REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: neurodegenerative diseases - multiple sclerosis; new therapeutic options for multiple sclerosis and other 24 neurodegenerative diseases. pH in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases - cancer and neurodegeneration as opposed processes - 25 metabolic e
Online: 2 February 2022 (09:42:40 CET)
The pH-related metabolic paradigm has rapidly grown in cancer research and treatment. In this contribution, this recent oncological perspective has been laterally for the first time in order to integrate neurodegeneration within the energetics of the cancer acid-base conceptual frame. At all levels of study, molecular, biochemical, metabolic and clinical, the intimate nature of both processes appears to be opposite mechanisms occurring at the far ends of a physiopathological intracellular pH/extracellular pH (pHi/pHe) spectrum. This wide-ranged original approach now permits an increase in our understanding of these opposite processes, cancer and neurodegeneration, and, as a consequence, allows to propose new avenues of treatment based upon the intracellular and microenvironmental hydrogen ion dynamics regulating and deregulating the biochemistry and metabolism of both cancer and neural cells. Under the same perspective, the etiopathogenesis and special characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) becomes an excellent model for the study of neurodegenerative diseases and, utilizing this pioneering approach, we find that MS appears to be a metabolic disease even before an autoimmune one. Also within this paradigm, several important aspects of MS, from mitochondrial failure to microbiota functional abnormalities, are analyzed in depth.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0737.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: oxidative stress; redox; antioxidant; multiple sclerosis; biomarker; neurodegenerative disease; personalized medicine
Online: 22 September 2020 (08:42:20 CEST)
Worldwide, over 2.2 million people are suffered from multiple sclerosis (MS), a multifactorial demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. MS is characterized by a wide range of motor, autonomic, and psychobehavioral symptoms including depression, anxiety, and dementia. The blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and postmortem brain samples of MS patients evidenced the disturbance of reduction-oxidation (redox) homeostasis such as the alterations of oxidative and antioxidative enzyme activities and the presence of degradation products. This review article discussed the components of redox homeostasis including reactive chemical species, oxidative enzymes, antioxidative enzymes, and degradation products. The reactive chemical species covered frequently discussed reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, infrequently featured reactive chemicals such as sulfur, carbonyl, halogen, selenium, and nucleophilic species that potentially act as reductive as well as pro-oxidative stressors. The antioxidative enzyme systems covered the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) signaling pathway. The NRF2 and other transcriptional factors potentially become a biomarker sensitive to the initial phase of oxidative stress. Altered components of the redox homeostasis in MS were discussed in search of a diagnostic, prognostic, predictive, and/or therapeutic biomarker. Finally, monitoring a battery of reactive chemical species, oxidative enzymes, antioxidative enzymes and degradation products helps evaluate the redox status of MS patients to expedite building personalized treatment plans for the sake of better quality of life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0219.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: mitochondria; ATP synthase; cell death; neurodegenerative diseases.
Online: 18 February 2022 (02:13:31 CET)
The ATP synthase is a mitochondrial complex embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The enzyme is under the double genetic control of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA). Fatal human diseases have been associated with defects in ATP synthase (Complex V) activity linked to mtDNA or nDNA pathogenetic variants in genes encoding structural subunits or assembly factors. Mitochondrial post-translational modifications of key amino acids, reduced/increased subunit expression, or protein to protein ATP synthase interaction, are also some of the mechanisms involved in the age-related disease pathway. All the major neurodegenerative diseases: Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and motor neuron diseases such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis highlight an impaired ATP generation in a mechanism involving the permeability transition pore that triggers a cellular homeostasis failure responsible for different forms of regulated cell death. In this review, we will explore ATP synthase assembly and function in physiological and pathological conditions by referring to the recent cryo-EM studies and by exploring human diseases models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0370.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; gut microbiome; neurodegenerative diseases; microbiota-gut-brain-axis
Online: 28 April 2018 (12:09:20 CEST)
In the last years evidence has emerged that neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are strongly associated with the microbiome composition in the gut. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most intensively studied neurodegenerative disease in this context. In this review, we performed a systematic evaluation of published literature comparing changes in colonic microbiome in PD to the ones observed in other NDs including Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), Multiple system atrophy (MSA), Multiple sclerosis (MS), Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To warrant comparability of different studies, only human case-control studies were included. Several studies showed an increase of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Verrucomicrobiaceae and Akkermansia in PD. A decrease in PD was observed of Faecalibacterium spp., Coprococcus spp., Blautia spp., Prevotella spp. and Prevotellaceae. On low taxonomic resolution, like phylum level, the changes are not disease specific and inconsistent. However, on higher taxonomic resolution like genus or species level, a minor overlap was observed between PD and MSA, both alpha synucleinopathies. We show that a methodical standardization of sample collection and analysis is necessary for ensuring the reproducibility and comparability of data. We also provide the evidence, that assessing the microbiota composition at high taxonomic resolution, reveals changes in relative abundance, that may be specific or characteristic for one disease, or a disease-group and might evolve discriminative power. The interactions between bacterial species and strains and moreover the co-abundances must be more deeply investigated before assumptions of the effects of specific bacteria on the host can be made with certainty.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0416.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Malassezia; Chronic diseases; psoriasis; atopic dermatitis; chronic rhinosinusitis; asthma; cystic fibrosis; HIV infection; inflammatory bowel disease; colorectal cancer; neurodegenerative diseases
Online: 24 September 2021 (08:13:07 CEST)
Malassezia are lipid-dependent basidiomycetous yeast of the normal skin microbiome, although Malassezia DNA has been recently detected in other body sites and has been associated with cer-tain chronic human diseases. This new perspective raises many questions. Are these yeasts truly present in the investigated body site or were they contaminated by other body sites, adjacent or not? Does this DNA contamination come from living or dead yeast? If these yeasts are alive, do they belong to the resident mycobiota or are they transient colonizers which are not permanently established within these niches? And, finally, are these yeasts associated with certain chronic diseases or not? In an attempt to shed light on this knowledge gap, we critically re-viewed the 31 published studies focusing on the association of Malassezia spp. with chronic human diseases, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF), HIV infection, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC), and neurodegenerative diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0357.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: cyanotoxins; cyanobacteria; harmful algae bloom; neurodegenerative disease; microcystin; BMAA; non-proteogenic amino acids; mistranslation; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Alzheimer’s disease
Online: 19 January 2023 (11:46:59 CET)
Cyanobacteria produce a wide range of structurally diverse cyanotoxins and bioactive cyanopeptides in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. The health significance of these metabolites, which include genotoxic- and neurotoxic agents, is confirmed by continued associations between the occurrence of animal and human acute toxic events and, in the long term, by associations between cyanobacteria and neurodegenerative diseases. One of the implicated mechanisms includes a misincorporation of cyanobacterial non-proteogenic amino acids leading to mistranslation and protein misfolding. A better understanding of the interaction between the cyanopeptide metabolism and the nervous system will be crucial to target or to prevent pathogenic response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0396.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: neurodegenerative disease; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Huntington’s disease; multiple sclerosis; tryptophan; kynurenines; biomarkers; personalized medicine
Online: 13 November 2020 (20:57:22 CET)
Neurodegenerative diseases are multifactorial, initiated by a series of the causative complex which develops into a certain clinical picture. The pathogenesis and disease course vary from patient to patient. Thus, it should be likewise to the treatment. Peripheral biomarkers are to play a central role for tailoring a personalized therapeutic plan for patients who suffered from neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s diseases, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis, among others. Nevertheless, the use of biomarkers in clinical practice is still underappreciated and data presented in biomarker research for clinical use is still uncompelling, compared to abundant data available for drug research and development. So is the case with kynurenines (KYNs) and the kynurenine pathway (KP) enzymes which have been associated with a wide range of diseases including cancer, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, neurologic diseases, and psychiatric disorders. This review article discusses current knowledge of the KP alteration observed in the central nervous system as well as the periphery, its involvement in pathogenesis and disease progression, and emerging evidence of roles of microbiota to the gut-brain axis, searching for practical peripheral biomarkers which ensure personalized treatment plans for neurodegenerative diseases.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: neurodegenerative disease; protein misfolding; glacial; lakes; montmorillonite; bentonite; mineral; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ALS; Parkinson’s disease
Online: 6 July 2020 (09:11:18 CEST)
Scientists have observed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease clusters around certain lakes in the regions of northern New England and northern Ohio. A Parkinson’s disease cluster has also been observed in Vancouver. Cyanobacteria toxin exposure has been considered as a potential risk factor to explain this association. It is reported here that these regions have several commonalities in their environment, including a notable geologic history, the presence of abundant glacial sediments, and possible mineral and bentonite exposures. The possible association with and significance of these risk factors in ALS and Parkinson’s disease is discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0383.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Calabria; Italy; neurodegenerative diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; Frontotemporal dementia; Par-kinson’s disease; Niemann Pick type C disease; Spino-cerebellar ataxia; Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease; Gerstmann Straussler Scheincker disease
Online: 22 August 2022 (11:23:49 CEST)
Although originally multi-ethnic in its structure, nowadays the Calabria region of southern Italy represents an area with a low genetic heterogeneity and a high level of consanguinity that allows rare mutations to be maintained due to the founder effect. A complex research methodology ranging from clinical activity to genealogical reconstruction of families/populations along the centuries, creation of databases, and molecular/genetic research, has been modelled on the characteristics of the Calabrian population for more than three decades. This methodology allows to the identification of several novel genetic mutations or variants associated with neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, in this population it has been reported a higher prevalence of several hereditary neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, Niemann Pick type C disease, Spino-cerebellar ataxia, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and Gerstmann Straussler Scheincker disease. Thus, Calabria constitutes a model for the study of neurodegenerative diseases, a sort of "outdoor laboratory" useful for the advancement of knowledge in this field. Here, we summarize and discuss some results of research data supporting the view that Calabria is a genetic isolate and could represent a useful model for the study and characterization of neurodegenerative diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0163.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: SIRT6, Diabetes, Gluconeogenesis, Cancer, Aging, Heart Disease, Pharmacological SIRT6 Inhibitor, Cardiac Hypertrophy, Tumorigenesis, Neurodegeneration, Neurodegenerative Diseases, AD
Online: 29 August 2018 (13:04:23 CEST)
SIRT6 is a NAD+ dependent enzyme and stress response protein that has sparked the curiosity of a plethora of researchers in different branches of the biomedical sciences. A unique member of the known Sirtuin family, SIRT6 has several different functions in several different molecular pathways related to DNA repair, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, tumorigenesis, neurodegeneration, cardiac hypertrophic responses and so on. Only in recent times however did the potential usefulness of SIRT6 come to light as we learned more about its biochemical activity, regulation, biological roles and structure . Even until very recently, SIRT6 was known more for chromatin signaling but being a nascent topic of study, more information has been ascertained and its potential involvement in major human diseases namely, diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and heart disease has been demonstrated. It is pivotal to explore the mechanistic workings of SIRT6 since future research may hold the key to engendering strategies, involving SIRT6, that may have significant implications for human health and expand upon possible treatment options. In this review, we are primarily concerned with exploring the latest understanding of SIRT6 and how it can alter the course of several life-threatening diseases that cripple today’s society such as processes related to aging, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, heart disease and diabetes. In addition, SIRT6 has shown to be involved in liver disease, inflammation and bone related issues but more emphasis is given to the former. Lastly, any recent promising pharmacological investigations and study of potential therapeutic targets are also delineated in this review.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0573.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Antioxidants; resveratrol; MitoQ; SkQ; neurodegenerative disease
Online: 25 February 2021 (10:22:18 CET)
Growing evidence from neurodegenerative disease research supports an early pathogenic role for mitochondrial dysfunction in affected neurons that precedes morphological and functional deficits. Resulting oxidative stress and respiratory malfunction contribute to neuronal toxicity and may enhance the vulnerability of neurons to continued assault by aggregation-prone proteins. Consequently, targeting mitochondria with antioxidant therapy may be a non-invasive, inexpensive, and viable means of strengthening neuronal health and slowing disease progression, thereby extending quality of life. We review the pre-clinical and clinical findings available to date of the natural bioactive phenol resveratrol and two synthetic mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants MitoQ and SkQ.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: alpha-synuclein; energy; H2O2; mitochondria; neurodegenerative disease
Online: 2 August 2022 (10:13:50 CEST)
The number of people with neurodegenerative disease continues to increase every year. A new perspective is needed in overcoming this disease. In this review, researchers collected information about epigenetics and energy factors of neurodegenerative disease driven by mitochondria. Mitochondrial epigenetic dysregulation can cause damage to the neuron system. The increase in the amount and interaction of alpha-synuclein with SAMM50 in the mitochondria is one of the factors causing neurodegenerative disease. As an energy provider in the body, the existence of harmonization in the regulation of mitochondria specifically the mitochondrial outer membrane is important. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has neuroprotective abilities to overcome the impairment function of mitochondria in neurodegenerative patients. Based on the computational simulation of this case, it can be used as the basic concept for the development of the role of H2O2 in neurodegenerative disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0539.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: brain aging; energy metabolism; neurodegeneration; neurodegenerative disorders
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:55:21 CEST)
A growing body of evidence indicates that aging of the brain is strictly related to the decline of energy metabolism. In particular, in older adults, the neuronal metabolism of glucose declines steadily resulting in a growing deficit of ATP production. The decline is evoked by deficient NAD recovery in the salvage pathway and subsequent impairment of the Krebs cycle. NAD deficit impairs also the activity of NAD-dependent enzymes. All these open vicious circles of neurodegeneration and neuronal death. Some brain structures are particularly prone to aging and neurodegeneration. These are pathological foci of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. This review article summarizes the impacts and mutual relationships between metabolic processes both on neuronal and brain levels. It also provides directions on how to reduce the risk of neurodegeneration and protect the elderly against neurodegenerative diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0179.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Huntington’s disease; neurodegenerative diseases; autophagy; proteostasis; proteasomal degradation
Online: 19 January 2018 (04:25:29 CET)
Many neurodegenerative diseases are characterised by impairment of protein quality control mechanisms in neuronal cells. Ineffective clearance of misfolded proteins by the proteasome, autophagy pathways and exocytosis leads to accumulation of toxic protein oligomers and aggregates in neurons. Toxic protein species affect various cellular functions resulting in the development of a spectrum of different neurodegenerative proteinopathies, including Huntington’s disease (HD). Playing an integral role in proteostasis, dysfunction of the ubiquitylation system in HD is progressive and multi-faceted with numerous biochemical pathways affected, in particular the ubiquitin proteasome system and autophagy routes for protein aggregate degradation. Unravelling the molecular mechanisms involved in HD pathogenesis of proteostasis provides insight in disease progression in HD as well as possible therapeutic avenues. Recent developments of potential therapeutics are discussed in this review.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0078.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Extracellular vesicles; neurodegenerative disorders; mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns; inflammation
Online: 6 July 2022 (09:16:21 CEST)
Neuroinflammation is a common hallmark in different neurodegenerative conditions that share neuronal dysfunction and a progressive loss of a selectively vulnerable brain cell population. Alongside ageing and genetics, inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction are considered key risk factors. Microglia are considered immune sentinels of the central nervous system capable of initiating an innate and adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, the pathological mechanisms underlying the initiation and spread of inflammation in the brain are still poorly described. Recently, a new mechanism of intercellular signalling mediated by small extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been identified. EVs are nanosized particles (30-150 nm) with a bilipid membrane that carries cell-specific bioactive cargos that participate in physiological or pathological processes. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are cellular components recognized by the immune receptors of microglia, inducing or aggravating neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disorders. Diverse evidence links mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation mediated by mitochondrial-DAMPs (mtDAMPs) such as mitochondrial DNA, TFAM and cardiolipin, among others. Mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) are a subtype of EVs produced after mild damage to mitochondria and, upon fusion with multivesicular bodies (MVBs), are released as EVs to the extracellular space. MDVs are particularly enriched in mtDAMPs which can induce an immune response and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Importantly, growing evidence supports the association between mitochondrial dysfunction, EVs release and inflammation. Here, we describe the role of extracellular vesicles-associated mtDAMPS in physiological conditions and as neuroinflammation activators contributing to neurodegenerative disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0320.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Neurodegenerative disease; DJ-1; RNA-seq; Nrf2 signaling; lncRNA; MALAT1
Online: 25 February 2022 (02:40:02 CET)
Microglia activation causes neuroinflammation, which is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders, brain injury, and aging. Ladostigil, a bifunctional reagent with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, reduced microglial activation and enhanced brain functioning in elderly rats. In this study, we studied SH-SY5Y, a human neuroblastoma cell line, and tested viability in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and Sin1 (3-morpholinosydnonimine), which generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Both stressors caused significant apoptosis and necrotic cell death that was attenuated by ladostigil. Our results from RNA-seq experiments show that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) account for 30% of all transcripts in SH-SY5Y cells treated with Sin1 for 24 hours. Altogether, we identify 94 differently expressed lncRNAs in the presence of Sin1, including MALAT1, a highly expressed lncRNA with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic functions. Additional activities of Sin-1 upregulated lncRNAs include redox homeostasis (e.g., MIAT, GABPB1-AS1), energy metabolism (HAND2-AS1), and neurodegeneration (e.g., MIAT, GABPB1-AS1, NEAT1). Four lncRNAs implicated as enhancers were significantly upregulated in cells exposed to Sin1 and ladostigil. Finally, we show that H2O2 and Sin1 increased the expression of DJ-1, a redox sensor and modulator of Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2). Nrf2 (NFE2L2 gene) is a major transcription factor regulating antioxidant genes. In the presence of ladostigil, DJ-1 expression is restored to its baseline. The mechanisms governing SH-SY5Y cell survival and homeostasis are highlighted by the beneficial role of ladostigil in the crosstalk involving Nrf2, antioxidant transcription factor DJ-1, and lncRNAs. Stress-dependent induction of lncRNAs represents an underappreciated regulatory level that contributes to cellular homeostasis and the capacity of SH-SY5Y to cope with oxidative stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0357.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: predictive modeling; biomarker; cerebrospinal fluid; cross-sectional study; neurodegenerative disease
Online: 24 January 2022 (12:59:55 CET)
In recent years, metabolomics has been used as a powerful tool to better understand the physiology of neurodegenerative diseases and identify potential biomarkers for progression. We used targeted and untargeted aqueous, and lipidomic profiles of the metabolome from human cerebrospinal fluid to build multivariate predictive models distinguishing patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and healthy age-matched controls. We emphasize several statistical challenges associated with metabolomic studies where the number of measured metabolites far exceeds sample size. We found strong separation in the metabolome between PD and controls, as well as between PD and AD, with weaker separation between AD and controls. Consistent with existing literature, we found alanine, kynurenine, tryptophan, and serine to be associated with PD classification against controls, while alanine, creatine, and long chain ceramides were associated with AD classification against controls. We conducted a univariate pathway analysis of untargeted and targeted metabolite profiles and find that vitamin E and urea cycle metabolism pathways are associated with PD, while the aspartate/asparagine and c21-steroid hormone biosynthesis pathways are associated with AD. We also found that the amount of metabolite missingness varied by phenotype, highlighting the importance of examining missing data in future metabolomic studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0576.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Hypericum oblongifolium; Alzheimer’s disease; Folecitin; Memory impairment; Neurodegenerative disease; Neuroprotection
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:25:28 CEST)
Neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease, are commonly associated with persistent neuro-inflammation, and there is an urgent need to discover new therapeutic agents that may target the various pathways involved in neurodegeneration. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of folecitin, a flavonoid isolated from Hypericum oblongifolium, against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress associated with neurodegeneration, amyloidogenic Aβ production pathway, and memory dysfunction in mice. LPS was administered i.p. at 250 µg/kg/day for 3 weeks, followed by the administration of folecitin at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day for the last two weeks. A Western blot technique was used to assess the expression of different proteins involved in oxidative stress, neurodegeneration, and neuronal synapse. Results indicated that folecitin significantly reduced LPS-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration, including the expression of BAX, Caspase-3, and PARP-1 proteins, inhibited BACE1, and the amyloidogenic Aβ production pathway. Folecitin improved both pre- and post-neuronal synapse, as well as memory dysfunction. Furthermore, folecitin significantly activated endogenous antioxidant proteins such as Nrf-2 and HO-1 via stimulating the phosphorylation of Akt proteins. These findings suggest that folecitin may be a suitable lead to design new drugs for neurotoxin-triggered neurodegenerative disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0380.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: locomotion disorder; cadence; gait oscillation; speed of movement; neurodegenerative disease
Online: 15 December 2020 (12:39:34 CET)
Understanding the motor patterns underlying the movement of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) is fundamental to the effective targeting of non-pharmacological therapies. This study aims to analyze the gait pattern in relation to the evolutionary stage between I-II and III-IV according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale (H&Y) in people affected by PD. The study was conducted with the participation of 37 PD patients, with a mean age of 70.09±9.53 years, and of whom 48.64% were women. The inclusion criteria were: 1. To be diagnosed with PD; 2. To be in an evolutionary stage of the disease of between I and IV and; 3. To be able to walk independently and without any assistance. Kinematic and spatial-temporal parameters of the gait were analyzed. The results show differences in speed of movement, cadence, stride length, support duration, swing duration, step width, walking cycle duration and double support time between the stages analyzed. These results confirm the differences in PD gait pattern between stages I-II and III-IV. Different behaviors of the same variable were recorded depending on whether the right or left sides were affected by PD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0021.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: anti-IgLON5 disease; sleep disorders; tau protein accumulation; immunotherapy; neurodegenerative diseases
Online: 2 May 2020 (16:26:03 CEST)
The objective of this review is to do an overview about the current knowledge of Anti Iglon5 Syndrome, a disease that was first described in 2014. The IgLON proteins are a family of cell adhesion molecules and the presence of antibodies against IgLON5 are crucial for diagnosis of Anti IgLON5 Syndrome. This syndrome has an expanded clinical spectrum that involves prominent sleep disorder, progressive bulbar dysfunction, gait instability with abnormal eye movements reminiscent and cognitive deterioration sometimes associated with chorea. The main neuropathological finding is the neuronal loss with hyperphosphorylated tau (p-Tau) protein accumulation at hypothalamus, brainstem tegmentum, hippocampus, periaqueductal gray matter, medulla oblongata and upper cervical cord. The exact pathogenesis is still unclear and involves a neurodegenerative process and autoimmune response. The early diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary tests and prevent complications. Important resources for diagnosis are the antibody testing of serum and CSF for IgLON5-IgG. The mortality of anti IgLON5 syndrome is high and new studies published described a good response to immune therapy. However, the response to immune therapy depends of some clinical and analytical characteristic. In addition, future studies are needed to thoroughly study the aspects of pathogenesis and treatment of this important pathological syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0265.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: poly-PR/GR; neurodegenerative disease; LLPS; p53; intrinsically disordered domains; membraneless organelles
Online: 15 September 2021 (14:43:48 CEST)
Abstract: The most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the presence of poly-PR/GR dipeptide repeats which are encoded by the C9orf72 gene. Recently, it was shown that poly-PR/GR alters chromatin accessibility which results in stabilization and enhancement of transcriptional activity of the tumor suppressor p53 in several neurodegenerative disease models. Reduction of p53 protein levels in cell and model organisms protects against neurotoxicity of poly-PR, and partially protects against neurotoxicity of poly-GR. Here, we aimed to study the detailed molecular mechanisms how p53 contributes to poly-PR/GR mediated neurodegeneration. Using a combination of biophysical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, fluorescence polarization, turbidity assays and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, we found that p53 physically interacts with poly-PR/GR and triggers liquid-liquid phase separation of p53. We identified p53 transactivation domain 2 (TAD2) as the main binding site for PR25/GR25 and show that binding of poly-PR/GR to p53 is mediated by a network of electrostatic and/or hydrophobic interactions. Our findings might help to understand the mechanistic role of p53 in poly-PR/GR - associated neurodegeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0172.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: kynurenines; tryptophan; indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase; single nucleotide polymorphisms; Parkinson’s diseases; neurodegenerative diseases
Online: 4 June 2021 (09:41:35 CEST)
Aims Earlier studies reported alterations of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway of tryptophan (TRP) metabolism in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The first rate-limiting enzymes indoleamine 2,3- dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan dioxygenase were observed upregulated, resulting elevated KYN/TRP ratios in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples of patients with PD. An increasing number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has been identified in a population of PD. However, little is known if genetic variations of the IDO contribute to disturbance of the KYN metabolism in and the pathogenesis of PD. Main methods SNP analysis of IDO1 was performed by allelic discrimination assay with fluorescently labelled TaqMan probes and a subgroup analysis was conducted according to the age of PD onset. The frame shifts variant rs34155785, intronic variant rs7820268, and promotor region variant rs9657182 SNPs of 105 PD patients without comorbidity were analyzed and compared to 129 healthy controls. Key findings No significant correlation was found in three SNPs between PD patients and healthy controls. However, the subgroup analysis revealed that A alleles of rs7820268 SNP or rs9657182 SNP carriers contribute to later onset of PD than non-carriers. Significance The study suggested that SNPs of IDO1 influenced the age onset of PD and genotyping of SNPs in certain alleles potentially serves as a risk biomarker of PD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0384.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: flavonoids; cellular stress response; neurodegenerative disorders; ER stress proteotoxicity; oxidative stress; neuroinflammation
Online: 19 January 2021 (14:02:03 CET)
Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Amyloidal lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington disease (HD) are the most concerned disorders due to the lack of effective therapeutics and dramatic rise in affected cases. Although these disorders have diverse clinical manifestations, yet they all share a common cellular stress response. These cellular stress responses including neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, proteotoxicity, and ER-stress, which combats with stress conditions, but the overwhelming cellular stress response induces cell damage. Small molecules such as flavonoids could reduce cellular stress and have gained much attention in recent years. Evidence has shown the potential use of flavonoids in several ways such as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic, yet their mechanism is still elusive. This review provides an insight into the mechanistic ways of flavonoids against cellular stress response that prevent the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0470.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: kynurenines; tryptophan; indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase; single nucleotide polymorphisms; Parkinson’s diseases; neurodegenerative diseases
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:27:12 CEST)
Earlier studies reported alterations of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway of tryptophan (TRP) metabolism in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The first rate-limiting enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan dioxygenase were observed upregulated, resulting elevated KYN/TRP ratios in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples of patients with PD. An increasing number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in a population of PD. However, little is known if genetic variations of the IDO contribute to disturbance of the KYN metabolism in and the pathogenesis of PD. SNP analysis of IDO1 was performed by allelic discrimination assay with fluorescently labelled TaqMan probes and a subgroup analysis was conducted according to the age of PD onset. The frame shifts variant rs34155785, intronic variant rs7820268, and promotor region variant rs9657182 SNPs of 105 PD patients without comorbidity were analyzed and compared to 129 healthy controls. No significant correlation was found in three SNPs between PD patients and healthy controls. However, the subgroup analysis revealed that A alleles of rs7820268 SNP or rs9657182 SNP carriers contribute to later onset of PD than non-carriers. The study suggested that SNPs of IDO1 influenced the age onset of PD and genotyping of SNPs in certain alleles potentially serves as a risk biomarker of PD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0052.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: nucleolus; RRN3; I-kappaB; stress; aspirin; CDK4; RelA; p65; cancer; neurodegenerative disorders
Online: 4 September 2018 (04:49:10 CEST)
Nucleoli are emerging as key sensors of cellular stress and regulators of the downstream consequences on proliferation, metabolism, senescence and apoptosis. NF-kB signalling is activated in response to a similar plethora of stresses, which leads to modulation of cell growth and death programs. Although these pathways are distinct, it is increasingly apparent that they converge at multiple levels. Exposure of cells to certain insults causes a specific type of nucleolar stress that is characterised by degradation of the PolI complex component, TIF-IA, and increased nucleolar size. Recent studies have shown that this atypical nucleolar stress lies upstream of cytosolic IkB degradation and NF-kB nuclear translocation. Under these stress conditions, the RelA component of NF-kB accumulates within functionally altered nucleoli to trigger a nucleophosmin dependent, apoptotic pathway. In this review, we will discuss these points of crosstalk and their relevance to the anti-tumour mechanism of aspirin and small molecule CDK4 inhibitors. We will also briefly discuss how NF-kB-nucleoli crosstalk may be more broadly relevant to the regulation of cellular homeostasis and how it may be exploited for therapeutic purpose.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0481.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: protein tau; Alzheimer’s disease; neurodegenerative disease; synaptic dysfunction; Aβ-peptides; tau-imaging
Online: 27 August 2018 (11:25:45 CEST)
One of the most commonly known chronic neurodegenerative disorders, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), manifests the common type of dementia in 60–80% of cases. From a clinical standpoint, a patent cognitive decline and a severe change in personality, as caused by a loss of neurons, is~usually evident in AD with about 50 million people affected in 2016. The disease progression in patients is distinguished by a gradual plummet in cognitive functions, eliciting symptoms such as memory loss, and eventually requiring full-time medical care. From a histopathological standpoint, the~defining characteristics are intracellular aggregations of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein, known as neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), and depositions of amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) in the brain. The~abnormal phosphorylation of tau protein is attributed to a wide gamut of neurological disorders known as tauopathies. In addition to the hyperphosphorylated tau lesions, neuroinflammatory processes could occur in a sustained manner through astro-glial activation, resulting in the disease progression. Recent findings have suggested a strong interplay between the mechanism of Tau phosphorylation, disruption of microtubules, and synaptic loss and pathology of AD. The mechanisms underlying these interactions along with their respective consequences in Tau pathology are still ill-defined. Thus, in this review: (1) we highlight the interplays existing between Tau pathology and AD; and (2) take a closer look into its role while identifying some promising therapeutic advances including state of the art imaging~techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0135.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: amyloid; Alzheimer’s disease; neurodegenerative diseases; neurodegeneration; dementia; population genomics; migration; admixture; APP; neuropathology
Online: 8 November 2022 (02:10:21 CET)
Genetic discoveries related to Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias have been performed using either large cohorts of affected subjects or multiple individuals from the same pedigree, therefore disregarding mutations in the context of healthy groups. Moreover, a large portion of studies so far have been performed on individuals of European ancestry, with a remarkable lack of epidemiological and genomic data from underrepresented populations. The present study aims at scanning 70 single-point mutations on the APP gene in a publicly available genetic dataset including 2.504 healthy individuals from 26 populations, and analyzing their distribution. Moreover, after gametic phase reconstruction, a pairwise comparison of the segments surrounding the mutations was performed to reveal patterns of haplotype sharing that could point to specific cross-population and cross-ancestry admixture events. Eight mutations have been detected in the worldwide dataset, with several of them being specific for a single individual, population or macroarea. Patterns of segment sharing reflect recent historical events of migration and admixture possibly linked to colonization campaigns. These observations reveal the population dynamics of the considered APP mutations in worldwide human groups, and support the development of ancestry-informed screening practices for the improvement of precision and personalized approaches to neurodegeneration and dementias.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Keywords: mitochondria; stress resilience; plasticity; stress; kynurenine; Alzheimer’s disease; neurodegenerative; depression; anxiety; psychiatric
Online: 8 July 2022 (03:56:36 CEST)
Nearly half a century has passed since the discovery of cytoplasmic inheritance of human chloramphenicol resistance. The inheritance was then revealed to take place maternally by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Later, a number of mutations in mtDNA were identified as a cause of severe inheritable metabolic diseases with neurological manifestation, and the impairment of mitochondrial functions has been probed in the pathogenesis of a wide range of illnesses including neurodegenerative diseases. Recently growing number of preclinical studies has revealed that animal behaviors are influenced by the impairment of mitochondrial functions and possibly by the loss of mitochondrial stress resilience. Indeed, as high as 54% of patients with one of the most common primary mitochondrial diseases, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, present psychiatric symptoms including cognitive impairment, mood disorder, anxiety, and psychosis. Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles which produce cellular energy and play a major role in other cellular functions including homeostasis, cellular signaling, and gene expression, among other. Mitochondrial functions are observed to be compromised and to become less resilient under continuous stress. Meanwhile, stress and inflammation have been linked to the activation of the tryptophan (Trp)-kynurenine (KYN) metabolic system, which observably contributes to development of pathological conditions including neurological and psychiatric disorders. This narrative review discusses the functions of mitochondria and the Trp-KYN system, the interaction of the Trp-KYN system with mitochondria, and the current understanding of the involvement of mitochondria and the Trp-KYN system in preclinical and clinical studies of major neurological and psychiatric diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0407.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: glial cells; astrocytes; NG2 glia; microglia; oligodendrocytes; Alzheimer’s disease; neurodegenerative disease; Aβ-peptides
Online: 14 September 2018 (03:13:57 CEST)
Even though Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is of significant interest to the scientific community, its pathogenesis is very complicated and not well-understood. A great deal of progress has been made in AD research recently and with the advent of these new insights more therapeutic benefits may be identified that could help patients around the world. Much of the research in AD thus far has been very neuron-oriented; however, recent studies suggest that glial cells, i.e., microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (NG2 glia), are linked to the pathogenesis of AD and may offer several potential therapeutic targets against AD. In addition to a number of other functions, glial cells are responsible for maintaining homeostasis (i.e., concentration of ions, neurotransmitters, etc.) within the central nervous system (CNS) and are crucial to the structural integrity of neurons. This review explores the: (i) role of glial cells in AD pathogenesis; (ii) complex functionalities of the components involved; and (iii) potential therapeutic targets that could eventually lead to a better quality of life for AD patients
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0105.v5
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: csf; shunt; filtration; neurodegenerative; neuroimmunology; alzheimer; parkinson; guillain-barre; device; ventriculo-peritoneal shunt
Online: 30 January 2017 (14:22:03 CET)
Liquorpheresis (CSF filtration) comprises a therapeutical approach that has been proposed to treat several neurological conditions where antibodies, inflammatory mediators or abnormal peptides are the cause or play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. CSF replacement may be an alternative approach not explored so far. Here, we review previous experiences in the use of liquorpheresis in autoimmune and degenerative neurological diseases. Then we describe previous developments and provide some new technical innovations in order to design bidirectional CSF shunting systems. These systems can be complemented either with a deposit of artificial CSF or with a CSF filter, allowing CSF replacement or liquorpheresis respectively. Both options would lead to mechanical dilution of the patient’s CSF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0333.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: peroxiporins; oxidative stress; hydrogen peroxide; water channels; Sigma1 receptors; Sigma1 receptor modulators; neurodegenerative diseases
Online: 12 November 2020 (09:33:34 CET)
Specific aquaporins (AQP), called peroxyporins, play a relevant role in controlling H2O2 permeability and ensure reactive oxygen species wasting during oxidative stress. Another target involved in oxidative stress is the Sigma1 Receptor (S1R), since its activation is triggered by oxidative or endoplasmic reticulum stress. Herein we evaluated the effect of S1R modulators on AQP-dependent water permeability in the presence and in the absence of oxidative stress. Applying stopped-flow light scattering and fluorescent probe methods, water and hydrogen peroxide permeability in Hela cells have been studied. Results evidenced that S1R agonists can restore water permeability in heat-stressed cells and the co-administration with a S1R antagonist totally counteracted the ability to restore the water permeability. All compounds except one were able to counteract the oxidative stress of HeLa cells specifically knocked down for S1R. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that the investigated compounds act as dual aquaporin and Sigma1 receptor (DAS) modulators. The finding that small molecules can modulate both AQP and S1R opens a new direction toward the identification of innovative drugs able to regulate cell survival during oxidative stress in pathologic conditions, like cancer and degenerative diseases.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: blood-brain barrier; copper/iron homeostasis; neurodegenerative (Alzheimers, Parkinsons, Prion) disease; North Ronaldsay sheep
Online: 27 May 2019 (12:27:10 CEST)
The neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimers, Parkinsons, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntingdons) and the prion disorders, have in common a dysregulation of metalloprotein chemistry involving redox metals (Cu,Fe,Mn). The consequent oxidative stress gives rise to protein plaques and neuronal cell death. An equilibrium exists between the functional requirement of the brain for Cu and Fe and their destructive potential with the production of reactive oxygen species. The importance of the brain barrier is highlighted in regulating the import of these metals. Upregulation of key transporters occurs in foetal and neonatal life when brain metal requirement is high and is down-regulated in adult life when need is minimal. By contrast a neonatal mode of CTR1 upregulation persists in feral N.Ronaldsay sheep. This has led to the premise that metal regulation may return to the default setting in ageing with implications for neurodegenerative disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0267.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Caenorhabditis elegans; proteostasis; bacteria; neurodegenerative diseases; protein aggregates; protein conformational disease; butyrate; aminoglycoside; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Online: 18 March 2022 (09:21:45 CET)
Neurodegenerative protein conformational diseases are characterized by misfolding and aggregation of metastable proteins encoded within the host genome. The host is also home to thousands of proteins encoded within exogenous genomes harbored by bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Yet, their contributions to host protein-folding homeostasis, or proteostasis, remain elusive. Recent studies, including our previous work, suggest that bacterial products contribute to toxic aggregation of endogenous host proteins. We refer to these products as bacteria-derived protein aggregates (BDPAs). Furthermore, antibiotics were recently associated with increased risk for neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis possibly by virtue of altering the composition of the human gut microbiota. Other studies have shown a negative correlation between disease progression and antibiotic administration, supporting their protective effect against neurodegenerative diseases. These contradicting studies emphasize the complexity of the human gut microbiota, the gut-brain axis, and the effect of antibiotics. Here, we further our understanding of bacteria’s effect on host protein folding using the model Caenorhabditis elegans. We employed genetic and chemical methods to demonstrate that the proteotoxic effect of bacteria on host protein folding correlates with the presence of BDPAs. Furthermore, the abundance and proteotoxicity of BDPAs are influenced by gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic that induces protein misfolding, and by butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid that we previously found to affect host protein aggregation and the associated toxicity. Collectively, these results increase our understanding of host-bacteria interactions in the context of protein conformational diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0452.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Extended lumbar drainage; Hydrocephalus; Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus; neurodegenerative diseases; Qualitative neurocognitive tests; Quantitative neurocognitive tests
Online: 23 December 2022 (08:09:41 CET)
Background: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is a syndrome with neuroradiological findings and clinical pattern characteristic but not specific for the pathology. Since the prevalence is growing due to the rapidly aging society, standardized and validated protocol for diagnosis is needed, also because this condition may mimic other disorders among elderly such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Material and methods: We analysed data from 44 patients with suspect diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with age > 60 years, clinical triad and neuroradiological pattern examined in our ward from November 2018 to November 2022. Neu-ropsychological assessment includes Mini Mental State Examination and Mental Deterioration Battery. Motor scores were collected from gait and balance tests. The evaluation was performed before and after an extended lumbar drainage last 48h. Patients who has scores improvement after the extended lumbar drainage, undergo ventriculoperitoneal shunt with a programmable valve. Results: All patients undergo neuropsychological assessment and motor tests, only 2 patients were unable to perform motor tests because bedridden. 16 patients showed no benefit from the tests, in 2 cases even a worsening of cognitive performance. 28 patients showed an improvement in their performances, but in most cases the improvement involved only the neuropsychological as-sessment. All patients underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt have had a typical answers pattern in Mental Deterioration Battery test. We performed 9 ventriculoperitoneal shunt and 1 ventricu-lo-atrial shunt. Conclusions: Qualitative neurocognitive tests come out to be more sensitive compared to quantitative neurocognitive tests in identifying patients with suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus benefiting from extended lumbar drainage test and then un-derwent surgical treatment. This could be considered a valid screening in elderly patients with suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus in order to minimize the number of invasive procedures. More studies are necessary to validate this tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0106.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: graphene; electrochemical biosensors; cancer; diagnosis; electrical detection; Alzheimer’s disease; dementia; neurodegenerative disorders; cardiovascular; blood biomarkers; antibodies; proteins
Online: 2 January 2018 (05:21:45 CET)
We report on the development of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) based graphene field effect transistor (GFET) immunosensors for the sensitive detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), a glycoprotein risk biomarker of certain cancers. The GFET sensors were fabricated on Si/SiO2 substrate using photolithography with evaporated chromium and sputtered gold contacts. GFET channels were functionalized with a linker molecule to immobile anti-hCG antibody on the surface of graphene. Binding reaction of the antibody with varying concentration levels of hCG antigen demonstrated the limit of detection of the GFET sensors to be below 1 pg/mL using four-probe electrical measurements. We also show annealing can significantly improve the carrier transport properties of GFETs and shift the Dirac point (Fermi level) with reduced p-doping in back-gated measurements. The developed GFET biosensors are generic and could find applications in a broad range of medical diagnostics in addition to cancer, such as neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Lewy body) and cardiovascular disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: nose to brain delivery; nanoparticles; pharmaceutical nanotechnology; mucoadhesion; mucus penetrating particles; targeting; CNS disorders; neurodegenerative diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease
Online: 9 February 2018 (10:37:33 CET)
In the field of nasal delivery, one of the most fascinating applications is the delivery of drugs directly to the central nervous system bypassing the blood brain barrier. This approach would provide a series of benefits, such as dose lowering and direct targeting of potent drugs, ultimately reducing their systemic side effects. Recently, clinical trials have explored the nasal administration of insulin for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, with promising results. The use of nanomedicines could provide further options for making nose-to-brain delivery reality. In particular, apart from the selection of devices able to deposit the formulation in the upper part of the nose, surface modification of these nanomedicines appears the key strategy to optimize the delivery of drugs from the nasal cavity to the brain. In this review, nanomedicines delivery approaches based on surface electrostatic charges, mucoadhesive polymers, as well as chemical moieties targeting nasal epithelium, will be discussed and critically evaluated for nose-to-brain delivery.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0383.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: structural biology; organelles; Golgi Apparatus (GA); Parkinson’s disease (PD); cryo-ET; alpha-synuclein; neurodegenerative diseases; soft X-ray tomography (SXT); cancer; NDDs
Online: 5 December 2022 (02:27:26 CET)
The Golgi apparatus (GA) dysfunctions in Parkinson’s Disease (PD), neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), cancer, and organelle structural biology (OSB) can provide insights into therapeutic targets, gene therapy, and drug design. Primary defects and fragmentation within the GA are implicated in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. GA defects typically result in mislocation of proteins, accumulation of undegraded proteins, and impaired glycosylation of proteins. Inhibition of vesicular trafficking by α-synuclein (aSyn) may affect the dopamine-producing neurons and neuromodulators. GA regulates apoptosis during pathological mechanisms of neurological diseases and could provide new avenues in treatments through translation research. PD patients bearing the hereditary E46K disease mutation manifest the clinical picture of parkinsonism. How do we provide high resolution nanoimages of the GA during disease to capture dysfunction? Could we visualize the aSyn traffic jam between vesicles in the organelles ER and GA? OSB is emerging as a field as more technology advances and is more accessible. Structural studies of the GA will advance the field of neurological disease forward with an in depth understanding of dysfunction, fragmentation, and defects. Discoveries of the GA in PD, NDDs, and cancer would break new ground and provide translational medicine data of these diseases. Future research could be visualizing high angle annular dark field-STEM (HAADF-STEM) tomograms, cryogenic electron tomography (cryo-ET), multiplex correlative light and electron microscopy (cryo-CLEM), nanobody-assisted tissue immunostaining for volumetric EM (NATIVE) and using soft X-ray tomography (SXT) and computational reconstruction of the GA.