REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0409.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: G quadruplex, Oncogene, ligand, cancer
Online: 16 November 2018 (11:34:24 CET)
G-quadruplex, a unique secondary structure in nucleic acids found throughout human genome elicited widespread interest in the field of therapeutic research. Being present in key regulatory regions of oncogenes, G-quadruplex structure regulates transcription, translation, splicing, telomere stability etc. Changes in its structure and stability lead to differential expression of oncogenes causing cancer. Thus, targeting G-Quadruplex structures with small molecules/ other biologics has shown elevated research interest. Covering previous reports, in this review we try to enlighten the facts on the structural diversity in G-quadruplex ligands aiming to provide newer insights to design first-in-class drugs for the next generation cancer treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ROR2; cancer; oncogene; tumor-suppressor gene.
Online: 17 November 2021 (23:39:15 CET)
The Wnt pathway plays an essential role in the initiation and progression of various types of cancer. ROR1 and ROR2 are Wnt receptors that are critical for β-catenin-independent (non-canonical) pathways and have been linked to processes driving tumor development and progression, such as cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and therapy resistance. Both receptors have garnered interest as potential therapeutic targets since they are largely absent in adult tissue, are overexpressed in several cancers, and, as members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family, are easier to target than all other components of the pathway. Unlike ROR1 which always promotes tumorigenesis, ROR2 has a very complex role in cancer acting either to promote or inhibit tumor progression in different tumor types. In the present article, we summarize the findings on ROR2 expression in cancer patients and its impact on clinical outcome. Further, we review the biological processes and signaling pathways regulated by ROR2 that explain its dual role in cancer. Finally, we describe the ongoing strategies to target ROR2 in cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1406.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: lipidomics; hepatocellular carcinoma; ras oncogene; sex disparity
Online: 22 November 2023 (08:48:05 CET)
Lipid dysregulation is critically involved in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Further, male predi-lection and Ras pathway hyperactivation are distinct characteristics of HCC. However, mecha-nisms underlying their connections remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to perform a comprehensive lipidomics analysis of a Hras12V transgenic mice (Ras-Tg) model of HCC induced by hepatocyte-specific Ras pathway activation and characterized by male predilection and a dis-rupted lipid metabolism. A total of 3437 lipids were identified in HCC (T) and peri-tumor tissues (P) of Ras-Tg mice and liver tissues of wild-type mice (W) of both sexes. Longitudinal comparisons of W, P, and T yielded 359 differentially expressed lipids (DELs) in male mice and 306 DELs in female mice. Generally, glycerolipid accumulation, glycerophospholipid reduction and monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis improvement were more frequent in T compared to P. The expression change pattern analysis revealed common and characteristic DELs positively/negatively associated with HCC or the Ras oncogene. Further lipid metabolism pathway investigations revealed that disordered lipid and fatty acid biosynthesis contributed to glycerolipid accumulation and glycerophospholipid re-duction in T. Comparisons between P and W suggests that different responses to the Ras oncogene in mice of different sexes, as well as higher amounts of aberrantly regulated lipids in males, may contribute to male-biased hepatocarcinogenesis. However, lateral comparisons between sexes showed a converging trend during hepatocarcinogenesis, explaining the poor efficacy for gen-der-specific therapies. In conclusion, the common and characteristic DELs and lipid metabolism pathways in HCC initiated by the Ras oncogene from sexually dimorphic hepatocytes provide novel insights into the clinical diagnosis and management of HCC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0357.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; molecular analysis; NGS; oncogene drivers
Online: 25 May 2018 (09:44:51 CEST)
Recent changes in lung cancer care, including new approvals in first line and the introduction of high throughput molecular technologies in routine testing led us to question ourselves on how deeper molecular testing may be helpful for the optimal use of targeted drugs. In this article we review recent results in the scope of personalized medicine in lung cancer. We discuss biomarkers that have a therapeutic predictive value in lung cancer with a focus on recent changes and on the clinical value of large scale sequencing strategies. We review the use of second and third generation EGFR and ALK inhibitors with a focus on secondary resistance alterations. We discuss anti-BRAF and anti-MEK combo, emerging biomarkers as NRG1 and NTRKs fusions and immunotherapy. Finally we discuss the different technical issues of comprehensive molecular profiling and show how large screenings might refine the prediction value of individual markers. Based on a review of recent publications (2012–2018), we address promising approaches for the treatment of patients with lung cancers and the technical challenges associated to the identification of new predictive markers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0638.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Shugoshin; tumor suppressor; cancer; oncogene; tumour associated gene
Online: 25 March 2021 (15:31:59 CET)
Proper and timely segregation of cellular genome is an important and a prime requirement of all cell division programmes. Mis-segregation of chromosomes and resulting aneuploidy leads to several clinical consequences. Over the years, shugoshin emerges as a key protein factor involved in the segregation of genetic material in dividing cells. Deletion or altered level of shugoshin is reported in several human malignancies, as a result, shugoshin now emerges as an important tumour associated gene and a possible target for cancer therapy. Apart from the role in cancer, recent studies also showed the involvement of shugoshin in several other clinical disorders. Through this review, we tried to highlight the clinical relevance of shugoshin.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cancer; microRNA; gene therapy; oncogene; tumor suppressor gene
Online: 9 January 2017 (10:24:03 CET)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a kind of conserved small non-coding RNAs that participate in regulating gene expression by targeting multiple molecules. Early studies have shown that the expression of miRNAs changes significantly in different tumor tissues and cancer cell lines. It is well acknowledged that such variation is involved in almost all biological processes, including cell proliferation, mobility, survival and differentiation. Increasing experimental data indicate that miRNA dysregulation is a biomarker of several pathological conditions including cancer, and that miRNA can exert a causal role, as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, in different steps of the tumorigenic process. Anticancer therapies based on miRNAs are currently being developed with a goal to improve outcomes of cancer treatment. In our present study, we review the function of miRNAs in tumorigenesis and development, and discuss the latest clinical applications and strategies of therapy targeting miRNAs in cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1417.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: tumor heterogeneity; cancer progression; oncogene addiction; cancer stem cell
Online: 13 November 2023 (10:39:49 CET)
Tumor heterogeneity is a major obstacle to achieving consistent outcomes in cancer therapy. We offer a novel perspective on tumor heterogeneity, informed by an advanced understanding of tumor evolution. We understand any cells, or any organism, will inherently respond with specific capacities when faced with adversity. Our concepts, which extend beyond canonical views, posit that tumor evolution is driven by cellular responses to survival challenges. The disease is driven by a rudimentary action taken by any organism when confronted with adversity - a cellular response to generate specific capacities to overcome the threat - the responses that utilize advantageous genetic mutations and other cellular contents to attain these capacities and further drive the disease. The disease is initiated by a cellular response to survival challenges and the ongoing development of hallmark cancer capabilities, as cells endeavor to obtain a competitive advantage, results in increased molecular disarray, observed as tumor heterogeneity. When the evolutionary drive for survival is impeded by therapeutic inhibition of critical genes, cell death occurs, a phenomenon termed oncogene addiction. Drawing from the same idea that cells responding to survival challenges, we recognize the increasing primitiveness of cancer during its progress stems from the innate cellular response to the demand for regeneration under sustained cellular damage. This necessitates a regression to a more primitive state purposed to renew progeny, unleashing a hitherto undiscerned cellular capacity. Taken together, the ideas explored herein pave the way for novel cancer therapies and the betterment of human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1166.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: human papillomavirus 58; E7 oncogene; variants; phylogenetic analysis; gene expression
Online: 16 June 2023 (10:01:35 CEST)
Cervical cancer is associated with persistent infections by high-risk HPV types that may have nucleotide polymorphisms and, consequently, different oncogenic potentials. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability and structural effects of E7 oncogene of HPV58 in cervical scraping samples from Brazilian women. The study was carried out with patients from hospitals in metropolitan area of Recife, PE, Brazil. The most frequent HPV type was HPV16, 18 and 58, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolates were classified as sublineages A2, C1 and D2. Two positively selected mutations were found in E7: 63G and 64T. The mutations G41R, G63D and T64A in E7 protein were predicted to reduce the stability of the protein structure. Regarding the interaction of the E7 variant of HPV58 with the signaling of the NF-kB pathway, we observed that the variant HPV58/UFPE-54S decreased the activity of the pathway when compared to the prototype and the other variants behaved similarly to the prototype and the prototype increased the activity of the pathway when compared to pcDNA. In this study, it was possible to identify mutations that may interfere in the molecular interaction between the viral oncoproteins and host proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0063.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: p53-Mdm2; mutant p53; oncogene; stress; regulatory network; cancer dynamics
Online: 5 May 2020 (05:55:27 CEST)
We study a minimal model of the stress-driven p53 regulatory network that includes competition between active and mutant forms of the tumor-suppressor gene p53. Depending on the nature of the external stress signal, four distinct dynamical states are observed. These states can be distinguished by dierent dynamical properties and correspond to active, apoptotic, pre-malignant and cancer states. Transitions between any two of these states are found to be unidirectional and irreversible if the stress signal is either oscillatory or constant. When the signal decays exponentially, the apoptotic state vanishes, and for low stress the pre-malignant state is bounded by two critical points, allowing the system to transition reversibly from the active to the pre-malignant state. For signicantly large stress, the range of the pre-malignant state expands and the system moves to the cancerous state which is a stable attractor. This suggests that identification of the pre-malignant state may be important both for therapeutic intervention as well as for drug discovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1687.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Marek’s disease virus; vaccinated chicken flocks; meq oncogene; genetic characteristics; virulence
Online: 25 September 2023 (11:24:28 CEST)
Marek’s disease (MD) is an important neoplastic disease caused by serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV-1), which results in severe economic losses worldwide. Despite vaccination practices that have controlled the MD epidemic, current increasing MD-suspected cases indicate the persistent viral infections circulating among vaccinated chicken farms in many countries. However, the lack of available information about phylogeny and molecular characterization of circulating MDV-1 field strains in Taiwan reveals a potential risk in MD outbreaks. This study investigated the genetic characteristics of 18 MDV-1 isolates obtained from 17 vaccinated chicken flocks in Taiwan between 2018 and 2020. Based on the sequences of the meq oncogene, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the circulating Taiwanese MDV-1 field strains were predominantly in a single cluster that showed high similarity with strains/isolates from countries of East Asian region. Because the isolated strains were obtained from CVI988/Rispens vaccinated chicken flocks and the molecular characteristics of the Meq oncoprotein showed the features like vvMDV and vv+MDV strains, the circulating Taiwanese MDV-1 field strains may have higher virulence compared with vvMDV pathotype. In conclusion, the presented data demonstrate the circulation of hypervirulent MDV-1 strains in Taiwan and highlight the importance of routine surveillance and precaution strategies in response to the emergence of enhanced virulent MDV-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0413.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: translation initiation; canonical and noncanonical translation initiation codons; protein translation; oncogene; oncogenesis; tumorigenesis; cancer
Online: 24 August 2022 (05:30:03 CEST)
Ribosome profiling and mass spectroscopy have identified canonical and noncanonical translation initiation codons (TICs) that are upstream of the main translation initiation site and used to translate oncogenic proteins. Here, we use a Kozak Similarity Score algorithm to find that nearly all of these TICs have flanking nucleotides closely matching the Kozak sequence. Remarkably, the nucleotides flanking alternative noncanonical TICs are frequently closer to the Kozak sequence than the nucleotides flanking TICs used to translate the gene’s main protein. Of note, the 5’ untranslated region (5‘UTR) of cancer-associated genes with an upstream TIC tend to be significantly longer than the same region in genes not associated with cancer. The presence of a longer than typical 5’UTR increases the likelihood of ribosome binding to upstream noncanonical TICs, and may be a distinguishing feature of a number of genes overexpressed in cancer. Noncanonical TICs that are located in the 5’UTR, although thought disadvantageous and suppressed by evolution, may translate oncogenic proteins because of their flanking nucleotides
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0220.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: RAS oncogene; RAS signaling networks; RAS in human cancer; targeting RAS; computational modeling; personalized therapies
Online: 12 January 2021 (12:29:58 CET)
RAS oncogenes are amongst the most commonly mutated proteins in human cancers. They regulate a wide range of effector pathways that control cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, migration and metabolic status. Including aberrations in these pathways, RAS dependent signaling is altered in more than half of human cancers. Targeting mutant RAS proteins and their downstream oncogenic signaling pathways has been elusive. However, recent results comprising detailed molecular studies, large scale omics studies and computational modeling have painted a new and more comprehensive portrait of RAS signaling that helps us to understand the intricacies of RAS, how its physiological and pathophysiological functions are regulated, and how we can target them. Here, we review these efforts particularly trying to relate the detailed mechanistic studies with global functional studies. We highlight the importance of computational modeling and data integration to derive an actionable understanding of RAS signaling that will allow us to design new mechanism based therapies for RAS mutated cancers.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0270.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Cell division; Intracellular osmotic pressure; Tolerance limit of cell membrane; Carcinogenesis; Aneuploidy; Na+/K+ pump; Cytoskeleton; Oncogene; Tumor suppressor
Online: 21 June 2020 (13:41:21 CEST)
At present more than 9 million people die of cancer every year. Simple and broad-spectrum drugs are still an urgent need for cancer patients. Recently, we proposed a new hypothesis that intracellular osmotic pressure (IOP) is the driving force of cell division, and abnormal tumor proliferation is the result of uncontrolled IOP in cells. On the one hand, aneuploidy and abnormal function of Na+/K+ pump lead to a faster rise of IOP in tumor cell than normal cells, on the other hand, abnormality of cytoskeleton assembly leads to the decrease of tolerance limit of cell membrane (TLCM) of tumor cells for resisting IOP. This hypothesis predicts: 1)Tumor cells were more intolerant to hypotonic stress than normal cells. 2) Maligancies may be sellectively killed by a suddenn increase of IOP and combined with decrease of the TLCM of tumors. Na+/K+ pump inhibitors can promotely increase the IOP of tumor cells and cytoskeleton inhibitors can dramatically lower the TLCM of tumor cells. Therefore, Na+/K+ pump and cytoskeleton inhibitors may have a synergetic effect to kill tumor cells. 3) Molecules regulating cell osmolality may be new targets for cancer treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0115.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: oncogenes; oncogene addiction; carcinogenesis; transcription factor; cancer genome; gene fusion; cancer genetics; cancer stem cell; targeted cancer therapy; personalized medicine
Online: 14 September 2016 (08:30:41 CEST)
It has been declared repeatedly that cancer is a result of molecular genetic abnormalities. However, there has been no working model describing the specific functional consequences of the deranged genomic processes that result in the initiation and propagation of the cancer process during carcinogenesis. We no longer need to question whether or not cancer arises as a result of a molecular genetic defect within the cancer cell. The legitimate questions are: how and why? This article reviews the preeminent data on cancer molecular genetics and subsequently proposes that the sentinel event in cancer initiation is the aberrant production of fused transcription activators with new molecular properties within normal tissue stem cells. This results in the production of vital oncogenes with dysfunctional gene activation transcription properties, which leads to dysfunctional gene regulation, the aberrant activation of transduction pathways, chromosomal breakage, activation of driver oncogenes, reactivation of stem cell transduction pathways and the activation of genes that result in the hallmarks of cancer. Furthermore, a novel holistic molecular genetic model of cancer initiation and progression is presented along with a new paradigm for the approach to personalized targeted cancer therapy, clinical monitoring and cancer diagnosis.