ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: multiple sclerosis; neuroinflammation; astrocytes; myelin; bioinformatics
Online: 23 August 2017 (17:46:28 CEST)
We previously reported that in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with a progressive form of the disease, spinal cord periplaques extend distance away from plaque borders and are characterized by the co-occurrence of partial demyelination, astrocytosis and low-grade inflammation. However, transcriptomic analyses comparing periplaques to adjacent normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) areas did not allow providing a comprehensive view of molecular events in astrocytes vs oligodendrocytes. Here, we re-assessed our transcriptomic data with the aim of identifying functionally-relevant co-expression networks that would reflect astrocyte vs oligodendrocyte molecular signatures in periplaques. We identified an astrocytosis-related gene module comprising GFAP, the hub gene CX43/GJA1 and a set of transcripts forming a TGFB/SMAD1/SMAD2 genomic signature. Partial demyelination was characterized by a co-expression network which, besides myelin genes, comprised a highly significant number of translation/elongation-related genes. Interestingly, the main oligodendrocyte-related hub we identified was NDRG1, a gene previously shown to be specifically silenced in the NAWM of MS patients. This result indicated that NDRG1 down-regulation could be an important event in the process of periplaque partial demyelination. To establish a putative link between NDRG1 down-regulation and a cytokine/chemokine signature, we then sought to identify cytokine/chemokine genes whose mRNA levels inversely correlated with those of NDRG1. Following this approach we found 5 candidate immune-related genes whose up-regulation associated with NDRG1 down-regulation: TGFB1, PDGFC, IL-17D, IL-33, and IL-12A. From these results we propose that in the spinal cord of MS patients with progressive forms of the disease, TGFB1 may limit acute inflammation but concurrently induce astrocytosis and an alteration of oligodendrocytes terminal differentiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0389.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: ECN; neuropathic pain; oxidative stress; apoptosis; myelin sheath; spectroscopy
Online: 18 August 2020 (12:00:15 CEST)
7β-(3-ethyl-cis-crotonoyloxy)-1α-(2-methylbutyryloxy)-3,14-dehydro-Z-notonipetranone (ECN), a sesquiterpenoid obtained from a natural origin (Tussilago farfara)has proved to be effective in minimizing various side effects associated with opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The current study focused on investigating the effects of ECN on neuropathic pain induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) by mainly focusing on oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic proteins expression in mice. Neuropathic pain was induced in mice by PSNL surgery performed on day 1 and ECN (1 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.), was administered once daily for 11 days, starting from the third day after surgery. ECN post-treatment was found to reduce hyperalgesia and allodynia in a dose dependent manner. ECN significantly reversed the severity of neuropathic pain by improving distress symptoms and survival rate. ECN remarkably reversed the histopathological abnormalities associated with oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation. Furthermore, ECN prevented the suppression of antioxidants (glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), hemeoxygenase-1 and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase) by PSNL. Moreover, pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrotic factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase) expression was reduced by ECN administration. Treatment with ECN was successful in reducing caspase-3 level consistent with the observed modulation of pro-apoptotic proteins. Additionally, ECN showed protective effect on the lipid content of myelin sheath as evident from FTIR spectroscopy which showed the shift of lipid component bands to higher values. Thus, anti-neuropathic potential of ECN might be due to inhibition of oxidative stress, inflammatory mediators and pro-apoptotic proteins.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0449.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: glutathione; glutamate; psychosis; schizophrenia; redox; antioxidant; oxidative stress; myelin; spectroscopy
Online: 27 September 2021 (12:47:39 CEST)
Schizophrenia continues to be an illness with poor outcome. Most mechanistic changes occur many years before the first episode of schizophrenia; these are not reversible after the illness onset. A developmental mechanism that is still modifiable in adult life may center on intracortical glutathione (GSH). A large body of pre-clinical data has suggested the possibility of notable GSH-deficit in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, studies of intracortical GSH are not conclusive in this regard. In this review, we highlight the recent ultra-high field magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies linking GSH to critical outcome measures across various stages of schizophrenia. We discuss the methodological steps required to conclusively establish or refute the persistence of GSH-deficit subtype and clarify the role of the central antioxidant system in disrupting the brain structure and connectivity in the early stages of schizophrenia. We propose in-vivo GSH quantification for patient selection in forthcoming antioxidant trials in psychosis. This review offers directions for a promising non-dopaminergic early intervention approach in schizophrenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0472.v1
Subject: Immunology, Life Sciences Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis; Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glyco-protein; Immunomodulatory mechanisms
Online: 30 September 2022 (03:22:56 CEST)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been widely used to determine the pathogenesis of the disease and evaluate new treatment strategies for MS. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of oral administration of a Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG) in the treatment of EAE. Female C57BL/6 mice were utilized in three groups (Control group: received PBS orally; prevention group: oral administration of MOG35-55 two weeks before EAE induction; treatment group: oral administration of MOG35-55 after EAE induction. MOG administration, both as prevention and treatment, significantly controlled clinical score, weight loss, CNS inflammation, and demyelination, mainly through the modulation of T cell proliferation, reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and transcription factors, including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17, T-bet, and ROR-γt. MOG administration, both as prevention and treatment, also induced anti-inflammatory cytokines and transcription factors, including IL-4, TGF-β, GATA-3, and Foxp3. The results showed that oral administration of MOG, both as prevention and treatment, could efficiently control EAE development. Immunomodulatory mechanisms include the induction of Th2 and Treg cells and the suppression of pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0293.v1
Subject: Keywords: Biomarkers; Multiple Sclerosis; diagnostic; disease activity; Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG) diseases
Online: 13 September 2020 (15:49:10 CEST)
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that involves the intricate interplay of different immune cells going awry leading to inflammation, demyelination, and neurodegeneration. Its diagnosis is quite arduous because of the baffling number of symptoms it elicits and the varied clinical manifestation it presents. The simplified criteria (in form of Macdonald’s Criteria) which have got modified several times is now the single most important criteria accepted by neurology bodies for diagnosing MS. Biomarkers from time to time have been explored to simplify the diagnosis and prognosticate MS along with anecessity to monitor treatment outcome. In recent years, research on biomarkers has advanced rapidly due to their ability to be easily and rapidly measured, their specificity, safety, and their ability to yield precise results. Biomarkers are classified into various categories including predictive, diagnostic, prognostic, related to disease activity, and monitoring treatment outcome. Each representative of the disease activity category reflects a variety of pathological processes of MS such as neuroaxonal loss, gliosis, demyelination, disability progression, remyelination, etc. This review discusses several promising serum and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and imaging biomarkers used in clinical practice. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease which is recently recognized as a definite disease will also be discussed. Furthermore, it sheds light on the criteria and the challenges a biomarker faces to be considered as a standard one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Traumatic brain injury; buprenorphine; Bup-SR-Lab; microglia; astrocyte; myelin, membrane disruption; somatosensory sensitivity
Online: 12 August 2022 (13:52:14 CEST)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major leading cause of death and disability. While previous studies regarding focal pathologies following TBI have been done, there is a lack of information concerning the role of analgesics and their influences on injury pathology. Buprenorphine (Bup), an opioid analgesic, is a commonly used analgesic in experimental TBI models. Our previous studies investigated the acute effects of Buprenorphine-sustained release-Lab (Bup-SR-Lab) on diffuse neuronal/glial pathology, neuroinflammation, cell damage, and systemic physiology. The current study investigated the longer-term chronic outcomes of Bup-SR-Lab treatment at 4 weeks following TBI utilizing a central fluid percussion injury (cFPI) model in adult male rats. Histological assessments of physiological changes, neuronal damage, cortical and thalamic cytokine expression, microglial and astrocyte morphological changes, and myelin alterations were done, as we had done in our acute study. In the current study the Whisker Nuisance Task (WNT) was also performed pre- and 4w post-injury to assess changes in somatosensory sensitivity following saline or Bup-SR-Lab treatment. Bup-SR-Lab treatment had no impact on overall physiology or neuronal damage at 4w post-injury regardless of region or injury, nor did it have any significant effects on somatosensory sensitivity. However, greater IL-4 cytokine expression with Bup-SR-Lab treatment was observed compared to saline treated animals. Microglia and astrocytes also demonstrated region-specific morphological alterations associated with Bup-SR-Lab treatment, in which cortical microglia and thalamic astrocytes were particularly vulnerable to Bup-mediated changes. There were discernable injury-specific and region-specific differences regarding myelin integrity and changes in specific myelin basic protein (MBP) isoform expression following Bup-SR-Lab treatment. This study indicates that use of Bup-SR-Lab could impact TBI-induced glial alterations in a region-specific manor 4w following diffuse brain injury.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0222.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: myelin; myelination; development; peripheral neuropathies; protein folding; transmembrane protein; protein-membrane interaction; protein-protein interaction
Online: 13 May 2020 (04:51:20 CEST)
Myelin protein zero (P0), a type I transmembrane protein, is the most abundant protein in peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin – the lipid-rich, periodic structure that concentrically encloses long axonal segments. Schwann cells, the myelinating glia of the PNS, express P0 throughout their development until the formation of mature myelin. In the intramyelinic compartment, the immunoglobulin-like domain of P0 bridges apposing membranes together via homophilic adhesion, forming a dense, macroscopic ultrastructure known as the intraperiod line. The C-terminal tail of P0 adheres apposing membranes together in the narrow cytoplasmic compartment of compact myelin, much like myelin basic protein (MBP). In mouse models, the absence of P0, unlike that of MBP or P2, severely disturbs the formation of myelin. Therefore, P0 is the executive molecule of PNS myelin maturation. How and when is P0 trafficked and modified to enable myelin compaction, and how disease mutations that give rise to incurable peripheral neuropathies alter the function of P0, are currently open questions. The potential mechanisms of P0 function in myelination are discussed, providing a foundation for the understanding of mature myelin development and how it derails in peripheral neuropathies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0376.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: myelin; intrinsically disordered protein; multiple sclerosis; peripheral neuropathies; myelination; protein folding; protein-membrane interaction; protein-protein interaction
Online: 31 January 2020 (04:55:04 CET)
Myelin ensheathes selected axonal segments within the nervous system, resulting primarily in nerve impulse acceleration, as well as mechanical and trophic support for neurons. In the central and peripheral nervous systems, various proteins that contribute to the formation and stability of myelin are present, which also harbour pathophysiological roles in myelin disease. Many myelin proteins share common attributes, including small size, high hydrophobicity, multifunctionality, longevity, and intrinsic disorder. With recent advances in protein biophysical characterization and bioinformatics, it has become evident that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are abundant in myelin, and their flexible nature enables multifunctionality. Here, we review known myelin IDPs, their conservation, molecular characteristics and functions, and their disease relevance, along with open questions and speculations. We place emphasis on classifying the molecular details of IDPs in myelin and correlate these with their various functions, including susceptibility to post-translational modifications, function in protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions, as well as their role as extended entropic chains. We discuss how myelin pathology can relate to IDPs and which molecular factors are potentially involved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0252.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Non-synaptic transmission, synapse, neurotransmitters, interoceptive nervous system, volume transmission, paracrine, myelin, blood-brain barrier, interoception, affect
Online: 24 January 2019 (10:09:50 CET)
Neuroscience has overwhelmingly and understandably focused on the synaptic modality of signal transmission. There is evidence, however, that from an evolutionary perspective, non-synaptic transmission (NST) preceded synaptic signaling. Moreover, in modern nervous systems, NST coexists and extensively interacts with synaptic transmission modifying neuronal dynamics. In fact, NST remains widespread in complex animals, especially within the interoceptive system where the dearth of insulating barriers such as myelin sheaths and the blood-brain barrier enhances the communication between neural and non-neural tissues mediated by NST. We suggest that this physiological arrangement makes a fundamental contribution to interoception¾the process of sensing visceral states¾which is an essential underpinning of the capacity to feel and the foundation of affective processing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0277.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: energy metabolism; oligodendrocyte; oligodendrocyte progenitor cell; myelin; remyelination; multiple sclerosis; glucose; ketone bodies; lactate; N-acetyl aspartate; demyelination
Online: 11 February 2021 (10:57:28 CET)
Central nervous system (CNS) myelin has a crucial role in accelerating the propagation of action potentials and providing trophic support to the axons. Defective myelination and lack of myelin regeneration following demyelination can both lead to axonal pathology and neurodegeneration. Energy deficit has been evoked as an important contributor to various CNS disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). This suggests that dysregulation of energy homeostasis in oligodendroglia may be an important contributor to myelin dysfunction and lack of repair observed in the disease. This article will focus on energy metabolism pathways in oligodendroglial cells and highlight differences dependent on the maturation stage of the cell. In addition, it will emphasize that the use of alternative energy sources by oligodendroglia may be required to save glucose for functions that cannot be fulfilled by other metabolites, thus ensuring sufficient energy input for both myelin synthesis and trophic support to the axons. Finally, it will point out that neuropathological findings in a subtype of MS lesions likely reflect defective oligodendroglial energy homeostasis in the disease.