CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0386.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Atelectasis; Hypoxia; Old age; Spontaneous respiration
Online: 26 October 2021 (12:36:47 CEST)
There are several causes of hypoxia during and after surgery, and atelectasis is a common symptom that occurs during surgery. In particular, elderly patients are more vulnerable to hypoxia due to their existing lung diseases or respiratory muscle weakness. This study presents the cases of two elderly patients who developed hypoxia during total hip arthroplasty under general anesthesia. Positive end expiratory pressure, recruitment maneuver, and increased fraction of inspired oxygen improved hypoxia only temporarily, and patients’ oxygen saturation level again dropped to 79%–80%. We suspected that hypoxia was caused by atelectasis and, therefore, re-sumed spontaneous respiration. Thereafter, both the patients showed an improvement in hypoxia. Intraopera-tive hypoxia that is suspected to be caused by atelectasis can be improved by securing sufficient lung volume for respiration through increased muscle tone with spontaneous respiration
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2138.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: frailty; elderly; multiple myeloma; choice of treatment; over 75 years old; early mortality
Online: 30 May 2023 (12:26:24 CEST)
Fragility scales are intended to help in therapeutic decisions. Here we asked if the fragility as-sessment in MM patients ≥75 years old qualified for treatment by the local physician correlates with the choice of treatment: a 2- or 3-drug regimen. Between 7/2018 to 12/2019 we prospectively enrolled 197 MM patients at the start of treatment from the 13 Polish Myeloma Group centers. The data to assess fragility were prospectively collected, but centrally assessed fragility was not disclosed to the local center. The activity of daily living (ADL) could be assessed in 192 (97.5%) and was independent in 158 (80.2%), moderately impaired in 23 (11.7%), and 11 (5.6%) in com-pletely dependent. Patients with more than 3 comorbidities were 26.9% (53 patients). Thus, ac-cording to the Palumbo calculator, 43 patients were in the intermediate-fitness group (21.8%), and the rest belonged to the frailty group (153, 77.7%). Overall, 79.7% of patients (157) received 3-drug regimens and 20.3% (40) received 2-drug regimens. In each ECOG group, more than 3/4 of patients received 3-drug regimens. According to the ADL scale, 82.3% of the independent 65.2% of moderately impaired, and 81.8% of the dependent received 3-drug regimens. Out of 53 pa-tients with at least 4 comorbidities, 71.7% received 3-drug regimens, and the rest 2-drug regi-mens. Three-drugs regimens received 34 patients from the intermediate-fit group (79.0%), and 123 (79.9%) from the frail group. Early mortality occurred in 25 patients (12.7%). No one discon-tinued treatment due to toxicity. To conclude, MM patients over 75 are mainly treated with tri-ple-drug regimens, not only in reduced doses, regardless of their frailty scores. However, the absence of prospective fragility assessment did not negatively affect early mortality and the number of treatment discontinuations which questions the clinical utility of current fragility scales in everyday practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: sepsis; community-acquired pneumonia; very old, pneumonia
Online: 19 June 2019 (10:00:15 CEST)
Background: Little is known about risk and prognostic factors in very old patients developing sepsis secondary to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of data prospectively collected at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona over a 13-year period. Consecutive patients hospitalized with CAP were included if they were very old (≥80 years) and divided into those with and without sepsis for comparison. Sepsis was diagnosed based on the Sepsis-3 criteria. The main clinical outcome was 30-day mortality. Results: Among the 4,219 patients hospitalized with CAP during the study period, 1,238 (29%) were very old. The prevalence of sepsis in this aged group was 71%. Male sex, chronic renal disease, and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for sepsis, while antibiotic therapy before admission was independently associated with a lower risk of sepsis. Thirty-day and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality did not differ between patients with and without sepsis. In CAP-sepsis group, chronic renal disease and neurological disease were independent risk factors for 30-day mortality. Conclusion: In very old patients hospitalized with CAP, in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were increased if they developed sepsis. Antibiotic therapy before hospital admission was associated with a lower risk of sepsis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Social rhythm; Behavioral rhythm; Well-being; Old adults
Online: 6 May 2021 (14:27:34 CEST)
Social and behavioral rhythms (SBRs) are related to circadian rhythms well known as central points in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorders. The purpose is to verify in elderly people if having functional SBRs correlated with a positive perception of the quality of life (QoL) and health parameters and if there was an association between dysfunctionality of SBRs and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Sample: 141 people aged 65 years (58,9%Female). Each subject was submitted to SBRs Scale (in which higher scores show more dysfunctional SRB); SF-12 for QoL; PHQ-9 for depressive symptoms and underwent blood levels essays including cholesterol and triglyceride. The medical documented lifetime diagnosis including Major Depressive Disorder was taken into account. SBRs Scale score correlated inversely with SF-12 score (r=-0.360, p<0.0001) and positively with PHQ9 (r=0.396, p<0.0001). Lifetime MDD medical diagnosis was associated with a higher score at scale on social rhythms (24.811.9 vs 20.18.0, F=15.848, p<0.0001).The study highlighted, for the first time, that SBRs such as sleep, and nutrition have a role in well-being and that dysregulation of SBRs is related to MDD. Further longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of individuals will have to confirm these data and clarify causal links of the association between QoL and SBRs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0236.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: endogenous; retrovirus; SERV; Old World monkey; phylogeny; evolution; paleovirology
Online: 12 November 2021 (16:29:10 CET)
Simian endogenous retrovirus, SERV, is a successful germ line invader restricted to Old World monkey (OWM) species. (1) Background: The availability of high quality primate genomes warrants a study of the characteristics, evolution and distribution of SERV proviruses; (2) Methods: Cercopithecinae OWM genomes from public databases were queried for the presence of full length SERV proviruses. A dataset of 81 Cer-SERV genomes was generated and analyzed; (3) Results: Full length Cer-SERV proviruses were mainly found in terrestrial OWM, and less so in arboreal, forest- dwelling monkeys. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the existence of two genotypes, Cer-SERV-1 and Cer-SERV-2, with Cer-SERV-1 showing evidence of recent germ line expansions. Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) variation indicated that most proviruses were of a similar age, and were estimated to be between <0.3 and 10 million years old. Integrations shared between species were relatively rare. Sequence analysis further showed extensive CpG methylation-associated mutation, variable Primer Binding Site (PBS) use with Cer-SERV-1 using PBSlys3 and Cer-SERV-2 using PBSlys1,2, and the recent gain of LTR motifs for transcription factors active during embryogenesis in Cer-SERV-1; (4) Conclusions: sequence analysis of 81 SERV proviruses from Cercopithecinae OWM genomes provides evidence for the adaptation of this retrovirus to germ line reproduction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: 2-year-old children; respiratory diseases; influenza; OH-PAHs; metabolites; urine
Online: 7 November 2022 (10:12:30 CET)
Aim: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been in the past associated with adverse effects on human health among which belong also respiratory diseases. Our study is focused on the evaluation of PAH exposure by measuring the concentrations of their monohydroxylated metabolites (OH-PAHs) in urine and comparing their concentrations with the incidence of respiratory diseases in 2-year-old children from two locations of the Czech Republic – a control locality Ceske Budejovice and a previously highly contaminated mining district Most. Methods: The total number of 248 participants were sampled for urine samples that were analysed for the presence of 11 OH-PAHs using liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and clean-up employing dispersive solid phase extraction with a sorbent Z-Sep. Separation, identification and quantification of the target compounds was achieved by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The incidence of respiratory diseases was evaluated according to the questionnaires provided by the paediatricians. Results and discussion: The concentrations of measured OH-PAHs were higher in the urine samples collected from 2-year-old children living in Most compared to 2-year-old children from Ceske Budejovice. The same trend was observed also when the urine samples were analysed when these children were studied as newborns in our previous study. From all of the monitored respiratory diseases, only influenza due to unidentified influenza virus showed a difference between tested locations where the 2-year-old children living in Most were more frequently diagnosed with this disease. Conclusion: Even though the air pollution and lifestyle in both cities is very similar, we have observed higher incidence of respiratory diseases as well as higher concentration of OH-PAHs in urine of the 2-year-old children from Most. Therefore, we hypothesize that the population living in this previously highly contaminated location (in 1970s and 1980s) can carry some long-term health burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0406.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Universal Design; Mobility; Old Core Cities; Walkability; Central Kolkata; Architectural Planning
Online: 18 February 2021 (10:26:00 CET)
In this research, users’ perception towards Universal Mobility in old core cities of India has been critically analyzed. Despite Universal Design guidelines from the United Nations and Union Government of India, old cities in India are seldom having Universal Mobility, in effect endangering the lifestyle of senior citizens and differently-abled people. The core of Kolkata Municipal Corporation in Kolkata, India has been considered as a case example for this research. This research has considered three types of data sets for analysis. First, the authors interviewed 310 respondents from the Indian design fraternity, with the objective of understanding their opinion on the concept of Universal Design. In the next investigative study of 125 respondents from different wards of Kolkata Municipal Corporation, the purpose was to comprehend people’s perception about walkability and mobility in an old Indian city. In the last visual survey of a stretch in Central Kolkata, the focus was identifying the hindrance in Universal Mobility in an old city core of Indian origin. Significant dissatisfaction was found in walkability amongst all user groups; which is linked to poor infrastructural conditions. Furthermore, accessing public transportation is difficult due to improper waiting facilities. However, the design fraternity in India suggests the need of separate accessibility guidelines for old and new cities in India. The design fraternity also recommends a customized rating system for accessing Universal Design. The result of this study indicates a need of recognizing the difficulty in imparting Universal Mobility in old core cities in India. This information can be used for preparing an Access Audit Checklist through Architectural Planning, which is the first step in proposing a framework for Universal Mobility in old core cities in India.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0500.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: old city regeneration; sustainability; plug-in design; public space; Xudi-Gaodijie area
Online: 7 August 2023 (11:37:48 CEST)
The current regeneration mode of public space in the old city of Guangzhou is ineffective, thus necessitating supplementation with a more systematic methodology. The “plug-in design” targets sustainable regeneration while preserving the overall urban texture and context, i.e., has little impact on the spatial qualities of the old city. The ultimate goal is to activate the public space of the old city of Guangzhou point-to-area through the insertion of various plug-ins. In this study, the methodology is applied to Xudi Gaodi Street, the core area of the old city of Guangzhou, to explore its effects on sustainability. The internal public space is isolated and supplied with rigid and flexible plug-ins from multiple dimensions, which not only improves the spatial environment but also injects new urban formats. This work provides a specific solution for regeneration in Guangzhou’s old city while enhancing empirical knowledge of the plug-in design to support urban regeneration theory and further practical development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0464.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: picoides dorsalis; old-growth forest; forest management; conservation; protected areas; boreal forest; clear-cutting
Online: 18 December 2020 (12:03:01 CET)
The southern extent of the boreal forest in North America has experienced intensive human disturbance in the past decades. Among these, forest harvesting leads to the substantial loss of late-successional stands that include key habitat attributes for several avian species. The American Three-toed Woodpecker, Picoides dorsalis, is associated with continuous old spruce forests in the eastern part of its range. In this study, we assess the influence of habitat characteristics at different scales on the occupancy of American Three-toed Woodpecker in a heavily managed boreal landscape of northeastern Canada, and we inferred species occupancy at the regional scale. We conducted 185 playback stations over two breeding seasons and modelled the occupancy of the species while taking into account the probability of detection. American Three-toed Woodpecker occupancy was lower in stands with large areas recently clear-cut, and higher in landscapes with large extents of old-growth forest dominated by black spruce. At the regional scale, areas with high probability of occupancy were scarce and mostly within protected areas. Habitat requirements of the American Three-toed Woodpecker during the breeding season, coupled with over-all low occupancy rate in our study area, challenge its long-term sustainability in such heavily managed landscapes. Additionally, the scarcity of areas of high probability of occupancy in the region suggest that the ecological role of old forest outside protected areas could be compromised.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: aging; anti-inflammaging helminth hypothesis; evolutionary medicine; helminth therapy; hygiene theory; inflammaging; old friends
Online: 2 December 2020 (15:25:37 CET)
Evolutionary medicine argues that disease can arise because modern conditions do not match those in which we evolved. For example, a decline in exposure to commensal microbes and gastrointestinal helminths in developed countries has been linked to increased prevalence of allergic and autoimmune inflammatory disorders (the hygiene hypothesis). Accordingly, microbial and helminthic probiotic therapies have been explored as Darwinian treatments for these disorders. A further possibility is that loss of old friend commensals also increases the sterile, aging-associated inflammation known as inflammaging, that contributes to a range of age-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease, dementia and cancer. Interestingly, Crowe et al. (2020) recently reported that treatment with a secreted glycoprotein from a parasitic nematode can protect against murine aging by induction of anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Here, we explore the hypothesis that restorative helminth therapy would have anti-inflammaging effects. Could worm infections provide broad-spectrum protection against age-related disease?
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1990.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: judo; martial art; combat sport; open-skill exercise; brain function; physical performance; cognitive performance; old adults
Online: 28 June 2023 (10:27:53 CEST)
Judo is a popular Japanese martial art and an Olympic sport. Recently, an increasing interest has been observed in the application of judo as a multicomponent exercise, with a growing body of evidence showing that multicomponent exercise improves physical and cognitive performance in older adults. Therefore, this review highlights the benefits of judo training in preventing physical and cognitive decline in older adults. Specifically, first, this review outlines the basic characteristics of judo (philosophy, match, and training). Next, previous studies investigating the effects of judo training on physical and cognitive aspects of older adults are reviewed. Thereafter, the brain mechanisms underlying the effects of judo training in improving physical and cognitive performance are discussed. Throughout this review, judo training demonstrated some positive effects on physical (gait and balance, among others) and cognitive (memory and executive function) function in older adults. These positive effects are attributed to a variety of changes in the brain (e.g., increased neurotrophic factor expression and increased cerebral blood flow, among others), that affect different brain regions and networks both functionally and structurally. From these findings, this review concludes that judo training can be an effective way to maintain and prevent physical and cognitive decline in older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; BBIBP-CorV; children 3-12 years old; the anti-spike; Anti-nucleocapsid; Neutralizing antibody
Online: 16 March 2022 (15:24:51 CET)
Background and Objectives: In the current Covid-19 pandemic, children below the age of 12 could manifest Covid-19 symptoms and serve as a reservoir for the virus in the community. The present study was conducted to evaluate the reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of BBIBP-CorV, prior to involving this age group in the vaccination program in the kingdom of Bahrain. Subjects and Methods: The study included 582 children from 3 to 12 years old of Bahraini and non-Bahraini nationality, all of which contributed to the reactogenicity study. Of those, 401 contributed to the immunogenicity study. All children received 2 doses of BBIBP-CorV inactivated virus 3 weeks apart. To assess reactogenicity, children were followed up for 5 weeks to evaluate any vaccine-related adverse events (AE). To assess immunogenicity, blood was collected on day 0 and day 35 to assess antibody titer against S, N, and neutralizing antibody. Results: Of the 582 participants, (45.4%) were female, (54.61%) were male, with 49% in 9-12 age group. Of the 401 children contributing to the immunogenicity study, 274 (68.3%) had no prior exposure to Covid-19. The overall incidence of AE was 27.7%. No significant difference was found among different age groups. The most frequent AE was local (at the injection site) and occurred in 16% of children, followed by fever in 9.3%. No serious adverse events were reported. The Seroconversion rate was 100% among children with no prior exposure to Covid-19. Children with previous Covid-19 exposure had higher averages of anti-S (2379 U/ml compared to 409.1), anti-N (177.6 U/ml compared to 30.9) and neutralizing antibody (93.7 U/ml compared to 77.1) than children with no prior exposure at day 35. Conclusions: Two doses of COVID-19 BBIBP-CorV on the subjects aged between 3 to 12 has good safety and tolerance and can induce an effective immune response and neutralizing antibody titer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0288.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: In ovo sexing; male day-old chick culling; animal welfare; optical and non-optical techniques; patents and papers
Online: 15 March 2023 (14:29:43 CET)
Numerous researchers and institutions have been developing in ovo sexing technologies to improve animal welfare by identifying male embryos in an early embryonic stage and disposing of them before pain perception. This review gives a complete overview of the technological approaches reported in papers and patents by performing a thorough search using Web of Science and Patstat databases for papers and patents, respectively. Based on a total of 45 papers and 100 patent families up until 2021 reported worldwide, 11 technology categories were defined: six non-optical and five optical techniques. Every category was described for its characteristics while assessing its potential for application. Next, the dynamics of the publications of in ovo sexing techniques in both paper and patent fields were described through growth curves, and the interest or actual status was visualized using the number of paper citations and the actual legal status of the patents. When comparing the reported technologies in papers to those in patents, scientific gaps were observed, as some of the patented technologies were not reported in the scientific literature, e.g., ion mobility and mass spectrometry approaches. Generally, more diverse approaches in all categories were found in patents, although they do require more scientific evidence through papers or industrial adoption to prove their robustness. Moreover, although there is a recent trend for non-invasive techniques, invasive methods like analyzing DNA through PCR or hormones through immunosensing are still being reported (and might continue to be) in papers and patents. It was also observed that none of the technologies complies with all the industry requirements. Thus, more research and harmony between consumers, industry, and governments is necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0900.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Pile foundation replacement beam construction; Polymer reinforced planting bar adhesive; interface between new and old concrete; experiment; finite element simulation analysis
Online: 14 September 2023 (04:59:22 CEST)
In view of the complexity of the pile foundation underpinning structure system and the stringent requirements of the construction process, this paper briefly describes the necessity of introducing epoxy resin reinforcing adhesive of planting rebar in the design of pile foundation underpinning beam structure to im-prove the mechanical properties of the underpinning beam new and old concrete joint surfaces and proposes a new type of pile foundation underpinning beam system construction method by “chiseling + prestressed reinforcement + epoxy resin reinforcing adhesive”. This paper uses an actual pile foundation underpinning project of an urban overpass as a prototype, designs and creates a model structure with a similarity ratio of 1/6, and performs repeated pro-gressive static loading tests to study the load carrying capacity, displacement change, and other properties of the underpinning structure, as well as analyses and distorts the overall working performance and failure mode of them. On this basis, the prototype structure's finite element analysis model was built, and the finite element analysis results were compared with the test results to get the mechanical properties and deformation characters of the actual pile foundation under-pinning structure system corresponding to the actual underpinning beam load. This paper's study can lay the theoretical and experimental foundation for the smooth development of similar projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0176.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological distress/anxiety/depression; dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21; Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items; factor structure; psychometric properties; structural validity; validation; measurement invariance; old age/elders/elderly; informal; family caregivers; spouse; adult children
Online: 9 August 2022 (08:44:11 CEST)
Dementia patients express a set of problematic and deteriorating symptoms, along self-care dependency. Overtime, the mental health of family caregivers of persons with dementia may suffer, putting them at a high risk for psychopathology, which may be associated with endangered wellbeing of demented people. This cross-sectional study examined the psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items (DASS-8), DASS-12, DASS-21 in a convenient sample of 571 caregivers from northern Italy and southern Switzerland (Mean age = 53, SD = 12, range = 24–89 years). A bifactor structure of the three measures had the best fit; some items of the DASS-12/DASS-21 failed to load on their domain-specific factors. The three-factor structure was invariant across various groups (e.g., gender, education, etc.), expressed adequate reliability and convergent validity, and had strong positive correlation with the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLALS3). Dementia type had no effect on distress scores, which were higher among females, adult children caregivers, those caring for dependent patients, and those who received help with care. For 54.9 and 38.8% of the latter, care was provided by relatives and health professionals, respectively. Since the DASS-8 expresses adequate psychometrics comparable with the DASS-21, it may be used as a brief measure of distress in this population.