ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0600.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Tor; hidden services; onion services; systematic literature review; survey
Online: 27 July 2021 (11:22:06 CEST)
Anonymous communications networks were born to protect the privacy of our communications, preventing censorship and traffic analysis. The most famous anonymous communication network is Tor. This anonymous communication network provides some interesting features, among them, we can mention user’s IP location or Tor Hidden Services (THS) as a mechanism to conceal the location of servers, mainly, web servers. THS is an important research field in Tor. However, there is a lack of reviews that sump up main findings and research challenges. In this article we present a systematic literature review that aims to offer a comprehensive view on the research made on Tor Hidden services presenting the state of the art and the different research challenges to be addressed. This review has been developed from a selection of 57 articles and present main findings and advances regarding Tor Hidden Services, limitations found, and future issues to be investigated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0136.v1
Online: 8 September 2021 (08:48:16 CEST)
Onions are an excellent source of a variety of essential antioxidants, polyphenols, and other phytonutrients. These onions were used to enhance the meal's flavour and aroma. Additionally, onions have long been recognised for their ability to change food texture, making it more pleasant for eating. Among the most significant phenolic compounds identified in onions was Quercetin, which has been proven to be very helpful for maintaining good health by reducing the risk of heart disease, cancer, and a number of other severe conditions. Polyphenol extraction is essential for the effective usage and research of these phytochemicals. Previously, the extraction process was complicated by a variety of traditional methods, but with the aid of contemporary technology, the procedure was simplified. Additionally, it was found that red onions had greater health benefits than yellow onions, which were the most commonly used kind at the time. Apart from their health benefits, polyphenols were well recognised for their industrial use in dyeing, polymer manufacturing, and resin synthesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0432.v1
Online: 17 March 2021 (09:02:03 CET)
Garlic and onion are either cooked like a vegetable because of their green leaves or are also used as a condiment. Many scientific studies affirm the positives of both for their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial potential. Moreover, garlic and onion are regularly employed to treat cardiovascular illnesses, strokes, atherosclerosis, hypertension, hyperlipidemias, and thrombosis, and are also proved effective against Alzheimer's, diabetes, and cancers. Here we have compiled a piece of information regarding the compounds present in garlic and onion along with their pharmacological properties. Although much more studies are required to refine the utilization and enhance garlic and medicine's effectiveness. We hope this work will provide helpful information regarding their pharmacological aspects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0101.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: onion; drying; bioactive; nutritional and organoleptic
Online: 9 April 2018 (09:51:30 CEST)
Onion (Allium cepa L.) is a strong-flavoring vegetable consumed in different ways. It is mainly due its distinctive flavor or simply pungency. Onion has also important natural compounds effective for medical functions such as inhibition of bone resorption, lower risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. This importance is directly related to high content of organo-sulphur compounds. Shelf life of fresh onion bulb is short enough about two weeks at ambient storage conditions in Fogera district, Amhara region, Ethiopia. This is mainly due to the presence of high moisture in fresh onion bulbs. Postharvest loss of onion bulb reaches up to 50% in the production season in Fogera district. Consequently onion bulb had extreme variable market price during production and off season in the district which directly influences both the growers and consumers. In this study the effect of different drying techniques on nutritional and volatile components of onion were evaluated. Effect of different drying techniques on protein, carbohydrate, total sugar, fat, pyurvic acid, ascorbic acid, total phenol, total flovonol, rehydration ratio, color and sensory properties of onion slice were evaluated and found insignificant at (P > 0.05) for microwave and modified direct solar dryers taking fresh onion bulb as a control. But oven drying method had significant effect on onion physicochemical quality attributes at (P < 0.05) as compared to fresh onion bulbs.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0429.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: onion; PCR inhibition; pollenkitt; wetted pollen; pollination
Online: 22 December 2022 (12:58:49 CET)
There is little information on the use of pollen in molecular research, despite the increased interest to genome editing by pollen mediated transformation. PCR is useful tool as an express-method to evaluate editing results before pollination. A direct PCR protocol for pollen suspension has been adapted without the need for DNA pre-extraction. We showed that pollenkitt is a limiting factor for successful PCR on pollen. A simple pre-washing step of pollen suspension was able to eliminate the pollenkitt and enormously affect the PCR results. All currently existing methods of delivery of the editing system to pollen are carried out in a wet medium. Our pollenkitt study helped us develop a simple and effective pollination method using wetted onion pollen grains.
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: garlic; onion; antigenotoxicity; longevity; cytotoxicity; comet assay
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:09:47 CET)
This study aimed to evaluate the biological activities of two Allium species (Garlic and onion) as well as diallyl disulphide (DADS) and dipropyl disulphide (DPDS) as their representative bioactive compounds in a multi-assay experimental design. The genotoxic, antigenotoxic and lifespan effects of garlic, onion, DADS and DPDS were checked in Drosophila melanogaster and their cytotoxic, pro-apoptotic and DNA-clastogenic activities were analysed using HL60 tumoral cells. All compounds were non-genotoxic and antigenotoxic against H2O2-induced DNA damage with a positive dose-response effect and different inhibition percentages (the highest value: 95% for DADS) at all tested concentrations. Daily intake of Allium vegetables, DADS or DPDS had no positive effects on flies’ lifespan and healthspan. Garlic and DADS exerted the highest cytotoxic effects in a positive dose-dependent manner. Garlic and DADS exerted a DNA-internucleosomal fragmentation as an index of induced proapoptotic activity on HL60 cells. Allium vegetables and DADS were able to induce clastogenic strand breaks in the DNA of HL60 cells. This study showed the genomic safety of the assayed substances and their protective genetic effects against the hydrogen peroxide genotoxine. Long-term treatments during the whole life of Drosophila genetic model were beneficial only at low-median concentrations. The chemopreventive activity of garlic could be associated to its distinctive organosulphur DADS. We suggest that supplementary studies are needed to clarify the cell death pathway against garlic and DADS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0111.v1
Online: 15 March 2018 (03:50:35 CET)
Onion (Allium cepal L.) is a major commercial vegetable crop grown in almost all parts of the world. In Ethiopian the postharvest loss of onion bulb crop was estimated to be 50% during the production season. So to reduce this postharvest loss of onion bulb determining and employing appropriate storage conditions play an important role. Appropriate storage condition reduces the physiological quality which intern reduces the physicochemical and phytochemical properties of onion. In this study physicochemical and phytochemical properties of onion bulb were investigated under different storage temperature. Onion bulbs were stored at three different temperatures the following quality attributes of onion bulb like glucosidase content, pyruvic acid, flavonoid, dry matter and sugar content were determined for storage period of six months. Quality deterioration of onion bulb was higher at storage temperature of 25 °C while storage temperature 5 °C was found an ideal condition with keeping the quality of onion bulb acceptable. In all the three storage temperatures sugar content show pyruvic acid, glucosidase and sugar content show irregular pattern. Bombay red onion bulb was stored for six months without significant change of quality attributes of onion bulb at storage temperature of 5 °C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0152.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: onion drying; exergy analysis; exergetic improvement potential rate; sustainability index
Online: 19 March 2018 (09:44:37 CET)
This research work is concerned in the exergy analysis of the continuous-convection drying of onion. The influence of temperature and air flow rate was studied in terms of exergy parameters. The energy and exergy balances were carried out taking into account the onion drying chamber. Its behaviour was analysed based on exergy efficiency, exergy loss rate, exergetic improvement potential rate and sustainability index. The exergy loss rates increase with the temperature and air flow rate augmentation. Exergy loss rate is augmented at higher drying air temperatures and flow rates because the overall heat transfer coefficient increase. On the other hand, the exergy efficiency increases with the air flow rate augmentation. This behavior is due to the energy utilization was improved because the most amount of supplied energy was utilized for the moisture evaporation. However, the exergy efficiency decreases with the temperature augmentation due to the free moisture is less, then, the moisture begins diffusing from the internal structure to the surface. The exergetic improvement potential rate values show that the onion drying process presents a high potential to improve the exergy efficiency. The sustainability index of the drying chamber varied from 1.9 to 5.1. To reduce the environmental impact of the process, the parameters must be modified in order to ameliorate the exergy efficiency of the process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: mild virus-infected flu; home-based treatment; inhalation of volatile chemicals; onion; garlic
Online: 15 February 2020 (14:38:20 CET)
Virus-infected Flu is a common disease. To date, no specific drugs are available to manage the symptoms of cough, headache and sputum production. An alternative Chinese herb medicine is introduced for virus-infected Flu or similar infection. Before hospitalization, some of patients may scare for cross-infection with mild symptoms or hardly go to hospital if encountered a temporary lockdown or quarantine. Some Chinese practice self-treatment of cough, headache and sputum production by inhalation of volatile chemicals from onion and garlic. Author used to take the same alternative approach of inhalation of onion, garlic or scallions for self-treatment when suffered virus caused flu with cough, headache and sputum production at onset disease. In this article, the biomedical effects of onion and garlic are reviewed. To help patients with mild symptoms of virus infected Flu, a simple home-based treatment was suggested to self-treatment because of temporary isolation and hardly going to hospitalization. The alternative approach may also suggest for some mild virus infected respiratory diseases caused by virus at onset disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0220.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Cytoplasmic male-sterility; High resolution melting (HRM); molecular markers; mitochondrial genes; onion (Allium cepa L.)
Online: 13 December 2022 (02:28:27 CET)
High resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a powerful detection method for fast, high-throughput post-PCR analysis. A two-step HRM marker system was developed for identification of the N-, S-, R- and T-cytoplasms of onion. In the first step for identification of N-, S-, and R-cytoplasms, one forward primer was designed to the identical sequences of both cox1 and orf725 genes and two reverse primers specific to the polymorphic sequences of cox1 and orf725 genes were used. For the second step breeding lines with N-cytoplasm were evaluated with primers developed from the orfA501 sequence to distinguish between N- and T-cytoplasms. An amplicon with primers to the mitocondrial atp9 gene was used as an internal control. The two-step HRM marker system was tested using 246 onion plants. HRM analysis showed that the most common source of CMS, often used by Russian breeders, is S-cytoplasm, the rarest type of CMS is R-cytoplasm, and the proportion of T-cytoplasm among the analyzed breeding lines was 20.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0073.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Rossa da inverno sel. Rojo Duro onion cultivar; geographical origin; amino acids content; HPLC analysis; statistical evaluations; food traceability
Online: 6 April 2018 (09:04:47 CEST)
In the frame of a broader project, we were interested at comparing the amino acid profile in a specific variety of onion, Rossa da inverno sel. Rojo Duro, produced in two different Italian sites: Cannara (Umbria region) and Imola (Emilia Romagna region). In both places, onions were cultivated and harvested in the same way, and irrigated by water sprinkler method. A further group of Cannara onions, growth by microirrigation, was also evaluated. After the extraction of free amino acid mixture from onion samples, an ion-pairing RP-HPLC method allowed the separation and the evaporative light scattering detection of almost all underivatized proteinogenic amino acids. However, only the peaks corresponding to Leu, Phe, Trp, were present in all the investigated samples and unaffected from matrix interfering peaks. The application of the beeswarm/box plots with the ANOVA/TukeyHSD statistical approach revealed a content of Leu and Phe markedly influenced by the geographical origin of the onions, while not by the irrigation procedure. The developed HPLC method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, LOD and LOQ, accuracy and precision, before the quantitative assay of Leu, Phe and Trp in the onion samples. Although further studies are necessary, these preliminary findings can represent a good starting point for considering the quantity of specific amino acids in the Rossa da inverno sel. Rojo Duro variety as a fingerprint of its geographical origin. In principle, the developed approach might be applied to other onion varieties, thus contributing to their characterization and traceability, also contributing to limit commercial frauds.