ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0320.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Carbon neutral; Equator Principle; Industrial Bank; "Three Principles"; Factor Analysis; Carbon neutral
Online: 12 April 2021 (14:32:36 CEST)
The Equator Principle is the goal of promoting the harmonious development of my country's economy and society. It promotes the green transformation and upgrading of the industrial structure by strictly controlling the flow of commercial bank funds, so as to achieve the goal of environmental protection and the coordinated development of the national economy. This paper uses factor analysis to reduce the dimensions of 10 financial indicators and non-financial indicators that measure the operating performance and development potential of joint-stock commercial banks, and then compares the comprehensive operating performance, liquidity, and safety of Industrial Bank and comparable banks. And the level of profitability, analyze the difference in comprehensive operating performance of joint-stock commercial banks joining the Equator Principles compared with commercial banks that have not joined the Equator Principles. The results of the study found that joining the Equator Principles of joint-stock commercial banks can improve comprehensive operating performance in the short term. In the long run, the development trend of Industrial Bank will be similar to that of comparable banks in the same category. Joining the Equator Principles of Industrial Bank can improve its liquidity and profitability, but it will not in the long run. Conducive to the improvement of the asset quality of joint-stock commercial banks. In this regard, the government, enterprises and financial institutions should work together to help commercial banks achieve an effective balance between operating performance and social responsibility, so as to achieve the goals of "carbon peak" and "carbon neutral".
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0079.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: thermal neutral; acclimation; acclimatization; adaptation; health; indoor environments
Online: 4 March 2022 (11:23:44 CET)
The goal of this short communication is to analyze a published discussion that states that long-term residing at a thermoneutral indoor temperature condition hinders human thermal acclimation capacities. According to current research, human thermal acclimation and acclimatization capacities can be easily gained through repeated heat and cold exposures mixed with physical activity over a period of days (often 3–21 days). Furthermore, heat and cold adaptations are not permanent, and heat acclimation would progressively fade away if frequent heat exposures (associated with physical work/exercise) were discontinued. People who have been heat acclimatized for a long period and live in tropical places may progressively lose their physiological and perceptual benefits when they shift to temperate zones. On the other hand, the decay of cold acclimation and cold acclimatization has not been well examined, demanding future research on this area. To summarize, there is no evidence to support the claim that extended exposure to thermoneutral conditions impairs human acclimatization abilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0030.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: neutral organic radical; perchlorotriphenylmethyl radical; tetrathiafulvalene; donor-acceptor
Online: 4 November 2016 (14:19:09 CET)
During the last years there has been a high interest in the development of new purely-organic single-component conductors. Very recently, we have reported a new neutral radical conductor based on the perchlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) radical moiety linked to a monopyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene (MPTTF) unit by a -conjugated bridge (1). Interestingly, this system behaves as a semiconductor with high conductivity and small energy gap under high pressure. With the aim of developing a new material with improved conducting properties, we have designed and synthesized the radical dyad 2 which was functionalized with an ethylenedithio (EDT) group in order to improve the intermolecular interactions of the TTF subunits. The physical properties of the new radical dyad 2 were studied in detail in solution to further analyze its electronic structure as well as its potential use as radical conductor in the solid state.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: regular semigroup; inverse semigroup; polyadic semigroup; idempotent; neutral element
Online: 22 September 2021 (10:06:28 CEST)
In this note we generalize the regularity concept for semigroups in two ways simultaneously: to higher regularity and to higher arity. We show that the one-relational and multi-relational formulations of higher regularity do not coincide, and each element has several inverses. The higher idempotents are introduced, and their commutation leads to unique inverses in the multi-relational formulation, and then further to the higher inverse semigroups. For polyadic semigroups we introduce several types of higher regularity which satisfy the arity invariance principle as introduced: the expressions should not depend of the numerical arity values, which allows us to provide natural and correct binary limits. In the first definition no idempotents can be defined, analogously to the binary semigroups, and therefore the uniqueness of inverses can be governed by shifts. In the second definition called sandwich higher regularity, we are able to introduce the higher polyadic idempotents, but their commutation does not provide uniqueness of inverses, because of the middle terms in the higher polyadic regularity conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0576.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Linear/nonlinear load; power quality; four leg VSC; neutral current compensation
Online: 23 December 2020 (09:33:56 CET)
An adaptive control technique has been implemented for DSTATCOM for power quality enhancement in three phase four wires(3P4W) distribution system. The reference source currents are extracted from active components of load current for each phase by using this technique. It has also been used for load balancing, harmonic suppression, power factor improvement and reactive power compensation in distribution system. The adaptive control technique has been tested at varying load in steady state and dynamic conditions. This technique is developed using MATLAB/Simulink and source side harmonics are mitigated under different load conditions which are acceptable in accordance with IEEE standard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0147.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: hybrid FRP-steel reinforcement; ductility; hybrid reinforcement ratio; fiber element; neutral axis
Online: 11 January 2022 (14:04:26 CET)
An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the ductility of reinforced concrete beams longitudinally reinforced with hybrid FRP-Steel bars. The specimens were fourteen reinforced concrete beams with and without hybrid reinforcement. The test variables were bars position, the ratio of longitudinal reinforcement, and the type of FRP bars. The beams were loaded up to failure using a four-point bending test. The performance of the tested beams was observed using the load-deflection curve obtained from the test. Numerical analysis using the fiber element model was used to examine the growth of neutral axis depth due to the effect of test variables. The neutral axis curves were then used to further estimate the neutral axis angle and neutral axis displacement index. The test results show that the position of the reinforcement greatly influences the flexural behavior of the beam with hybrid reinforcement. It was observed from the test that the flexural capacity of beams with hybrid reinforcement is 4% to 50% higher than that of the beams with conventional steel bars depending on bars position and the ratio of longitudinal reinforcement. The ductility decreases as the hybrid reinforcement ratio (Af/As) increases. This study also showed that a numerical model developed can predict the flexural behavior of beams with hybrid reinforcement with reasonable accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0400.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: RFS (Renewable Fuel Standards); renewable energy; biodiesel; CO2; GHG; sustainability; carbon neutral
Online: 18 December 2018 (05:03:31 CET)
In 2016, the global environmental impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was 49.3 gigatons CO2 equivalent. Worldwide, the transportation sector is responsible for 14% of GHG. Electric vehicles (EV) powered by less-polluting energy sources are one way to reduce the environmental impact of the transportation sector, but immediate transportation demands cannot be met by existing EV technology. Use of less polluting biofuel in place of petroleum-based gasoline or diesel fuel to power the existing transportation fleet is a widely accepted transitional solution, including in the Republic of Korea. The purpose of this research is to investigate approaches to biofuels in the US and the UK in order to evaluate Korea’s current energy policies related to use of biofuels and to make recommendations for strengthening Korea’s energy policy. This article addresses only policies for use of biodiesel rather than ethanol (widely used in the US) because ethanol is not used in Korea. This research shows that Korea calculates GHG using the principle that biofuel is carbon neutral, but energy policies in the US and the UK treat biofuel as not entirely carbon neutral. Korea should examine how to calculate GHG from biodiesel according to the standard set by the UK in order to work toward a more environmentally sustainable energy policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: neutral-point-clamped inverter; buck-boost inverter; single stage conversion; photovoltaic inverter
Online: 1 March 2017 (09:31:28 CET)
This paper proposes a novel single-stage buck-boost three-Level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter with two independent dc sources coupled for the grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) application, which can effectively solve the unbalanced operational conditions generally appeared between two coupled independent PV sources induced by the unequal irradiation and temperature distribution. The proposed control scheme can simultaneously guarantee the maximum power point (MPP) operation of both PV sources and maintain the output waveform quality. Compared to the traditional two-stage PV inverter, the proposed NPC inverter could reduce the PV array voltage requirement and dc-link capacitors’ voltage rating, meanwhile show the advantage in operational efficiency. MATLAB simulations and the captured experimental results are presented to show the performance of the proposed three-level inverter.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: exponential atmosphere; acoustic wave; diagnostics; projection operators; artificial periodic irregularities; neutral temperature; density
Online: 26 July 2021 (18:04:42 CEST)
The main result of this work is the estimation of the entropy mode accompanying a wave disturbance, observed at the atmosphere heights range of 90-120km. The study is the direct continuation and development of recent results on diagnosis of the acoustic wave with the separation on direction of propagation. The estimation of the entropy mode contribution relies upon the measurements of the three dynamic variables (the temperature, density and vertical velocity perturbations) of the neutral atmosphere measured by the method of the resonant scattering of radio waves on the artificial periodic irregularities of the ionospheric plasma. The measurement of the atmosphere dynamic parameters has been carried out on the SURA heating facility. The mathematical foundation of the mode separation algorithm is based on the dynamic projecting operator technique. The operators are constructed via the eigenvectors of the coordinate evolution operator of the transformed system of balance equations of the hydro-thermodynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v8
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: carbon atomic structure; allotropes; electron-dynamics; energy; neutral force; non-conservative force; atomic binding
Online: 15 January 2019 (07:01:56 CET)
Many studies discuss carbon-based materials because of the versatility of the carbon element. They present different sorts of understandings fairly at convincing and compelling levels. A gas-state carbon atom converts into its various states depending on the conditions of processing. The electron transfer mechanism in the gas-state carbon atom is responsible for its conversion to various states, namely, graphite, nanotube, fullerene, diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene. The shape of energy responsible to transfer electron from the sides (east- and west-poles) of its atom is like parabola. That energy is linked to states (from filled state to nearby unfilled state) where exerted force to relevant poles of transferring electron is remained neutral. So, the mechanism of originating different states from a gaseous carbon atom is under the involvement of energy at first, which is not the case for atoms executing their confined inter-state electron-dynamics where force is involved at first. Structure evolved in graphite-, nanotubes- and fullerene-states have respectively one-dimensional, two-dimensional and four-dimensional atoms. Moreover, the associated energy curve is a parabola, indicating the transfer of electrons under neutral exertion of forces to their relevant poles. The graphite structure under only attained-dynamics of atoms is also developed but in two-dimension. Here, binding energy between graphitic carbon atoms is engaged under the influence of a small difference available between their involved forces along opposite poles. Structural evolution in diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene atoms involve potential energy of electrons required to undertake infinitesimal displacements under orientationally-controlled exerting forces to their relevant poles. In this study, the growth of diamond is found to be south to ground where atoms bound ground to south. Thus, diamond atoms merge for a tetra-electron ground to south topological structure. Lonsdaleite atoms merge for a bi-electron ground to just-south topological structure. The growth of graphene was just-north to ground; however, the binding of atoms was ground to just-north showing tetra-electrons ground to just-north topological structure. Glassy carbon exhibits layered-topological structure which successively binds tri-layers of gas-, graphite- and lonsdaleite-state atoms in repetitive manner. Orientating pair of electrons of each atom of below gas layer and above lonsdaleite layer enter from the rear side and front side respectively to undertake another clamping of unfilled energy knots belonging to each atom of intermediate graphitic layer. Different carbon atoms develop amorphous structures when they bind under frustrating amalgamation. Hardness of carbon-based materials was also sketched in the light of force-energy behaviors of different state carbon atoms. Here, structure evolution in each carbon state atom explores its own science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0456.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: brachypodium; neutral red; root; casparian bands; PEG-6000; osmotic stress; real time imaging; PDMS
Online: 19 November 2018 (11:05:36 CET)
To elucidate dynamic developmental processes in plants, live tissues and organs have to be visualized frequently and for long time periods. The development of roots is studied in depth at a cellular resolution not only to comprehend the basic processes fundamental to maintenance and pattern formation but also study stress tolerance adaptation in plants. Despite technological advancements, maintaining continuous access to samples and simultaneously preserving their morphological structures and physiological conditions without causing damage presents hindrances in the measurement, visualization and analyses of growing organs including plant roots. We propose a preliminary system which integrates the optical real-time visualization through light microscopy with a liquid culture which enables us to image at the tissue and cellular level horizontally growing Brachypodium roots every few minutes and up to 24 hours. We describe a simple setup which can be used to track the growth of the root as it grows including the root tip growth and osmotic stress dynamics. We demonstrate the system’s capability to scale down the PEG-mediated osmotic stress analysis and collected data on gene expression under osmotic stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0063.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Impulsive conditions, Controllability, Neutral evolution integrodierential equa- tions, Resolvent operators, State dependent delay
Online: 21 July 2016 (03:48:42 CEST)
In this paper, we study the problem of controllability of impulsive neutral evolution integrodifferential equations with state dependent delay in Banach spaces. The main results are completely new and are obtained by using Sadovskii's fixed point theorem, theory of resolvent operators, and an abstract phase space. An example is given to illustrate the theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0453.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: dairy cattle; prediction model; methane conversion factor; dry matter intake; fatty acid; neutral detergent fiber
Online: 19 May 2021 (16:49:00 CEST)
The aim of this study was to develop a basic model to predict enteric methane emission from dairy cows and to update operational calculations for the national inventory in Norway. Basic models were developed using a database with 63 treatment means from 19 studies. The database included records for enteric CH4 production (MJ/day), dry matter intake (DMI), and dietary nutrient composition. The basic models were evaluated against an external database (n=36, from ten studies) along with other extant models. When evaluated by low root mean square prediction errors and high concordance correlation coefficients, the developed basic models that included DMI, dietary concentrations of fatty acids and neutral detergent fiber performed slightly better in predicting CH4 emissions than extant models. In order to propose country-specific values for the CH4 conversion factor Ym (% of gross energy intake partitioned into CH4) and thus to carry out the national inventory for Norway, the existing operational model was updated for the prediction of Ym over a wide range of feeding situations using energy corrected milk and dietary concentrate share as predictor variables. Input values of Ym were updated based on the results from the basic models. The predicted Ym ranged from 6.22 to 6.72%. In conclusion, the prediction of CH4 production from dairy cows was improved with the help of newly published data, which enabled an update of the operational model for calculating the national inventory of CH4 in Norway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0205.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Diminished fitness return, mutation rate tuning, Darwinian evolution; neutral evolution; punctuated equilibrium; unified evolutionary theory
Online: 17 December 2018 (16:10:52 CET)
I propose a dynamic evolution hypothesis regarding the evolution of organisms by incorporating both diminished fitness returns and mutation rate tuning during adaptation to a constant environment. Basically, accumulating evidence from life history studies conducted over the past 70 years suggests that the evolution of individual fitness is subject to ecological constraints, leading to the evolutionary existence of an upper limit of individual fitness (ULIF). Given the existence of the ULIF, organismal evolution, which might initially have relatively great fitness returns through primarily Darwinian evolution, will eventually be subject to diminished fitness returns towards zero. With the diminished fitness return, Darwinian selection strength may eventually become smaller than the power of random genetic drift, leading to the occurrence of neutral evolution at both phenotypic and molecular levels. Meanwhile, mutation rates may change from an initial increase, due to the relatively strong fitness return, to subsequent decreases, due to both the diminished fitness return of beneficial mutations and the cost of deleterious mutations. The diminished fitness returns with subsequently reduced mutation rates are two potential evolution barriers leading to eventual evolutionary stasis. These findings provide important insights for understanding the conditions for the occurrences of different evolutionary patterns. Darwinian evolution theory, neutral evolution theory and punctuated equilibrium theory can be unified in the context of the dynamic evolution hypothesis formulated in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0090.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: fractional neutral integro-differential equations; initial value problem; Caputo fractional derivative; Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem
Online: 20 June 2017 (03:42:54 CEST)
In this paper, by means of the Banach fixed point theorem and the Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem, we investigate the existence of solutions for some fractional neutral functional integro-differential equations involving infinite delay. This paper deals with the fractional equations in the sense of Caputo fractional derivative and in the Banach spaces. Our results generalize the previous works on this issue. Also, an analytical example is presented to illustrate our results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0464.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: harmonic identification; adaptive linear neutral network; least mean M-estimate; electro-hydraulic servo shaking table; harmonic distortion
Online: 28 June 2018 (10:55:10 CEST)
Since the electro-hydraulic servo shaking table exists many nonlinear elements, such as, dead zone, friction and blacklash, its acceleration response has higher harmonics which result in acceleration harmonic distortion, when the electro-hydraulic system is excited by sinusoidal signal. For suppressing the harmonic distortion and precisely identify harmonics, a combination of the adaptive linear neural network and least mean M-estimate (ADALINE-LMM), is proposed to identify the amplitude and phase of each harmonic component. Namely, the Hampel’s three-part M-estimator is applied to provide thresholds for detecting and suppressing the error signal. Harmonic generators are used by this harmonic identification scheme to create input vectors and the value of the identified acceleration signal is subtracted from the true value of the system acceleration response to construct the criterion function. The weight vector of the ADALINE is updated iteratively by the LMM algorithm, and the amplitude and phase of each harmonic, even the results of harmonic components, can be computed directly online. The simulation and experiment are performed to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm. According to the experiment result, the above method of harmonic identification possesses great real-time performance and it has not only good convergence performance but also high identification precision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0042.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA); amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); tauopathy; leukodystrophy; mass spectrometry; RT-qPCR; Ceramide Synthase (CERS2/CERS1); Serine Palmitoyltransferase 2 (Sptlc2); neutral Sphingomyelinase (Smpd3); neutral Ceramidase (Asah2); Fatty Acid Elongase (Elovl1/4/5); SCA34; SCA38; acid Sphingomyelinase (ASMase, Smpd1)
Online: 5 November 2019 (03:04:02 CET)
Ataxin-2 (ATXN2) acts during stress-responses, modulating mRNA translation and nutrient metabolism. Atxn2 knockout mice exhibit progressive obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Conversely, the progressive ATXN2 gain-of-function due to polyGlutamine (polyQ) expansions leads to a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative process named spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), with early adipose tissue loss and late muscle atrophy. We tried to understand lipid dysregulation in a SCA2 patient brain and in an authentic mouse model. Thin layer chromatography of a patient cerebellum was compared to the lipid metabolome of Atxn2-CAG100-KnockIn (KIN) mouse spinocerebellar tissue. The human pathology caused deficits of sulfatide, galactosylceramide, cholesterol, C22/24-sphingomyelin and gangliosides GM1a/GD1b, despite quite normal levels of C18-sphingomyelin. Cerebellum and spinal cord from the KIN mouse showed a consistent decrease of various ceramides, with a significant elevation of sphingosine in the more severely affected spinal cord. Deficiency of C24/26-sphingomyelins contrasted with excess C18/20-sphingomyelin. Spinocerebellar expression profiling revealed consistent reductions of CERS protein isoforms, of Sptlc2 and Smpd3, but upregulation of Cers2 mRNA, as prominent anomalies in the ceramide-sphingosine metabolism. Reduction of Asah2 mRNA correlated to deficient S1P levels. In addition, downregulations for the elongase Elovl1, Elovl4, Elovl5 mRNAs and ELOVL4 protein explain the deficit of very-long-chain sphingomyelin. Reduced ASMase protein levels correlated to the accumulation of long-chain sphingomyelin. Overall, a deficit of myelin lipids was prominent in SCA2 nervous tissue at prefinal stage, not compensated by transcriptional adaptation of several metabolic enzymes. Myelination is controlled by mTORC1 signals, so our human and murine observations are in agreement with the known role of ATXN2 yeast, nematode and mouse orthologs as mTORC1 inhibitors and autophagy promoters.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: M-type phospholipase A2; Thrombospondin type containing domain A7; Retinol-binding protein; Beta-2 microglobulin; membranous glomerulonephritis; neutral endopeptidase
Online: 19 September 2019 (04:59:36 CEST)
Detection of PLA2R and THSD7A among primary membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) patients transformed the diagnosis, treatment monitoring and prognosis. Anti-PLA2R can be detected in 70-90% of primary MGN patients while anti-THSD7A in 2-3% of anti-PLA2R negative primary MGN patients depending on the technique used. Serum and urine samples are less invasive and non-invasive respectively and can detect the presence of anti-PLA2R and anti-THSD7A with higher sensitivity and specificity, significant in patients’ monitoring and prognosis better than exposing patients to frequent biopsy which is an invasive procedure. Different techniques of detection of PLA2R and THSD7A in patients’ urine and sera were reviewed with the aim of providing newer and alternative techniques. We proposed the use of biomarkers (PLA2R and THSD7A) in making the diagnosis, treatment decision and follow up of patients with primary MGN. We also reviewed other prognostic renal biomarkers like retinol binding protein (RBP) and beta-2 microglobulin in order to detect progression of renal damage for early intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0097.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: Te nanotubes decorated with Pt nanoparticles; fuel cell neutral pH; oxygen reduction reaction; methanol oxidation reaction; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
Online: 7 March 2019 (13:49:46 CET)
In fuel-cell technological development, one of the most important objectives is to minimize the amount of Pt, the most employed material as oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation electro-catalyst. In this paper we report the synthesis and characterization of Te nanotubes (TeNTs) decorated with Pt nanoparticles, readily prepared from stirred aqueous solutions of PtCl2 containing a suspension of TeNTs and ethanol acting as a reducing agent, avoiding the use of any hydrophobic surfactants as capping stabilizing substance. The as obtained TeNTs decorated with Pt nanoparticles (TeNTs/PtNPs) have been fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction patterns (SAD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). We demonstrate that the new material can be successfully employed in fuel cell either as anodic (for methanol oxidation reaction) and cathodic (for oxygen reduction reaction) electrode with high efficiency in terms of related mass activities and on-set improvement. Remarkably, the cell operates in aqueous electrolyte buffered at pH 7.0, thus avoiding acidic or alkaline conditions that may lead e. g. to Pt dissolution (at low pH) and paving the way for the development of biocompatible devices and on chip fuel cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0037.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: Stark broadening; van der Waals broadening; line shapes; helium plasma; corona discharge; plasma diagnostics; code comparison; neutral broadening; pressure broadening
Online: 7 March 2018 (13:36:47 CET)
Passive plasma spectroscopy is a well-established non-intrusive diagnostic technique. Depending on the emitter and its environment which determine the dominant interactions and effects governing emission line shapes, passive spectroscopy allows the determination of electron densities, emitter and perturber temperatures as well as other quantities like abundances. However, using spectroscopy needs appropriate line shape codes retaining all the physical effects governing the emission line profiles. This requires for line shape code developers to continuously correct or improve them to increase their accuracy when applied for diagnostics. This is exactly the aim expected from code-code and code-data comparisons. In this context, the He I 492 nm emitted in a helium corona discharge at room temperature represents an ideal case since its profile results from several broadening mechanisms: Stark, Doppler, resonance and van der Waals. The importance of each broadening mechanism depends on the plasma parameters. Here the profiles of the He I 492 nm in a helium plasma computed by various codes are compared for a selected set of plasma parameters. In addition, preliminary results related to plasma parameter determination using experimental spectra from a helium corona discharge at low pressure 1- 2 bars, are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0040.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: stark broadening; van der waals broadening; line shapes; helium plasma; corona discharge; plasma diagnostics; code comparison; neutral broadening; pressure broadening
Online: 6 March 2018 (03:51:17 CET)
Many spectroscopic diagnostics are routinely used as a technique to infer the plasma parameters from line emission spectra but their accuracy depends on the numerical model or code used for the fitting process. However, the validation of a line shape code requires some steps : comparison of the line shape code with other similar codes for some academic (simple) cases and then more complex ones, comparison of the fitting parameters obtained from the best fit of the experimental spectra with those obtained with other diagnostic techniques and/or comparison of the fitting parameters obtained by different codes to fit the same experimental data. Here we compare the profiles of the hydrogen Balmer β line in a helium plasma computed by six codes for a selected set of plasma parameters and we report on the plasma parameters inferred by each of them from the fitting to a number of experimental spectra measured in a helium corona discharge where the pressure was in the range 1- 5 bar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0072.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General Mathematics Keywords: multi-dimensional diffusion-wave equation; neutral-fractional diffusion-wave equation; fundamental solution; Mellin-Barnes integral; integral representation; Wright function; generalized Wright function
Online: 12 November 2017 (08:30:34 CET)
In this paper, some new properties of the fundamental solution to the multi-dimensional space- and time-fractional diffusion-wave equation are deduced. We start with the Mellin-Barnes representation of the fundamental solution that was derived in the previous publications of the author. The Mellin-Barnes integral is used to get two new representations of the fundamental solution in form of the Mellin convolution of the special functions of the Wright type. Moreover, some new closed form formulas for particular cases of the fundamental solution are derived. In particular, we solve an open problem of representation of the fundamental solution to the two-dimensional neutral-fractional diffusion-wave equation in terms of the known special functions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0345.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: ATP-binding cassette G5/G8; brush border membrane; cholesterol absorption; Niemann-Pick C1-like 1; phytosterols; trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux; fecal neutral sterol excretion
Online: 18 September 2018 (10:46:34 CEST)
Hypercholesterolemia accelerates atherosclerosis, and extensive research has been undertaken to ameliorate this abnormality. Plant sterols have been shown to inhibit cholesterol absorption and lower plasma cholesterol level since the 1950s. This ingredient has recently been reappraised as a food additive that can be taken daily in a preclinical period to prevent hypercholesterolemia, considering that cardiovascular-related diseases are the top cause of death globally even with clinical interventions. Intestinal cholesterol handling is still elusive, making it difficult to clarify the mechanism for plant sterol-mediated inhibition. Notably, although the small intestine absorbs cholesterol, it is also the organ that excretes it abundantly, via trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE). In this review, we show a model where the brush border membrane (BBM) of intestinal epithelial cells stands as the dividing ridge for cholesterol fluxes, making cholesterol absorption and TICE inversely correlated. With this model, we tried to explain the plant sterol-mediated inhibitory mechanism. As well as cholesterol, plant sterols diffuse into the BBM but are effluxed back to the lumen rapidly. We propose that repeated plant sterol shuttling between the BBM and lumen promotes cholesterol efflux, and plant sterol in the BBM may disturb the trafficking machineries that transport cholesterol to the cell interior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0236.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: bacterial toxin; cholera toxin; Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin; lectin; N-acetyllactosamine binding; neutral glycosphingolipids; protein-carbohydrate interactions; surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy; X-ray crystal structure
Online: 28 January 2019 (15:23:24 CET)
Diarrhoea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is one of the leading causes of mortality in children under five years of age and is a great burden on developing countries. The major virulence factor of the bacterium is the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), a close homologue of the cholera toxin. The toxins bind to carbohydrate receptors in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to toxin uptake and, ultimately, to severe diarrhoea. Previously, LT from human- and porcine-infecting ETEC (hLT and pLT, respectively) were shown to have different carbohydrate-binding specificities, in particular with respect to N-acetyllactosamine-terminating glycosphingolipids. Here, we probed eleven single-residue variants of the heat-labile enterotoxin with surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and compared the data to the parent toxins. In addition we present a 1.45 Å crystal structure of pLTB in complex with branched Lacto-N-neohexaose (Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta6[Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta3]Galbeta4Glc). The largest difference in binding specificity is caused by mutation of residue 94, which links the primary and secondary binding sites of the toxins. Residue 95 (and to a smaller extent also residues 7 and 18) also contribute, whereas residue 4 shows no effect on monovalent binding of the ligand and may rather be important for multivalent binding and avidity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0293.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: machine Learning (ML); artificial neutral network (ANN); bagging decision tree (BDT); SUpport Vector Machines (SVM); no free lunch theorem (NFLT); hyperparameter optimisation; model comparison; heat meter
Online: 13 November 2018 (04:41:07 CET)
Heat metres are used to calculate the consumed energy in central heating systems. The subject of this article is to prepare a method of predicting a failure of a heat meter in the next settlement period. Predicting failures is essential to coordinate the process of exchanging the heat metres and to avoid inaccurate readings, incorrect billing and additional costs. The reliability analysis of heat metres was based on historical data collected over many years. Three independent models of machine learning were proposed, and they were applied to predict failures of metres. The efficiency of the models was confirmed and compared using the selected metrics. The optimisation of hyperparameters characteristics for each of models was successfully applied. The article shows that the diagnostics of devices does not have to rely only on newly collected information, but it is also possible to use the existing big data sets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0316.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Cancer surgery; Cancer radiotherapy; Cancer immunotherapy; Cancer stroma; Cancer-associated fibroblasts; Carcinogenesis; Cancer resistance to immunotherapy; Exosomes; Hypoxia; Neutrophil extracellular traps; Sphingomyelin; Neutral sphingomyelinase; Tumor microenvironment; Tumor-associated macrophages
Online: 22 June 2022 (10:25:07 CEST)
The central reason behind emergence of clinically-detectable tumors is evasion from immune surveillance due to lack of cancer cells surface membrane expression of tumor-specific peptides in association with MHC class I molecules, concealment of natural killer cells-activating molecules, and absence of inflammation resulting from inefficient stimulation of innate immunity receptors and co-stimulatory molecules. The tumor microenvironment (TME) also contributes to tumor initiation, progression and resistance to therapeutic interventions because of its dense, fibrogenic, barrier-like composition, aberrant vasculature, and production of cytokines and chemokines responsible for recruitment of immune suppressive cells, notably myeloid-derived suppressor cells, M2 macrophages, regulatory T cells, extracellular trap-forming neutrophils, and cancer-associated fibroblasts. We herein show that the relentless efforts and strategies to overcome the TME elusive tumor-promoting impact produced contrasting, opposed, controversial effects, characterized by limited efficacy and proven adversity, and most importantly deterred from attempts to discover and counteract the fundamental inherent mechanisms initiating, and not consequent to, carcinogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0565.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Unsteady Exact analytical solutions; Partial differential equations system; Travelling wave method; Moment method; Boltzmann kinetic equation; Neutral non-homogenous gas; Thermal radiation force; Non-equilibrium irreversible thermodynamics; Internal energy.
Online: 23 July 2020 (12:53:22 CEST)
In the present paper, the effect of the non-linear thermal radiation on the neutral gas mixture in the unsteady state is investigated for the first time. The unsteady BGK technique of the Boltzmann kinetic equations for a neutral non-homogenous gas is solved. The solution of the unsteady case makes the problem more general significance than the stationary one. For this purpose, the moments' method, together with the traveling wave method, is applied. The temperature and concentration are calculated for each gas component and mixture for the first time.Furthermore, the study is held for aboard range of temperatures ratio parameter and a wide range of the molar fraction. The distribution functions are calculated for each gas component and the gas mixture. The significant non-equilibrium irreversible thermodynamic characteristics the entire system is acquired analytically. That technic allows us to investigate the consistency of Boltzmann's H-theorem, Le Chatelier principle, and thermodynamics laws. Moreover, the ratios among the different participation of the internal energy alteration are evaluated via the Gibbs formula of total energy. The final results are utilized to the argon-helium non-homogenous gas at different magnitudes of radiation force strength and molar fraction parameters. 3D-graphics are presented to predict the behavior of the calculated variables, and the obtained results are theoretically discussed.