ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0858.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: various nuts; mycotoxins; aflatoxin B1; detoxification; Ziziphora serpyllacea
Online: 13 October 2023 (08:12:23 CEST)
The class I carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) poses a significant risk to human health. The contamination of food sources contributes to the spread of AFB1, mainly through grains and nuts, from Aspergillus flavus. The high percentage of aflatoxin contamination in various imported nuts in the Republic of Kazakhstan has encouraged researchers to develop a local method of AFB1 detoxification. This research was focused on studying the ability of Ziziphora serpyllace leaf extract growing in the Akmola region of the Republic of Kazakhstan to inactivate aflatoxin B1 in various nuts. For the first time, an extract of Ziziphora serpyllace leaves growing in the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan was used to detoxify AFB1 in nuts, and this demonstrated low cytotoxic activity, high antimicrobial and high antifungal activity, while preserving the qualitative characteristics of the nuts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1557.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: Mycotoxins; fumonisin B1; ovary; female fertility; steroidogenesis; autophagy
Online: 22 September 2023 (11:00:58 CEST)
Mycotoxins are produced by more than one hundred fungi and produce secondary metabolites that contaminate various agricultural commodities, especially rice and corn. Their presence in the food chain is considered a serious problem worldwide. In recent years, a link between exposure to mycotoxins and impaired fertility has been suggested. Consequently, it has become vital to investigate the interactive effects of these mycotoxins on ovarian function. In this study, we investigated the intergenerational effects of mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) on ovarian structure and function. Virgin Wistar albino female rats were separated into control and FB1 treatment groups and examined from day 6 of pregnancy until delivery (20 and 50 mg/kg/day). The obtained females of the first (F1) and second generations (F2) were euthanized at 4 weeks of age, and ovary samples were collected. We found that the ovary weight index increased with the high dose of treatment (50 mg/kg/day) among both F1 and F2, similar to that observed in polycystic ovary syndrome. As expected, FB1 at a high dose (50 mg/kg) reduced the number of primordial follicles in F1 and F2, leading to an accelerated age-related decline in reproductive capacity. Moreover, it reduced the fertility rate among F1 females by affecting follicle growth and development, as the number of secondary and tertiary follicles was decreased. Histopathological changes were evidenced by the altered structures of most of the growing follicle oocytes, as revealed by a thinning irregular zona pellucida and pyknosis in granulosa cells. These findings are concomitant with steroidogenesis- and folliculogenesis-related gene expression, as evidenced by the decrease in CYP19 activity and estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) gene expression. Additionally, GDF-9 mRNA levels significantly decreased, and IGF-1 mRNA levels significantly increased. However, the results from the ovaries of the F2 treatment groups were different and unexpected. While there was no significant variation in CYP19 compared to the control, ESR2 significantly increased, leading to stereological and histopathological changes similar to those of the control, except for some altered follicles. The hallmark histological feature was the appearance of vacuolar structures within the oocyte and between granulosa cell layers. Interestingly, the autophagic marker LC3 significantly increased in F2 offspring, whereas this protein significantly decreased in F1 offspring. Therefore, we suggest that the promotion of autophagy among the ovaries of F2 offspring may be considered a recovery mechanism from the effect of prenatal FB1 exposure. Thus, autophagy corrected the effect of FB1 during the early life of F1 females, leading to F2 offspring with ovarian structure and function similar to those of the control. However, the offspring treated females may have early ovarian aging because their ovarian pool was affected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0429.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Fusarium graminearum; mycotoxins; wheat; natural infection; epidemic year
Online: 16 June 2021 (09:34:11 CEST)
Fusarium graminearum is a dangerous pathogen of the cereals producing mycotoxins (trichothecene and zearalenone) harmful for human and animal health. There were evaluated sixteen winter wheat varieties for their response in conditions of natural infection with F. graminearum in the epidemic year 2019, being well known that accumulation of mycotoxins (DON, ZON and T-2) is induced by different biotic and abiotic factors. Field plot was organized in Latin rectangle randomized with three replicates. For all evaluated wheat varieties were collected field data (incidence, severity and infection degree of the fungus F. graminearum) and laboratory data (mycotoxins concentration in grains) that have been processed using the software JASP (Version 0.14) for descriptive statistics, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Microsoft Excel 2019 was used to calculate Pearson’s correlation coefficients. The results showed negative corelation between plants’ density and F. graminearum attack frequency. Positive correlations were found between DON and T-2 and between DON and fungus attack intensity. This work highlights that during a F. graminearum epidemic year some of the most influential factors in the contamination with harmful mycotoxins (DON, ZON and T-2) are: plants density, frequency of the attack on ear, diseased ears and attack intensity on ears.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: winter wheat; mycotoxins; Fusarium; resistance; ergosterol; trichothecenes; zearalenone
Online: 17 May 2021 (09:56:21 CEST)
Fusarium head blight (FHB) can cause contamination of cereal grain with mycotoxins. Winter wheat is also infected with FHB. It is more resistant than durum wheat to head infection and less than other small grain cereals. The aim of this study was to identify winter wheat lines that combine low head infection and kernel damage with low toxin contamination. Resistance to FHB of 27 winter wheat lines and cultivars was evaluated over a three-year experiment established in two locations. At the anthesis stage, heads were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum isolates. The FHB index was scored and the percentage of Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDKs) assessed. The grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone content. The average FHB index was 12.9%. The proportion of FDK was 6.9% (weight) and 8.5% (number). An average content of deoxynivalenol amounted to 3.543 mg/kg and nivalenol to 2.115 mg/kg. In total, it was 5.804 m/kg of type B trichothecenes. The zearalenone content in the grain was 0.214 mg/kg. Relationships between FHB index, FDK and mycotoxin contents were highly significant for wheat lines; however, they were stronger for FDK versus mycotoxins. Breeding lines combing all types of FHB resistance were found, and five of them had resistance similar to that of wheat lines with the Fhb1 gene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0083.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: coffee; grape juice; immunosensing; mycotoxins; nanobiosensors; wine; microcantilever
Online: 13 October 2017 (03:42:50 CEST)
Mycotoxins food contamination represents a serious risk for consumers health. They are secondary metabolites of fungi that can be present in a wide range of foodstuffs. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most toxic compound and it is classified as a possible carcinogenic molecule. The harmful effects of OTA on human and animal health lead to a big boost to develop and optimize highly sensitive and accurate methods for OTA detection. An innovative and rapid detection method based on microcantilever resonators for ochratoxin A identification in food matrix has been developed. This work demonstrates the possibility to apply microcantilever technology in food safety field, showing for the first time in literature the successful detection of one of the most dangerous mycotoxin in different food matrixes both solids and liquids, such as green coffee, grape juice and wine. Sensing performances are discussed in terms of calibration plot and limit of detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0622.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Aflatoxin B1; mycotoxins; various nuts; contamination; food safety; extraction
Online: 10 October 2023 (10:06:54 CEST)
Nuts are a staple food consumed throughout the world, and their purity is essential to maintaining human health. However, fungal mycotoxins pose one of the real challenges in keeping nuts clean for human consumption. The high cost of equipment, reagents used, standard samples, as well as increased requirements for personnel qualifications limit the use of chromatographic methods in testing laboratories, both manufacturing enterprises and organizations monitoring food safety. The present study aimed to test a new method for extracting aflatoxin B1 using sodium chloride and citric acid instead of methanol present in imported nuts obtained from local markets in Astana (Kazakhstan). The proposed method for extracting aflatoxin B1 from nuts is chemically safe, since the substances used belong to hazard class 3 of the international classification and do not require separate premises in food safety laboratories of the Astana markets and special training of specialists. The technical objective of the method is to replace the reagent (methanol) during the sample preparation process when conducting cocuret enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Aflatoxin B1 levels varied depending on the type of nut. Aflatoxin contamination was observed in 35.8% of samples analyzed. These levels of mycotoxin contamination are alarming and raise serious questions about the purity of imported nuts to ensure food safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2020026
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: good agricultural practice; aflatoxin; Nandi County; mycotoxins; Kenya; maize
Online: 10 April 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Aflatoxin contaminated maize is of public health concern in Kenya. Training farmers on good agricultural practice (GAP) has been touted as a mitigative measure. Little is known of the effect of such training on aflatoxin levels in maize grown in Kenya. This study evaluated what effect training farmers on GAP has on aflatoxin levels in maize grown in in maize grown in Kaptumo, Kilibwoni, and Kipkaren divisions in Nandi County. Ninety farmers were recruited for the study and interviewed on GAP. Maize samples were additionally collected from the participating farmers and analyzed for aflatoxins using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). All farmers prepared the land before planting, did correct spacing between the planted crops, carried out weeding, cleaned their stores before use, checked the condition of the maize after harvesting, sorted maize after shelling, and knew aflatoxins. A majority of the farmers (90%) used fertilizers, dried maize after harvesting, knew that aflatoxins were harmful to humans, and used clean transport in transporting the harvested maize. About 98% of farmers did stooking after harvesting and 97% used wooden pallets in the maize stores. The percentage of farmers who practiced early planting, top dressing, crop rotation, raising stores above the ground, applying insecticide after shelling and feeding damaged/rotten seeds to their animals was 84–96%, 62–80%, 67–85%, 86–98%, 63–81%, and 7–21% respectively. About 18/90 (20%) of all farmers reported that they had a relative who had died from liver cancer and the mean aflatoxin levels in season 1 were significantly different from season 2 (1.92 ± 1.07 ppb; 1.30 ± 1.50 ppb). Our findings suggest that although training farmers to adopt good agricultural practices was observed to be efficient in mitigating the problem of aflatoxins, the receptiveness of farmers to different aspects of the training may have differed. Therefore, in designing an optimized regional aflatoxin contamination strategy, local applicability should be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0023.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: UPLC-MS/MS; mycotoxins; feedstuffs; flow-through; multiple analysis
Online: 5 December 2016 (09:40:24 CET)
A novel determination method using flow-through cartridge purification and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the identification and quantification of 30 mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2, sterigmatocysin, T-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, roquefortine C, methylergonovine, ergocornine, lysergol, enniatin A, enniatin A1, enniatin B, enniatin B1, beauvericin, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetylDeoxynivalenol, 15-acetylDeoxynivalenol, patulin, verruculogen, neosolaniol, gliotoxin, HT-2 toxin, wortmannin, zearalenone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, α-zearalanol, and β-zearalanol) in feedstuffs. Mycotoxins were extracted from sample by 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution/acetonitrile (16/84 v/v), then purified by a Cleanert® MC clean-up column. As a result, the pigments and other matrices were efficient removed from the sample extract solution. The purified eluate was collected, then evaporated and redissolved by 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution/acetonitrile (70:30 v/v) for UPLC-MS/MS detection. A BEH Shield RP18 chromatographic column was employed for separation of 30 mycotoxins in a total of 14 min. Multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was applied for qualitative and quantitative analysis, and matrix calibration curves obtained with the external-standard method was used for quantitation of target analytes. Under optimized conditions, the linearity range was from 2 to 1000 ng/g, and the limit of quantification of the developed method was from 2 to 50 ng/g. The recoveries of 30 mycotoxins spiked in urine samples were from 72.0% to 118.5%, and the relative standard deviation was below 20%. The method was also well approved by certified reference sample, and applied on the real feedstuff samples testing successfully.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0040.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: seeds; ELISA; Fusarium; morphological data analysis; mycotoxins; phylogenetic analysis S
Online: 4 August 2016 (10:12:54 CEST)
Adlay seed samples were collected from 3 adlay growing regions (Yeoncheon, Jeonnam and Eumseong regions) in Korea during 2012. Among all the samples collected, 400 seeds were tested for fungal occurrence by standard blotter and test tube agar methods and different taxonomic groups of fungal genera were detected. The most predominant fungal genera encountered were Fusarium, Phoma, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Cochliobolus and Leptosphaerulina. The occurrence of Fusarium species were 45.6% and based on the combined sequences of two protein coding genes, EF-1a, Beta-tubulin and phylogenetic analysis, 10 species were characterized as F. incarnatum (11.67%), F. kyushense (10.33%), F. fujikuroi (8.67%), F. concentricum (6.00%), F. asiaticum (5.67%), F. graminearum (1.67%), F. miscanthi (0.67%), F. polyphialidiom (0.33%), F. armeniacum (0.33%) and F. thapsinum (0.33%). The ability of these isolates to produce mycotoxins fumonisin (FUM) and zeralenone (ZEN) were tested by ELISA quantitative analysis method. The result revealed that fumonisin (FUM) was produced only by F. fujikuroi and zeralenone (ZEN) by F. asiaticum & F. graminearum. Mycotoxigenic species were then examined for their morphological characteristics to confirm their identity. Morphological observations of the species correlated well with their molecular identification and confirmed as F. asiaticum, F. fujikuroi and F. graminearum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0566.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Alternaria alternata; pear pathogens; multi-infections; enzymatic activities; mycotoxins; plant necrosis.
Online: 30 December 2022 (01:57:03 CET)
This lack of information is due to the primary role of HSTs in fungal pathogenesis, which often masks the functions of NSTs and CWDEs. So, the toxic effects of A. alternata metabolites due to NSTs and CWDEs have received minor attention than those reported for HSTs mycotoxins . A wider study of the activity of isolated fungal metabolites can allow the identification of compounds directly related to the pathogenic activity of the fungus, making it possible to create chemo libraries that facilitate the linking of the structure of the compounds with the species that produce it and its effect on host and non-host crops, as well as with biosynthetic features . In this context, our work reports a study focused on NSTs and CWDEs used by an A. alternata strain isolated from infected pears in Italy. To this aim, the characterization of hydrolytic enzyme activities of A. alternata and the identification of the metabolites produced in vitro were performed. Furthermore, the phytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated on pear (host and non-host varieties) and lemon fruits . Finally, the competition of A. alternata with other pathogens was evaluated to investigate the role of NSTs on co-infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0266.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Mycotoxins; Agricultural Practices; Mycotoxigenic Fungi; Fusarium; Oats; Cereals; Statistical Analysis; Agronomic
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:18:56 CEST)
Seven agronomic factors (crop season, farming system, harvest date, moisture, county, oat variety, and previous crop) were recorded for 202 oat crops grown across Ireland, and samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS for four major Fusarium mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin. Type A trichothecenes were present in 62% of crops, with 7.4% exceeding European regulatory limits. DON (6.4%) and ZEN (9.9%) occurrences were rela-tively infrequent, though one and three samples were measured over their set limits respectively. Overall, the type of farming system and the previous crop were the main factors identified to significantly influence mycotoxin prevalence or concentration. Particularly, adherence to an organic farming system and growing oats after a previous crop of grass were found to decrease contamination by type A trichothecenes. These are important findings and may provide valuable insights for many other types of cereals crops as Europe moves towards a much greater organic based food system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2064.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Fusarium species; Sarocladium species; rice; pathogenic variability; genetic diversity; mycotoxins; sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 31 August 2023 (03:52:29 CEST)
Sarocladium and Fusarium species are commonly identified as causal agents of rice sheath rot disease worldwide. However, limited knowledge exists about their genetic, pathogenic, and toxigenic diversity in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, where an increasing incidence of this disease has been observed. This study aimed at identifying, characterizing, as well as assessing the genetic, pathogenic, and toxigenic diversity of the pathogens associated with rice sheath rot disease in Mali, Nigeria, and Rwanda. In this study seventy fungal isolates were obtained from rice plants displaying disease symptoms on research and farmer’s fields in Mali, Nigeria, and Rwanda. Thus, an extensive comparative analysis was conducted to assess their genetic, pathogenic, and toxigenic diversity. The Fusarium spp. were characterized using the translation elongation factor (EF-1α) region, while a concatenation of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) and Actin-encoding regions were used to resolve Sarocladium species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four Fusarium species complexes. The dominant complex in Nigeria was the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), comprising F. hainanense, F. sulawesiense, F. pernambucatum, and F. tanahbumbuense, while F. incarnatum was found in Rwanda. The Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) was predominant in Rwanda and Mali, with species such as F. andiyazi, F. madaense, and F. casha in Rwanda, and F. annulatum and F. nygamai in Mali. F. marum was found in Nigeria. Furthermore, Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) members, F. callistephi and F. triseptatum, were found in Rwanda and Mali, respectively. Two isolates of F. acasiae-mearnsii, belonging to the Fusarium sambucinum species complex (FSAMSC) were obtained in Rwanda. Isolates of Sarocladium which were previously classified in three phylogenetic groups were resolved into three species which are: attenuatum, oryzae and sparsum. S. attenuatum was dominant in Rwanda, while S. oryzae and S. sparsum were found in Nigeria. Also, the susceptibility of FARO44, a rice cultivar released by Africa Rice Centre (AfricaRice) was tested against isolates from the four Fusarium species complexes and the three Sarocladium species. All isolates evaluated could induce typical sheath rot symptoms albeit with varying disease development levels. In addition, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to determine variation in the in vitro mycotoxins of the Fusarium species. Regional differences were observed in the in vitro mycotoxins profiling. Out of the forty-six isolates tested, nineteen were able to produce one to four mycotoxins. Notably, very high zearalenone (ZEN) production was specific to the two F. hainanense isolates from Ibadan-Nigeria, while Fusarium nygamai isolates from Mali produced high amounts of fumonisins. To the best of our knowledge, it seems this study is the first to elucidate genetic, pathogenic, and toxigenic diversity of Fusarium species associated with the rice sheath rot disease complex in selected countries in SSA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1265.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Fungal infections; Plant health; Human health; Animal health; Mycotoxins,; Antifungal resistance; Climate change
Online: 19 June 2023 (03:01:47 CEST)
Fungi constitute a diverse group with highly positive and negative impacts in different envi-ronments, having several natural roles and beneficial applications in human life, but also caus-ing several concerns. Fungi can affect human health directly, but also indirectly by being detri-mental for animal and plant health influencing food safety and security. Climate changes are al-so affecting fungal distribution, prevalence, and their impact on different settings. Searching for sustainable solutions to deal with these issues is challenging due to the complexity of the inter-actions among fungi and agriculture, animal production, environment, and human health. In this way, the “One Health” approach may be useful to get some answers since it recognizes that human health is closely connected to animal and plant health, as well as to the shared environ-ment. This review aims to explore and correlate each of those factors influencing human health in this “One Health” perspective.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0390.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: aflatoxins; APEDA; EU-ML; FSSAI-ML; mycotoxins; ochratoxin A; patulin; regulation, method validation.
Online: 25 October 2022 (12:30:35 CEST)
Mycotoxins are deleterious fungal secondary metabolites that contaminate food and feed, thereby creating concerns regarding food safety. Common fungal genera can easily proliferate in Indian tropical and sub-tropical conditions, and scientific attention is warranted to curb its growth. To address this, two nodal governmental agencies, namely the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) and Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI), have developed and implemented analytical methods and quality control procedures to monitor mycotoxin levels in a range of food matrices and assess risks to human health over the past two decades. However, comprehensive information on such advancements in mycotoxin testing and issues in implementing these regulations is inadequately covered in recent literature. The aim of this review is thus to uphold a systematic picture of the role played by the FSSAI and APEDA for mycotoxin control at the domestic level and for the promotion of international trade along with certain challenges in dealing with mycotoxin monitoring. Additionally, it unfolds various regulatory concerns regarding mycotoxin mitigation in India. Overall, it provides valuable insights to the Indian farming community, food supply chain stakeholders, and researchers about India’s success story in arresting mycotoxins throughout the food supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0090.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Fusarium head blight; Fusarium species; soil minerals; ergosterol; mycotoxins; organic farming; sowing value; winter wheat
Online: 9 October 2019 (05:38:12 CEST)
Growing acreage and changing consumer preferences cause increasing interest in the cereal products originating from organic farming. Lack of results of objective test, however, does not allow drawing conclusions about the effects of cultivation in the organic system and comparison to currently preferred conventional system. Field experiment was conducted in organic and conventional fields. Thirty modern cultivars of winter wheat were sown. They were characterized for disease infection including Fusarium head blight, seed sowing value, the amount of DNA of the six species of Fusarium fungi as well as concentration of ergosterol and trichothecenes in grain. The intensity Fusarium head blight was at a similar level in both systems. However, Fusarium colonization of kernels expressed as ergosterol level or DNA concentration was higher for the organic system. It did not reflect in an increased accumulation of trichothecenes in grain, which was similar in both systems, but sowing value of organically produced seeds was lower. Significant differences between analyzed cropping systems and experimental variants were found. The selection of the individual cultivars for organic growing in terms of resistance to diseases and contamination of grain with Fusarium toxins was possible. Effects of organic growing differ significantly from the conventional and grain obtained such way can be recommended to consumers. There are indications for use of particular cultivars bred for conventional agriculture in the case of organic farming, and the growing organic decreases plant stress resulting from intense fertilization and chemical plant protection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0051.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: green synthesis; MOFs; amyloid proteins; prionase; mycotoxins; growth inhibition; quorum sensing; quorum quenching; lactamases; biofilms; chitinases; lactonases; His6-OPH
Online: 1 June 2023 (07:31:58 CEST)
Active research of metal-containing compounds and enzymes as effective antifungal agents is currently noted. The interest in metals is due to the wide variety of ligands that can be used for metals, including chemically synthesized and naturally obtained variants as a result of the so-called "green synthesis". The main mechanism of antifungal action of metals is the triggering of generation and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Further action of ROS on various biomolecules is nonspecific. This review highlights various hydrolytic enzymes (glucanases and proteases) that affect the structural elements of fungal cells (cell walls, membranes), fungal quorum sensing molecules, fungal own protective agents (mycotoxins and antibiotics), proteins responsible for the adhesion and formation of stable highly concentrated populations in the form of biofilms. A wide range of the substrates for enzymes allows the use of various mechanisms of their antifungal actions. The prospects of combining two different types of antifungal agents (metals and enzymes) for mycelial fungi and yeast cells are discussed in this review. Special attention is paid to the possible influence of metals on activity of the enzymes and the possible effects of proteins on antifungal activity of metal-containing compounds.