ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0322.v1
Online: 23 February 2020 (12:48:24 CET)
Multinucleate cells can be produced in Dictyostelium by electric-pulse induced fusion. In these cells unilateral cleavage furrows are formed at spaces between areas that are controlled by aster microtubules. A peculiarity of unilateral cleavage furrows is their propensity to join laterally with other furrows into rings to form constrictions. This means, cytokinesis is biphasic in multinucleate cells, the final abscission of daughter cells being independent of the initial direction of furrow progression. Myosin-II and the actin-filament cross-linking protein cortexillin accumulate in the unilateral furrows, as they do in the normal cleavage furrows of mononucleate cells. Myosin-II is not essential for cytokinesis, but stabilizes and confines the position of the cleavage furrows.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0412.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Frank-Starling; angiotensin receptor; muscle contraction; myosin light chain kinase; Protein Kinase C-βII; myosin light chain phosphatase; β-arrestin; MgATP; MgADP-phosphomyosin; myosin LC affinity for Ca2+
Online: 11 January 2020 (13:24:08 CET)
The involvement of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor in the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart, where the various activations are very limited, allows simple analysis of the kinase systems involved and thence extrapolation of the mechanism to that of angiotensin control of activation of cardiac and skeletal muscle contraction. The involvement of phosphorylation of the myosin light chain in the control of contraction is accepted but not fully understood. The involvement of troponin-I phosphorylation is also indicated but of unknown mechanism. There is no known signal for activation of myosin light chain kinase or Protein Kinase C-βII other than Ca2+/calmodulin but the former is constitutively active and thus has to be under control of a regulated inhibitor, the latter kinase may also be the same. Ca2+/calmodulin is not activated in Frank-Starling, i.e. there are no diastolic or systolic [Ca2+] changes. I suggest here that that the regulated inhibition is by myosin light chain phosphatase and/or β-arrestin. Angiotensin activation is by translocation of the β-arrestin from the sarcoplasm to the PM thus reducing its kinase inhibition action in the sarcoplasm, this reduced inhibition has been wrongly attributed to a mythical downstream agonist property of β-arrestin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0255.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: bony fish muscle, insect flight muscle, myosin filament structure, myosin crossbridge cycle, thick filament activation, interacting heads motif
Online: 23 July 2019 (10:57:56 CEST)
Unlike electron microscopy, which can achieve very high resolutions, but to date can only be used to study static structures, time-resolved X-ray diffraction from contracting muscles can, in principle, be used to follow the molecular movements involved in force generation on a millisecond timescale albeit at moderate resolution. However, previous X-ray diffraction studies of resting muscles have come up with structures for the head arrangements in resting myosin filaments that are different from the apparently ubiquitous interacting heads motif (IHM) found by single particle analysis of electron micrographs of isolated myosin filaments from a variety of muscle types. This head organization is supposed to represent the super-relaxed state of the myosin filaments where ATP usage is minimized. Here we have tested whether the interacting heads motif structures will satisfactorily explain the observed low-angle X-ray diffraction patterns from resting vertebrate (bony fish) and invertebrate (insect flight) muscles. We find that the interacting heads motif does not, in fact, explain what is observed. Previous X-ray models fit the observations much better. We conclude that the X-ray diffraction evidence has been well interpreted in the past and that there is more than one ordered myosin head state in resting muscle. There is, therefore, no reason to question some of the previous X-ray diffraction results on myosin filaments; time-resolved X-ray diffraction should be a reliable way to follow crossbridge action in active muscle and may be one of the few ways to follow molecular changes in myosin heads on a millisecond timescale as force is actually produced.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0068.v1
Online: 7 October 2019 (12:15:26 CEST)
I have recently reiterated that the cross-bridge is a calcium ATPase that is inhibited by magnesium and this arises because in normal hearts Myosin binding Protein-C prevents the use of MgATP as rate limiting substrate ensuring that Ca2+ replaces Mg2+ in the excitation pathway. Here I revisit the studies on [Ca2+] dependency of ATPase and tension under diastolic stretch with a different conclusion on Hill coefficients. This reveals the underlying mechanisms of the Frank-Starling Law and Hypertrophic myopathy are not the same, the former being kinase controlled.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0067.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Calcium; Actomyosin Kinetics; Myosin Binding Protein-C; Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Online: 7 October 2019 (12:12:35 CEST)
In an attempt to correct misunderstandings this article brings together the observations on Calcium, Myosin Binding Protein-C and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in the basic function of cardiac muscle. A finding of many years ago is reiterated in a novel enzyme kinetic format with defined rate limiting step which makes CaATP the apparent substrate of the actomyosin cross-bridge. The relationship of these kinetics to recent observations on disruption of myosin binding protein-C is described along with how this bears on the understanding of the related cardiomyopathies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0147.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: myosin filament stiffness; actin filament stiffness; myosin cross-bridge stiffness; muscle transients; weak binding heads; contractile mechanism; cross-bridge cycle; rigor muscle
Online: 14 March 2019 (07:01:45 CET)
The stiffness of the myosin cross-bridges is a key factor in analysing possible scenarios to explain myosin head changes during force generation in active muscles. The seminal study of Huxley and Simmons (1971: Nature 233: 533) suggested that most of the observed half-sarcomere instantaneous compliance (=1/stiffness) resides in the myosin heads. They showed with a so-called T1 plot that, after a very fast release, the half-sarcomere tension reduced to zero after a step size of about 60Å (later with improved experiments reduced to 40Å). However, later X-ray diffraction studies showed that myosin and actin filaments themselves stretch slightly under tension, which means that most (at least two-thirds) of the half sarcomere compliance comes from the filaments and not from cross-bridges. Here we have used a different approach, namely to model the compliances in a virtual half sarcomere structure in silico. We confirm that the T1 curve comes almost entirely from length changes in the myosin and actin filaments, because the calculated cross-bridge stiffness (probably greater than 0.4 pN/Å) is higher than previous studies have suggested. In the light of this, we present a plausible modified scenario to describe aspects of the myosin cross-bridge cycle in active muscle. In particular, we suggest that, apart from the filament compliances, most of the cross-bridge contribution to the instantaneous T1 response comes from weakly-bound myosin heads, not myosin heads in strongly attached states. The strongly attached heads would still contribute to the T1 curve, but only in a very minor way, with a stiffness that we postulate could be around 0.1 pN/Å, a value which would generate a working stroke close to 100 Å from the hydrolysis of one ATP molecule. The new program can serve as a tool to calculate sarcomere elastic properties for any vertebrate striated muscle once various parameters have been determined (e.g. tension, T1 intercept, temperature, X-ray diffraction spacing results).
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: muscle transients; myosin cross-bridge cycle; isotonic shortening; length steps
Online: 9 November 2020 (08:42:58 CET)
An informative probe of myosin crossbridge behaviour in active muscle is a mechanical transient experiment where, for example, a fully active muscle initially held at constant length is suddenly shortened to a new fixed length giving a force transient, or has its load suddenly reduced giving a length transient. We describe the simplest crossbridge mechanical cycle we could find to model these transients. We show using the statistical mechanics of 50,000 crossbridges that a simple cycle with two actin-attached cross-bridge states, one producing no force and the other producing force, will explain much of what has been observed experimentally and we discuss the implications of this modelling for our understanding of how muscle works. We show that this same simple model will explain reasonably well the isotonic mechanical and X-ray transients under different loads observed by Reconditi et al (2004, Nature 428, 578) and that there is no need to invoke different crossbridge step sizes under these different conditions; a step size of 100 Å works well for all loads. We do not claim that this model provides a total mechanical explanation of how muscle works. But we do suggest that only if there are other observations that cannot be explained by this simple model should something more complicated be considered.