REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: tumor necrosis factor; TNFR; biologicals
Online: 2 April 2018 (09:43:23 CEST)
The first FDA-approved drugs were small, chemically-manufactured and highly active molecules with possible off-target effects. After this first successful wave of small drugs, biotechnology allowed the development of protein-based medicines such as antibodies. Conventional antibodies bind a specific protein and are becoming increasingly important in the therapeutic landscape. A very prominent class of biologicals are the anti-TNF drugs that are applied in several inflammatory diseases that are characterized by dysregulated TNF levels. Marketing of TNF inhibitors revolutionized the treatment of diseases such as Crohn’s disease. However, these inhibitors also have undesired effects, some of them directly associated with the inherent nature of this drug class such as immunogenicity, whereas others are linked with their mechanism of action. Recently, researchers tried to design innovative drugs with reduced side effects aiming to make them more effective and safer. Molecules with more specificity e.g. that target one specific TNF format or receptor, or that neutralize the TNF signaling pathway in specific cells, are generated. Alternatively, TNF-directed biologicals without the typical antibody structure are manufactured. Here, we review the complications related to the use of conventional TNF inhibitors, together with the anti-TNF alternatives and the different (neurodegenerative) diseases that might benefit from selective approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0261.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Arboviruses; Histopathology; Cell death; Necrosis; Steatosis; Liver
Online: 16 January 2023 (02:55:43 CET)
Arboviruses such as yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue virus (DENV), and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) presenting wide global dissemination and the pathogenic profile developed in infected individuals, which develop from nonspecific clinical conditions to severe forms, characterized by the promotion of significant lesions in different organs of the harborer, culminating in multiple organ dysfunction. To characterize, quantify, and compare the patterns of histopathological alterations in human liver samples from patients with yellow fever (YF), dengue fever (DF), and chikungunya fever (CF). Analytical cross-sectional study by histopathological analysis with 70 samples of liver patients, collected from 2000 to 2017, with confirmed laboratory diagnosis who died due to infection and complications by the YF, DF, and CF. Of the histopathological findings in human liver samples there was a significant difference between the control and infection groups, with a predominance of alterations in the midzonal area of the three cases analyzed, among the arboviruses studied, the hepatic involvement in cases of YF showed greater intensity of histopathological changes. Among the alterations evaluated, cell swelling, microvesicular steatosis and apoptosis were classified as degree of tissue damage from severe to very severe. The pathological abnormalities associated with infection by YFV, DENV, and CHIKV showed predominance of changes in the midzonal area. We also noted that in among of the arboviruses studied, liver involvement in cases of YFV infection was more intense.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0566.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Alternaria alternata; pear pathogens; multi-infections; enzymatic activities; mycotoxins; plant necrosis.
Online: 30 December 2022 (01:57:03 CET)
This lack of information is due to the primary role of HSTs in fungal pathogenesis, which often masks the functions of NSTs and CWDEs. So, the toxic effects of A. alternata metabolites due to NSTs and CWDEs have received minor attention than those reported for HSTs mycotoxins . A wider study of the activity of isolated fungal metabolites can allow the identification of compounds directly related to the pathogenic activity of the fungus, making it possible to create chemo libraries that facilitate the linking of the structure of the compounds with the species that produce it and its effect on host and non-host crops, as well as with biosynthetic features . In this context, our work reports a study focused on NSTs and CWDEs used by an A. alternata strain isolated from infected pears in Italy. To this aim, the characterization of hydrolytic enzyme activities of A. alternata and the identification of the metabolites produced in vitro were performed. Furthermore, the phytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated on pear (host and non-host varieties) and lemon fruits . Finally, the competition of A. alternata with other pathogens was evaluated to investigate the role of NSTs on co-infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0313.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cytokine; Tumor necrosis factor; S100 protein; protein–protein interaction; inflammatory diseases
Online: 16 November 2022 (13:12:59 CET)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors (anti-TNFs) represent a cornerstone of the treatment of various immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and are among the most commercially successful therapeutic agents. Knowledge of TNF binding partners is critical for identification of the factors able to affect clinical efficacy of the anti-TNFs. Here we report that among eighteen representatives of the multifunctional S100 protein family only S100A11, S100A12 and S100A13 interact with the soluble form of TNF (sTNF) in vitro. The lowest equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) for the complexes with monomeric sTNF determined using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy range from 2 nM to 28 nM. The apparent Kd values for the complexes of multimeric sTNF with S100A11/A12 estimated from fluorimetric titrations are 0.1-0.3 µM. S100A12/A13 suppress the cytotoxic activity of sTNF against Huh-7 cells, as evidenced by the MTT assay. Structural modeling indicates that the sTNF-S100 interactions may interfere with the sTNF recognition by the therapeutic anti-TNFs. Bioinformatic analysis reveals dysregulation of TNF and S100A11/A12/A13 in numerous disorders. Overall, we have shown a novel potential regulatory role of the extracellular forms of specific S100 proteins that may affect efficacy of anti-TNF treatment in various diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0279.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: beta adrenoblocker; anticancer; non-small cell lung cancer; clonogenic; apoptosis; necrosis
Online: 25 July 2019 (06:20:58 CEST)
Beta adrenoblockers is a large class of drugs mainly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms. Over the last couples of decades, the anticancer effects of these compounds has been extensively studied. There is much evidence about their activity in non-small cell lung, pancreatic, breast, colorectal, prostate and ovarian cancer. However, the mechanism of beta blockers anticancer activity is still not known, and more detailed studies are needed. The aim of our study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of beta adrenoblockers in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1299. In order to find the relationship with their selectivity to beta adrenoreceptors, in our study we used selective (atenolol, betaxolol, esmolol, metoprolol) and non-selective (pindolol, propranolol and timolol) beta blockers. The effect on cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay and the activity on cell ability to form colonies was tested by clonogenic assay. The type of cell death was evaluated by cell double staining with Hoechst 33342 and Propidium iodide. The most active adrenoblockers against both tested cancer cell lines were propranolol and betaxolol. They completely inhibited lung cancer cell colony formation at 90% of EC50 (half maximal effective concentration) value. Most tested compounds induced cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. In A549 cell lines apoptosis was mainly induced while in H1299 cell line compounds induced both apoptosis and necrosis. There was no correlation established between beta adrenoblocker anticancer activity and their selectivity to beta adrenoreceptors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: apoptosis; breast cancer; E. coli O157:H7; necrosis; Shiga-like toxin
Online: 26 April 2018 (10:41:36 CEST)
Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest induction are targeted in the strategy of cancer therapy. Furthermore, bacterial toxin such as shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli has been suggested to be used as novel therapeutic agent against tumor malignancies either as independent anti-neoplastic agents or in combination treatment with chemo or radiotherapy. The aim of study was to investigate the potency of shiga-like toxin originated from local strains of E. coli O157:H7 as a new cancer therapy. As many as 10 culture cells T47D cell line were subjected by crude extract Shiga like toxin originated from five local isolates of E. coli O157:H7 i.e. KL-48(2), SM-25(1), SM-7(1), DS-21(4), and one isolate ATCC 43894 as a control with IC50 doses, respectively. The treatment was observed for 24 h, with two replications. An FITC-Annexin V and PI assay was used to observe apoptosis and necrosis effect, and simultaneously with cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide (PI) staining. Results of study showed T47D cell treated with Shiga-like toxin from local strain KL-48 (2) show the lowest viable cell, followed by SM 7(1), ATCC 43894, SM-25(1), DS-21(4) and contrary with control with each percentages as 15.20, 16.36, 22.17, 22.64, 33.86, and 94.36%, respectively. The results were also confirmed by the induction of the cell cycle arrest in phase G0-G1 as inactive phase, i.e. 66.41, 63.37, 61.52, 55.36 and 47.28% for T47D cell treated with toxin of KL-48(2), ATCC 43894, SM 25(1), SM 7(1), and DS 21(4), respectively. These results show tendency deleterious effect of Shiga-like toxin from local isolates on T47D cell, so that concluded they have potency as a good anticancer drug in Gb3-expressing breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0106.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: IRF5; transcriptional factors; immuno-stimulation; nervous necrosis virus; malabar grouper (epinephelus malabaricus)
Online: 22 September 2017 (08:58:20 CEST)
Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is known to be involved in the innate immune response and pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the roles of IRF5 in immune responses in Malabar grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus) have not been extensively explored. In this study, IRF5 gene was identified and characterized from M. grouper. The full-length IRF5 cDNA consisted of a 5’ terminal untranslated region (5’-UTR) of 289 bp and a 3’-UTR of 542 bp, an open reading frame (ORF) of 1500 bp encoding a polypeptide of 499 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 56.28 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) of 5.2. The putative MgIRF5 protein consists of four important conserved domains: a helix DNA-binding domain (DBD) at the N-terminus, a middle region, an IRF association domain (IAD) and a virus activated domain (VAD) at the C-terminus. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that highest sequence similarity of IRF5 was observed between the IRF5 genes from Oplegnathus fasciatus and Miichthys miiuy. The mRNA transcripts of IRF5 were detected in a wide range of tissues types from healthy M. grouper with highest expression in muscle, liver and skin. After treatment with poly (I: C), it was significantly up-regulated in spleen and liver tissues. When infected with NNV, the expression level of MgIRF5 was up-regulated in spleen and head kidney and their transcriptional responses to IRF5 increased in the grouper kidney cells. This approach suggests that MgIRF5 is important in the underlying mechanism of the innate immune responses against antiviral response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0170.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes; angiotensinogen; nuclear factor-kappa B; lipopolysaccharide; tumor necrosis factor-alpha
Online: 6 April 2021 (11:28:00 CEST)
Central adiposity is one of the significant determinants of obesity-related hypertension risk, which may arise due to the abdominal fat depot's pathogenic inflammatory nature. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines up-regulation through nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in adipose tissue has been considered an essential function in the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension. This study aimed to ascertain the NF-κB inhibitor (SN50) effect on TNF-α and angiotensinogen (AGT) secretion and expression in mediating the anti-inflammatory effect through its impact on NF-κB activity in humans adipose tissue. Primary human adipocytes were isolated from 20 subjects among 10 overweight and 10 obese with and without hypertension and treated with 10ng/ml LPS in the presence and absence of NF-κB inhibitor, SN50 (50μg/ml). TNF-α secretion and NF-κB p65 activity were detected in supernatants extracted from cultured cells treated and untreated with LPS (10ng/ml) and SN50 (50μg/ml) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The western blot technique detected the protein of NF-κB p65 and AGT. Gene expression of TNF-α and AGT was detected in cells and performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Treatment of AbdSc adipocytes with LPS (10ng/ml) caused a significant increase in NF-κB p65 among overweight and obese subjects with and without hypertension (P= 0.001) at 24 hours incubation. In contrast, SN50-NF-κB inhibitor causes a reduction of NF-κB p65 in overweight (P= <0.001) and obese subjects with and without hypertension (P= 0.001) at 24 hours incubation. Treatment of AbdSc adipocytes with 10ng/ml LPS caused a significant increase in TNF-α secretion in overweight and obese subjects at all-time points (P= <0.001), whereas SN50 leads to a decrease in TNF-α secretion at 3 and 12 hours incubation. Treatment of AbdSc adipocytes with LPS (10ng/ml) caused increased TNF-α and AGT gene expression twofold compared with untreated cells, whereas, in the presence of SN50, it reduces mRNA AGT levels in both groups. Taken together, these adipokines with NF-κB activation may represent essential biomarkers to evaluate hypertension risk and to provide insight into the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0115.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: capillary regression; COVID-19; pro-inflammatory mediators; interleukin-1 beta; tumor necrosis factor; thrombin
Online: 9 June 2020 (04:12:30 CEST)
In this brief communication, we propose the concept that capillary regression may represent a primary pathogenic process underlying COVID-19 infection, particularly in the serious and life-threatening manifestations of the disease. We suggest that the marked elevations of pro-inflammatory mediators that are observed in these seriously ill patients may directly induce capillary regression and endothelial cell (EC) loss. Recent autopsy studies are demonstrating EC loss leading to widespread microthrombi and associated tissue damage. Recent work has indicated that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), and thrombin, individually and in combination, can potently cause capillary tube regression in experimental models in vitro and in vivo. Other pro-inflammatory mediators including interferon gamma (IFNγ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-13 (IL-13) were also shown to be pro-regressive and could be relevant mediators in COVID-19 patients. Interestingly, combinations of pharmacologic agents were identified that reduced capillary regression and protected capillary tube networks against these pro-inflammatory mediators. Such an approach might be an important therapeutic option going forward to treat key disease states where capillary regression plays a major underlying pathogenic role. Finally, if capillary regression is occurring in response to these pro-inflammatory mediators during COVID-19 infection, we suggest that combinations of blocking agents directed to these key pro-regressive mediators might be necessary to appropriately treat patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0575.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Directed endoscopic necrosectomy; endoscopic step-up approach; endoscopic transluminal drainage; percutaneous drainage; walled-off pancreatic necrosis
Online: 31 January 2023 (06:25:40 CET)
Abstract: Background and objectives: Symptomatic walled-off pancreatic necrosis is a serious local complication of acute necrotising pancreatitis. The endoscopic step-up approach is the standard treatment for symptomatic walled-off pancreatic necrosis; however, adjunctive radiologic percu-taneous drainage for this condition is controversial. This study compared the clinical and radio-logic resolution of walled-off pancreatic necrosis achieved with the endoscopic step-up approach with or without radiology-guided percutaneous drainage. Material and Methods: This retrospective, single-center cohort study enrolled patients with symp-tomatic walled-off pancreatic necrosis who underwent endoscopic transmural drainage (ETD) followed by directed endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) with or without radiology-guided drainage. A total of 34 patients (endoscopic approach, n=22; combined modality approach, n=12) underwent the endoscopic step-up approach (ETD followed by DEN). Baseline characteristics, clinical success, and resolution of necrosis were compared between groups. Results: All patients achieved symptom resolution from walled-off pancreatic necrosis. The mean patient age was 58.4 years, and 21 (61.8%) were men. After treatment with the endoscopic approach and combined modality approach, clinical success was achieved in 90.9% of patients within 11.5 days, and 66.7% of patients within 16.5 days, respectively. Both the total hospital stay (55 days vs 71 days; p=0.071) and time to complete radiologic resolution were shorter (93 days vs 124 days; p=0.23) in the endoscopic approach group. Conclusion: The endoscopic step-up approach resulted in the clinical resolution of symptomatic walled-off pancreatic necrosis comparable to that of the combined modality drainage. However, the endoscopic approach alone allows higher clinical success, early clinical and radiologic resolution, and a shorter hospital stay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: tumor blood vessel; Tumor Angiogenic Inhibition Triggered Necrosis (TAITN); CXCR4 antagonist; oral squamous cell carcinoma; hypoxia
Online: 28 June 2019 (15:18:43 CEST)
CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor crucial in tumor progression, although the angiogenic role of CXCR4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been investigated. Here we show that CXCR4 is crucial for tumor angiogenesis thereby supports tumor survival in OSCC. Immunohistochemistry on human clinical specimens revealed that CXCR4 and a tumor vasculature marker CD34 were co-distributed in tumor vessels in human OSCC specimens. To ask the effects of CXCR4 inhibition, we treated the OSCC-xenografted mice with AMD3100, so-called plerixafor, an antagonist of CXCR4. Notably, we found a unique pathophysiological structure defined as Tumor Angiogenic Inhibition Triggered Necrosis (TAITN) induced by the CXCR4 antagonism. Treatment with AMD3100 increased necrotic area with the induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in the xenografted tumors, suggesting that AMD3100-induced TAITN was involved in hypoxia and ischemia. Taken together, we demonstrated that CXCR4 plays a crucial role in tumor angiogenesis required for OSCC progression, whereas TAITN induced by CXCR4 antagonism could be an effective anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategy in OSCC treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0112.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: apoptosis; necrosis; brown algae,; mitochondria; mg63 cells; fucoidan; molecular weight fraction; crude extract; cell cycle; transmission electron microscopy
Online: 9 December 2019 (03:45:59 CET)
Fucoidan is a brown algae-derived polysaccharide having several biomedical applications. This study simultaneously compares the anticancer activities of crude fucoidans from Fucus vesiculosus and Sargassum filipendula, and effects of low (LMW, 10-50kDa), medium (MMW, 50-100kDa) and high (HMW, >100kDa) molecular weight fractions of S. filipendula fucoidan against osteosarcoma cells. Glucose, fucose and acid levels were lower and sulphation was higher in F. vesiculosus crude fucoidan compared to S. filipendula crude fucoidan. MMW had highest the levels of sugars, acids and sulphation among molecular weight fractions. There was a dose dependent drop in focal adhesion formation and proliferation of cells for all fucoidan-types, but F. vesiculosus fucoidan and HMW had the strongest effects. G1-phase arrest was induced by F. vesiculosus fucoidan, MMW and HMW, however F. vesiculosus fucoidan treatment also caused accumulation in sub G1-phase. Mitochondrial damage occurred for all fucoidan-types, however F. vesiculosus fucoidan led to mitochondrial fragmentation. Annexin V/PI, TUNEL and cytochrome c staining confirmed stress induced apoptosis-like cell death for F. vesiculosus fucoidan but features of stress-induced necrosis-like cell death for S. filipendula fucoidans. There was also variation in penetrability of different fucoidans inside the cell. These differences in anti-cancer activity of fucoidans are applicable for osteosarcoma treatment.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0117.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Siberian sturgeon; CNS signs; Acipenser iridovirus European; viral nervous necrosis; Acipenser herpesvirus; gas bubble disease; Polymerase chain reaction
Online: 6 September 2018 (14:16:37 CEST)
Background: Infectious disease is a major challenge in aquaculture and poses a constraint for development of farming of new species. In 2017, Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) juveniles were imported from Italy to a Swedish farm. Due to stressful conditions, 30% died during transport and in the first days after arrival. Ten days after arrival, mortalities started to occur again. Within two months, only 5% of the juveniles were still alive. Methods: Diseased fish were transported live to the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) for necropsy and further analysis. Pathological and histopathological investigation was conducted. Virology was performed on gills and internal organs by cell culture isolation and specific PCR protocols. Results: The juveniles displayed neurological signs such as lethargy, inability to maintain upright position and erratic swimming. Body condition was low. Gills were pale. One fish had petechial hemorrhage on the abdomen and the snout. The ventricles were air-filled with, but swim bladders were deflated. One specimen had intestinal hemorrhage. Viral cell cultures were negative, but PCR of gills and internal organs detected the presence of Acipenser Iridovirus European (AcIV-E). Conclusions: AcIV-E was associated with disease and high mortality in the sturgeon juveniles. Stress probably aggravated the course of the infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0225.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Geometry & Topology Keywords: Function Representation; implicit functions; geometry and topology; 3D bioprinting; tissue spheroids; modeling and simulation; diffusion-concentration calculations; cellular necrosis; additive technologies
Online: 15 October 2021 (12:26:09 CEST)
We propose a non-invasive approach to control the quality of spheroids and their fusion into a complex bioconstruct. The proposed method is based on the union of the nutrient concentration change calculated using Fick's law and the "reaction-diffusion" equations, taking into account absorption coefficient with specifying the exact fusion geometry using implicit Function Repre-sentation (FRep) functions. The proposed approach allows us to analyze the viability of cells within the spheroid, predict the fusion of spheroids, and accurately model complex heteroge-neous biostructures as a future task for our research. These results will significantly accelerate the development of such a promising field of additive biotechnologies as 3D bioprinting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0464.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-19; Hepatitis B and C; Cirrhosis; Chronic Kidney Disease; Alcohol-related Liver Disease; Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis; Necrosis
Online: 25 April 2020 (16:46:06 CEST)
Background: The mortality and severity in COVID-19 is increased in patients with comorbidities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the unknown risk of severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients with underlying kidney and liver diseases. Method: We retrieved data on the clinical features and primary composite end point of COVID-19 patients released from inception till 16th of April 2020 from Medline and Embase. The data on two comorbidities, liver diseases and chronic kidney disease, present in COVID-19 were pooled and statistically analysed to explain the associated severity and mortality rate. Results: 142 abstracts were screened, and 41 full articles were then read. In total, 22 studies including 5595 COVID-19 patients were included in this study with case fatality rate of 16%. The prevalence of liver diseases and CKD were 3% (95%CI; 2%-3%) and 1% (95%CI; 1%-2%) respectively. In patients with COVID-19 and underlying liver diseases, 57.33% (43/75) cases were severe with 17.65% mortality. While in CKD patients with COVID-19, 83.93% (47/56) severity and 53.33% (8/15) mortality were reported. Conclusion: This study found an increased risk of severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients with liver diseases and CKD. This will allow for better clinical management and inform more stringent preventative measures for this group of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0606.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: viroid; pathogenicity; RNA silencing; Dicer-like proteins; small interfering RNA; microRNA398; microRNA398a-3p; superoxide dismutase 1; reactive oxygen species; systemic necrosis
Online: 28 November 2018 (06:50:07 CET)
To examine the role of RNA silencing in defense against viroid, a Dicer-like 2 and 4 (DCL2&4)—double knockdown transgenic tomato line 72E was created. The expression of endogenous DCL2 and DCL4 in line 72E decreased to about a half of the empty cassette line EC. When challenged with potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), 72E allowed significantly higher level of PSTVd accumulation early in infection and showed lethal systemic necrosis. The size distribution of PSTVd-derived small RNA was significantly changed: the numbers of 21 and 22 nucleotides (nt) species in line 72E was approximately 66.7% and 5% of those in line EC, respectively. Conversely, the numbers of 24-nt species increased by 1100%. Furthermore, expression of miR398a-3p and miR398 increased 770–868% in the PSTVd-infected 72E, compared to the PSTVd-infected EC. In parallel, superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in PSTVd-infected 72E showed higher expression levels. In concert with miR398a-3p, SOD1 controls detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in cells. Since high levels of ROS production and its scavenging activity were observed in PSTVd-infected 72E, the lack of full-activity of DCLs was thought to have made the plant incapable to control excessive ROS production and thus resulted in to develop lethal systemic necrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0460.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patient; Low-phosphate meal; CKD-MBD (chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder); Proinflammatory cytokine; TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha)
Online: 24 November 2021 (15:27:03 CET)
High dietary phosphate intake and poor adherence to phosphate-binding-therapy elevate the risk of hyperphosphatemia in maintenance hemodialysis (HD; MHD) patients. Therefore, chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) indicators increase; consequently, risks of CKD-MBDs and inflammation are elevated. This double-blind, randomized control trial intervention study was designed to investigate the possibility of reducing blood CKD-MBD indicators and modulating inflammatory indicators by consuming low-phosphate (LP) meals accompanied by a minimum dose of a calcium-based phosphate binder (CaCO3). MHD patients were recruited and randomly assigned to an LP meal group (LP group) or a control group. After initial data collection, blood collection, and dietary counseling, subjects were asked to consume a washout diet for 1 week. During the washout diet period, subjects consumed their usual diet but took 1 tablet of calcium carbonate (1CaCO3) as a phosphate binder with each meal. After the washout diet period, subjects in the LP group and control group respectively consumed LP meals and regular meals twice a day for 1 week. Meat in the LP meals was boiled before the regular cooking process, but meat in control meals was not. All meals were supplied by a central kitchen so that the contents of phosphate and other nutrients could be identified. In total, 40 MHD patients completed the study program. After 1 week of the dietary intervention, the blood Ca x P product and dietary phosphate had significantly decreased in the LP group compared to the control group (p<0.05). The LP group had significantly lower variations in dietary phosphate intake, blood calcium, Ca x P product, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α than the control group by comparing differences between after the dietary intervention and the baseline (△after intervention - baseline, p<0.05). The increase in dietary phosphate intake (△3rd - 2nd dietary phosphate intake) augmented the increase in the TNF-α level by 6.24-fold (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 6.24 [1.12~34.92], p<0.05). These results highlighted the conclusion that LP meals accompanied by a minimum dose of CaCO3 downregulated pro-inflammation by reducing CKD-MBD indicators which was triggered by decreasing dietary phosphate intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: constitutive androstene receptor; cytochrome P450, fibrosis; gender difference; high-fat-cholesterol (HFC) diet; necrosis; stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr rats; sulfotransferase, pregnane X receptor; UGP-glucuronosyltransferase
Online: 23 May 2017 (07:54:46 CEST)
During middle age, women are less susceptible to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) than men. Thus, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms behind these sexual differences using an established rat model of NASH. Mature female and male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr rats were fed control or high-fat-cholesterol (HFC) diets for 2, 8, and 14 weeks. Although HFC-induced hepatic fibrosis was markedly less severe in females than in males, only minor gender differences were observed in expression levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP)7A1, CYP8B1 CYP27A1, and CYP7B1, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 3, and bile salt export pump, which are involved in fibrosis-related bile acid (BA) kinetics. However, the BA detoxification-related enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT) 2A1, and the nuclear receptors constitutive androstene receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR), were strongly suppressed in HFC fed males, and were only slightly changed in HFC-diet fed females. Expression levels of the farnesoid X receptor and its small heterodimer partner were similarly regulated in a gender-dependent fashion following HFC feeding. Hence, the pronounced female resistance to HFC-induced liver damage likely reflects sustained expression of the nuclear receptors CAR and PXR and the BA detoxification enzymes UGT and SULT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0088.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: There are many molecules used as drug carrier. TUD-1 is a newly synthesized mesoporous silica (SM) molecule possess two important features; consists of mesoporous so it is very suitable to be drug carrier in addition to that it has the ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the effect of TUD-1 appears to act as cell death inducer, regardless of whether it is necrosis or apoptosis. Unfortunately, recent studies indicate that a proportion of cells undergo necrosis rather than apoptosis, which limits the use of TUD-1 as a secure treatment. On the other hand, lithium considered as necrosis inhibitor element. Hence, current study based on the idea of production a new Li/TUD-1 by incorporated mesoporous silica (TUD-1 type) with lithium in order to produce a new compound that has the ability to activate apoptosis by mesoporous silica (TUD-1 type) and at the same time can inhibit the activity of necrosis by lithium. Herein, lithium was incorporated in TUD-1 mesoporous silica by
Online: 4 October 2018 (15:54:02 CEST)
There are many molecules used as drug carrier. TUD-1 is a newly synthesized mesoporous silica (SM) molecule possess two important features; consists of mesoporous so it is very suitable to be drug carrier in addition to that it has the ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the effect of TUD-1 appears to act as cell death inducer, regardless of whether it is necrosis or apoptosis. Unfortunately, recent studies indicate that a proportion of cells undergo necrosis rather than apoptosis, which limits the use of TUD-1 as a secure treatment. On the other hand, lithium considered as necrosis inhibitor element. Hence, current study based on the idea of production a new Li/TUD-1 by incorporated mesoporous silica (TUD-1 type) with lithium in order to produce a new compound that has the ability to activate apoptosis by mesoporous silica (TUD-1 type) and at the same time can inhibit the activity of necrosis by lithium. Herein, lithium was incorporated in TUD-1 mesoporous silica by using sol-gel technique in one step synthesis procedure. Moreover, lithium was incorporated in TUD-1 with different loading in order to form different active sites such as isolated lithium ions, nanoparticles of Li2O, and bulky crystals of Li2O. The ability of the new compounds to induce apoptosis and prevent necrosis was evaluated on three different types of cancer cell lines which are; liver HepG-2, Breast MCF-7 and colon HCT116. The obtained results show that Li/TUD-1has the ability to control necrosis and thus reduce the side effects of treatments containing silica in the case of lithium has been added to them, especially in chronic cases. This has been demonstrated by the significant increase in the IC50 value and cell viability comparing to control groups. Consequently, the idea is new, so it definitely needs more develop and test with materials that have more apoptotic impact than silica in order to induce apoptosis without induction of necrosis.