COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: normative grading; criterion-based grading; clinic evaluations; clinic interns
Online: 17 November 2022 (11:29:06 CET)
Background: Grades in clinical courses matter. They are often used to determine clinical academic awards, scholarships, and—most importantly—interns’ suitability for graduate medical education opportunities. Aware of these stakes, clinic preceptors may feel pressure to grade too leniently or uniformly. A fair method of adjusting for differences in preceptor bias is then needed. Approach: The authors propose a technique that employs the advantages of both criterion- and normative-based grading to adjust for differences in both grader leniency and uniformity. Evaluation: The technique produces fair adjustments to any raw assign grades, and the authors demonstrate how easily this process can be administered in any clinical setting where multiple preceptors are evaluating interns. Implications: This work provides a grading framework that is transparent to all stakeholders but places responsibilities at the appropriate level. That is, clinic performance evaluations are left to clinic preceptors but grading to clinic academic managers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: combined elevation test; musculoskeletal screening test; normative data; swimming; adolescent
Online: 3 May 2018 (09:05:21 CEST)
The Combined Elevation Test (CET) is a musculoskeletal screening technique (MST) replicates the streamline position in swimming and is commonly used in various sports. Although the CET is widely used, no normative data exist within an adolescent population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a normative data set for the CET within an adolescent population and to evaluate the influence various demographic and anthropometric variables. Data was collected for 416 participants aged between 8 and 18 years old. Age and arm span showed a significant correlation with CET scores (arm span rs (105) = .478, p = .000, age rs (416) = .238 p = .000). Regression analysis further quantified the influence of arm span and age on CET scores accounting for 23.1% and 5.3% of variability respectively. These results can be used as a reference point for clinicians and coaches who are using the CET within their assessment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0125.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: herbal medicinal products; food supplements; botanicals; normative; phytotherapy; Italian pharmaceutical market; parapharmaceuticals
Online: 28 October 2016 (08:06:07 CEST)
The Italian herbal products market is the most prosperous in Europe. The proof is represented by the use of these products in several marketing categories, ranging from medicine to nutrition and cosmetics. Market and legislation in Italy are at the same time cause and consequence of this peculiar situation. In fact, the legislation on botanical food supplements in Italy is very permissive and at the same time the market shows an overall satisfaction of users and strong feedback in terms of consumption, which brings a widening use of medicinal plants, formerly the prerogative of pharmaceuticals, to other fields such as nutrition. This review summarizes the market and normative panorama of herbal products in Italy, highlighting the blurred boundaries of health indications, marketing authorizations and quality controls between herbal medicines and non pharmaceutical products, such as food supplements, cosmetics and other herbal-based “parapharmaceuticals”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0029.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: academic staffs’; gender; level of education; affective commitment; continuance commitment; normative commitment; overall commitment
Online: 3 April 2019 (10:21:19 CEST)
Employees’ organizational commitment is considered to be a critical issue in higher educational setting for the success of its visions and goals, as well as to keep its employees motivation granted for achieving better work performance. This subject has therefore, been studied so as to draw attention to enhance effectiveness of higher educational institution in Ethiopia, particularly in reference to Haramaya University. The major objective of study was to find out the level of academic staffs’ commitment. The study assessed whether significant difference exist in academic staffs’ commitment level in terms of their gender and level of education. Researchers used cross-sectional research design and both primary and secondary data sources were used for the study; 242 participants were selected using stratified sampling technique. Questionnaire, focus group discussion and document review were used to collect data. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics; and the qualitative data were also analyzed using narration methods of analysis. Study result showed there was moderate level of in overall commitment and in specific commitment dimensions among academic staffs. The study further indicated that there is no significance difference in commitment of academic staffs with reference to gender; however, a significant difference in commitment was existed in reference to level of education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0284.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Reverse Engineering, RealSense D415, depth camera, device characterization, VDI/VDE normative, active stereo, performance comparison
Online: 24 December 2018 (15:11:39 CET)
Low-cost RGB-D cameras are increasingly used in several research fields including human-machine interaction, safety, robotics, biomedical engineering and even Reverse Engineering applications. Among the plethora of commercial devices, the Intel RealSense cameras proved to be among the best suitable devices, providing a good compromise between cost, ease of use, compactness and precision. Released on the market in January 2018, the new Intel model RealSense D415 has a wide acquisition range (i.e. ~160-10000 mm) and a narrow field of view to capture objects in rapid motion. Given the unexplored potential of this new device, especially when used as a 3D scanner, the present work aims to characterize and to provide metrological considerations on the RealSense D415. In particular, tests are carried out to assess the device performances in the near range (i.e. 100-1000 mm). Characterization is performed by integrating the guidelines of the existing standard (i.e. the German VDI/VDE 2634 part 2 normative) with a number of literature-based strategies. Performance analysis is finally compared against latest close-range sensors, thus providing a useful guidance for researchers and practitioners aiming to use RGB-D cameras in Reverse Engineering applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2091.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Regional organisations; Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft; Collectivism-Individualism; Cultural Agency Theory; metacybernetics; political development; social psychology; Mindset Agency Theory; normative personality; EU; ASEAN
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:00:10 CEST)
Regional organisations (ROs) are important in that they can enable states in their regions to pros-per and develop for improvement. Interest here lies in the European Union (EU) and the Associa-tion of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Their political development involves complex process-es for collective actions involving ingroup member RO states. To explore development, we firstly examine the rise of both the EU and ASEAN. The literature gives some attention to the behaviour-alist political approach to explain developmental differences using social organisation theory, often in terms of the Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft paradigm of Tönnies. However, here we adopt a social psychology approach that distinguishes between operative structure (which directly determines behaviour), and substructure (housing normative personality deemed to be responsible for behav-ioural imperatives). This enables a relationship to be made between the Tönnies paradigm and the Collectivism-Individualism paradigm of Triandis. The theoretical approach adopted involves a complex adaptive systems model deriving from metacybernetics, and this also delivers Mindset Agency Theory as a qualitative methodology. Consistent with the general view, it is shown that the EU is more or less a coherent rational organisation, while ASEAN is more idealistic delivering pragmatic paradox. In particular, ASEAN is frequently descried as an organisation with contra-dictions, and for this reason its pathologies are explored in some detail