ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0520.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: GDP; nighttime lights; agriculture; development
Online: 21 November 2018 (07:13:10 CET)
Uganda is one of the poorest nations in the world. To address the developmental challenges and understand social and economic status, it is important to obtain accurate data in a timely manner. Many studies have demonstrated that nighttime lights (NTL) can be used to measure human activities. Nevertheless, methods developed from these studies (1) suffer from coarse resolutions, (2) fail to capture the nonlinearity and multi-scale variability of geospatial data, and (3) perform poorly for agriculture-dependent regions. This study proposes a new enhanced light intensity model (ELIM) to estimate the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at sub-national scales for Uganda. This model is developed by combining the NTL data from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP-VIIRS), the population data from the Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL), and information on agricultural production and market prices across several commodity types. This resulted in a gridded dataset for GDP and GDP per capita for Uganda at 1 km spatial resolution and district level to capture the spatial heterogeneity in economic activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0051.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: nighttime fires; gas flaring; MODIS; VIIRS; Khanty-Mansiysk Russia
Online: 8 May 2017 (08:15:08 CEST)
Gas flaring is commonly used by industrial plants for processing oil and natural gases in the atmosphere, and hence is an important anthropogenic source for various pollutants including CO2, CO, and aerosols. This study evaluates the feasibility of using satellite data to characterize gas flaring form space by focusing on the Khanty Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug in Russia, a region that is well known for its dominatingly gas flaring activities. Multiple satellite-based thermal anomaly data products at night are inter-compared and analyzed, including MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Terra level-2 Thermal Anomalies product (MOD14), MODIS Aqua level-2 Thermal Anomalies product (MYD14), VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) Active Fires Applications Related Product (VAFP), and VIIRS level-2 data based Nightfire product (VNF). The analysis compares and contrasts the efficacy of these sensor products in detecting small, hot sources like flares on the ground in extremely cold environments such as Russia. We found that the VNF algorithm recently launched by NOAA has the unprecedented accuracy and efficiency in characterizing gas flares in the region owing primarily to the use of Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) bands. Reconciliation of VNF’s differences and similarities with other nighttime fire products is also conducted, indicating that MOD14/MYD14 and VAFP data are only effective in detecting those gas flaring pixels that are among the hottest in the region. Validation of VNF product of gas flaring location with Google Earth images are made. It is shown that that VNF’s estimates of gas flaring area (the area of gas flaming) agree well the counterparts from Google images with a linear correlation of 0.91, highlighting its potential use for routinely monitoring emissions of gas flaring from space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0967.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: EnMAP; imaging spectroscopy; nighttime remote sensing; spectral calibration; lighting types
Online: 14 July 2023 (07:32:53 CEST)
For the first time VIS/NIR-SWIR (visible and near infrared – shortwave infrared) nighttime spectra of a satellite mission are analyzed, using the EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program) high-resolution imaging spectrometer. The focus of this article is set on the spectral characteristics. First, the spectral calibration of EnMAP is checked based on sodium emissions of lighting. Here, applying a realized novel general method, shifts of +0.3nm for VIS/NIR and −0.2nm for SWIR are identified with uncertainties analyzed to be in the range of [−0.4nm,+0.2nm] for VIS/NIR and [−1.2nm,+1.0nm] for SWIR. These results emphasize the high accuracy of the spectral calibration of EnMAP and illustrate the feasibility of methods based on nighttime Earth observations for the spectral calibration of future nighttime satellite missions. Second, applying a realized simple general method, the dominant lighting types of Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, and thermal emissions are identified per pixel and the consistency of the outcomes is considered. These results illustrate the feasibility of the precise identification of lighting types and thermal emissions based on nighttime high-resolution imaging spectroscopy satellite products and support the specification of, in particular, spectral characteristics of future nighttime missions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0356.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: VIIRS; DMSP; GDP; nighttime lights; cross-sectional; time-series; economic statistics
Online: 14 May 2021 (17:10:27 CEST)
Nighttime lights (NTL) are a popular type of data for evaluating economic performance of regions and economic impacts of various shocks and interventions. Several validation studies use traditional statistics on economic activity like national or regional Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a benchmark to evaluate the usefulness of NTL data. Many of these studies rely on dated and imprecise Defence Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) data and use aggregated units such as nation-states or the first sub-national level. Yet applied researchers who draw support from validation studies to justify their use of NTL data as a proxy for economic activity increasingly focus on smaller and lower level spatial units. This study uses a 2001-19 time-series of GDP for over 3100 US counties as a benchmark to examine the usefulness of the recently released version 2 VIIRS nighttime lights (V.2 VNL) products as proxies for local economic activity. Contrasts are made between cross-sectional predictions for GDP differences between areas and time-series predictions of GDP changes within areas. Disaggregated GDP data for various industries are used to examine what types of economic activity are best proxied by NTL data and comparisons are also made with the predictive performance of earlier NTL data products.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: nighttime light data; human activities; karst rocky desertification; environmental impact; China
Online: 8 September 2019 (16:49:12 CEST)
Due to remarkable socioeconomic development, an increasing number of karst rocky desertification areas have been severely affected by human activities in southern China. Effectively analyzing human activities in karst rocky desertification areas is a critical prerequisite for managing and restoring areas with tremendous negative impacts from desertification. At present, a timely and accurate way of quantifying the spatiotemporal variations of human activities in karst rocky desertification areas is still lacking. In this communication, we attempted to quantify human activities from the corrected NPP-VIIRS nighttime light data from 2012 to 2018 based on statistical analysis. The results show that a significant increase of night lights could be clearly identified during the study period. The total nighttime lights (TL) related to severe karst rocky desertification (S) were particularly concentrated in Guizhou and Yunnan. The nighttime light intensity (LI) related to the S areas in Chongqing were the strongest due to its rapid socioeconomic development. The annual growth rate of nighttime lights (GL) has been slow or even negative in Guangdong because of its various karst rocky desertification restoration programs. This communication could provide an effective approach for quantifying human activities and provide useful information about where prompt attention is required for policy-making on the restoration of the karst rocky desertification areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0488.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Impervious extents; Nighttime light data; Prefecture cities; SNPP-VIIRS-like; Urban entities
Online: 7 July 2023 (10:32:29 CEST)
In the recent past, China has experienced rapid urbanization as a result of diverse growth factors. In such a context, it is crucial to evaluate the expansion of urban entities in order to implement sustainable urban planning strategies in China. Since, urban entities are the spatial reflection of the concentration of human activities, the delineation of urban areas upon the boundaries of built-up surfaces has resulted from inconsistent understanding and identification of urban areas. The study has attempted to extract and evaluate the growth of urban entities in 336 prefecture cities in China mainland (2000-2020) upon a novel approach using consistent night light images. The urban entities were extracted using the light intensities of the SNPP-VIIRS-like data. After extracting urban entities, a rationality assessment was carried out comparing derived urban entities with the LandScan population product, Landsat, and road networks. Also, the results were compared with other physical extents products such as MODIS and the HE. According to the findings, urban entities are basically consistent with the LandScan, road networks, and those with the HE and MODIS. But, urban entities accurately reflect the concentration of human activities than impervious extents of MODIS and the HE. At the prefecture levels, urban entities elevated from 8082 km2 to 74,417 km2 between 2000 and 2020 showing a 10.8% growth rate. By providing a supplementary resource and guide for trustworthy urban mapping, the research will expand new research directions that address the issues of variations of NTL data brightness thresholds dynamics on regional, and global scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1828.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Firestorm project; fire-atmosphere interaction; surface weather stations; nighttime vertical varia-bility
Online: 26 May 2023 (03:38:30 CEST)
In the framework of the FireStorm project, four portable weather stations were installed in the Lousã/Estrela mountain range. Given that the Portuguese Institute for Sea and Atmosphere’s sur-face network has two weather stations installed in this region, the new data allows an improved monitoring of the vertical variability of near-surface variables in this mountainous region. As most of the wildfires in mainland Portugal affect areas with complex terrain with elevations below 1200 m and major fires continue to burn overnight, it is also relevant to monitor the vertical changes of meteorological variables in the nighttime period, as these may exhibit large variability. This study provides the first assessment of the available data, with focus on the summer seasons of 2021 and 2022. The results highlight the large variability that was observed in the region and suggest that the risk of extreme fire behaviour in the nighttime period may be underestimated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0489.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sleep; academic performance; grade point average; college students; wearable device; longitudinal; nighttime sleep awakening
Online: 30 December 2021 (13:45:37 CET)
Although the relations between sleep and academic performance have been extensively examined, how sleep predicts future academic performance (e.g., 2 -3 years) remains to be further investigated. Using wearable smartwatches and a self-report questionnaire, we tracked sleep activities of 45 college students over a period of approximate half a month to see whether their sleep activities predicted their academic performance, which was estimated by grade point average (GPA). Results showed that both nighttime sleep awakening frequency and its consistency in the tracking period were not significantly correlated with the GPA for the courses taken in the semester during sleep tracking (current GPA). However, both nighttime sleep awakening frequency and its consistency inversely predicted the GPA for the rest of the courses taken after that semester (future GPA). Moreover, students with more difficulty staying awake throughout the day obtained lower current and future GPAs, and students with lower inconsistency of sleep quality obtained lower future GPA. Together, these findings highlight the importance of nighttime sleep awakening frequency and consistency in predicting future academic performance and emphasize the necessity of assessing the consistency of sleep measures in future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0164.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land use/land cover; nighttime light (NTL); NDEUI; landscape metrics; random Forests; urban growth mode
Online: 9 October 2018 (03:31:38 CEST)
Rapid urbanization has dramatically spurred the economic development over the past three decades, especially in China, but has nevertheless had negative impacts on natural resources since it is an irreversible process. Thus, it is essential to timely monitor and quantitatively analysis the changes in land use over time and to identify the landscape pattern variation related to growth mode in different period. This study aims at inspecting spatiotemporal characteristics of landscape pattern respond to land use changes in Xuzhou city during the period from 1985 to 2015. In this connection, we proposed a new spectral index, named the Normalized Difference Enhanced Urban Index (NDEUI), which combines data from NTL (Nighttime light) from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) with annual maximum Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to reduce the detection confusion between urban areas and barren land, as well as follows. NDEUI-assisted Random Forests algorithm was implemented to obtain the land use/land cover (LULC) maps of Xuzhou in 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2015, respectively. Here, four different periods viz. 1985–1995, 1995–2005, 2005–2015 and 1985–2015 are chosen for the change analysis of land use and landscape pattern. The results indicated that the urban area has increased by about 30.65%, 10.54%, 68.77%, and 143.75% during the four periods mentioned above at the main expense of agricultural land, respectively. The spatial trend maps revealed that continuous transition from other land use types into urban land has appeared a dual-core development mode throughout the urbanization process, located at the new city region and the Jiawang district, mainly affected by the construction of new city region, freeway and the high railway station. Furthermore, we quantified the patch complexity, aggregation, connectivity and diversity of landscape employing a number of landscape metrics to represent the changes of landscape pattern at both class and landscape level, affected by urbanization during the study period. The results showed that with regard to the four aspects of landscape pattern, there were considerable differences among the four years, mainly owing to the increasing dominance of urbanized land. Spatiotemporal variation of landscape pattern was also conducted on the basis of subgrids in 900 m × 900 m. Combined with the land use changes and spatiotemporal variation of landscape pattern, it can be concluded that different urbanization modes and intensity result in variously the spatiotemporal evolution of landscape patterns. For Xuzhou city, the urban growth mainly appeared a leapfrog mode alone both sides of the roads during the period of 1985 to 1995, and then shifted into edge-expansion mode during the period from 1995 to 2005, whereas the edge-expansion and leapfrog modes coexisted for the period from 2005 to 2015. The high valuable spatiotemporal information generated utilizing RS and GIS in this study may give assistance to urban planners and policymakers to well understand urban dynamics and evaluate their spatiotemporal and environmental impacts at a local level for the sake of sustainable urban planning in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0137.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Nighttime light data; Urban-rural regions; Geospatial dynamics; Local contour tree method; Dezhou city of China
Online: 4 July 2023 (10:25:03 CEST)
Analyzing urban-rural spatial structures and changes are of great significance for under-standing the urban-rural relationship evolution. While previous studies mostly focused on the urban internal spatial structure evolution, less from the regional scale to explore the urban and rural evolution. Here, taking Dezhou city, a rapidly urbanization city in China as a case study, we employed the local contour tree method and nighttime light data to map urban and active rural regions’ range during 2012-2020, and further explored the respective development processes of them. This study found that different from rural regions, internal structures of urban regions are more complex, and there are often multiple hot spots inside them. The urban-rural regions’ area had increased significantly by 39.3% during 2012-2020 (p<0.05). The urban and rural region rankings of the identified counties are basically consistent with the urban and rural population rankings. Particularly, different from perspectives of earlier land use (i.e., built-up land or impervious surface), this study identified urban and active rural regions in view of the scope of active human activities. This study therefore found populations were greatly responsible for affecting changes of urban and active rural region structures. These findings could be helpful for understanding urban-rural dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: signal-to-noise ratio; nighttime light imaging; time sequence images; Luojia 1-01; radiative transfer model; radiometric calibration; in-orbit test
Online: 9 January 2019 (15:43:53 CET)
Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is an important index to evaluate radiation performance and image quality of optical imaging systems under low illumination background. Under the nighttime lighting condition, the illumination of remote sensing objects is low and varies greatly, usually ranging from several lux to tens of thousands of lux. Nighttime light remote sensing imaging requires high sensitivity and large dynamic range of detectors. Luojia 1-01 is the first professional nighttime light remote sensing satellite in the world. In this paper, we took the nighttime light remote sensing camera carried on the satellite as research object, proposed an in-orbit SNR test method based on time series images to overcome the problem of low spatial resolution. We first analyzed the process of luminous flux transmission between objects and satellite and established a radiative transfer model. By combining the parameters of large relative aperture optical system and high sensitivity CMOS device, we established SNR model and specially analyzed the effect of exposure time and quantization bits on SNR. Finally we used the proposed in-orbit test method to calculate SNR of lighting images acquired by satellite. And the measured result is in good agreement with the model predicted data. Under the condition of 10lx illumination, the SNR of typical objects can reach 27.02dB, which is much better than the requirement of 20dB for engineering application.