ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0363.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Bone; Osteoclasts; Osteoblasts; Oat Bran; Osteoporosis
Online: 15 November 2018 (11:38:53 CET)
The number of patients with bone metabolic disorders including osteoporosis is increasing worldwide. These disorders often facilitate bone fractures, which seriously impact the patient’s quality of life and could lead to further health complications. Bone homeostasis is tightly regulated to balance bone resorption and formation. However, many anti-osteoporotic agents are broadly categorized as either bone forming or anti-resorptive, and their therapeutic use is often limited due to unwanted side effects. Therefore, safe and effective therapeutic agents are needed for osteoporosis. This study aims to clarify the bone protecting effects of oat bran water extract (OBWE) and its mode of action. OBWE inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation by blocking c-Fos/NFATc1 through the alteration of I-κB. Furthermore, we found that OBWE enhanced BMP-2-stimulated osteoblast differentiation by the induction of Runx2 via Smad signaling molecules. In addition, the anti-osteoporotic activity of OBWE was also evaluated using an in vivo model. OBWE significantly restored ovariectomy-induced bone loss. These in vitro and in vivo results showed that OBWE has the potential to combat bone metabolic disorders including osteoporosis
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0356.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: PEG; viability; osteoblasts; fibroblasts; pH; polyurethane; polyethylene glycol
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:52:52 CEST)
Grafting polyethylene glycol (PEG) on polymers surface is widely used to improve biocompatibility by reducing protein and cell adhesion. Although PEG is considered to be bioinert, its incorporation to biomaterials has shown to improve cell viability depending on the amount and molecular weight (MW) used. This phenomenon was studied here by grafting PEG of three MW onto polyurethane (PU) substrata at three molar concentrations to assess their effect on PU surface properties and on the viability of osteoblasts and fibroblasts. PEG formed a covering on the substrata which increased the hydrophilicity and surface energy of PUs. Among the results it was observed that osteoblast viability increased for all MW and grafting densities of PEG employed compared with unmodified PU. However, fibroblast viability only increased at certain combinations of MW and grafting densities of PEG, suggesting an optimal level of these parameters. PEG grafting also promoted a more spread cell morphology than that exhibited by unmodified PU; nevertheless, cells became apoptotic-like as PEG MW and grafting density were increased. These effects on cells could be due to PEG affecting culture medium pH, which became more alkaline at higher MW and concentrations of PEG. Results support the hypothesis that surface energy of PU substrates can be tuned by controlling the MW and grafting density of PEG, but these parameters should be optimized to promote cell viability without inducing apoptotic-like behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0336.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: 316L; electrodeposition; nano-hydroxyapatite; carbon nanotubes; osteoblasts; gene expression
Online: 24 May 2018 (06:18:52 CEST)
Herein, we evaluated the electrophoretic deposition of nanohydroxyapatite/superhydrophilic multiwalled carbon nanotube composites (nHAp/MWCNT) onto stainless steel biomedical alloys for applications in bone tissue engineering. First, nHAp/MWCNT composites were dispersed into 0.042 mol L−1 of Ca(NO3)2·4H2O + 0.025 mol L−1 NH4H2PO4 electrolytes (pH = 4.8) at two different concentrations. Next, a voltage of −2 V was applied using 316L stainless steel as a working electrode and (0.27 cm2), a high-purity platinum coil wire as the auxiliary electrode, and an Ag/AgCl(3 M) electrode was used as the reference electrode. The nHAp/MWCNT composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The deposited nHAp and nHAp/MWCNT films were characterized by profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. Human osteoblast cells were cultivated with the different materials, and in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The osteogenesis process was evaluated by mRNA levels of the three genes that are directly related to bone repair: Alkaline Phosphatase, Osteopontin and Osteocalcin. We showed that rough, crystalline apatite thin films containing phases of nHAp were successfully deposited onto 316L stainless steel alloys. Also, we noticed that nHAp/MWCNT thin films deposited onto 316L stainless steel alloys upregulated the expression of important genes related to bone mineralization and maturation. Our results strongly support the possibility of this new alternative to modify the surface of metallic biomedical alloys to promote bone tissue regeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1563.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Matrix vesicles; extracellular vesicles; osteoblasts; osteogenesis; endocytosis; differentiation; microRNA; caveolin
Online: 21 June 2023 (13:41:33 CEST)
Matrix vesicles (MVs) are nano-sized extracellular vesicles that are anchored in the extracellular matrix (ECM). In addition to playing a role in biomineralization, osteoblast-derived MVs were recently suggested to have regulatory duties. The aims of this study were to: establish the characteristics of osteoblast-derived MVs in the context of extracellular vesicles like exosomes, assess their role in modulating osteoblast differentiation, and examine their mechanism of uptake. MVs were isolated from the ECM of MG-63 human osteoblast-like cell cultures and characterized via enzyme activity, transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, western blot, and small RNA sequencing. Osteoblasts were treated with MVs from two different culture conditions (growth media [GM]; osteogenic media [OM]) to evaluate their effects on differentiation and production of inflammatory markers and on macrophage polarization. MV endocytosis was assessed using a lipophilic, fluorescent dye and confocal microscopy with the role of caveolae determined using methyl-β-cyclodextrin. MVs exhibited a four-fold enrichment in alkaline phosphatase specific activity compared to plasma membranes, were 50-150nm in diameter, possessed exosomal markers CD63, CD81, and CD9 and endosomal markers ALIX, TSG101, and HSP70, and were selectively enriched in microRNA linked to an anti-osteogenic effect and to M2 macrophage polarization. Treatment with GM or OM MVs decreased osteoblast differentiation. Osteoblasts endocytosed MVs by a mechanism that involves caveolae. These results support the hypothesis that osteoblasts produce MVs that participate in the regulation of osteogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0714.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Osteoclasts; microgravity, spaceflight, osteoblasts; osteocytes; M-CSF; RANKL; bone; microgravity; cytokines.
Online: 30 July 2020 (10:46:17 CEST)
Astronauts are at risk of losing 1.0 to 1.5% of their bone mass for every month they spend in space despite their adherence to high impact exercise training programs and dietary regimens designed to preserve their musculoskeletal system. This loss is the result of microgravity-related impairment of osteocyte and osteoblast function and the consequent upregulation of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. This review describes the ontogeny of osteoclast hematopoietic stem cells, the contributions of macrophage colony stimulating factor, activator of NFkB and the calcineurin pathways make in osteoclast differentiation, and provides details of bone formation, the osteoclast cytoskeleton, the immune regulation of osteoclasts, and osteoclast mechanotransduction on Earth, in the microgravity of space, and in conditions of simulated microgravity. The article discusses the need to better understand how osteoclasts are able to function in zero gravity and reviews current and prospective therapies that may be used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0149.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: magneto-mechanical actuation; fibre networks; human osteoblasts; mineralization; in vitro osteogenesis
Online: 15 September 2019 (06:13:38 CEST)
There is currently an interest in “active” implantable biomedical devices that include mechanical stimulation as an integral part of their design. This paper reports the experimental use of a porous scaffold made of interconnected networks of slender ferromagnetic ﬁbres that can be actuated in vivo by an external magnetic ﬁeld applying strains to in-growing cells. Such scaffolds have been previously characterized in terms of their mechanical and cellular responses. In this study, it is shown that the shape changes induced in the scaffolds can be used to promote osteogenesis in vitro. In particular, immunofluorescence, gene and protein analyses reveal that the actuated networks exhibit higher mineralization and extracellular matrix production, and express higher levels of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, collagen type 1a1, runt-related transcription factor 2 and bone morphogenetic protein 2 than the static controls at the 3-week time point. The results suggest that the cells filling the inter-fibre spaces are able to sense and react to the magneto-mechanically induced strains facilitating osteogenic differentiation and maturation. This work provides evidence in support of using this approach to stimulate bone ingrowth around a device implanted in bone and can pave the way for further applications in bone tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1592.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: osteoporosis; osteoblasts; BMP-2; BMPRIa; C57BL/6 mice; MβCD; QDot®s
Online: 24 November 2023 (09:31:34 CET)
As humans age, aberrancies in several signaling pathways occur. In the aging population, some patients display abnormal bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. This can lead to osteoporosis (OP), a debilitating bone disorder caused by an imbalance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In 2002, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved usage of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) during spinal fusion surgery as it is crucial for bone formation. However, complications have been reported with rhBMP-2 and primary osteoblasts isolated from OP patients are unresponsive to BMP-2. While patient samples are available, previous medical history may alter results. Therefore, C57BL/6 mice, an aging model that displays aberrant BMP-signaling, can be utilized to investigate OP and aging. We show that BMP receptor type Ia (BMPRIa) is upregulated in the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) of 15-month mice similar to previous data. We show that a conjugation between BMP-2 and Quantum Dots (QDot®s) effectively binds to BMPRIa and can investigate BMP-2 activity. After incubating BMSCs with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), BMP-signaling is restored in 15-month mice as shown by western blotting and the von Kossa assay. MβCD may be used to rescue BMPRIa and the BMP-signaling pathway can be utilized by future therapeutics to treat OP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0180.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: ferromagnetic fibre network; human albumin; fibrin hydrogel; human foetal osteoblasts; human endothelial cells
Online: 17 September 2019 (04:48:21 CEST)
Porous coatings on prosthetic implants encourage implant fixation. Enhanced fixation may be achieved using a magneto-active porous coating that can deform elastically in vivo on application of an external magnetic field, straining in-growing bone. Such coating, made of 444 ferritic stainless steel fibres, was previously characterised in terms of its mechanical and cellular responses. In this work, co-cultures of human osteoblasts and endothelial cells were seeded into a novel fibrin-based hydrogel embedded in a 444 ferritic stainless steel fibre network. Albumin was successfully incorporated into fibrin hydrogels improving the specific permeability and the diffusion of fluorescently-tagged dextrans without affecting their Young’s modulus. The beneficial effect of albumin was demonstrated by upregulation of osteogenic and angiogenic gene expression. Furthermore, mineralisation, extracellular matrix production and formation of vessel-like structures were enhanced in albumin-enriched fibrin hydrogels compared to fibrin hydrogels. Collectively, the results indicate that the albumin-enriched fibrin hydrogel is a promising bio-matrix for bone tissue engineering and orthopaedic applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0570.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: bone resorption; butyric acid; HDAC inhibitor; osteoblasts; osteoprotegerin/RANKL; periodontal/root canal pathogens
Online: 24 October 2018 (11:21:42 CEST)
Butyric acid as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor was produced by a number of periodontal and root canal microorganisms (such as Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium etc.). Butyric acid may affect the biological activities of periodontal/periapical cells such as osteoblasts, periodontal ligament cells etc., and thus affect periodontal/periapical tissue destruction and healing. The purposes of this study were to study the toxic effects of butyrate on matrix and mineralization markers’ expression of MG-63 osteoblasts. Cell viability and proliferation were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cellular apoptosis and necrosis were analyzed by propidium iodide/Annexin V flow cytometry. Protein and mRNA expression of OPG, and RANKL were analyzed by western blotting and RT-PCR. OPG, soluble RANKL (sRANKL), 8-isoprostane, pro-collagen I, MMP-2, osteonectin (SPARC), osteocalcin and osteopontin secretion into culture medium were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Histone H3 acetylation levels were evaluated by immunofluorescent staining (IF) and western blot. We found that butyrate induced morphologic changes of growing MG-63 cells, with bigger and flattened in appearance. Butyrate activated histone H3 acetylation of MG-63 cells. Exposure of MG-63 cells to butyrate partly decreased cell number with no marked increase in apoptosis and necrosis. Butyrate stimulated RANKL protein expression, whereas it inhibited OPG protein expression. Butyrate also inhibited the secretion of OPG in MG-63 cells, whereas sRANKL level was below detection limit. Butyrate stimulated 8-isoprostane, MMP-2 and osteopontin secretion, but not procollagen I, osteonectin, osteocalcin in MG-63 cells. In conclusion, butyric acid generated by periodontal and root canal microorganisms may potentially induce bony destruction and impair bone repair by alteration of OPG/RANKL expression/secretion, 8-isoprostane, MMP-2, and osteopontin secretion, and affect cell proliferation. These effects are possibly related to increased histone acetylation. These events are important in the pathogenesis of periodontal and periapical destruction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0293.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Insulin-like growth factor-1; Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor; microgravity; osteoblasts; osteocytes; osteoclasts; IGF-1; IGF1R; rIGF-1
Online: 18 May 2020 (03:31:16 CEST)
Astronauts at are risk of losing 1.0 – 1.5% of their bone mass for every month they spend in space despite their adherence to high impact exercise training programs designed to preserve the musculoskeletal system. This article reviews the basics of bone formation and resorption and details how exposure to microgravity or simulated microgravity affects the structure and function of osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts, and their mesenchymal and hematologic stem cell precursors. It details the critical roles that insulin-like growth facor-1 and its receptor IGFR1 play in maintaining bone homeostasis and how exposure of bone cells to microgravity affects the function of these growth factors. Lastly, it discusses the potential of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, syncytin-A, and sclerostin inhibitors and recombinant IGF-1 as a bone-saving treatment for astronauts in space and during their colonization of the Moon.