ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0381.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: quinoa; genotype; nutritional traits; seed quality
Online: 8 September 2021 (12:37:08 CEST)
Exploiting the relationship between the nutritional properties of seeds and the genetic background, constitutes an essential analysis which contributes to broadening our knowledge regarding the control of the nutritional quality of seeds or any other edible plant structure. This constitutes an important aspect when aiming at improving the nutritional characteristics properties of crops, including those of Chenopodium quinoa Willd (quinoa) which is intended to be one of the main nutrient sources ensuring food security worldwide. Changes in the nutritional properties of quinoa seeds due to the influence exerted by the environment, the genotype, or their interaction, have been already described in previous works, but there is an important limitation in the analyses carried out, including the outcomes that can be translated into agronomical practices by which quality can be improved selecting the most adequate genotype. In the present study, several seed nutritional-related parameters from fifteen quinoa cultivars grown in a particular environmental context were analyzed aiming at targeting compounds that can be determinants of seed quality. Important agronomical and nutritional differences were found among cultivars such as distinct mineral or protein contents and seed viability. More importantly, our analyses revealed key correlations between seed quality-related traits in some cultivars, including those that relate yield and antioxidants or the germination rate. These results highlight the importance of considering the genotypic variation in quinoa when selecting improved quinoa varieties with the best nutritional characteristics for new cultivation environments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0382.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: nutritional screening; nutritional risk; nutritional assessment; malnutrition; elderly; COVID-19; coronavirus
Online: 18 August 2020 (11:03:10 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with high risk of malnutrition, primarily in elderly people; assessing nutritional risk using appropriate screening tools is critical. This systematic review identified applicable tools and assessed their measurement properties. Literature was searched in the MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS databases. Four studies conducted in China met the eligibility criteria. Sample sizes ranged from six to 182, and participants’ ages from 65 to 87 years. Seven nutritional screening and assessment tools were used: the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), MNA-short form (MNA-sf), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), Geriatric NRI (GNRI), and modified Nutrition Risk in the Critically ill (mNUTRIC) score. Nutritional risk was identified in 27.5% to 100% of participants. The NRS-2002, MNA, MNA-sf, NRI, and MUST demonstrated high sensitivity; the MUST had better specificity. The MNA and MUST demonstrated better criterion validity. The MNA-sf demonstrated better predictive validity for poor appetite and weight loss; the NRS-2002 demonstrated better predictive validity for prolonged hospitalization. mNUTRIC score demonstrated good predictive validity for hospital mortality. Most instruments demonstrate high sensitivity for identifying nutritional risk, but none are acknowledged as the best for nutritional screening in elderly COVID-19 patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1067.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: artificial intelligence; genetics; agriculture; nutritional
Online: 18 September 2023 (05:34:30 CEST)
There has been a revolution in crop breeding, the age-old technique of improving plant features for agricultural and nutritional purposes. The merging of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and genetics is the driving force behind these changes. The combination of AI-driven models, genomic data, and cutting-edge tools like CRISPR-Cas9 to speed up genetic improvements in crops is described in this abstract. From increased disease resistance and production potential to better nutritional content, AI plays a crucial role in the identification and improvement of crop features. The time it takes to review, select, and cross several generations of crops is reduced by AI's data-driven selection, precision editing, and predictive modeling. This innovative tool has the potential to transform farming by helping to combat issues like hunger, climate change, and malnutrition on a worldwide scale. Equal access, protecting genetic variety, and assessing risks are only some of the ethical and regulatory issues raised by AI-enhanced agricultural breeding. Responsible and equitable implementation of AI in agricultural breeding relies on successfully navigating these challenges. Finally, the use of artificial intelligence to improve crop breeding marks a revolutionary change in agriculture, speeding up genetic improvements to meet the needs of a growing global population while also addressing urgent environmental and nutritional concerns. This abstract provides a taste of the promise, difficulty, and ethical questions that characterize this innovative subject, where artificial intelligence and genetics join forces to grow a better future for agricultural production around the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0155.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: zooplankton; cyanotoxins; nutritional constraint; cyanobacteria
Online: 4 July 2023 (07:48:31 CEST)
Changes in food quality can dramatically impair zooplankton fitness, especially in eutrophic water bodies where cyanobacteria are usually predominant. Cyanobacteria are considered a food with low nutritional value, besides some species can produce bioactive secondary metabolites reported as toxic to zooplankton. Considering that cyanobacteria can limit survival, growth and reproduction of zooplankton, we hypothesized that the adverse effects of the dietary exposure of Daphnia species to saxitoxin-producing cyanobacteria depend on the relative abundance of nutitious food source in the diet. Life table experiments were conducted with different diets: 1) without nutritional restriction, where neonates were fed with diets at a constant green algae (Monoraphidium capricornutum) biomass as a nutritious food source, and increasing cyanobacterial concentration (STX-producing Raphidiopsis raciborskii), and 2) with diets consisting of different proportions of M. capricornutum (nutritious) and R. raciborskii (poor food) at a total biomass 1.0 mg C L 1. In general, the presence of high proportions of cyanobacteria promoted a decrease in Daphnia somatic growth, reproduction and intrinsic rate of population increase (r) in both diets with more pronounced effects in the nutritionally restricted diet (90% R. raciborskii). Two-way ANOVA revealed significant effects of species/clone and treatments in both assays, with significant interaction between those factors only in the second assay. Regarding the grazing assay, only D. laevis was negatively affected by increased cyanobacterial proportions in the diet. In the life table assay with constant edible food, a reduction in the reproduction parameters and the intrinsic rate of population increase (r) of all species was observed, In conclusion, we found adverse effects of the toxic cyanobacterial strain R. raciborskii on Daphnia fitness, regardless of the constant amount of nutritious food available, proving the toxic effect of R. raciborskii and the nutritional quality of the food has a greater influence on the fitness of these animals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2252.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: nutritional assessment; oesophageal cancer; pharyngeal cancer; prognosis; survival; nutritional status; diagnosis; malnutrition; chemotherapy; radiotherapy
Online: 30 June 2023 (12:36:40 CEST)
Background: Malnutrition in oesophageal and pharyngeal cancer patients constitutes a common and serious concern, which significantly reduces patients’ prognosis. Cancers of the oesophagus and the pharynx can considerably impair feeding in patients, resulting in severe undernutrition. This is a scoping review which aims to critically summarize and scrutinize the current clinical evidence on the use and prognostic role of diverse nutritional assessment tools on the prognosis of patients with oesophageal and pharyngeal cancers. Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were comprehensively explored utilizing relative keywords to detect clinical studies that investigate whether nutritional status may affect disease prognosis. Results: Several assessment tools have evaluated and highlighted the prognostic role of nutritional status on patients’ survival and disease complications in both oesophageal and pharyngeal cancers. Regarding oesophageal cancer, CONUT, PNI, PG-SGA and NRS-2002 are more commonly used, while albumin is also frequently evaluated. Regarding pharyngeal cancers, fewer studies are currently available. PNI has been evaluated and its significance as a factor for shorter overall survival, distant metastasis-free survival, progression-free survival, and locoregional recurrence-free has been highlighted. Comprehensive Nutritional Index has also been evaluated with positive results, as well as NRS 2002, GPS, and body weight status. However, there is currently a lack of studies with adequate female patients. There is also a significant lack of well-designed prospective studies with well-organized methodology. Conclusion: Nutritional status may significantly affect disease progression and patients’ survival, highlighting the importance of a good nutritional status in patients with oesophageal and pharyngeal cancers. Further large-scaled and well-designed prospective clinical studies are strongly recommended to verify the potential beneficial effects of nutritional status in patients with oesophageal and pharyngeal cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0166.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: computational nutrition; meal plan generator; nutritional app; nutritional intervention; smartphone application; diet app; diet record.
Online: 9 December 2022 (01:11:03 CET)
Access to good nutritional health is one of the principal objectives of current society. Several e-services offer dietary advice. However, multifactorial and more individualized nutritional recommendations should be developed to recommend healthy menus according to the specific user's needs. In this article we present and validate a personalized nutrition system based on an application (APP) for smart devices with the capacity to offer an adaptable menu to the user. The APP was developed following a structured recommendation generation scheme, where the characteristics of the menus of 20 users were evaluated. Specific menus were generated for each user based on their preferences and nutritional requirements. These menus were evaluated by comparing their nutritional content versus the nutrient composition retrieved from dietary records. The generated menus showed great similarity to those obtained from the user dietary records. Furthermore, the generated menus showed less variability in micronutrient amounts and higher concentrations than the menus from the user records. The macronutrient deviations were also corrected in the generated menus, offering a better adaptation to the users. The presented system is a good tool for the generation of menus that are adapted to the user characteristics and a starting point to nutritional interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1258.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Schizophrenia; Nutritional deficiencies; Women; Antipsychotics; Poverty
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:27:10 CEST)
Severe mental illness such as schizophrenia is associated with factors such as unemployment, meagre per capita income, and residence in disadvantaged, poorly resourced neighbourhoods. This means difficult access to healthy food and is particularly problematic for pregnant women and mothers with children to feed. Eating problems are also linked to the necessity of taking antipsychotic drugs that often lead to serious cognitive, psychological, and behavioural sequelae. Psychosis makes it extremely difficult to maintain a healthy diet; nutritional deficiencies result, as do medical complications. The results of present literature review confirm the gravity of the problem and suggest a number of potentially useful interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0071.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: nutrition screening tools; malnutrition; nutritional assessment
Online: 6 May 2022 (10:01:24 CEST)
Malnutrition is a serious problem with negative impact on the quality of life and the evolution of our patients, contributing to an increase in morbidity, hospital stay, mortality and health spending. Early identification is fundamental to implement the necessary therapeutic actions involving adequate nutritional support to prevent or reverse malnutrition. This review presents two complementary methods of fighting malnutrition: nutritional screening and nutritional assessment. Nutritional risk screening is conducted using simple, quick-to-perform tools and is the first line of action in detecting at-risk patients. It should be implemented systematically and periodically on admission to hospital or residential care, as well as on an outpatient basis for patients with chronic conditions. Once patients with a nutritional risk have been detected they should undergo a more detailed nutritional assessment to identify and quantify the type and degree of malnutrition. This should include health history and clinical examination, dietary history, anthropometric measurements, evaluation of the degree of aggression determined by the disease, functional assessment and, whenever possible, some method of measuring body composition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0263.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: serum leptin; nutritional status; laparoscopic gastrectomy
Online: 15 September 2021 (14:15:06 CEST)
Background: Laparoscopic surgery produces lesser postoperative inflammation with a smaller cytokine and leptin response, and might thus reduce postoperative anorexia compared to open surgery. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of serum leptin in postoperative anorexia after laparoscopic gastric cancer surgery. Methods: Fifty-four consecutive patients with adenocarcinoma of the stomach were operated on either with open or laparoscopic surgery. Correlations were determined between the serum levels of leptin, clinico-pathological characteristics, serum haemoglobin and albumin. Results: Serum leptin levels on day seven were correlated significantly to gender (p=0.004), BMI (p=0.002) and tumour grade (p=0.033). In the patients with CRP < 100 mg/l the leptin levels on day seven were significantly lower after the laparoscopic operation (p=0.042) and in patients with lower BMI (p=0.001). The linear regression model determined a significant correlation between the relative concentration of leptin on day seven and laparoscopic surgery (Beta -0.688; p < 0.0001), gender, BMI, location of the tumour, T stage, N stage, perioperative therapy, tumour grade, perineural invasion, Lauren histological type and ulceration. In patients with CRP levels below 100 mg/ml the serum level of albumin on day seven after surgery was significantly higher in patients after laparoscopic surgery. Conclusion: Laparoscopic surgery produced significantly lower relative leptin concentrations on day seven, and higher serum albumin levels in the subgroup with CRP levels below 100 mg/l at discharge. These results suggested that laparoscopic gastric cancer surgery might reduce postoperative leptin response, leading to a better nutritional status at discharge compared to open surgery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0301.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: immune response; nutritional supplement; cancer; oncoxin
Online: 15 January 2021 (15:45:55 CET)
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of Oncoxin as an antitumoral supplement, and to describe its mechanism of action. Methods: We performed this scoping review according to the recommendations of the Joanna Briggs Institute and included patients older than 18 years-old who have any kind of tumor and receive Oncoxin as a supplement. We focused on the efficacy in terms of antitumoral properties, quality of life and survival, safety in terms of adverse events, and the mechanism of action. We did not limit for language or setting. We searched MEDLINE (Pubmed), EMBASE (Scopus), LILACS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception to nowadays. Results: We found a promising increment of survival when taking Oncoxin as a supplementary treatment. Additionally, the quality of life increased in terms of Karnofsky and EORTC scales. Regarding the mechanism of action, studies suggest it modifies inflammatory mediators’ expression, as evidenced by the reduction of COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, and IFN-γ. Besides, it promotes an arrest in the progression of cells from G1 into S, along with an increase in p27 and a decrease in cyclin D1 and pRb. Conclusions: We found promising complementary effects of Oncoxin to the standard treatment of cancer patients in diverse scenarios, with putative robust mechanisms of action. In addition to clinically relevant impacts verified in clinical trials, as well as it decreases the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, it can also decrease cytokines with antitumor activity such as IFN-γ, which should be further explored in larger trials and the long term.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0380.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: neem extracts; nutritional components; systemic diseases
Online: 31 May 2019 (08:44:25 CEST)
Plant-based alternative medicine is normally grounded on empiric cultural perception, as the main objective, these practices intent to either maintain good health or to provide a route to turn-the-tide on a specific disease or ailment. Amongst the thousands of plants that have been used and studied, Neem (Azadirachta indica) seems to have a very interesting tale to tell, since its properties to ward-off certain diseases have overtime, and in a rigorous way, been proven. The preceding concise review is a collection of some of the most relevant studies today, not only focusing on the health benefits obtained by its use, but digging into the molecular mechanisms of how the properties come about. In particular, we take a look over antioxidant properties and how these mediate and mitigate important molecules such as IL-6 and TNF-, leading the way in reducing systematic damage by oxidative stress. Further, we relate this oxidative reduction to other systemic diseases such as cancer and diabetes, as these are currently becoming the most rampant killers. As of yet not all is known about the different ways of extracting or the total composition of an extract, as these may be from different parts of the plant. Therefore, we also allude to an important cautionary view where toxicological effects and conflicting outcomes arise. Overall, presented results show a great potential for the different extracts of Neem as their antioxidant activity can be taken advantage off, and potentially used in modern medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0168.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: nutritional supplements; tennis; ergogenic aids; amateurs
Online: 12 April 2018 (14:16:39 CEST)
Literature on the use of nutritional supplements (NS) in tennis players is scarce. The objective of the present study was to evaluate NS consumption in a group of men's tennis players who participated in the 2016 Andalusian team championship. A total of 70 questionnaires from 7 different clubs were registered. The questionnaire was previously designed and evaluated through piloting in which the validity of the content, its application, its structure and its presentation were observed. The results showed that 100% of the sample group was in favor of NS consumption within the law, 88.6% claimed to have consumed them at some time and 61.4% presently consume them. The NS most consumed by study participants were sports drinks (69.35%), energy bars (29%), a vitamin complex (19.35%), protein (serum) (17.74%) and creatine (14.51%). A high percentage of NS consumers thought that they had obtained positive results from NS consumption. The percentages and the findings regarding NS consumption in the present study were similar to the contributions made by other studies which evaluated supplementation in athletes, although with some subtle differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0101.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: onion; drying; bioactive; nutritional and organoleptic
Online: 9 April 2018 (09:51:30 CEST)
Onion (Allium cepa L.) is a strong-flavoring vegetable consumed in different ways. It is mainly due its distinctive flavor or simply pungency. Onion has also important natural compounds effective for medical functions such as inhibition of bone resorption, lower risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. This importance is directly related to high content of organo-sulphur compounds. Shelf life of fresh onion bulb is short enough about two weeks at ambient storage conditions in Fogera district, Amhara region, Ethiopia. This is mainly due to the presence of high moisture in fresh onion bulbs. Postharvest loss of onion bulb reaches up to 50% in the production season in Fogera district. Consequently onion bulb had extreme variable market price during production and off season in the district which directly influences both the growers and consumers. In this study the effect of different drying techniques on nutritional and volatile components of onion were evaluated. Effect of different drying techniques on protein, carbohydrate, total sugar, fat, pyurvic acid, ascorbic acid, total phenol, total flovonol, rehydration ratio, color and sensory properties of onion slice were evaluated and found insignificant at (P > 0.05) for microwave and modified direct solar dryers taking fresh onion bulb as a control. But oven drying method had significant effect on onion physicochemical quality attributes at (P < 0.05) as compared to fresh onion bulbs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0555.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: nutritional risk screening; severe mental illness; psychiatric treatment; BMI; nutritional status; malnutrition; depression; schizophrenia; nutrition; diet
Online: 30 November 2022 (02:44:53 CET)
People with severe mental illness (SMI) are often in poor physical health, resulting in higher mortality and reduced life expectancy compared to the general population. Although eating habits are one of the main predictors of physical health, few studies assess the nutritional status and eating behaviour of people with SMI. The aim of this study was to examine the nutritional status and risk of malnutrition in people with SMI and in need of intensive psychiatric treatment. The cross-sectional study included 65 inpatients and 67 outpatients with psychotic or depressive disorders from the Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Zurich. Patients’ assessments at admission included anthropometric measurements, such as weight and height, and interview data including severity of symptoms and functioning (SCL-K-9, PHQ-D, CGI, m-GAF), personal and medical data, nutrition risk screening tools (adapted NRS, MNA-SF) and laboratory values. The results showed that 32% of the inpatients (body mass index [BMI] = 25.3) and 34% of the outpatients (BMI = 27.9) were at risk of malnutrition, which was associated with higher levels of psychiatric symptoms and lower levels of functioning. These results indicate that a substantial proportion of psychiatric patients seem to be at risk of malnutrition, despite most being overweight, and hence they might benefit from nutritional support during their psychiatric treatment. Moreover, nutritional risk screening tools specifically developed for the mental healthcare setting are needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0326.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: nutritional programming; neonate; miR-26; miR-320
Online: 6 October 2023 (11:33:42 CEST)
The endogenous miRNAs of breast milk are the products of more than 1,000 nonprotein-coding genes, giving rise to mature small regulatory molecules of 19–25 nucleotides. They are incorporated in macromolecular complexes, loaded on Argonaut proteins, sequestrated in exosomes, lipid complexes, or present in exfoliated cells of epithelial, endothelial, or immune origins. Their expression is dependent on the stage of lactation, however their detection depends on progress in RNA sequencing and the reappraisal of small RNAs definition. Some miRNAs from plants are detected in breast milk, opening the possibility of stimulation of immune cells of the allergic repertoire. Each miRNA harbors a seeding sequence, which targets mRNAs, gene promoters, or long noncoding RNAs. Their activities depend on their bioavailability. Efficient doses of miRNAs are estimated at roughly 100 molecules in the cytoplasm of target cells from in vitro and in vivo experiments. Each miRNA is included in networks of stimulation/inhibition/sequestration driving the expression of cellular phenotypes. Three types of stress applied during lactation to manipulate miRNA supply, have been explored on the rodent offspring: foster mother, cafeteria diet, early weaning. The review present the main mature miRNAs described across current mothers’ cohorts, their bioavailability in experimental models, and the studies assessing the potentials of miR-26 or miR-320 miRNA families to alter offspring phenotype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1896.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Severe Dementia; Nutritional status; Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy
Online: 26 May 2023 (08:56:02 CEST)
Dementia is a rising public health concern. Feeding and nutritional problems increase as the disease progresses, affecting clinical course and caregiver burden. While some guidelines advise against percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and tube feeding in advanced dementia, conflicting evidence exists. This study aims evaluating nutritional status and the influence of PEG-feeding on outcome and evolution of nutritional/progonosis markers of patients with severe dementia (PWSD) who underwent gastrostomy for nutritional support. We conducted a 16-year rectrospective study on 100 PEG-fed PWSD with strong familiar support. We evaluated survival PEG-feeding period, safety, and objective nutritional/progonosis data at the gastrostomy day and after 3 months: Body Mass Index (BMI), Mid Upper Arm Circumference, Tricipital Skinfold, Mid-Arm Muscle Circumference, albumin, transferrin, total cholesterol and hemoglobin. Most patients presented low values in these nutritional/progonosis parameters. No major life-threatening PEG complications were reported. The mean survival time after gastrostomy was 27.9 months (median of 17 months). Female sex, BMI recovery at 3 months, and higher baseline hemoglobin levels were associated with a reduced risk of death and increased survival time. The study concluded that, in carefully selected PWSD with strong familiar support, PEG feeding can improve nutritional status and have a positive impact on survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1572.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; prognostic nutritional index; inflammation; prognosis
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:50:23 CEST)
Background: In this paper, it was aimed to evaluate the biomarker potential as well as the effect of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), which is calculated using the albumin level reflecting nutritional status and lymphocyte count reflecting immune status, in determining the prognosis of metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC). Methods: This retrospective observational study included the complete data of 108 patients with mCPSC who were treated for at least three months between January 1, 2010, and June 1, 2021. The relationship between cancer specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and PNI was evaluated. Kaplan-Meier method for OS, PFS, and CSS, as well as univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used in statistical analyses. Results: The median age of 108 patients included in the study was 68.54 (61.05-74.19) years. While 71.3% (n = 77) of the patient population were high-volume according to CHAARTED, 52.8% (n = 57) were high-risk based on LATITUDE. 49.75 was determined as the best cut-off point for the PNI. OS (months) was found to be significantly lower in patients with low PNI (median: 34.93, 95% CI: 21.52–48.34) compared to patients with high PNI (median: 65.60, 95% CI: 39.36–91.83) (p=0.016). Patients with high PNI (median: 48.20, 95% CI: 34.66–61.73) had significantly better CSS (months) than patients with low PNI (median: 27.86, 95% CI: 24.16–31.57) (p=0.001). Conclusions: PNI calculated at the time of diagnosis strongly predicts OS and CSS but not PFS in patients with mCSPC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0343.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: iodine nutritional status; BRAFV600E; papillary thyroid cancer
Online: 25 October 2021 (10:57:18 CEST)
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) accounts for approximately 85%-90% of all thyroid cancers. BRAFV600E mutation is a highly specific target for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and may have a reciprocal causative relationship with iodide-metabolizing genes. Here, we performed a review of studies published in the past 10 years to determine the relationship between iodine intake and BRAFV600E mutation in patients with PTC. We searched the MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE databases for studies published from 2009 to 2019; seven partially matched the selection criteria and were suitable for review, and five passed all selection criteria. We divided the patients into three groups by iodine intake: low (urinary iodine concentration [UIC] <100 μg/L), adequate (UIC 100–200 μg/L), and high iodine intake groups (UIC ≥200 μg/L). Between-group analysis revealed no significant differences in the odds ratio of the prevalence of BRAFV600E mutation between the high and adequate/low iodine intake groups and between the adequate and low iodine intake groups. To further analyzed the results of studies, they exhibited U-shaped curves in the relation of deficient and excessive dietary iodine intake in BRAFV600E mutation. The results might suggest that iodine intake slightly influences the prevalence of BRAFV600E mutation in patients with PTC despite the heterogeneity of studies. Further research should explore potential mechanisms underlying the associations between iodine intake and BRAF mutation in PTC. The systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021279462).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0365.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: semen quality; male infertility; nutritional model; diet
Online: 20 April 2020 (14:54:04 CEST)
Abnormalities in male fertility constitute about 50% of all infertility causes. According to some data, the quality of human semen has deteriorated by 50-60 % over the last 40 years. A high-fat diet and obesity, the development of which is encouraged by the western lifestyle, affects the structure of spermatozoa, but also the development of the offspring and their health in later stages of life. In obese individuals, disorders on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis are observed, as well as elevated oestrogen levels with simultaneous decrease of testosterone, LH and FSH hormone levels. Healthy dietary models clearly correlate with better sperm quality and a smaller risk of abnormalities in parameters, such as sperm count, sperm concentration and motility, as well as lower sperm DNA fragmentation. Apart from mineral components such as zinc and selenium, the role of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidant vitamins should be emphasized, since their action will be based primarily on the minimization of oxidative stress and inflammation process. Additionally, the incorporation of carnitine supplements and coenzyme Q10 in therapeutic intervention seems also promising. Therefore, it is advisable to have a varied and balanced diet based on vegetables and fruit, fish and seafood, nuts, seeds, whole-grain products, poultry and low-fat dairy products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0206.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: body self-image; adolescent; anthropometry; nutritional status
Online: 16 April 2018 (10:51:45 CEST)
The critical changes in physical appearance during adolescence can considerably influence the self-appraisal of body image. The purpose of this study is to analyze body self-image gender differences in Mediterranean adolescents, and his relationships to the anthropometric characteristics of this population in different phases of the adolescence. Participants were 809 Mediterranean teenagers (396 females) aged 11 to 17. A relative low prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was observed among healthy urban Mediterranean adolescents (boys 17.3%; girls 22.7%). Girls showed statistically significantly higher mean BSQ scores than boys (M = 61.7, SD = 26.6 versus M = 56.3, SD = 27.1; p < 0.001). Girls in the late adolescence were more often classified as being dissatisfied (31%) in comparison to those in the early adolescent group (19.1%; p < 0.05). There was a good correlation of BSQ scores with all the anthropometric variables in males but not in females.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0118.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: dietary assessment; FFQ; recall; nutritional biomarker; validation
Online: 27 June 2017 (04:58:14 CEST)
The development of reliable Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) requires detailed information about the level and variation of dietary food intake of the target population. However, these data are often limited. To facilitate the development of new high quality FFQs and validation of existing FFQs, we developed a comprehensive National Dietary Assessment Reference Database (NDARD) detailing information about the level and variation in dietary food intake of people 20-70 years old in the general Dutch population. This paper describes the methods and characteristics of the population included in the NDARD database. 1063 men and 985 women agreed to participate in this research. Dietary intake data were collected using different FFQs, web-based and telephone-based 24-hour recalls, as well as blood and urine-based biomarkers. The baseline FFQ was completed by 1647 participants whose mean BMI was 26±4 kg/m2; 1117 participants completed telephone-based recalls and 1781 participants completed web-based recalls. According to the baseline FFQ, the mean energy intake was 2051±605 kcal/day. The percentage of total energy intake from protein was 15±2 En%, from carbohydrates was 43±6 En%, and from fat was 36±5 En%. This database will enable researchers to validate existing FFQs and to develop new high quality dietary assessment methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1036.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Pre-pregnancy; overweight; obesity; childhood; anthropometric parameters; nutritional habits; nutritional interventions; perinatal outcomes; postnatal outcomes; healthy dietary habits
Online: 14 June 2023 (09:45:34 CEST)
Background: Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity of women of childbearing ages, has alarmingly a growing trend in developed countries. This study aimed to evaluate potential associations between maternal pre-pregnancy excess body weight and childhood demographic and anthropometric characteristics, as well as perinatal and postnatal outcomes. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 5198 pre-school children aged 2-5 years old and their matched mothers that were enrolled from nine different Greek regions. Maternal and childhood anthropometric and demographic data, perinatal and postnatal outcomes were collected from medical history records or validated questionnaires. Results: A prevalence of 24.4% and 30.6% of overweight/obesity was recorded for the enrolled children and their mothers 2-5 years postpartum. In multivariate analysis, childhood overweight and obesity was significantly more frequently observed when maternal pre-pregnancy BMI status was overweight or obese [OR: 2.11 (1.80-2.42) p=0.0001]. A high prevalence of caesarean section delivery and childhood diabetes type I was also significantly associated with maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity [OR:1.71 (1.33-2.19) p=0.0175) and OR: 1.27 (1.04-1.53) p=0.0014, respectively]. Conclusions: Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity rates were related with increased childhood weight status at birth and 2-5 years postpartum, highlighting the necessity of encouraging healthy lifestyle promotion, including healthier nutritional habits, and focusing on obesity population policies and nutritional interventions among women of reproducible age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Stomach cancer survivor; Dietary habit change; Nutritional guideline
Online: 14 June 2023 (08:30:35 CEST)
Current nutritional guidelines for stomach cancer survivors (SCS) mainly focus on the influence of surgical resection of the stomach, with limited guidance regarding a wider range of food options. We aimed to investigate the factors associated with healthier dietary changes in Korean adult SCS. This cross-sectional study assessed dietary pattern change after cancer treatment for 11 food categories, using a self-administered questionnaire. A ‘healthier dietary change’ was operationally defined as reduced consumption of red and processed meat, grains, salt, and burnt food, and increased consumption of poultry, fish, vegetables, fruits, legumes, and dairy products. Among a total of 624 SCS, approximately 60% of participants reported healthier directional dietary changes in three or more food categories, while 9.1% reported no changes. There was no significant difference in dietary habit changes between surgery types. Multivariable adjusted analysis showed that elderly and long-term survivors were inversely associated with a healthier dietary change. SCS with higher educational achievement and income were more likely to make healthier changes in their intake of processed meat, vegetables, fruits, burnt food, or salt. SCS with higher levels of fear of cancer recurrence, anxiety, or depression were more likely to follow healthier dietary changes for fish, meat, fruits, grains, or burnt food. Change in dietary pattern varied across different food items and was associated with various characteristics of SCS. It is crucial to repeatedly provide SCS with information about healthier dietary patterns, considering their sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0504.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV/AIDS patients; Nutritional; biochemical; Markers; immunological disease
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:10:36 CEST)
Background and Objectives: HIV infection is a global public health problem that can lead to the progression of AIDS. Nutritional status and biochemical markers can significantly contribute to the progression of AIDS in HIV/AIDS patients. The main objective of this study is to examine the association between the nutritional and biochemical markers as well as BMI in HIV/AIDS patients in the kingdom of Bahrain. Methods: A retrospective cohort study, including 300 patients (248 males and 52 females) with HIV/AIDS in Bahrain. Various biochemical markers were collected from patients’ medical records including CD4^+ T cells counts, albumin, Hb, HCT, MCV, WBC, and creatinine. A semi-structured questionnaire using of a standardized food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used from which total energy and total macronutrients were calculate. Results: the mean BMI of participants was 27.20 kg/m2 with none of the participants had a BMI lower than 18.5 kg/m2 (underweight). The majority of patients’ dietary intake of macronutrients and total calories intake were either within or above the recommended RDA levels. The results also showed that all mean values of the nutritional and biochemical markers (CD4^+ T cells counts, albumin, Hb, HCT, MCV, WBC, and creatinine) are within the referenced normal ranges. A significant positive correlation of CD4^+ T cells counts, Hb, HCT and albumin at <0.05 level was found. There was no significant correlation between CD4^+ T cells counts and MCV, WBC and creatinine. A positive significant correlation was found between BMI, CD4^+ T cells counts, and WBC at <0.01 level. Conclusion: BMI values significantly correlated to biochemical markers of AIDS progression. Dietary pattern of participants was undiversified among participants, with high prevalence of obesity and overweight. Malnutrition among this study population was not present.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0330.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: critical care; enteral feeding; mechanical ventilation; nutritional status
Online: 10 June 2021 (14:21:06 CEST)
Objective: This study aims to identify the impact of nutritional factors on mechanical ventilation duration for critical patients. Patients and Methods: The current study was a single-center, prospective observational design which enrolled one-hundred critically ill patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). It demonstrates purposive sampling and also performs the descriptive nutritional factors influencing the mechanical ventilation duration. Daily calories target requirement scale (DCRS), subjective global assessment form (SGA), dyspnea assessment form, and APACHE II have been used as methods in the study along with time to initial enteral nutrition (EN) after 24-hour admission and daily calories target requirement over 7 days to assess patients. Data is analyzed using the multiple regressions. Results: As a result, nutritional status monitoring, time to initial EN, calories and target requirements are statistically positive significance associated with the mechanical ventilation duration respectively (R = 0.54, R = 0.30, R= 0.40, p < 0.05). However, age, illness severity, and dyspnea scales are not associated with the mechanical ventilation duration (p> 0.05). Therefore, the nutritional status, malnutrition scores and calorie target requirements can be used to significantly predict the mechanical ventilation duration. The predictive power is 58 and 28.0% of variance. The most proper influencer to predict the mechanical ventilation duration is nutritional status or malnutrition scores. Conclusion: The research findings show that the nutritional status, time to initial EN, and calorie target requirement within 7 days of admission are associated with the mechanical ventilation duration in the critical patients. Therefore, it can be used to develop guidelines reducing the mechanical ventilation duration and to promote the ventilator halting for critical patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0281.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mekmeko tea; optimized; physicochemical; nutritional and nutraceutical properties
Online: 9 November 2020 (15:30:05 CET)
The physicochemical parameters, mineral composition, and nutraceutical properties of commercial “mekmeko” teas powder were analyzed in the present study. The pH of samples was slightly acidic (3.74 to 4.15), titratable acidity was low (0.094 to 0.155%) and sensory attributes (over all acceptability) were wide variable (5.9 - 6.69). The optimized selected commercial “mekmeko” tea obtained pH(4.05), titrable acidity(0.069%) ,acceptable sensory results (6.69), acceptable highest content of zinc (0.069 mg•L−1), magnesium (2.12 mg•L−1), potassium (62.34 mg•L−1),iron (0.28 mg•L−1) and calcium (17.19 mg•L−1). The nutrceticual property of optimized commercial “mekmeko” tea obtained acceptable highest content in total phenols (211.38 mg•L−1), total flavonoids (62.98 mg•L−1), total catechins (409.67 mg•L−1), and total anthocyanins (581.97 mg•L−1). Optimized “Mekmeko” teas showed the highest antioxidant capacity levels in DPPH (718.41 μmolTE•L−1), ABTS (607.62μmolTE•L−1), and FRAP (953.81μmolTE•L−1) assays. The results obtained in the present work give information to consumers for choosing flavored-colored ready-to-drink “mekmeko” tea based on the physicochemical, nutritional and nutraceutical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0052.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: body composition; physical fitness; sedentary behavior; nutritional status
Online: 2 November 2020 (14:51:42 CET)
Mexico shows a high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents. Geographical location and cultural environment could play a role in the promotion of healthy lifestyles in terms of physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB) and nutrition. The purpose of this study was to assess rural and urban differences in body composition (BC), physical fitness (PF), PA and nutritional status of adolescents from the state of Jalisco (Mexico). The study involved 469 students aged 13-17 years (55.0% girls) from 8 high schools. BC was analyzed by bioimpedance, and PF by standardized field tests. Objective measurements of PA and SB were taken in a subsample (n=240). Energy intake (EI) was calculated from two 24h recalls. Rural residents presented a higher prevalence of overweight, waist circumference, trunk fat mass, regional fat free mass and muscle handgrip strength (all p<0.05, ηp2<0.06). Cardiorespiratory fitness was similar among participants, whereas urban adolescents showed higher muscle power, speed-agility and flexibility scores (all p<0.05, ηp2<0.07). Overall lifestyle behavior in urban adolescents was more sedentary (p<0.05, ηp2= 0.11). EI was similar in both locations. In conclusion, urban Mexican adolescents presented a generally higher sedentary behavior and better fitness and fatness profile than their rural peers.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0306.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: ideal plant architecture; food-nutritional security; climate change
Online: 24 June 2020 (18:12:06 CEST)
Crop domestication and breeding considerably increased productivity over centuries, but simultaneously involved unconscious selection against ‘selfish plant behavior’. Paradoxically, modern-day crop breeding largely enhances individual plant-fitness. As agriculture relies on community performance, embracing an “Agroecological Genetics and Genomics” viewpoint might maximize communal yield by matching crop genotypes to target environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: mini nutritional assessment; acute myocardial infarction; mortality; elderly
Online: 13 November 2018 (10:56:25 CET)
Background: Malnutrition is a frequent condition in the elderly and is associated with prolonged hospitalization and increased mortality. However, the impact of malnutrition among elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction has not been clarified yet. Methods and Results: We have enrolled 174 patients aged 65 years and over, admitted with the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who underwent to the evaluation of nutritional status by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and of mortality risk by Grace score 2.0. All-cause mortality was the outcome considered for this study. Over a mean follow-up of 24.5 ± 18.2 months, 43 deaths have been registered (24.3%). Non-survivors were more likely to be older, with worse GFR, lower SBP, lower albumin and MNA score, higher prevalence of Killip classification III-IV grade, and higher Troponin I levels. Multivariate Cox proportional analysis revealed that Grace score and MNA showed a significant and independent impact on mortality, (HR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.34–2.32 and HR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.42–0.73, respectively). Moreover, the clinical decision curve revealed a higher clinical net benefit when the MNA was included compared to the partial models without MNA. Conclusions: Nutritional status is an independent predictor of long-term mortality among elderly patients with AMI. MNA score in elderly patients with AMI may help prognostic stratification and identification of patients with/at risk of malnutrition in order to apply interventions to improve nutritional status and maybe survival in this population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0189.v1
Subject: Public Health And Health Services, Public Health And Healthcare Keywords: cognitive decline; physical activity; nutritional status; happiness; aging; diet
Online: 5 December 2023 (04:43:05 CET)
We aim to examine how happiness modifies and mediates the impact of physical activity and nu-trition on cognitive function among 699 seniors aged 60 and above in Shanghai, China. Linear regression models were used to validate the effects of nutrition and exercise on cognitive function, and to test their interaction effects with happiness. When the interactions were significant, strati-fied analyses in sub-groups were conducted. Mediation effects of happiness were examined using two-step causal mediation models. We confirmed that better nutrition (p < 0.001) and exercise (p = 0.009) were significantly associated with less cognitive decline. Furthermore, the effects of nu-trition and exercise on cognitive decline were significant in the unhappy (happiness < 20) (p <0.001) and younger (age < 74) sub-groups (p = 0.015). Happiness partially mediated 11.5% of the negative association of cognitive decline with nutrition (p = 0.015) and 23.0% of that with exercise (p = 0.017). This study suggests that happiness moderates and also partially mediates the effects of exercise and nutrition on cognitive status. The beneficial effects of exercise and nutrition were stronger in less happy or younger seniors. Future intervention studies are required to confirm this path relationship.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0846.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: cryptococcal meningitis; melanin; catecholamines; nutritional signals; microbiota-gut-brain axis
Online: 11 August 2023 (10:14:24 CEST)
The pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a major cause of fungal meningitis in humans. As with other melanotic microorganisms associated with human diseases, the cell wall-associated melanin of C. neoformans is a major virulence factor that contributes to its ability to evade host immune responses. The levels of melanin substrate and the regulation of melanin formation could be influenced by the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Moreover, recent studies show that C. neoformans infection causes dysbiosis in the human gut microbiome. In this review, we discuss the potential association between cryptococcal meningitis and the gut microbiome. Additionally, we emphasize the promising prospects of targeting the gut microbiome as a means of diagnosing and treating this debilitating disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1695.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: buckwheat; buckwheat flour; mill processing; quality parameters; nutritional benefits
Online: 23 June 2023 (15:09:48 CEST)
Buckwheat is returning to the countries of Central Europe. There are several reasons for this: firstly, because of its interesting chemical composition, which is reflected in its nutritional value and potential health benefits. And secondly because buckwheat, and especially buckwheat flour, are suitable raw materials for the production of gluten-free foods. Buckwheat flours are classified similarly to wheat flours, but the different anatomy of wheat grains and buckwheat seeds makes this classification partly misleading. While wheat flours are largely produced by one standard process, the production process for buckwheat flours is more varied. For wheat and wheat flours, the basic quality parameters and their required ranges for different types of primary and secondary processing are clearly defined. This is not the case for buckwheat and buckwheat flours, and the definition of the parameters and their ranges that characterize its technological quality remain unclear. The standardization of quality parameters and production processes is likely to be necessary for the potential expansion of the use of buckwheat for food production and in particular for bakery products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0522.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Biogeographic Chocó; Carbon balance; Nutritional limitation; Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Potassium
Online: 22 July 2021 (14:14:30 CEST)
Tropical rainforests have the highest rates of net primary productivity (NPP) of the world. Hypotheses about the effect of edaphic nutrient contents, especially the availability of P, propose that they limit NPP of tropical forests or promote the redistribution of its above and belowground components. However, these hypotheses have not been tested experimentally in highly rainy tropical forests. To test such hypotheses, the effects of soil fertilization on the above and belowground NPP were evaluated in forests of two localities of Chocó (Colombia), one of the rainiest regions of the world. Five fertilization treatments (N, P, K, NPK and Control) were applied, and the above and belowground NPP were determined in permanent plots. There were no significant effects of treatments on total NPP; only the application of N significantly increased litter NPP. Additionally, a redistribution of the above and belowground NPP was found with the application of P, which increased the proportion of fine roots and litter, and decreased the woody components of forest NPP. This change of carbon allocation is interpreted as an ecophysiological mechanism to capture additional nutrients in soils with very low content of available P.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0289.v3
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: internet access; nutritional intake; rural China; propensity score matching
Online: 11 June 2021 (14:54:42 CEST)
Over the past four decades, China has experienced a nutritional transition and has developed the largest population of internet users. In this study, we evaluated the impacts of internet access on the nutritional intake in Chinese rural residents. An IV-Probit-based propensity score matching method was used to determine the impact of internet access on nutritional intake. The data were collected from 10042 rural households in six Chinese provinces. The results reveal that rural residents with internet access have significantly higher energy, protein, and fat intake than those without. Chinese rural residents with internet access consumed 1.35% (28.62 kcal), 5.02% (2.61 g), and 4.33% (3.30 g) more energy, protein, and fat, respectively. There was heterogeneity as regards the intake of energy, protein, and fat among those in different income groups. Moreover, non-staple food consumption is the main channel through which internet access affects nutritional intake. The results demonstrate that the local population should use the internet to improve their nutritional status. Further studies are required to investigate the impact of internet use on food consumed away from home and micronutrients intake.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0025.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: nutritional guidelines; food pyramid; mushrooms; viral diseases; african foods
Online: 1 April 2021 (14:10:48 CEST)
In Sub-Saharan Africa, despite poverty, chronic hunger and food insecurity, traditional eating has been related to positive health outcomes and sustainability. There is little health research on diet quality based on what African people consume. The defining characteristics of the traditional African cuisine are the richness in herbs and spices, fermented foods and beverages, and healthy and whole ingredients used. However, as countries in this region become more economically developed, there is a shift to “modern” occidental foods rich in saturated fats, sugar and sweeteners. As a result, there are increased incidences of previously unreported ailments due to unbalanced diet. The regular practice of infinite international aid to the region to curb food insecurity has been unsustainable, ineffective and with no end in sight. Local increase in production and productivity is imperative. Protein rich foods in dietary guidelines enhance only those of animal or plant sources while rich protein sources such of mushroom, has been absent in these charts. This article considers the valorisation of traditional African foods and the importance of establishing an African Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (AFBDGs), an unprecedented Food Pyramid, along with the added emphasis on the potential of African mushrooms, which may play a role in shielding Sub-Saharan Africans against the side-effects of a western stylish diet and promote health. It enhances the preventive role of mushrooms in viral diseases and other disorders.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: allergy; pulmonary function; allergic rhinitis; asthma; nutritional status; obesity
Online: 14 July 2019 (17:35:01 CEST)
Introduction: The rising trend in allergic diseases has occurred in parallel with an increasing prevalence in obesity, and suggesting a possible association. The increased body mass has numerous health consequences, including an impairment function of the respiratory system. The associations between eating habits and hypersensitivity to allergens have not been clarified sufficiently. Aim: to evaluate pulmonary function, nutritional status, eating habits and risk factors of obesity in children and adolescents with allergic rhinitis. Material and Methods: The study was performed in 106 children with allergic rhinitis (mean age 12.1+/-3.4; M/F 60/46) from the Department of Allergology. 43 (40.6%) of children presented only allergic rhinitis and in 63 (59.4%) additionally diagnosed with asthma bronchiale. Clinical data, detailed interview about allergies, assessment of pulmonary function and nutritional status, allergy skin test (Allergopharma) and spirometry (Jaeger) were evaluated. Nutritional habits were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The statistical analysis was done using the program Statistica v 10.0. Results: In the study group the mean centile of BMI was 49.4; underweight presented 25.4% of children, 55.6 % normal BMI and 18.8 % presented overweight or obesity. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant (adjusted R-squared: 0.97; p<0.05) association between high BMI and snacking between meals and low physical activity. No statistical association between the severity of diseases and BMI or body composition was observed. Conclusions: 1. The prevalence of excess body mass in the study group reached 13.5%. Eating habits were incorrect, especially obese children significantly more frequently ate snacks between meals than children with normal body weight. 2. Among the studied group of children and adolescents with allergic rhinitis and asthma bronchiale, the significant risk factors of obesity were snacking and low physical activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0467.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Nuts; ageing; nutritional status; malnutrition; appetite; energy intake; health
Online: 24 September 2018 (16:29:08 CEST)
The proportion of adults aged over 60 years in the world is expected to reach 20% by the year 2050. Ageing is associated with several physiological changes that increase the risk of malnutrition among this population. Malnutrition is characterized by deficiencies or insufficiencies of macro- and micronutrients. Malnutrition has detrimental effects on the health, wellbeing and quality of life of older adults. Nuts are rich in energy, unsaturated fats, protein, as well as other nutrients that provide a range of health benefits. While the effects of nuts on overnutrition have been studied extensively, very few studies have been specifically designed to understand the role of nuts in mitigating undernutrition in the elderly. Therefore, this review explores the potential role of nuts in improving the nutritional status of older adults who are at risk of undernutrition. Several properties of whole nuts, some of which appear important for addressing overnutrition, (e.g. hardness, lower-than-expected nutrient availability, satiety-enhancing effects) may limit their effectiveness as a food to combat undernutrition. However, we propose that modifications such as transforming the physical form of nuts, addressing the timing of nut ingestion, and introducing variety may overcome these barriers. This review also discusses the feasibility of using nuts to prevent and reverse undernutrition among older adults. We conclude with a recommendation to conduct clinical studies in the future to test this conceptual framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0653.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Scheduled tribe; Children; Nutritional status; Under 5years age; Determinant factors
Online: 9 June 2023 (03:04:37 CEST)
Malnutrition is the main cause of child mortality in developing nations, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asian countries. This undernutrition status is predominantly higher among primitive tribal (ST) children under 5 years of age. The nutritional status of tribal children is a serious concern in India. For this, there should be intends to examine the prevalence and determinants of primitive tribal children's nutritional status. To investigate the effect of household, child’s & maternal characteristics on biological children under 5 years of age. The study aims to find out the association between some selected determinants on scheduled tribe child’s nutritional status. The study used some selected variable of scheduled tribe mothers, household characteristics and their children anthropometric indices from DHS datasets of India, which was published by the NFHS datasets of India. In this study People datasets and Children (Under 5 years of age) of interviewed women file datasets of NFHS-IV & V is taken. The datasets of West Bengal, ST mothers, and their child into consideration as per the research interest. Then to analyze the determinants of ST children (U5 age) nutritional status, some determinant factors are taken from mothers, children and household characteristics. Children’s stunting, wasting and underweight as dependent variable and the mothers, child’s and household’s characteristics as independent variable. The statistical analysis was done by using Pearson Chi square test used to analyze the association between dependent and independent variables. The study results shows that the mother’s educational status, child’s age, birth order, size of child at birth, type of residence had significant associations with stunting. Mother's anemia status and mother age had significant associations with wasting. Mother education, currently breastfeeding, child age, sex of the child, birth order, size of child at birth, type of residence, wealth, toilet facility, and cooking fuel shows a significant association with underweight. The results found that many determinant factors had a significant role among ST children's (U5 age) nutritional status. Thus, the findings will help to achieve tentative resource allocation, and utilization through various programs and policies to improve the ST children (U5 age) nutritional status. There is a need to take a multisectoral and multidimensional approach to develop for those primitive tribal children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0840.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Morocco; Citrus; rootstocks; nutritional requirements; fertilizer application; yields; fruit quality
Online: 11 May 2023 (10:45:35 CEST)
The objective of the current study is to evaluate the effects of nitrogen rate N on tree growth, fruit yield and quality of clementine Nules variety, budded on Flhorag and Carrizo citrange rootstocks, grown on clay soils at the Experimental station of Sidi Allal Tazi, INRA Morocco, over five seasons. The experiment has been carried out in a split-plot design with three replications, including the nitrogen doses as the main plot and rootstock the subplot. Three fertilization treatments of the rates of N (g/tree) (T0: control (native nutrient), T1: 270, T2: 540 in g/tree) and 135 P2O5, 270 K2O g/tree have been applied to citrus trees in field conditions. The study found that nitrogen rate and rootstock genotype had significant effects on vegetative growth, yield, and fruit quality of Nules clementine. As N rate increased, vegetative growth improved significantly, with the trees grafted on Carrizo citrange and fertilized with T2 (540 N g/tree) showing the best results. A strong positive correlation was also observed between canopy volume and fruit yield for both rootstock genotypes. Carrizo citrange proved to be a more efficient rootstock for Nules variety than Flhorag, with higher yield and better fruit quality. As a conclusion, the recommended NPK rate for obtaining an optimal yield and good fruit quality of Nules clementine fruits was 540 N-135 P2O5-270 K2O g/tree/year under Sidi Allal Tazi–Gharb (Morocco) conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0067.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; nutritional intake; rural China; food consumption; food security
Online: 6 June 2022 (08:22:25 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic introduced risks and challenges to global food and nutrition security. In this paper, we examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the nutritional intake of China's rural residents using panel data and a fixed effect model. The data were collected in 2019 and 2020 and covered nine provinces and 2,631 households in rural China. The results reveal that an increase of 100 confirmed cases in a county resulted in a 1.48% (p<0.01), 1.46% (p<0.01), 1.77% (p<0.01), and 1.23% (p<0.01) decrease in per capita intake of dietary energy, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, respectively. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic only had a significant and negative effect on dietary energy intake in the low-income group at the 5% level of significance. Our study indicates that the potential insufficient nutrition situation, nutritional imbalance, and dietary imbalance of low-income rural residents should be addressed appropriately.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0129.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: biostimulation; stress tolerance; elicitors; corona; hormesis; nutritional quality; growth promoters
Online: 6 November 2018 (05:01:51 CET)
Biostimulants are materials that when applied in small amounts are capable of promoting plant growth. Nanoparticles (NPs) and nanomaterials (NMs) can be considered as biostimulants since, in specific ranges of concentration, generally in small levels, they increase the plant growth. Pristine NPs and NMS have a high density of surface charges capable of unspecific interactions with the surface charges of the cell walls and membranes of plant cells. In the same way, the functionalized NPs and NMS, and the NPs and NMs with a corona formed after the exposition to natural fluids such as water, soil solution, or the interior of organisms, presents a high density of surface charges that interact with specific charged groups in cell surfaces. The magnitude of the interaction will depend on the materials adhered to the corona, but the high-density charges located in a small volume causes an intense interaction capable of disturbing the density of surface charges of cell walls and membranes. The electrostatic disturbance can have an impact on the electrical potentials of the outer and inner surfaces, as well as on the transmembrane electrical potential, modifying the activity of the integral proteins of the membranes. The extension of the cellular response can range from biostimulation to cell death and will depend on the concentration, size, and the characteristics of the corona.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: malnutrition; nutritional assessment; hospital mortality; length of stay; critical illness
Online: 10 November 2017 (06:29:59 CET)
There is limited evidence for the association between malnutrition and hospital mortality as well as Intensive Care Unit length-of-stay (ICU-LOS) in critically ill patients. We aimed to examine the aforementioned associations by conducting a prospective cohort study in an ICU of a Singapore tertiary hospital. Between August 2015 and October 2016, all adult patients with ≥24 h of ICU-LOS were included. The 7-point Subjective Global Assessment (7-point SGA) was used to determine patients’ nutritional status within 48 hours of ICU admission. Multivariate analyses were conducted in two ways: 1) presence versus absence of malnutrition, and 2) dose-dependent association for each 1-point decrease in the 7-point SGA. There were 439 patients of which 28.0% were malnourished, and 29.6% died before hospital discharge. Malnutrition was associated with an increased risk of hospital mortality [adjusted-RR 1.39 (95%CI: 1.10–1.76)], and this risk increased with a greater degree of malnutrition [adjusted-RR 1.09 (95%CI: 1.01–1.18) for each 1-point decrease in the 7-point SGA]. No significant association was found between malnutrition and ICU-LOS. Conclusion: There was a clear association between malnutrition and higher hospital mortality in critically ill patients. The association between malnutrition and ICU-LOS could not be replicated and hence requires further evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0120.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: β-glucans; entero-endocrine system; intestinal hormones; microbiota; nutritional intervention
Online: 23 December 2016 (13:37:44 CET)
Recent interest in intestinal hormones has risen with the idea that they modulate glucose tolerance and food intake through a variety of mechanisms, and such hormones like peptide YY (PYY), ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and 2, and cholecystokinin (CKK) are therefore excellent therapeutic candidates for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. Furthermore, in the recent years, multiple studies suggest that the microbiota is critically important for normal host functions, while impaired host microbiota interactions contribute to the pathogenesis of numerous common metabolic disorders. In this study, we considered the nutraceutical effects of β-glucans added to pasta at the concentration of 6g\100g. Ten participants have been recruited and hematochemical analyses and intestinal hormones tests have been performed before and after 30 days of pasta intake. Stool specimens have been studied for Lactobacillus Fermentum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Bifidobacterium longum, and Enterococcus faecium presence before and after 30 days of nutritional intervention. After 30 days of regular intake of pasta enriched by β-glucans results have been evaluated. In conclusion, pasta prepared from barley flour enriched with β-glucans at 6% exhibit promising responses on glucose metabolism, on intestinal hormones responses and on microbiota modification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1465.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19 Economic Impact; Nutritional Health Disparities; Dietary Inequities; Socioeconomic Effects
Online: 23 November 2023 (04:41:42 CET)
This study investigates the impact of the economic downturn induced by the COVID-19 pandemic on nutritional health disparities among women. The research aimed to understand how economic challenges have influenced dietary choices, access to nutritious food, and overall nutritional well-being in different socioeconomic groups of women.Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, the study combined quantitative data from national health and economic databases with qualitative insights from interviews conducted with a diverse group of women. The quantitative analysis focused on trends in nutritional health indicators and economic variables pre- and post-pandemic. Simultaneously, the qualitative component explored personal experiences and perceptions related to nutrition and economic hardships during the pandemic.The findings revealed a significant correlation between the economic downturn and worsening nutritional health among women, especially in low-income and marginalized communities. Women in these groups reported reduced access to healthy food options, increased reliance on less nutritious food due to budget constraints, and a general decline in dietary quality. This decline was less pronounced in higher-income groups, highlighting a clear disparity.Moreover, the study observed that the pandemic exacerbated pre-existing nutritional inequalities, with vulnerable groups experiencing a more pronounced impact. The research also noted that community support systems and public health interventions played a crucial role in mitigating some of these effects.In conclusion, the COVID-19 pandemic has not only posed a direct health challenge but has also indirectly affected women's nutritional health through economic strain. The study underscores the need for targeted nutritional support and economic policies that prioritize the health of women, particularly those from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1103.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Momordica balsamina L.; Phytotherapy; phytochemicals; biological properties; Nutritional values; cosmeticl uses
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:52:00 CEST)
Abstract: This comprehensive review seeks to deepen our comprehension of the African plant Momordica balsamina L. by elucidating its therapeutically important molecules and micronutrient composition. Commonly referred to as the balsam apple, this plant species is extensively harnessed for its diverse therapeutic potentials across its various organs including leaves, fruits, roots, and stems. Numerous bioactive molecules have been isolated or identified within this plant, notably encompassing polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenes, and carotenoids. These compounds exhibit a wide array of biological activities, ranging from antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic, to anti-malarial properties, among others. Furthermore, the leaves of Momordica balsamina L. stand out for their abundant micronutrients, proteins, and amino acids. This investigation aims to shed light not only on the botanical characteristics of the Momordica balsamina plant and its potential applications in traditional medicine, but also on its chemical composition, biological functionalities, and physicochemical attributes, thus accentuating its nutritional advantages. Nonetheless, an intriguing avenue presents itself for the exploration of strategies to conserve this species, delve deeper into its potential within the cosmetics industry, and innovate methodologies for the synthesis or biosynthesis of these bioactive molecules.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0845.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: migraine; chronic non-communicable diseases; gut microbiota; nutritional approaches; lifestyle changes
Online: 13 September 2023 (10:02:42 CEST)
In the world, migraine is one of the most common cause of disability in adults. To date, there is no a single cause for this disorder, but rather a set of physio-pathogenic triggers, in combination with a genetic predisposition. Among factors related to the migraine onset, a crucial role seems to be played by gut dysbiosis. In fact, it has been demonstrated how the intestine is able to modulate the central nervous system activities, through the gut-brain axis, and how gut dysbiosis can influence neurological pathologies, including migraine attacks. In this contest, in addition to migraine conventional pharmacological treatments, attention has been paid to an adjuvant therapeutic strategy based on different nutritional approaches and lifestyle changes able to positively modulate the gut microbiota composition. In fact, the restoration of the balance between the different gut bacterial species, the reconstruction of the gut barrier integrity and the control of the release of gut-derived inflammatory neuropeptides, obtained through specific nutritional patterns and lifestyle changes, represent a possible beneficial additive therapy for many migraine subtypes. Herein, this review explores the bi-directional correlation between migraine and the main chronic non-communicable diseases, like diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, obesity, cancer and chronic kidney diseases, whose link is represented by gut dysbiosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Dietary intake assessment; Wearable camera; Food; Nutrients; Portion size; Nutritional analysis
Online: 1 September 2023 (16:36:47 CEST)
Background: Accurate estimation of dietary intake is challenging. But whilst some progress has been made in high-income countries, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) remain behind, contributing to critical nutritional data gaps. This study aimed to validate an objective, passive image-based dietary intake assessment method against weighed food records in London, UK for onward deployment to LMICs. Methods: Wearable camera devices were used to capture food intake of eating occasions in 18 adults and 17 children of Ghanaian and Kenyan origin living in London. Participants were provided pre-weighed meals of Ghanaian and Kenyan cuisine and camera devices to automatically capture images of the eating occasions. Food images were assessed for portion size, energy, and nutrient intake, and relative validity of the method compared to the weighed food records. Results: Pearson and Intra-class correlation coefficient of estimates of intakes of food, energy and 19 nutrients ranged from 0.60 to 0.95 and 0.67 to 0.90, respectively. Bland-Altman analysis showed good agreement between the image-based method and weighed food record. Under-estimation of dietary intake by the image-based method ranged from 4 to 23%. Conclusions: Passive food image capture and analysis provides an objective assessment of dietary intake comparable to weighed food records.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2261.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis; Nutritional Approaches; Natural Products; Mediterranean Diet; Elimination Diet: Diets
Online: 31 May 2023 (14:22:59 CEST)
Genetic and environmental factors including lifestyle are thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There is evidence that diet can enhance the inflammatory response in genetically predisposed individuals. On the other hand, certain types of diets are thought to alleviate RA symptoms due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Also, natural compounds with potential effectiveness in RA management belong to different chemical classes such as flavonoids, polyphenols, carotenoids, and alkaloids with their antioxidant characteristics. In this paper, the nutritional approaches to prevent or extenuate the disease progress were examined in the light of current literature. Mediterranean and vegan diets equally have been shown to exhibit positive effects on RA as the consumption of dietary fiber, antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds from fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, and seeds are high. Whereas Mediterranean diet additionally includes beneficial nutrients of animal origin such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish and seafood, patients on vegan diet need to be monitored closely for intake of all critical nutrients. Certain calorie restrictions and intermittent fasting diets have been shown to benefit RA patients although there is an obvious need for further studies to establish solid evidence-based recommendations and guidelines. The research data available strongly suggest that dietary approaches may help delay the onset of RA and/or improve symptoms and thus nutrition should be routinely addressed to facilitate management of the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0482.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Fall army worm; insect biology; life table; nutritional indices; host suitability
Online: 28 March 2023 (10:11:21 CEST)
Spodoptera frugiperda is a new invasive and highly polyphagous pest that attacks corn in Indonesia. The availability of abundant plant species allows pests to switch to other host plants to maintain their population. This research aims to examine the development, reproduction, nutritional indices, and life table of S. frugiperda in several plant species. The plants tested were corn, rice, broccoli, oil palm, and baby corn as controls. Ten individual insects were used and repeated five times for each plant species. The test results show that different types of plant feed affect the development time, imago life span, fecundity, and fertility of S. frugiperda. The types of plant feed, that were baby corn fruit and broccoli had higher net reproduction value (R0), intrinsic growth rate (r), gross reproduction rate (GRR), shorter mean generation period (T), and population doubling time (DT) than in corn and rice leaves. On oil palm leaf feed no population parameters can be determined because no larvae developed into adults and had the lowest nutritional indices parameters, so that could not be exploited as a host plant. Also, the nutritional indices of several feed plant species tested provided information that broccoli could be a suitable host when there was no corn in the field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0057.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: osteosarcopenic adiposity; osteosarcopenic obesity; nutrients; nutritional status; physical activity; resistance training
Online: 3 March 2023 (04:12:30 CET)
Osteosarcopenic adiposity (OSA) syndrome denotes the confluence of bone, muscle, and adipose tissue deterioration. Being a complex entity, numerous uncertainties about OSA still exist, despite the extensive research on the topic. Our objectives were to evaluate human studies addressing dietary intake/nutritional status, and the quantity/types of physical activity related to OSA. The search in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases was conducted to examine relevant articles published from inception to the end of December 2022, utilizing the MeSH strings in the search strategy. Only studies published in English and conducted in humans (≥18 years) without chronic conditions (cancers, kidney/liver disease) or pregnancy, were used. Book chapters, abstracts-only, and studies in which participants did not have all three body composition components measured to identify OSA, or when body composition components could not be related to the independent/exposure variables were excluded. A total of n = 1020 articles were retrieved from all three databases and eight more from the reference lists. After exclusion of duplicates and other unsuitable articles, n = 23 studies were evaluated. Among those, eleven were from epidemiological or cross-sectional studies relating nutrients/dietary intake or nutritional status with OSA. Another four examined the relationship between serum biomarkers (vitamin D and ferritin) with OSA, while eight articles presented the results of the interventional studies with resistance training. Overall, higher protein, calcium, potassium, and vitamins D and C intakes emerged as nutrients positively modifying OSA, along with diet higher in fruits and low-fat dairy foods. Higher serum vitamin D and ferritin were respectively positively and negatively related to OSA. Resistance training was a safe intervention yielding several beneficial outcomes for the OSA syndrome in older women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0562.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: African swine fever; ASFV; spray-dried porcine plasma; challenge; nutritional intervention
Online: 31 January 2023 (02:21:18 CET)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of feeding spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) to pigs infected with African swine fever virus (ASFV). Two groups of twelve weaned pigs each were fed with CONVENTIONAL or 8% SDPP enriched diets. Two pigs (trojans)/group) were injected intramuscularly with the pandemic ASFV (Georgia 2007/01) and comingled with the rest of the pigs (1:5 trojan:naïve ratio) to simulate a natural route of transmission. Trojans developed ASF and died within the first week after inoculation but contact pigs did not develop ASF, viremia or seroconversion. Therefore, three more trojans per group were introduced to optimize the ASFV transmission (1:2 trojan:naïve ratio). Blood, nasal and rectal swabs were weekly harvested and at end of the study, ASFV-target organs collected. After the second exposure, rectal temperature of conventionally fed contact pigs increased >40.5˚C while fever was delayed in the SDPP contact pigs. Additionally, PCR Ct values in blood, secretions and tissue samples were significantly lower (P<0.05) for CONVENTIONAL compared to SDPP contact pigs. Under these study conditions, contact exposed pigs fed SDPP had delayed ASFV transmission and reduced virus load, likely by enhanced specific T-cell priming after the first ASFV-exposure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0087.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: millet porridge; electric cooker; nutritional composition; principal component analysis; cluster analysis
Online: 6 July 2022 (04:38:57 CEST)
(1) Background: In order to study the effects of different electric cookers on the nutritional components of millet porridge, five different electric cookers were selected to cook millet porridge, and sensory and nutritional components in millet porridge, millet soup, and millet grains were analyzed. (2) Methods: Using principal component and cluster analysis, a variety of nutritional components were comprehensively compared. (3) Results: The results showed that among the different cooked samples, the content of amylose and reducing sugar was the highest in the samples cooked by electric cooker no. 3. The electric cooker no. 4 samples had the highest sensory evaluation score, crude fat, and protein content. The contents of ash, fatty acids, bound amino acids, and minerals were the highest in the electric cooker no. 5 samples. The sensory evaluation score and content of crude fat, ash, reducing sugar, direct starch, and Cu were higher in millet grains than in millet soup or porridge. The content of fatty acid, protein, amino acid, Zn, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Ca was highest in millet soup. Different electric cookers produced millet porridge with varying nutritional levels. (4) Conclusions: This study provides a reference for the further development of new electric cookers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0759.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: adolescents; cardiometabolic risk factors; insulin resistance; abdominal obesity; lifestyle; nutritional habits
Online: 30 December 2020 (15:16:17 CET)
The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors has increased in Slovakian adolescents as a result of serious lifestyle changes. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and the associations with cardiometabolic and selected lifestyle risk factors in a sample of Slovak adolescents. In total, 2,629 adolescents (45.8% males) aged between 14 and 18 years were examined in the study. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and resting heart rate were measured, fasting venous blood samples were analysed, and HOMA-IR was calculated. The mean HOMA-IR was 2.45±1.91 without a significant intersexual difference. IR (cut-off point for HOMA-IR=3.16) was detected in 18.6% of adolescents (19.8% males, 17.6% females). IR was strongly associated with overweight/obesity (especially central) and with almost all monitored cardiometabolic factors, except for TC and systolic BP in females. The multivariate model selected variables such as low level of physical fitness, insufficient physical activity, breakfast skipping, a small number of daily meals, frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, and low educational level of fathers as the significant risk factors of IR in adolescents. Recognizing the main lifestyle risk factors and early IR identification is important in terms of the performance of preventive strategies. Weight reduction, regular physical activity, and healthy eating habits can improve insulin sensitivity and decrease the incidence of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and CVD in adulthood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0133.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: aging; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; nutrient metabolism; genetic background; nutritional stress
Online: 29 October 2018 (10:33:59 CET)
The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a peptidase that is involved in the synthesis of Angiotensin II, the bioactive component of the renin-angiotensin system. A growing body of literature argues for a beneficial impact of ACE inhibitors (ACEi) on age-associated metabolic disorders, mediated by cellular changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that improve mitochondrial function. Yet, our understanding of the relationship between ACEi therapy and metabolic parameters is limited. Here, we used three genetically diverse strains of Drosophila melanogaster to show that Lisinopril treatment reduces thoracic ROS levels and mitochondrial respiration in young flies, and increases mitochondrial content in middle-aged flies. Using untargeted metabolomics analysis, we also showed that Lisinopril perturbs the thoracic metabolic network structure by affecting metabolic pathways involved in glycogen degradation, glycolysis, and mevalonate metabolism. The Lisinopril-induced effects on mitochondrial and metabolic parameters, however, are genotype-specific and likely reflect the drug’s impact on nutrient-dependent fitness traits. Accordingly, we found that Lisinopril negatively affects survival under nutrient starvation, an effect that can be blunted by genotype and age in a manner that partially mirrors the drug-induced changes in mitochondrial respiration. In conclusion, our results provide novel and important insights into the role of ACEi in cellular metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1807.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: organic broiler; protein feed; insect meal; lauric acid; meat quality; nutritional indices
Online: 28 November 2023 (10:23:35 CET)
: Organic poultry need high-quality proteins in their diet. The EU’s organic regulation forbids synthetic amino acids; therefore, soybean, with its balanced essential amino acid content, has become the most used protein source, though much of it is imported from non-EU countries. Soybean, however, has some important problems related to sustainability and crop competition; therefore, it must be substituted with a high-protein-value alternative such as insect meal. In this study, 900 Aviagen Savanna broilers were reared using three different organic diets. The diets used the following as protein feed material: soybean only (S100), 50% black soldier fly larvae meal (BSL) and 50% soybean (BSL50), and 100% BSL only (BSL100). Broiler performance, welfare, and fatty acids (FA) in the thigh and breast were analyzed. BSL50 and BSL100 negatively affected growth performance, while BSL100 worsened all of the market-related measures of performance. Meat quality was worse in BSL50 and BSL100, with a significant increase in saturated FA (SFA) and a corresponding decrease in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). Among SFA, lauric acid (C12:0) more notably increased. The increase in SFA represents a negative aspect of BSL meal inclusion, namely the production of lauric acid; however, this trend could have a beneficial effect, which will be more deeply explored with regard to its impact on animal and human health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0361.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Liver cirrhosis; Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt; Nutritional status; Sar-copenia; Fat tissue
Online: 21 February 2023 (10:36:15 CET)
Background and Aims: Liver cirrhosis leads to clinically significant portal hypertension. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has been shown to effectively reduce the degree of portal hypertension and treat its complications. However, poor nutritional status has been shown to be associated with hepatic encephalopathy, acute on chronic liver failure, and mortality following TIPS placement. The purpose of this systematic review is to create another perspective and evaluate the effect of TIPS placement on the nutritional status of patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods: A comprehensive search of four major electronic databases was conducted to identify studies that assessed the nutritional status of cirrhotic patients before and after TIPS placement. The risk of bias was evaluated using ROBINS-I guidelines. Results: Fifteen studies were analyzed in this review. The results indicate that among the 11 studies that evaluated changes in ascites-free weight and body mass index or body cell mass, 10 reported an improvement in one or more measures. Furthermore, all 7 studies that evaluated changes in muscle mass demonstrated an increase in muscle mass. Among the 4 studies that evaluated subcutaneous fat tissue, 3 showed a significant expansion, while 2 out of 3 studies evaluating visceral fat tissue reported a significant reduction. Conclusion: The results of this systematic review suggest that TIPS placement is associated with improvement in the nutritional status of cirrhotic patients, indicated by an increase in ascites-free weight, body mass index, and muscle mass. Additionally, TIPS placement leads to a shift in the distribution of fat mass, with a preference for subcutaneous over visceral adipose tissue. Notably, sarcopenic patients seem to benefit the most from TIPS placement in terms of the nutritional status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0303.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Controlling Nutritional Status Score; Hemorrhagic stroke; Nutrition screening; Prognosis; Modified Rankin Scale
Online: 15 January 2021 (16:08:15 CET)
Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) Score is useful for the nutritional screening. We aimed to explore whether the CONUT score may predict a 3-month functional outcome in hemorrhagic stroke (AHS). Totally, 349 patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. Poor functional outcomes were defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at 3 months. A total of 328 patients (mean age, 60.4 ± 12.83 years; 66.8% male) were included, 172 (52.40%) patients at malnutrition risk and 104 (31.7%) patients with a poor prognosis. High-CONUT patients had lower total lymphocyte counts and total cholesterol levels than low-CONUT patients (p < 0.001 and p = 0.012). At 3-month post discharge, patients with malnutrition risk had higher hospitalization costs (p = 0.021), lower Barthel Index (p = 0.001), and more infectious complications (p = 0.002) than those without, and there was a greater risk for poor functional outcomes in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (adjusted odds ratio: 2.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.28-4.17). High-CONUT scores predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which may help identify the AHS patients who need additional nutritional managements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: functional food; dietary supplement; phytochemicals; nutritional neuroscience; gut microbiome; personalized nutrition; Bangladesh
Online: 26 June 2020 (12:23:14 CEST)
Plants and plant-derived food products have been used for medicinal purposes since the ancient. Medicinal Plant-based functional foods or plant-based dietary compounds are a re-emerged interest for their therapeutic benefits and nutritive supports which has implicated in healthcare systems across the world. Neurological disorders are one of the greatest threats to public health and according to the World Health Organization, about 100 million people are affected globally by several neurological and mental ailments. In a traditional medication system, medicinal plants have been applied as both neuro-therapeutic purposes and micro-macro nutrients provider for the wellbeing of psychological states e.g. anti-depressant, anti-anxiety, anti-convulsions, anti-dementia, anti-psychotic, etc. Herein, it is a topic of great interest to present a conceptual aspect by reviewing relevant scientific literature about the plant-based functional foods or bioactive phytochemicals for the prevention and treatment of mental and neurological disorders. From the literature assessment, we have found that nutritional neuroscience is becoming an advanced research discipline and there has been a growing pile of evidence concerning the therapeutic use of plant-based functional foods and/or plant-derived food compounds for the management of neurologic health, evolving with promising impact over the time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0246.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: white- and biofortified cassava flour; bread; nutritional composition; physical properties; sensory properties
Online: 25 June 2019 (08:33:46 CEST)
With proper processing and utilization, biofortified cassava may contribute to the nutritional status of the consumers, thus, the need for this study. High-quality cassava flour from white- (TME 419) and biofortified (TMS 01/1368) cassava varieties were produced at a commercial processing factory, after which the flour is composite with wheat flour to produce bread. The nutritional composition, physical properties and sensory quality of the composite bread were analyzed using standard methods. Results showed that composite bread from 20% biofortified cassava flour (20-YCF) had a higher value of total β-carotene (0.74 μg/g), moisture (37.83%) and ash (2.29%) contents. The fat (3.72%) and protein (12.83%) contents were higher in 20% white cassava flour (20-WCF) composite bread. The 20-YCF composite bread had the highest loaf volume (3286.2 cm3), elasticity (6.32), chewiness (40.51 N) and gumminess (6.41), 20-WCF composite bread had higher specific volume (3.59 cm3/g) and hardness (176.50 N). The 100% wheat bread had higher cohesiveness (0.10) and loaf weight (932.35 g). A significant negative correlation (r = - 0.98, p≤0.05) exist between bread hardness and protein content. The composite bread compared favourably with the 100% wheat bread in terms of weight and aroma, but, the 100% wheat bread was more acceptable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: gas chromatography assay; cardiovascular diseases; feeding patterns; lipids; nutritional status; vegan diet
Online: 19 June 2019 (15:47:29 CEST)
The vegan diet excludes animal-derived products consumption. The objective of the present study is to analyze dietary lipid intake, nine plasmatic fatty acids concentrations (from C14:0 [lauric acid] to C20:4 [arachidonic acid]), and conventional clinical lipid profile among vegan individuals with omnivore controls. A case-control and cross-sectional study was performed between 2016 and 2017. Vegans were paired in a 1:1 ratio with omnivores from Merida, Mexico. A 150-item Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted to evaluate eating patterns. Serum fatty acids were determined from total blood with a gas chromatography assay. Lower cholesterol, stearic, arachidonic and trans fatty acids intake, but higher consumption of lauric acid were observed in the vegan group (p= <0.001, 0.014, <0.001, 0.005, respectively). Decreased plasma concentrations of stearic, arachidonic and linoleic acids were found (p= 0.017, <0.001 and 0.026, respectively). Following a vegan diet for more than three years generate modifications in serum concentrations of saturated and polyunsaturated ω-6 fatty acids, which could lower inflammatory markers’ biosynthesis. Potential benefits regarding cardiovascular risk may be assumed in favor of vegan individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0648.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: malnutrition; home enteral nutrition; quality of life; NutriQoL®; nutritional status; health status
Online: 11 October 2023 (04:56:02 CEST)
Home enteral nutrition (HEN) is recommended for patients with nutritional requirements who can stay in the familiar environment. HEN guidelines recommend assessing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) to evaluate the effect of the treatment. NutriQoL® is a specific questionnaire developed to assess HRQoL in patients receiving HEN and validated in Spanish population. An observational, descriptive, and prospective study was carried out in two Spanish hospitals to describe the evolution of HRQoL, nutritional and health status in patients receiving HEN in routine clinical practice. Fifty-seven patients participated in the study, of whom 36 were followed-up after their inclusion. Most of them were at risk or moderate malnutrition (61.1%) or showed severe malnutrition (27.8%) at baseline. Patients with HEN showed an overall good HRQoL with a mean basal NutriQoL® score of 69.4, which increased to 74.3 after 12 months of follow-up; fifteen patients showed a clinically significant difference (≥4 points) after three months. The proportion of at-risk or severely malnourished patients decreased at the end of the follow-up period and, according to the physicians, their health status improved. Additionally, physicians considered useful the HRQoL evaluation in clinical practice. In conclusion, HRQoL is probably related to nutritional status improvement and, thus, should be considered for nutritional evaluation in clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0896.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus; sarcopenia; serum vitamin D3 levels; nutritional intake; physical performance
Online: 13 July 2023 (08:08:00 CEST)
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and association between sarcopenia and blood biochemical parameters, nutritional intake, anthropometric measurements, physical performance, and physical activity in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). According to the diagnosis criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) in 2019, 110 patients with T2DM (aged: 50–80 years) were divided into three groups: Non-sarcopenia (n = 38), Possible Sarcopenia (n = 31, 28.2%), and Sarcopenia (n = 41, 37.3%). Blood samples were collected and nutritional intake was evaluated by a registered dietitian. A food frequency questionnaire and Godin leisure-time exercise questionnaire were used to assess their daily vitamin D intake and physical activity. There were significant differences in age, serum vitamin D3 levels, nutritional intake, anthropometric measurements, and physical performance between the three groups. In elderly patients with T2DM, there was a significant association between sarcopenia with BMI, body fat percentage (BF%), and dietary energy and protein intake. Low serum vitamin D3 is a significant risk factor for possible sarcopenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0884.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: food for special medical purposes; FSMP; qualitative research; nutritional needs for oncology patients
Online: 12 May 2023 (05:01:14 CEST)
This study aimed to investigate Romanian physicians' awareness, recommendation practices, and opinions regarding using Foods for Special Medical Purposes (FSMPs) products. A total of ten physicians were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, and their responses were analysed using thematic content analysis. The study found that physicians were aware of FSMPs and recommended them to their patients based on nutritional deficits, weight loss, or deglutition impairments. In addition, disease stage, treatment scheme, taste, affordability, and availability were identified as factors influencing the recommendation and use of FSMPs. While physicians generally did not consult clinical trials, clinical experience was deemed essential for recommending FSMPs to patients. Patients' feedback regarding the usage and sourcing of FSMPs was generally positive, with some expressing concerns about the availability of different flavours and the costs of purchasing the products. The study concludes that physicians play a vital role in recommending FSMPs to patients and ensuring they have the necessary nutritional support during treatment. However, more patient education materials and collaboration with nutritionists may be required to improve patient outcomes and reduce patient financial burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0564.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: African swine fever; ASFV; spray-dried porcine plasma; vaccine; challenge; nutritional interven-tion
Online: 31 January 2023 (02:24:23 CET)
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of feeding spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) on the protection afforded by the BA71∆CD2 African swine fever virus (ASFV) vaccine prototype. Two groups of pigs ac-climated to diets without or with 8% SDPP were intranasally inoculated with 105 plaque forming units (PFU) of live attenuated ASFV strain BA71∆CD2 and three weeks later left in direct contact with pigs infected with the pandemic Georgia2007/01 ASFV strain. During the post-exposure (pe) period, 2/6 from the conventional diet group showed a transient peak rectal temperature >40.5ºC before day 20 pe and some tissue samples collected at 20 d pe from 5/6 were PCR+ for ASFV, albeit showing Ct values much higher than Trojan pigs. Interestingly, the SDPP group did not show fever, neither PCR+ in blood nor rectal swab at any time pe and none of the postmortem collected tissue samples were PCR+ for ASFV. Differential serum cytokine profiles among groups at vaccination, and a higher number of ASFV-specific IFNϒ-secreting T-cells in pigs fed with SDPP soon after the Georgia2007/01 encounter, confirmed the relevance of Th1-like responses in ASF pro-tection. We believe that our result show that nutritional interventions might contribute to improve future ASF vaccination strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0569.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: otitis media with effusion; acute otitis media; rhino-sinusitis; Mediterranean diet; nutritional intervention
Online: 21 April 2021 (10:35:54 CEST)
Introduction: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is common in pediatric primary care consultations. Its etiology is multifactorial, although it has been proven that inflammation factors mediate and that immunity is in a phase of relative immaturity. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of the Traditional Mediterranean Diet (TMD) modulating inflammation and immunity in patients diagnosed with OME.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0220.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: chromatography; amino acids; fatty acids; pork analysis; adipose tissue; muscle tissue; nutritional factors.
Online: 9 December 2020 (11:14:18 CET)
The increasing demand for high-quality livestock products dictates to develop approaches to assessing the composition of the fatty acids (CFAs) and amino acids (CAAs) in animal tissues. The review considers the following issues: chromatographic methods for the determination of CAAs and CFAs of pig tissues; factors influencing the CAAs and CFAs of pig tissues; methods of regulating CAAs and CFAs of pork using nutritional factors; the effect of CAAs and CFAs on formation of meat properties. The main methods for determining CAAs or CFAs are the ion-exchange or gas chromatography, respectively. The total FA amount and individual FAs have significant effects on the tenderness, taste, color and juiciness of pork meat (due to the different melting points of particular fatty acids, formation of lipid oxidation products during cooking, etc.). Muscle proteins of pigs with regulated fatness differ also in CAAs (decreasing by increase in “pork fat” and decrease in the protein’s amount. The significance of this review is also determined by high popularity of pork in Russia and in a number of other countries of the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1145.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: lower extremity revascularization; peripheral artery disease; hemodialysis; geriatric nutritional risk index; C-reactive protein
Online: 17 November 2023 (07:43:26 CET)
Background: Although lower extremity revascularization is commonly performed in hemodialysis patients, poor prognosis remains a major problem. Protein-energy wasting is reportedly associated with chronic inflammation and advanced atherosclerosis in hemodialysis patients. We investigated the association between the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) as a surrogate marker of protein-energy wasting, C-reactive protein (CRP), and their joint roles in the prediction of amputation and/or mortality. Methods: We enrolled 800 patients successfully underwent lower extremity revascularization. Patients were divided into low, middle and high tertile (T1, T2 and T3) according to GNRI and CRP levels, respectively. Results: Amputation-free survival rates for 8 years were 47.0%, 56.9%, and 69.5% in T1, T2, and T3 of the GNRI, and 65.8%, 58.7%, and 33.2% for T1, T2, and T3 of CRP, respectively (p<0.0001 for both). Declined GNRI [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-2.59, p=0.0016 for T1 vs. T3] and elevated CRP (aHR 1.86, 95%CI 1.30-2.70, p=0.0007 for T3 vs. T1) were independent predictors of amputation and/or mortality. In the combined setting of both variables, the risk was 3.77-fold higher (95% CI 1.97-7.69, p<0.0001) in the T1 of GNRI with T3 of CRP than in the T3 of GNRI with T1 of CRP. Conclusions: Patients with pre-procedural decreased GNRI and elevated CRP levels frequently experienced amputation and/or mortality, and a combination of both variables could more accurately stratify the risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0732.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: animal feed; annual legumes; perennial legumes; nutritional value; minerals; in vitro fermentation; methane production
Online: 12 October 2023 (05:04:01 CEST)
This study evaluated five annual and eleven perennial Indian pasture legumes species for their nutritive value, dry matter, mineral contents and in vitro fermentation parameters, aiming to boost their potential as animal feed. Legume species significantly differed (p<0.05) in organic matter, crud protein (CP), ether extracts, fibres, and protein fractions. Clitoria ternatea (CT) a perennial had higher (p<0.05) buffer soluble protein (477), while neutral detergent soluble protein was highest in annually grown Lablab purpureus (420 g/kg CP). Atylosia scarabaeoides (AS) had higher NSC (392 g/kg DM) than SC (367 g/kg DM). Rapidly degradable fraction (51.7 g/kg tCHO) was lower (p<0.05) than other fractions of carbohydrate. Total digestible nutrients, digestible energy and metabolisable energy varied and values were higher for Desmenthus virgatus and lowest for Stylosanthas seabrana (SSe). The NE values for lactation (NEL), maintenance (NEM) and gain (NEG) were also higher for DV (6.6, 7.95 and 4.28) and lowest for SSe (3.54, 4.24 and 0.58 kJ/g DM), respectively. dry matter intake, digestible DM (DDM) and relative feed value of legumes differed (p<0.05) with mean values of 2.22% body weight, 592 g/kg DM and 102%, respectively. Annual grasses like Dolichos biflorus, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Rhynchosia minima (RM) were found better with micro minerals compared to other perennials. In vitro dry matter degradability, partition factor, short chain fatty acids and microbial protein production of legumes varied (P<0.05) and mean values were 578 g/kg DM, 5.61 mg DDM/mL, 2.42 mm/g and 352 mg/g, respectively. Gas and CH4 production (mL/g and mL/g DDM) varied (p<0.05) being lowest gas from AS (55.5) and highest from CT-blue (141), while CH4 production was lower (p<0.05) from CT-white and AS (8.24 and 9.14) and higher from Arachis glabrata (AG) and Arachis hagenbackii (AH) (15.2 and 15.1). Methane in total gas was low for DV, RM and CT-w (8.99, 9.72 and 9.51%) and loss of DE and ME as CH4 varied (P<0.05) amongst the legumes with mean values of 4.62 and 7.86%, respectively. Based on these findings, each legume offers unique benefits, allowing for tailored combinations of annual and perennial legumes to optimize rumen feed efficiency.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Nutritional Psychiatry; Mental Health Professionals; Psychiatrists; Psychologists; Psychotherapists; Education; Psychiatric Disorders; Diet; Supplements; Nutrition
Online: 16 February 2021 (13:36:58 CET)
Abstract: Nutritional interventions have beneficial effects on certain psychiatric disorder symptomatology and common physical health comorbidities. However, studies evaluating nutritional literacy in mental health professionals (MHP) are scarce. This study aimed to assess the degree of self-rated training and literacy relating to nutrition in MHPs. We conducted a cross-sectional survey across 52-countries. Surveys were distributed via colleagues and professional societies. Data were collected regarding self-reported general nutrition knowledge, nutrition education, learning opportunities, and the tendency to recommend food supplements or specific diets in clinical practice. In total, 1056 subjects participated in the study: 354 psychiatrists, 511 psychologists, 44 psychotherapists, and 147 MHPs in-training. All participants believed the diet quality of individuals with mental disorders was poorer compared to the general population (p<0.001). The majority of the psychiatrists (74.2%) and psychologists (66.3%) reported having no training in nutrition. Nevertheless, many of them used nutrition approaches, with 58.6% recommending supplements and 43.8% recommending specific diet strategies to their patients. Only 0.8% of participants rated their education regarding nutrition as ‘very good’. Almost all (92.9%) stated they would like to expand their knowledge regarding ‘Nutritional Psychiatry’. There is an urgent need to integrate nutrition education into MHP training, ideally in collaboration with nutrition experts to achieve best practice care.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Nutritional Surveillance; Public Health; Community Health Nursing; Public Health Nursing; Children’s health; Community Participation
Online: 17 August 2020 (10:08:36 CEST)
Effectively responding to children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in Mozambique requires a community-based care approach grounded in sound nursing research that is evidence-based. The Community Assessment, Intervention, and Empowerment Model (MAIEC) is a nursing theoretical model that bases clinical decision-making for community health nurses using communities as a unit of care. We used the MAIEC to identify a community-based nursing diagnosis to address children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in Mozambique. Objectives: (1) To conduct a descriptive study of children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in a school community in Mavalane, Mozambique, and (2) to identify a community-based nursing diagnosis using the MAIEC clinical decision-making matrix in the same school community. Method: A cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of children using anthropometric data, including brachial perimeter and the tricipital skinfold, and standard deviation for the relation of weight-height, in a sample of 227 children. To assess community management of the problem and identify a community-based nursing diagnosis, we surveyed 176 parents/guardians and 49 education professionals, using a questionnaire based on the MAIEC clinical decision matrix as a reference. Results: Malnutrition was identified in more than half of the children (51.3%). We also identified a community-based nursing diagnosis of impaired community management related to the promotion of child health and healthy eating as evident by lack of community leadership, participation, and processing among more than 70% of the community members (parents/guardians and education professionals). Conclusion: A nursing diagnosis and diagnostic criteria for nutritional status and community management were identified. The need to intervene using a multidisciplinary public health approach is imperative, with the school community as the unit of care. In addition, reliable anthropometric data were used to complement the nursing diagnosis and guide future public health interventions.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: ontology; nutritional epidemiology; minimal data information; data quality descriptors; study reporting guidelines; Semantic Web
Online: 15 May 2019 (05:51:53 CEST)
1) Background: The use of linked data in Semantic Web are promising approaches to add value to nutrition research. An ontology, which defines the logical relationships between well-defined taxonomic terms, enables linking and harmonizing research output. To enable the description of domain-specific output in nutritional epidemiology, we propose the Ontology for Nutritional Epidemiology (ONE) according to authoritative guidance for nutritional epidemiologic research; 2) Methods: First, a scoping review was conducted to identify existing ontology terms for reuse in ONE. Second, existing data standards and manuscript reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology were converted into ontology, and the terms used in the standards were summarized and listed separately in a taxonomic hierarchy. Third, the ontologies of the nutritional epidemiologic standards, reporting guidelines and the core concepts were gathered in ONE. Three case studies were illustrated for its potential applications. (i) annotation of existing manuscripts and data, (ii) ontology-based inference, and (iii) estimation of reporting completeness in a sample of nine manuscripts; 3) Results: Ontologies for “food and nutrition” (n=33), “disease and special population” (n=86), “data description” (n=21), “research description” (n=32) and “supplementary (meta) data description” (n=44) were reviewed and listed. ONE consists of 339 classes (79 new classes to describe nutrition data and 24 new classes to describe the content of nutrition manuscripts). The case studies demonstrated the application of ONE. 4) Conclusion: ONE is a resource to automate data integration, searching and browsing, and can be used to assess reporting completeness in nutritional epidemiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: nutritional intervention; menopausal women; vitamin D3-fortified yogurts; serum 25OHD dose response; seasonality interaction
Online: 31 January 2017 (12:01:31 CET)
A 24 week-controlled trial was conducted in menopausal women (mean age:61.5) to assess serum 25-hydroyvitaminD (s25OHD) evolution in relation to three interdependent determinants: doses of supplemented (Suppl.) vitamin D3 (VitD3); baseline status; seasonality. Participants were randomized into 3 groups (Gr): Gr.Suppl.0, time-controls maintaining dietary habits; Gr.Suppl.5 and Gr.Suppl.10 consuming one and two 125 g servings of VitD3-fortified yogurts with 5 and 10 µg daily doses, respectively. The 16 intervention-weeks lasted from early-January to mid-August, the 8 follow-up-weeks from late-August to mid-October. Before enrollment, subjects were randomized into two s25OHD strata: “Low stratum (LoStr)“: 25-50 nmol/L; “High stratum (HiStr)“: >50-75 nmol/L. All enrolled participants remained compliant until study end: Gr.Suppl.0 (n=45), Gr.Suppl.5 (n=44) Gr.Suppl.10 (n=44). Over the 16 intervention and 8 follow-up weeks, s25OHD increased in both supplemented groups, more in Gr.Suppl.10 than Gr.Suppl.5. The constant rate of s25OHD per supplemental VitD3 microgram was greater in LoStr than HiStr. s25OHD increase was greater with late (mid-March) than early (mid-January) inclusion. In conclusion, this randomized trial demonstrates: -a dose-dependent s25OHD improvement related to fortified yogurt consumption; -an inversely baseline-dependent increase in s25OHD; -a seasonal effect that highlights the importance of vitamin D3 supplementation during winter, even at 5µg/d, in healthy menopausal women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0695.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: malnutrition; ovarian cancer; overall survival; nutritional risk screening score; nutrition; phase angle; progression-free survival
Online: 13 November 2023 (08:32:41 CET)
Background: Malnutrition was associated with worse survival outcomes, impaired quality of life, and deteriorated performance status across various cancer types. We aimed to identify risk factors for malnutrition in patients with epithelial ovarian(EOC) and impact on survival. Methods: In our prospective study, we included the patients with primary and recurrent EOC, tubal or peritoneal cancer conducted. We assessed serum laboratory parameters, body mass index, nutritional risk index, nutritional risk screening score(NRS-2002), and bio-electrical impedance analysis. Results: We recruited a total of 152. Patients >65 years-old, with ascites of >500 ml, or with platinum-resistant EOC showed statistically significant increased risk of malnutrition when evaluated by NRS-2002(p-values = 0.014, 0.001, and 0.007, respectively). An NRS-2002<3 was an independent predictive factor for complete tumor resectability (p=0.009). The patients with NRS-2002≥3 had a median overall survival(OS) of seven months (95% CI=0-24 months), as compared to the patients with NRS-2002<3 where median OS was 46 months(p=0,001). Phase angle(PhAα)≤ 4.5 was the strongest predictor of OS. Conclusion: Malnutrition is an independent predictor of incomplete cytoreduction in study population. It is an independent prognostic factor for poor OS. Preoperative nutritional assessment is an effective tool in identification of high-risk groups within EOC characterized by poor clinical outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0883.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Food environments; Food systems; Food security; Dietary intake; Nutritional status; Nutrition transition; Household; South Africa
Online: 12 May 2023 (04:56:58 CEST)
A cross-sectional study was applied to investigate the influence of food systems and food environments on food choices and nutrition transition of households in Limpopo province, South Africa. A sample of 429 households were systematically selected using a paper selection draw from three districts. Food systems, food environments, food choices, and nutritional measurements of the households and informants were assessed, using a validated questionnaire. Most of the household informants responsible for food procurement were females (80.4%). There was a significant association (p < 0.001) between proximity to food stores and dietary diversity of the households. Staple foods were available in almost all surveyed households (95.6%). More than half of the households (59.8%) had home gardens in their yards. Almost half of the households (48.4%) had a low Dietary Diversity Score. The study revealed that 46.0% of households were food secure. Over a third (36.2%) of households’ informants were obese and 32.5% were diabetic. The mean total blood cholesterol was 3.69 ± 0.74 mmol/L. A high percentage of both females (89.6%) and males (91.5%) had normal haemoglobin levels. Most of the informants had normal systolic blood pressure levels (63%), with just over half who had high diastolic levels (57%). The 25 coping strategies were applied during food shortages periods. Even though the food environments provided both obesogenic and protective foods, the consumption of unhealthy foods was high.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Acute pancreatitis; prognostic nutritional index; C-reactive protein; red cell distribution width; Ranson's criteria; severity
Online: 7 November 2022 (01:15:17 CET)
Background: Acute pancreatitis is a common emergency. Morbidity control requires early detection of disease severity. METHODS: A total of 131 AP patients were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups mild AP (MAP: Ranson score <3) and severe AP (SAP: Ranson score ≥3), according to Ranson’s criteria. Demographic data, hospitalization duration, PNI, CRP, and RDW levels were compared. Any p-value below 0.05 (p<0.05) was accepted as statistically significant. RESULTS: Study included 67 (51.15%) males and 64 (48.85%) females. The age average was 59.74 (19-90) years. 95 (72.52%) patients had MAP, and 36 (27.48%) patients had SAP. Mean hospitalization time, PNI, and CRP differed significantly between the two groups (p=0.010, p<0.05, p<0.05, respectively). The RDW (p=0.380) level difference was insignificant. For SAP prediction; the sensitivity, specificity and cut-off value according to Ranson code cut-off point for PNI were determined as 80.0% (95% CI:54.8-85.8), %72.2 (95% CI:70.5-87.5) and ≤45.6 (gr/L) + (mm3), respectively, and 94.7% (95% CI:57.8-87.9), %75.0 (95% CI:88.1-98.3) and >105,1 mg/L, respectively for CRP. CONCLUSION: PNI and CRP values (but not RDW values) were compatible with the disease severity determined by the Ranson criteria.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0154.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Genome selection; Rice breeding; Genetic analysis; Omics assisted markers; Nutritional quality; Genomics and pangenomics; Biofortification
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:53:16 CEST)
The primary considerations while producing rice (Oryza sativa L.) include improving its nutritional quality and production. To tackle widespread hunger globally, better nutritional, high-yielding rice cultivars need to be developed. The conventional ways are to increase the production of rice and add balanced nutrients in the daily diet to fulfill the need of yield and nutrient quality. This article focuses on nutritional strategies for rice and illustrates the availability of omics technologies. Current advancements providing many methodologies and approaches for exploring genetic resources and for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in trait formation have been highlighted. Studying the genetic influences of various characteristics has been proven to expedite crop breeding processes. In this perspective, genome-wide association research, genome selection (GS), and QTL mapping are all genetic analysis that helps in increasing the nutritional content of rice. Implementation of several omic techniques are effective approaches to enhance and regulate the nutritional quality of rice cultivars. Advancements in different types of omics including genomics and pangenomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, nutrigenomics, and proteomics are also relevant to rice development initiatives. This review article compiles genes, locus, mutants and all omic approaches for rice enhancement. This knowledge will be very useful for now and for the future regarding rice studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0017.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: frailty; muscle volume; nutritional status; prognostic factor; sarcopenia; skeletal muscle mass; stroke; temporal muscle thickness.
Online: 1 December 2021 (13:12:03 CET)
Background: Evaluating muscle mass and function among stroke patients is important. However, evaluating muscle volume and function is not easy due to the disturbance of consciousness and paresis. Temporal muscle thickness (TMT) has been introduced as a novel surrogate marker for muscle mass, function, and nutritional status. We herein performed a narrative literature review on temporal muscle and stroke to understand the current meaning of the TMT in the clinical stroke practice. Methods: The search was performed in PubMed, last updated in October 2021. Report on temporal muscle morphomics and stroke-related diseases or clinical entities were collected. Results: Four studies reported on TMT and subarachnoid hemorrhage, 2 intracerebral hemorrhage, 2 ischemic stroke, 2 standard TMT values, and 2 nutritional status. TMT was reported as a prognostic factor for several diseases, surrogate markers for skeletal muscle mass, and an indicator of nutritional status. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography were used to measure TMT. Conclusions: TMT is gradually used as a prognostic factor of stroke or surrogate marker for skeletal muscle mass and nutritional status. Establishing standard methods to measure TMT and large prospective studies to investigate the further relationship between TMT and diseases are needed.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0073.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: ecological stoichiometry; predator; spider; sex; nutrition; nutritional ecology; arthropod; nutrient cycling; trophic link; food web
Online: 29 July 2020 (09:40:28 CEST)
Nutritional limitations may shape populations and communities of organisms. This phenomenon is often studied by treating populations and communities as pools of homogenous individuals with average nutritional optima and experiencing average constraints and trade-offs that influence their fitness in a standardized way. However, populations and communities consist of individuals belonging to different sexes, each with specific nutritional demands and limitations. Taking this into account, we used the ecological stoichiometry framework to study sexual differences in the stoichiometric phenotypes, reflecting stoichiometric niches, of four spider taxa differing in hunting mode. The species and sexes differed fundamentally in their elemental phenotypes, including elements beyond those most commonly studied (C, N and P). Both species and sexes were distinguished by the C:N ratio and concentrations of Cu, K and Zn. Species additionally differed in concentrations of Na, Mg and Mn. Phosphorous was not involved in this differentiation. Sexual dimorphism in spiders’ elemental phenotypes, related to differences in their stoichiometric niches, suggests different nutritional optima and differences in nutritional limitation experienced by different sexes and species. This may influence the structure and functioning of spider populations and communities.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: metabolomics; metabolite profiling; prudent diet; western diet; food provisions; diet records; nutritional epidemiology; mass spectrometry
Online: 22 September 2019 (15:20:34 CEST)
A large body of evidence has linked unhealthy eating patterns with an alarming increase in obesity and chronic disease worldwide. However, existing methods of assessing dietary intake in nutritional epidemiology rely on food frequency questionnaires or dietary records that are prone to bias and selective reporting. Herein, metabolic phenotyping was performed on 42 healthy participants from the Diet and Gene Intervention (DIGEST) pilot study, a parallel two-arm randomized clinical trial that provided complete diets to all participants. Matching urine and plasma specimens were collected at baseline and following 2 weeks of provision of either a Prudent or Western diet with a weight-maintaining menu plan designed by a dietician. Targeted and nontargeted metabolite profiling was conducted using three complementary analytical platforms, where 80 plasma metabolites and 84 creatinine-normalized urinary metabolites were reliably measured (CV < 30%) in the majority of participants (> 75%) after implementing a rigorous data workflow for metabolite authentication with stringent quality control. We classified a panel of metabolites with distinctive trajectories following 2 weeks of food provisions when using complementary univariate and multivariate statistical models. Unknown metabolites associated with contrasting dietary patterns were identified with high resolution MS/MS and/or co-elution after spiking with authentic standards. Overall, 3-methylhistidine and proline betaine concentrations increased consistently after participants were assigned a Prudent diet (q< 0.05) in both plasma and urine samples with a corresponding decrease in the Western diet group. Similarly, creatinine-normalized urinary imidazole propionate, hydroxypipecolic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, and enterolactone glucuronide, as well as plasma ketoleucine and ketovaline increased with a Prudent diet (p< 0.05) after adjustments for age, sex and BMI. In contrast, plasma myristic acid, linoelaidic acid, linoleic acid, a-linoleic acid, pentadecanoic acid, alanine, proline, carnitine and deoxycarnitine, as well as urinary acesulfame K increased among participants following a Western diet. Most metabolites were also correlated (r > ±0.30, p< 0.05) to changes in average intake of specific nutrients from self-reported diet records reflecting good adherence to assigned food provisions. Our study revealed robust biomarkers sensitive to short-term changes in habitual diet for accurate monitoring of healthy eating patterns in free-living populations, which is required for validating evidence-based public health policies for chronic disease prevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1595.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: breast milk; human milk bank; associations; donors; diet; nutritional status; lipid profile; vitamins; minerals; docosahexaenoic acid
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:24:33 CEST)
The influence of diet and nutritional status of milk donors on the nutritional composition of donor human milk (DHM) is unknown. The present study aimed to determine the nutritional profile of DHM and the associations of donors’ dietary intake and nutritional status with micronutrient and lipid composition in DHM. For this purpose, 113 donors completed a food frequency questionnaire, provided a 5-day weighed dietary record, and collected milk for 5 consecutive days. Nutrient determinations in donors’ erythrocytes, plasma, urine, and milk were performed. Multiple linear regressions were conducted for the evaluation of the associations. We highlight the following results: DHM docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was positively associated with donors’ plasma DHA content and donors’ DHA intake (R2 0.45, p < 0.001). For every 1 g/day of DHA intake, the percentage of DHA in DHM increased by 0.38% (% of total fat) and the percentage of total omega-3 in DHM increased by 0.78% (R2 0.29, p < 0.001). DHM saturated fatty acids were positively associated with erythrocyte dimethyl acetals, plasma stearic acid, trans fatty acids intake, and breastfeeding duration, and negatively associated with erythrocyte margaroleic acid (R2 0.34, p < 0.01). DHM cholecalciferol was associated with plasma cholecalciferol levels and dairy intake (R2 0.57, p < 0.01). Other weaker associations were found for free thiamine, free riboflavin, pyridoxal, dehydroascorbic acid, and lipid profile in DHM. In conclusion, the diet and nutritional status of donors influences the fatty acid profile and micronutrient content of DHM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0300.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: dry matter yield; CO-5; harvesting interval; In-vitro gas fermentation; nutritional composition; pasture quality; Sampoorna
Online: 13 April 2023 (07:17:13 CEST)
Low pasture biomass production and fodder scarcity are among the major challenges affecting productivity of dairy cattle farms in Sri Lanka. As a potential solution to this, two Napier hybrid cultivars CO-5 and Sampoorna were recently introduced and a field experiment was conducted to evaluate their growth, dry matter production and nutritional composition during May to September 2020. Plant measurements and samples were collected at five harvest intervals (4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks after planting), with the plant samples subjected to biomass and nutritional assessments. The number of tillers and leaf length differed (P=0.01) between the two cultivars at 4 weeks harvesting interval (HI) whilst number of leaves differed at 12 HI respectively. Dry matter yield increased (P=0.16) almost linearly whilst crude protein declined exponentially with CO-5 greater than Sampoorna (P=0.057; 9.3% vs 8.7%), with increasing harvesting intervals respectively. In-vitro Organic Matter Digestibility and In-vitro Metabolizable Energy contents were similar across weeks 4, 6 and 8 but then decreased. This study demonstrates that higher dry matter yields (12.54 t/ha) can be obtained by harvesting both cultivars at 12 HI, but from a nutritional perspective harvesting at 6 HI during Yala season of the year would be optimum for farmers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0382.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae; beta-glucans; selenium; zinc; gut barrier; modulation; COVID-19; nutritional supplementation; allergy; inflammatory process
Online: 25 January 2023 (04:43:01 CET)
This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects, protection of gut barrier integrity, and stimulation of phagocytosis in peripheral cells of a nutritional supplement based on a synergistic combination of yeast-based ingredients with a unique 1,3/1,6-glucan complex and a consortium of postbiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae rich in selenium and zinc. The anti-inflammatory effect in Caco-2 cells in the presence and absence of a pro-inflammatory challenge (tumour necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]/interferon gamma [IFN-ɣ]) showed statistically significant reductions of IFN-ɣ induced protein-10 (IP-10), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels vs. controls (p < 0.001). Disruption of the gut integrity in the presence or absence of Escherichia coli (ETEC H10407) showed transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) values higher in the ABB C1® group after 6 hours of testing. Spontaneous build-up of the gut epithelium monolayer over 22 days was also greater in the ABB C1® condition vs. a negative control. ABB C1® showed a significantly higher capacity to stimulate phagocytosis as compared with controls of algae β-1,3-glucan and yeast β-1,3/1,6 glucan (p < 0.001). This study supports the mechanism of action by which ABB C1® may improve the immune response and be useful to prevent infection and allergy in clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0167.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Almond; Almond beverage; Almond skin; Antiradical activity; Green extraction; Hydrodynamic cavitation; Nutritional values; Polyphenols; Proteins; Vitamins
Online: 10 January 2023 (02:12:56 CET)
Almond beverages are gaining ever-increasing consumer preference in the growing market of non-alcoholic vegetable beverages, ranking in first place among oilseed-based drinks, mainly due to the perceived healthy benefits. However, the high cost of the raw material, time and energy consuming pre-treatments such as soaking, blanching and peeling, and post-treatments such as thermal sterilization, leading also to the loss of valuable macronutrients and micronutrients, hinder the sustainability, affordability and spread of almond beverages. Hydrodynamic cavitation processes were applied, as a single-unit operation, to the extraction in water of almond skinless kernels in the form of flour and fine grains, and to whole almond seeds in the form of coarse grains, up to high concentrations. The results showed full compliance with a high-end commercial product and with the expected levels based on the properties of the raw materials. The concentrated extract obtained from whole almond seeds showed a comparatively much higher antiradical activity, likely due to the contribution of the almond kernel skin. In conclusion, hydrodynamic cavitation could represent a convenient alternative processing route to the production of conventional and new integral almond beverages, avoiding multiple and costly technological steps, while affording fast production cycles of potentially healthier beverages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: early initiation of breastfeeding; exclusive breastfeeding; anemia; nutritional status; infants under six months; Syrian refugees; Lebanon
Online: 16 September 2022 (02:01:22 CEST)
The objective is to describe infant feeding practices and the nutritional status of infants under six months among Syrian refugees in Greater Beirut, Lebanon. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Syrian refugee mothers with children under five years (July-October 2018), mothers with infants under six months were included in the analysis (n=114). Additionally, eleven focus groups discussions were conducted to explore supportive factors and barriers associated with early breastfeeding practices. The prevalence of pre-lacteal feeding was high (62.5%), whereas early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) was low (31%), and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) very low (24.6%). About one-fifth of the infants were suffering from anemia (20.5%) and 9.6% were wasted. Supporting factors of adequate infant feeding practices comprised knowledge on maternal nutrition and EBF, in addition to receiving support from healthcare professionals and family members. Identified barriers included preterm delivery, pre-lacteal feeding, an at-risk waist circumference and moderate to severe depression among mothers, bottle feeding, early introduction of food, maternal health reasons, breastmilk substitutes’ distribution, and misinformation offered by mothers-in-law. To address sub-optimal feeding practices documented among Syrian refugees in our study, existing infant and young child feeding policies and programs need to be strengthened and revised to tackle the identified gaps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1110.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: ultra-processed food; Nova food classification system; major depressive disorder; nutritional psychiatry; secondary analysis; randomised controlled trial
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:38:10 CEST)
Background: In this secondary analysis of the Supporting the Modification of Lifestyle In Lowered Emotional States (SMILES) randomised controlled trial, we investigated if the beneficial effects of a dietary intervention on clinical depression were driven, in part, by reducing the consumption of foods classified as ultra-processed.Methods: The SMILES trial enrolled 67 adults with major depressive disorder, randomly assigning them to either a 12-week modified Mediterranean dietary intervention or a social support control. Our analysis included 44 participants with non-missing dietary data and at least one valid Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) assessment at 12 weeks of follow-up. The Nova food classification system was used to estimate the proportion of ultra-processed foods in the overall diet (percentage of grams) based on data from seven-day food diaries. We fitted linear regression models under blinded conditions to determine whether ultra-processed food intake-change from baseline to 12 weeks moderated the dietary intervention effects on depressive symptoms. We estimated mean differences in depressive symptoms along with ninety-five per cent confidence intervals (95%CIs).Results: For participants in the dietary intervention, there was an additional 2.5-point improvement in MADRS scores for each 10% reduction in the dietary share of ultra-processed foods compared to participants in the control group (between-group mean differences in depressive symptoms: −2.46, 95%CIs −4.71 to −0.20, p=0.039, η p 2 of 0.10).Conclusions: These preliminary findings suggest that the therapeutic benefit of a dietary intervention for depression may stem, at least in part, from reductions in the dietary share of ultra-processed foods.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: obesity; eating context; nutrient-poor foods; nutritional surveillance; adolescents; survey data analysis; data-mining; correspondence analysis; biplots
Online: 9 June 2020 (13:52:45 CEST)
Obesity is a global public health problem and the environment as its major determinant. To identify interventions an evidence base is warranted. To this aim we investigate the relationship between the consumption of foods and eating locations (like home, school/work and others) in British adolescents, using data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Program (2008–2012 and 2013-2016). Cross-sectional analysis of 62,523 food diary entries from this nationally representative sample then focused on foods contributing up to 80% total energy to the daily adolescent´s diet. Correspondence Analysis (CA) was first used to generate food-location relationship hypotheses and Logistic Regression (LR) to quantify the evidence in terms of odds ratios and formally test those hypotheses. The less-healthy foods that emerged from CA were chips, soft drinks, chocolate and meat pies. Adjusted Odds Ratios (99% CI) for consuming specific foods at a location “Other” than home (H) or school/work (S) in the 2008-12 survey sample were: for soft drinks 2.8 (2.1 to 3.8) vs. H and 2.0 (1.4 to 2.8) vs. S; for chips 2.8 (2.2 to 3.7) vs. H and 3.4 (2.1 to 5.5) vs. S; for chocolates 2.6 (1.9 to 3.5) vs. H and 1.9 (1.2 to 2.9) vs. S; and for meat pies 2.7 (1.5 to 5.1) vs. H and 1.3 (0.5 to 3.1) vs. S. These trends were confirmed in the 2013-16 survey sample. Interactions between location and BMI were not significant in either sample. In conclusion, our study showed that adolescents are more likely to consume specific less-healthy foods at locations away from home and school/work, irrespective of BMI. Such locations include leisure places, food outlets and “on the go”, hence public health policies to discourage less-healthy food choices in these locations is warranted for all adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2143.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: caesarean section; pre-pregnancy; overweigh; obesity; gestational weight gain; preterm birth; pregnancy complications; nutritional interventions; maternal risk factors
Online: 29 June 2023 (12:38:51 CEST)
Background: There is an exponential increase in caesarean sections with epidemic proportions worldwide, which is considered as a serious public health issue that influences negatively both maternal and childhood health. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the associations between pre-dominant maternal risk factors and the prevalence of caesarean section in a representative sample of women from Greece. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 5182 healthy, re-productive-aged women from 11 geographically diverse Greek areas after applying specific inclu-sion and exclusion criteria. Statistical analysis was applied to evaluate the impact of maternal so-ciodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and perinatal factors in the risk of caesarean section de-liveries. Results: A high prevalence of 56.4% of caesarean section deliveries was recorded in the study population. The incidence of caesarean sections reached to 51.5% in private hospitals in which an increasing rate of 47.5% for planned caesarean sections were noticed. Older maternal age, pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity, excess gestational weight gain, high rates of preterm birth, better economic status, smoking habits, and private type of birth hospital were significantly related with enhanced risk of caesarean section, independently of multiple confounding factors. Conclu-sions: Our study revealed that caesarean section rates are continuously increase, while several maternal risk factors, including especially pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and excess gestational weight gain, cumulatively raise its prevalence which further increase the risk for postnatal adverse outcomes for both the mothers and their children. Emergent public health policies and strategies should be promoted to confront the predominant maternal risk factors-related with caesarean sec-tion and inform future mothers how to be prevented from them by applying healthier nutritional and lifestyle habits and to select caesarean section only due to emergency medical reasons. Alarmingly enough, targeted nutritional intervention strategies are strongly recommended to ef-fectively reduce the prevalence of maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and the excess gestational weight gain, which in turn may minimize the risk of childhood overweight/obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2076.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: sulforaphane; gut-organ axis; gut ecology; microbiome; chronic disease; nutrigenomics; nutritional medicine; food intolerance; epithelium, dysbiosis; gut barrier
Online: 29 June 2023 (08:06:36 CEST)
Given the accelerating scientific, clinical and consumer interest in highly-prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders, appropriate therapeutic strategies are needed to address the many aspects of digestive dysfunction. Accumulating evidence for the crucifer-derived bioactive molecule, sulforaphane in upstream cellular defence mechanisms highlights its potential as a therapeutic candidate in targeting functional gastrointestinal conditions together with systemic disorders. This article catalogues the evolution of and rationale for a hypothesis that utilises multifunctional sulforaphane as the initial step in restoring the ecology of the gut ecosystem; it does this primarily by targeting the functions of intestinal epithelial cells. A growing body of work has identified the colonocyte as the driver of dysbiosis, so that targeting gut epithelial function could provide an alternative to targeting the microbes themselves for remediation of microbial dysbiosis. The hypothesis discussed herein has evolved over several years and is supported by case studies showing the application of sulforaphane in gastrointestinal disorders, related food intolerance and several systemic conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first time the effects of sulforaphane have been reported in a clinical environment where several of its key properties within the gut ecosystem appear to be related to its nutrigenomic effects on gene expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0023.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Trans Fatty Acids; edible oils; cardiovascular health; fried foods; nutritional labeling; public health; fatty acid profile; Recommended limits.
Online: 1 June 2023 (04:14:19 CEST)
Trans fatty acids (TFA) are a concern for public health due to their negative impact on cardiovascular health. This study aimed to assess the levels of TFA and other fatty acids in popular edible oils and fried foods commonly consumed in Tanzania. A total of 57 samples from 38 brands of edible oils and 20 samples of fried street foods and fast foods were collected in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Capillary gas chromatography was used to determine TFA levels, while nutritional labeling and other fatty acid classes were also evaluated. Among the analyzed edible oils, 21% exceeded the recommended TFA levels, primarily found in popular brands of margarine, industrially refined sunflower oils, animal butter, and peanut butter. Only two food items surpassed the 2% TFA limit, but a majority of the foods had high levels of saturated fatty acids and a fatty acid profile similar to palm oil. Additionally, only 22% of the edible oils provided TFA content information. These findings indicate the persistence of TFA levels beyond recommended limits and inadequate TFA nutritional labeling in Tanzanian food products. Urgent interventions are necessary to reduce TFA levels and improve nutritional labeling practices to safeguard public health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2123.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: sarcopenia; frailty; comorbidity; diabetes; chronic kidney disease (CKD); heart failure; dementia; vitamin D; oral nutritional supplement (ONS); elderly people
Online: 29 June 2023 (13:14:19 CEST)
Many countries are facing the advent of super-aging societies, where sarcopenia and frailty will become emerging problems. Elderly people suffer from various diseases, such as diabetes, heart failure, chronic kidney disease and dementia. The prevalence of comorbidities is a major problem in countries with aged populations. Underlying diseases, such as diabetes, heart failure, chronic kidney disease and also dementia are associated with sarcopenia and frailty, and they are frequent causes of falls, fractures, and a decline in activities of daily living. Fractures in the elderly people are associated with bone fragility, which is influenced by diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Nutritional support for chronic disease patients and sarcopenic individuals with adequate energy and protein intake, vitamin D supplementation, blood-glucose-level management for individuals with diabetes, obesity prevention, nutritional education for healthy individuals, and the enlightenment of society could be crucial to solving the problems in super-aging societies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2095.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: sarcopenia; frailty; comorbidity; diabetes; chronic kidney disease (CKD); heart failure; dementia; vitamin D; oral nutritional supplement (ONS); elderly people
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:05:54 CEST)
Many countries are facing the advent of super-aging societies, where sarcopenia and frailty will become emerging problems. Elderly people suffer from various diseases, such as diabetes, heart failure, chronic kidney disease and dementia. The prevalence of comorbidities is a major problem in countries with aged populations. Underlying diseases, such as diabetes, heart failure, chronic kidney disease and also dementia are associated with sarcopenia and frailty, and they are frequent causes of falls, fractures, and a decline in ADL. Fractures in the elderly people are associated with bone fragility. Diabetes and chronic kidney disease are associated with bone fragility. Nutritional support for chronic disease patients and sarcopenic individuals with adequate energy and protein intake, vitamin D supplementation, blood-glucose-level management for individuals with diabetes, obesity prevention, nutritional education for healthy individuals, and the enlightenment of society could be crucial to solving the problems in super-aging societies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0006.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: hormesis; polyphenols; clinical trials; antioxidants; reactive oxygen species; oxidative stress; plant-derived antioxidants; dietary antioxidants; nutritional hormesis; free radicals
Online: 1 February 2023 (03:03:40 CET)
A consistent factor in the epidemic of chronic disease is a pro-inflammatory metabolic state. The ability of clinicians to use nutrients to balance inflammation by supporting oxidant homeostasis rests on the quality of research within the field of antioxidants. Understanding the intersection of two prominent theories regarding the role of antioxidants in quelling inflammation, nutritional hormesis and oxidant scavenging, will enable the therapeutic use of antioxidants in clinical practice. This review investigates the less well-established theory, nutritional hormesis, which has not been comprehensively reviewed recently to our knowledge. To understand the state of research on the hormetic response, we conducted a comprehensive literature review describing the relationship between dietary antioxidants, hormesis, and chronic disease. We used an adaptive search strategy in PubMed and Scopus, retrieving a total of 343 articles, of which 218 were unique. Title and abstract screenings were conducted by two reviewers independently with a third as a tiebreaker, resulting in 152 articles included in this review. Most studies reviewed the hormetic response in plant and cell models (73.6%) while only 2.2% were conducted in humans. Limitations exist in translating plant/cell/animal models into the complexities of human biochemistry and physiology that warrant consideration before extrapolating such results into clinical practice. A critical hurdle in our literature review process is the lack of standardized nomenclature describing the hormetic effect in the research community that challenges the ability to comprehensively review the subject matter. Further, aA knowledge gap exists between the cell culture and animal model research that shows a biphasic, hormetic quality to the role of antioxidants and the observational human studies, which have yet to corroborate these findings. Therefore, we cannot accurately translate this research into clinical care at this time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0484.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Chronic alcohol; Thiamine Deficiency; Disinhibition; Wernicke´s Encephalopathy; Recognition memory; Nitrosative stress; Lipid peroxidation; Apoptosis; Cell damage; Nutritional deficit
Online: 25 November 2021 (16:03:13 CET)
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is induced by thiamine deficiency (TD) and mainly related to alcohol consumption. Frontal cortex dysfunction has been associated to impulsivity and disinhibition in WKS patients. The pathophysiology involves oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and inflammatory responses leading to neuronal death, but the relative contributions of each factor (alcohol and TD, isolate or in interaction) to these phenomena are still poorly understood. A rat model was used by forced consumption of 20% (w/v) alcohol for 9 months (CA), TD hit (TD diet + pyrithiamine 0.25 mg/kg, i.p. daily injections the last 12 days of experimentation; TDD), and both combined treatments (CA+TDD). Motor and cognitive performance and cortical damage were examined. CA caused hyperlocomotion as a possible sensitization of ethanol-induced excitatory effects and recognition memory deficits. In addition, CA+TDD animals showed a disinhibited-like behavior, which appears to be dependent on TDD. Also, combined treatment led to more pronounced alterations in nitrosative stress, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis and cell damage markers. Correlations between injury signals and disinhibition suggest that CA+TDD disrupts behaviors dependent on the frontal cortex. Our study sheds light on the potential disease-specific mechanisms, reinforcing the need for neuroprotective therapeutic approaches along with preventive treatments for the nutritional deficiency in WKS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0445.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Iron; Vitamin D; Vitamin B12; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; Sleeve gastrectomy; Adjustable gastric banding; nutritional deficiency; bariatric surgery
Online: 19 February 2021 (14:36:21 CET)
Long-term nutritional studies in subjects undergoing bariatric surgery that have assessed weight regain and nutritional deficiencies are few. In this study, we report data 8 years after surgery on weight loss, use of dietary supplements and deficit of micronutrients in a cohort of patients from five centres in central and northern Italy. The study group consisted of 52 subjects (age: 38.1±10.6 yrs, 42 females): 16 patients had Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), 25 patients sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and 11 subjects adjustable gastric banding (AGB). All three bariatric procedures led to sustained weight loss: average percentage excess weight loss, defined as weight loss divided by excess weight based on ideal body weight was 60.6%±32.3. 80.7% of subjects (72.7%, AGB; 76%, SG; 93.7%, RYGB) reported at least one nutritional deficiency: iron (F 64.3% vs. M 30%), vitamin B12 (F 16.6% vs. M 10%), calcium (F 33.3% vs. M 0%) and vitamin D (F 38.1% vs. M 60%). Average weight loss was constant in RYGB and SG subjects from the third year after surgery. Long-term nutritional deficiencies were greater than the general population among men for iron and among women for vitamin B12.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0637.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis; chronic fatigue syndrome; therapeutic strategies; personalized treatment; pathophysiology; pharmacological treatments; nutritional supplements; dietary changes; physical therapies; lifestyle modifications
Online: 10 October 2023 (11:23:01 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to compile and analyze an assortment of research findings concerning potential therapeutic strategies for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS). The understanding of the multifaceted nature of ME/CFS and the need for varied and personalized therapeutic approaches were central to this investigation.Methods: A comprehensive review and analysis of various studies conducted on ME/CFS was undertaken. These studies covered a wide array of interventions, including pharmacological treatments, nutritional supplements, dietary changes, physical therapies, and lifestyle modifications. The analysis pertained to the effectiveness of these interventions, potential physiological and biochemical markers, and the response of ME/CFS patients to different treatment strategies.Results: The 22 selected papers investigated demonstrated varied responses to the multitude of interventions. While some interventions showed significant improvement in fatigue and biochemical parameters, others found no significant differences between the treated and control groups. Potential physiological and biochemical markers for ME/CFS, such as impaired T cell metabolism, reduced flow-mediated dilation, and decreased work rate at the ventilatory threshold, were highlighted.Conclusion: The findings underscored the complexity of ME/CFS and the need for personalized treatment strategies. Despite mixed results and several limitations, these studies collectively contributed to understanding ME/CFS's complex pathophysiology and treatment, laying the groundwork for future research towards more effective therapeutic strategies for this debilitating disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: SMA; spinal muscular atrophy type 1; SMN1; nutritional management; enteral nutrition; pediatric gastroenterology; dysphagia; neurological disability; endocrine disorders; precocious pubarche
Online: 7 June 2021 (13:14:37 CEST)
The management of patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA1) is constantly evolving. In just a few decades the medical approach has switched from an exclusively palliative therapy to a targeted therapy, transforming the natural history of the disease, improving survival time and quality of life, and creating new challenges and goals. Many nutritional problems, gastrointesti-nal disorders and metabolic and endocrine alterations are commonly identified in patients af-fected by SMA1 during childhood and adolescence. For this reason, a proper pediatric multidis-ciplinary approach is then required in the clinical care of these patients, with a specific focus on the prevention of most common complications. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide the clinician with a practical and usable tool about SMA1 patients care, through a comprehensive insight into the nutritional, gastroenterological, metabolic and endocrine management of SMA1. Considering the possible horizons opened thanks to new therapeutic frontiers, a nutritional and endo-metabolic surveillance is a crucial element to be considered for a proper clinical care of these patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: cardiac surgery; cardiopulmonary bypass; systemic inflammatory response; nutrition risk stratification; underfeeding; postoperative nutritional management; supplemental parenteral nutrition; enteral nutrition; pharmaconutrition
Online: 8 April 2018 (10:24:31 CEST)
Nutrition support is increasingly recognized as a clinically relevant aspect of the intensive care treatment of cardiac surgery patients. However, evidence from adequate large-scale studies evaluating its clinical significance for patients’ mid- to long-term outcome remains sparse. Considering nutrition support as a key component in the perioperative treatment of these critically ill patients, led us to review and discuss our understanding of the metabolic response to the inflammatory burst induced by cardiac surgery. In addition, we discuss how to identify patients who may benefit from nutrition therapy, when to start nutritional interventions, present evidence about the use of enteral and parenteral nutrition and the potential role of pharmaconutrition in cardiac surgery patients. Although the clinical setting of cardiac surgery provides advantages due to its scheduled insult and predictable inflammatory response, researchers and clinicians face lack of evidence and several limitations in the clinical routine, which are critically considered and discussed in this paper.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1426.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Complementary medicine; alternative medicine; integrative medicine; cancer care; oncology; nutritional supplements; natural products; dietary supplements; unmet needs; patient centered care; Patient doctor communication
Online: 23 November 2023 (17:26:32 CET)
Dietary supplements are widely embraced by cancer patients seeking complementary and integrative approaches to their care. Unfortunately, many patients do not discuss supplement use with physicians, often due to perceptions of physician indifference or negativity toward supplements. This communication gap exposes patients to unreliable information sources and, potentially, unnecessary risk. As the healthcare landscape evolves, patients increasingly value physicians who recognize their pivotal role in shaping healthcare decisions. This patient-centered perspective emphasizes the provision of evidence-based information tailored to individual needs, open discussions on potential risks, and shared decision-making. It underscores the importance of respecting patient autonomy, offering alternative options, documenting preferences, and ensuring ongoing support while coordinating with the healthcare team. To address these needs, healthcare providers should transform their perspectives and become expert guides who embrace patients as informed, empowered participants. This approach prioritizes open dialogue that considers both facts and uncertainties regarding dietary supplement use, allowing for mutually informed decision-making. Here, we review the literature and present a practical approach emphasizing open discussions, transparency, and respect for patient autonomy. Following this approach, healthcare providers can empower patients to navigate the complexities of dietary supplement use in the context of cancer care, ultimately safeguarding patient safety and well-being.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0022.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: culinary and nutritional traits; farmer-breeder-chef-consumer nexus; folk cultivars; genetic diversity; global warming; heritage seedbank; local food systems; seed savers; stress tolerance
Online: 3 June 2019 (12:34:14 CEST)
The burdens of malnutrition, protein and micronutrient deficiency, and obesity cause enormous costs to society. Crop nutritional quality has been compromised by the emphasis on edible yield and through the loss of biodiversity due to the introduction of high-yielding uniform cultivars. Heirloom crop cultivars are traditional cultivars grown for a long time (> 50 years), and whose heritage has been preserved by regional, ethnic or family groups. Heirlooms are recognized for their unique appearance, names, uses and historical significance. They are gaining in popularity because of their unique flavors and cultural significance to local cuisine, and their role in sustainable food production for small-scale farmers. As a contrast to modern cultivars, heirlooms may offer a welcome alternative in certain markets. Recently, market channels have emerged for heirloom cultivars in the form of farmer-breeder-chef collaborations and seed savers organizations. There is therefore urgent need to know more about the traits available in heirloom cultivars, particularly for productivity, stress tolerance, proximate composition, sensory quality and flavor. This information is scattered and the intention of this review is to document some of the unique characteristics of heirloom cultivars that may be channeled into breeding programs for developing locally adapted high value cultivars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Anthropometric measurements; fatty liver disease; nutritional intervention; imaging techniques; long-term follow-up; neck-to-height ratio; non-invasive diagnostic methods; neck-to-weight ratio; FLIO study; steatosis markers.
Online: 1 November 2022 (10:04:57 CET)
Neck circumference (NC), neck circumference to height ratio (NHtR) and neck circumference to weight ratio (NWtR) appear to be good candidates for the non-invasive management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to evaluate the ability of routine variables to assess and manage NAFLD in participants with obesity and NAFLD included in a 2-year nutritional intervention program. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical variables and imaging techniques were performed at different study time-points (baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months). The nutritional intervention significantly improved all anthropometric measurements as well as the glucose profile and the hepatic enzymes. NC and neck ratios combined with ALT levels and HOMA-IR showed good prediction ability for the hepatic fat content and hepatic steatosis at all the study time-points in a ROC analysis. The prediction ability of the combination panels improved when the weight loss variable was also considered. NC and neck ratios are easy anthropometric measurements that in combination with routine biochemical variables (ALT and HOMA-IR) showed good prediction ability of NAFLD. More research studies are necessary to validate the utility of these simple and easy variables as surrogate markers of NAFLD since their application could improve the prevention and management of this prevalent disease.