostanes were quantified in urine by UHPLC-MS/MS. Despite the great variability between individuals, a tendency to reduce lipoxidation reactions has been observed after olive phenolics intake in both, blood and urine. In addition, the subgroup of individuals with the highest baseline lipoxidation level showed a decrease in F2-isoprostanes (p < 0.05) after taking the food supplements, as well as a marked decrease in oxidized LDL levels (p < 0.01) after intake of the food supplement with the lowest HT dose. These promising results suggest that HT supplementation could be a useful aid in preventing lipoxidation. Additionally, people with a redox imbalance could benefit even more from supplementing with bioavailable HT.