ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0224.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: fibromyalgia; myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome; autoantibodies; autoimmunity
Online: 13 December 2022 (02:47:48 CET)
(1) Background: Recent studies provide some evidence for the contribution of antibody-mediated autoimmune mechanisms to the nature of fibromyalgia (FM) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Much attention was paid to the autoantibodies (AAb) targeting G protein-coupled receptors as natural components of the immune system. However, natural AAb network is much more extensive, and has not been previously investigated in these disorders; (2) Methods: The enzyme immunoassays ELI-Viscero-Test and ELI-Neuro-Test were used to determine changes in serum content of a 33 natural AAb to neural, organ-specific and non-tissue-specific autoantigens a) in 11 FM patients with comorbid ME/CFS; b) in 11 ME/CFS patients without FM; c) in 11 healthy controls. Individual autoantibody profiles and their correlation with some clinical symptoms were analyzed. (3) Results: both patients with ME/CFS and ME/CFS+FM were characterized by more frequent and pronounced deviations in the immunoreactivity to GABA-receptors than healthy controls. Although the level of other natural AAb did not differ between study groups, AAb correlation signatures were changing in patients compared to healthy controls. Both in patients and healthy controls the level of natural AAb to various neural and tissue-specific antigens correlated with the severity of fatigue, bodily pain, depression, anxiety, physical and mental-health related quality of life. Notably, that widely different correlation patterns were observed between study groups. (4) Conclusions: Findings from this pilot study provide some evidence that the homeostasis of autoimmune relationships, which are possibly a physiological part of our immune system, may break down in FM and ME/CFS. The correlation of disease-induced perturbations in individual AAb profiles with some clinical symptoms may arise from the immune system's ability to reflect qualitative and quantitative changes in antigenic composition of the body.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0196.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, ME/CFS, diagnosis, metabolism, mitochondria, inflammation, immune system, signaling, gut microbiota.
Online: 16 July 2019 (12:41:26 CEST)
The underlying molecular basis of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is not well understood. Characterized by chronic, unexplained fatigue, a disabling payback following exertion (“post-exertional malaise”) and variably presenting, multi-system symptoms, ME/CFS is a complex disease which demands concerted biomedical investigation from disparate fields of expertise. ME/CFS research and patient treatment have been challenged by the lack of diagnostic biomarkers and finding these is a prominent direction of current work. Despite these challenges, modern research demonstrates a tangible biomedical basis for the disorder across many body systems. This evidence is largely comprised of disturbances to immunological and inflammatory pathways, autonomic and neurologic systems, abnormalities in muscle and mitochondrial function, shifts in metabolism, and gut physiology or gut microbiome disturbances. It is possible that these threads are together entangled as parts of an underlying molecular pathology reflecting a far-reaching homeostatic shift affecting each of these systems. Due to the variability of non-overlapping symptom presentation or precipitating events such as infection or other bodily stresses, the initiation of body-wide pathological cascades with similar outcomes stemming from different causes may be implicated in the condition. Patient stratification to account for this heterogeneity is therefore one important consideration during exploration of potential diagnostic developments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0029.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis; Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; mitochondria; Complex V; TORC1; Seahorse respirometry; biomarker; diagnosis; ME/CFS
Online: 3 February 2020 (10:36:05 CET)
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a devastating illness whose biomedical basis is now beginning to be elucidated. We reported previously that, after recovery from frozen storage, lymphocytes (peripheral blood monocytic cells, PBMCs) from ME/CFS patients die faster in culture medium than those from healthy controls. We also found that lymphoblastoid cell lines (lymphoblasts) derived from these PBMCs exhibit multiple abnormalities in mitochondrial respiratory function and signalling activity by the cellular stress-sensing kinase TORC1. These differences were correlated with disease severity, as measured by the Richardson and Lidbury Weighted Standing Test. The clarity of the differences between these cells derived from ME/CFS patient blood and those from healthy controls suggested that they may provide useful biomarkers for ME/CFS. Here we report a preliminary investigation into that possibility using a variety of analytical classification tools, including linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. We found that results from three different tests, lymphocyte death rate, mitochondrial respiratory function and TORC1 activity could each individually serve as biomarker with better than 90% sensitivity but only modest specificity vís a vís healthy controls. However, in combination they provided a cell-based biomarker with sensitivity and specificity approaching 100% in our sample. This level of sensitivity and specificity was almost equalled by a suggested protocol in which the frozen lymphocyte death rate was used as a highly sensitive test to triage positive samples to the more time consuming and expensive tests measuring lymphoblast respiratory function and TORC1 activity. This protocol provides a promising biomarker that could assist in more rapid and accurate diagnosis of ME/CFS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.2007.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: myalgic encephalomyelitis, chronic fatigue syndrome, immunology, immunodeficiencies, mucosal barrier function, patient stratification, post-viral fatigue, intestinal barrier leakage, debilitating disease
Online: 30 November 2023 (16:56:26 CET)
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex disease characterized by profound fatigue, post-exertional malaise (PEM), and neurocognitive dysfunction. Immune dysregulation and gastrointestinal symptoms are commonly observed in ME/CFS patients. Despite affecting approximately 0.89% of the general population, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between immunological characteristics and intestinal barrier function in ME/CFS patients. ME/CFS patients were stratified into two groups based on their immune competence. After documentation of detailed medical records, serum and plasma samples were collected for assessment of inflammatory immune mediators and biomarkers for intestinal barrier integrity by ELISA. We found reduced complement protein C4a levels in immunodeficient ME/CFS patients suggesting a sub-group specific innate immune dysregulation. ME/CFS patients without immunodeficiencies exhibit a mucosal barrier leakage, as indicated by elevated levels of Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP). Stratifying ME/CFS patients based on immune competence enabled the distinction of two subgroups with different pathophysiological patterns. The study highlights the importance of emphasizing precise patient stratification in ME/CFS, particularly in the context of defining suitable treatment strategies. Given the substantial health and socioeconomic burden associated with ME/CFS, urgent attention and research efforts are needed to define causative treatment approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1585.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Explainable artificial intelligence; Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome; Metabolomics data; Clinical classification.
Online: 25 July 2023 (04:33:22 CEST)
Background: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex and debilitating disease with a significant global prevalence of over 65 million individuals. It affects various systems, including the immune, neurological, gastrointestinal, and circulatory systems. Studies have shown abnormalities in immune cell types, increased inflammatory cytokines, and brain abnormalities. Further research is needed to identify consistent biomarkers and develop targeted therapies. A multidisciplinary approach is essential for diagnosing, treating, and managing this complex disease. The current study aims at employing explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) and machine learning (ML) techniques to identify discriminative metabolites for ME/CFS. Material and Methods: The present study used a metabolomics dataset of CFS patients and healthy controls, including 26 healthy controls and 26 ME/CFS patients aged 22-72. The dataset encapsulated 768 metabolites, classified into nine metabolic super-pathways: amino acids, carbohydrates, cofactors, vitamins, energy, lipids, nucleotides, peptides, and xenobiotics. Random forest-based feature selection and Bayesian Approach based-hyperparameter optimization were implemented on the target data. Four different ML algorithms [Gaussian Naive Bayes (GNB), Gradient Boosting Classifier (GBC), Logistic regression (LR) and Random Forest Classifier (RFC)] were used to classify individuals as ME/CFS patients and healthy individuals. XAI approaches were applied to clinically explain the prediction decisions of the optimum model. Performance evaluation was performed using the indices of accuracy, precision, recall, F1 score, Brier score, and AUC. Results: The metabolomics of C-glycosyltryptophan, oleoylcholine, cortisone, and 3-hydroxydecanoate were determined to be crucial for ME/CFS diagnosis. The RFC learning model outperformed GNB, GBC, and LR in ME/CFS prediction using the 1000 iteration bootstrapping method, achieving 98% accuracy, precision, recall, F1 score, 0.01 Brier score, and 99% AUC. Conclusion: RFC model proposed in this study correctly classified and evaluated ME/CFS patients through the selected biomarker candidate metabolites. The methodology combining ML and XAI can provide a clear interpretation of risk estimation for ME/CFS, helping physicians intuitively understand the impact of key metabolomics features in the model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0234.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome; fatigue; myalgic encephalomyelitis; melatonin; quality of life; sleep quality; zinc
Online: 8 March 2021 (16:00:25 CET)
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex, multisystem, and profoundly debilitating condition, probably of multifactorial etiology. No effective approved drugs are currently available for its treatment. Several studies have proposed symptomatic treatment with melatonin and zinc supplementation in chronic illnesses; however, little is known about the synergistic effect of this treatment on fatigue-related symptoms in ME/CFS. The primary endpoint of the study was to assess the effect of oral melatonin plus zinc supplementation on fatigue in ME/CFS. Secondary measures included participants’ sleep disturbances, anxiety/depression, and health-related quality of life. A proof-of-concept, 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in 50 ME/CFS patients assigned to receive either oral melatonin (1 mg) plus zinc (10 mg) supplementation (n = 24) or matching placebo (n = 26) once daily. Endpoint outcomes were evaluated at baseline and then reassessed at 8 and 16 weeks of treatment and 4 weeks after treatment cessation, using self-reported outcome measures. Treatment was safe and well-tolerated. The most relevant results were the significant reduction in the perception of physical fatigue in the active group at the final follow-up versus placebo (p < 0.05), and the significant improvement in the physical component summary at all follow-up visits in the experimental group. Our findings suggest that oral melatonin plus zinc supplementation for 16 weeks is safe and potentially effective in reducing fatigue and improving the quality of life in ME/CFS. This clinical study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03000777).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0637.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis; chronic fatigue syndrome; therapeutic strategies; personalized treatment; pathophysiology; pharmacological treatments; nutritional supplements; dietary changes; physical therapies; lifestyle modifications
Online: 10 October 2023 (11:23:01 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to compile and analyze an assortment of research findings concerning potential therapeutic strategies for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS). The understanding of the multifaceted nature of ME/CFS and the need for varied and personalized therapeutic approaches were central to this investigation.Methods: A comprehensive review and analysis of various studies conducted on ME/CFS was undertaken. These studies covered a wide array of interventions, including pharmacological treatments, nutritional supplements, dietary changes, physical therapies, and lifestyle modifications. The analysis pertained to the effectiveness of these interventions, potential physiological and biochemical markers, and the response of ME/CFS patients to different treatment strategies.Results: The 22 selected papers investigated demonstrated varied responses to the multitude of interventions. While some interventions showed significant improvement in fatigue and biochemical parameters, others found no significant differences between the treated and control groups. Potential physiological and biochemical markers for ME/CFS, such as impaired T cell metabolism, reduced flow-mediated dilation, and decreased work rate at the ventilatory threshold, were highlighted.Conclusion: The findings underscored the complexity of ME/CFS and the need for personalized treatment strategies. Despite mixed results and several limitations, these studies collectively contributed to understanding ME/CFS's complex pathophysiology and treatment, laying the groundwork for future research towards more effective therapeutic strategies for this debilitating disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0201.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome; Myalgic Encephalomyelitis; inflammation; neuro-immune; oxidative and nitrosative stress; antioxidants
Online: 13 September 2021 (10:57:26 CEST)
There is evidence that chronic fatigue spectrum disorders (CFAS-D) including Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and chronic fatigue with physiosomatic symptoms including when due to comorbid medical disease are characterized by neuroimmune and neuro-oxidative biomarkers. The present study was performed to delineate the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of CFAS-D and to discover the pathways, molecular patterns and domains enriched in their PPI network. We performed network, enrichment and annotation analysis using differentially expressed proteins and metabolics, which we established in CFAS-D patients. PPI network analysis revealed that the backbone of the highly connective CFAS-D network comprises NFKB1, CTNNB1, ALB, peroxides, NOS2, TNF, and IL6, and that the network comprises interconnected immune-oxidative-nitrosative and Wnt/catenin subnetworks. MultiOmics enrichment analysis shows that the CFAS-D network is highly significantly associated with cellular (antioxidant) detoxification, hydrogen peroxide metabolic process, peroxidase and oxidoreductase activity, IL10 anti-inflammatory signaling, and neurodegenerative, canonical Wnt, the catenin complex, cadherin domains, cell-cell junctions and TLR2/4 pathways; and the transcription factors NF-κB and RELA. The top-10 DOID annotations of the CFAS-D network include four intestinal, three immune system disorders, cancer and infectious disease. Custom GO term annotation analysis revealed that the CFAS-D network is associated with a response to a toxic substance, lipopolysaccharides, bacterium or virus. In conclusion, CFAS-D may be triggered by a variety of stimuli and their effects are mediated by aberrations in the cross-talks between redox, NF-κB, and Wnt/catenin signaling pathways leading to dysfunctions in multicellular organismal homeostatic processes.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Fibromyalgia (FM); Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS); microRNA; miRNome; pharmacogenomics; pharmacoepigenomics; SM2miR; Pharmaco-miR; repoDB; ME/CFS Common Data Elements (CDEs)
Online: 14 February 2019 (11:04:45 CET)
Fibromyalgia (FM) and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) are diseases of unknown etiology presenting complex and often overlapping symptomatology. Despite promising advances on the study of miRNomes of these diseases, no validated molecular diagnostic biomarker yet exists. Since FM and ME/CFS patient treatments commonly include polypharmacy it is of concern that biomarker miRNAs are masked by drug interactions. Aiming at discriminating between drug-effects and true disease-associated differential miRNA expression, we evaluated the potential impact of commonly prescribed drugs on disease miRNomes, as reported by the literature. By using the web search tools SM2miR, Pharmaco-miR and repoDB, we found a list of commonly prescribed drugs that impact on FM and ME/CFS miRNomes and therefore could be interfering in the process of biomarker discovery. On another end, disease-associated miRNomes may incline patient´s response to treatment and toxicity. Here, we explored treatments for diseases in general that could be affected by FM and ME/CFS miRNomes finding a long list of them, including treatments for lymphoma, a type of cancer affecting ME/CFS patients at a higher rate than healthy population. We conclude that FM and ME/CFS miRNomes could help refine pharmacogenomic/pharmacoepigenomic analysis to elevate future personalized medicine and precision medicine programs in the clinic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Midbrain; postexertional malaise; PEM, arousal; exercise; fMRI; autonomic; postural tachycardia; Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; ME/CFS; Gulf War Illness; GWI
Online: 23 November 2021 (10:53:55 CET)
Background: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), Gulf War Ill-ness (GWI) and control subjects had fMRI during difficult cognitive tests performed before and after submaximal exercise provocation (Washington 2020). Exercise caused increased activation in ME/CFS but decreased activation for GWI in the dorsal midbrain, left Rolandic operculum and right middle insula. Midbrain and isthmus nuclei participate in threat assessment, attention, cognition, mood, pain, sleep, and autonomic dysfunction Methods: Activated midbrain nuclei were inferred by re-analysis of data from 31 control, 36 ME/CFS and 78 GWI subjects using a seed region approach and the Harvard Ascending Arousal Network. Results: Before exercise, control and GWI had greater activation during cognition than ME/CFS in left pedunculotegmental nucleus. Postexercise ME/CFS had greater activation than GWI for midline periaqueductal gray, dorsal and median raphe, and right midbrain reticular formation, parabrachial complex and locus coeruleus. The change between days (delta) was positive for ME/CFS but negative for GWI indicating reciprocal patterns of activation. Controls had no changes. Conclusions: Exercise caused opposite effects with increased activation in ME/CFS but decreased activation in GWI indicating different pathophysiological responses to exertion and mechanisms of disease. Midbrain and isthmus nuclei contribute to postexertional malaise in ME/CFS and GWI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0432.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome; myalgic encephalomyelitis; schizophrenia; neuroimmunomodulation; inflammation; biomarkers
Online: 29 March 2020 (10:52:40 CEST)
Background: Physiosomatic symptoms are an important part of schizophrenia phenomenology. The aim of this study is to examine the biomarker, neurocognitive and symptomatic correlates of physiosomatic symptoms in schizophrenia. Methods: We recruited 115 schizophrenia patients and 43 healthy controls and measured the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Rating (FF) scale, schizophrenia symptom dimensions, and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia. We measured neuro-immune markers including plasma CCL11 (eotaxin), interleukin-(IL)-6, IL-10, Dickkopf protein 1 (DKK1), high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and endogenous opioid system (EOS) markers including κ-opioid receptor (KOR), µ-opioid receptor (MOR), endomorphin-2 (EM2) and β-endorphin. Results: Patients with an increased FF score display increased ratings of psychosis, hostility, excitement, formal though disorders, psychomotor retardation and negative symptoms as compared with patients with lower FF scores. A large part of the variance in the FF score (55.1%) is explained by the regression on digit sequencing task, token motor task, list learning, IL-10, age (all inversely) and IL-6 (positively). Neural network analysis shows that the top-6 predictors of the FF score are (in descending order): IL-6, HMGB1, education, MOR, KOR and IL-10. We found that 45.1% of the variance in a latent vector extracted from cognitive test scores, schizophrenia symptoms and the FF score was explained by HMGB-1, MOR, EM2, DKK1, and CCL11. Conclusions: FF symptoms are an integral part of the phenome of schizophrenia. Neurotoxic immune and neurodegenerative pathways and to a lesser extent the EOS appear to drive FF symptoms in schizophrenia.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; diagnosis; Health services; clinical care
Online: 16 October 2020 (08:58:18 CEST)
Designed by a group of ME/CFS researchers and health professionals, the European Network on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (EUROMENE) has received funding from the European Cooperation is Science and Technology (COST) (https://www.cost.eu/cost-actions/what-are-cost-actions/ ) - COST action 15111 - from 2016 to 2020. The main goal of the Cost Action was to assess the existing fragmented knowledge and experience on health care delivery for people with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) in European countries, and to enhance coordinated research and health care provision in this field. We report on the recommendations for clinical diagnosis, heath services and care for people with ME/CFS in Europe, as prepared by the group of clinicians and researchers from 22 countries and 55 European health professionals and researchers, who have been informed by people with ME/CFS (https://www.cost.eu/actions/CA15111/#tabs|Name:overview).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0175.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: inflammation; neuroimmunomodulation; major depression; chronic fatigue syndrome; myalgic encephalomyelitis; biomarkers
Online: 14 February 2020 (01:53:53 CET)
Objective: A previous study showed that schizophrenia is accompanied by lowered levels of trace/metal elements including cesium. There are no data whether changes in cesium, rubidium and rhenium are associated with activated immune-inflammatory pathways, cognitive impairments, and the symptomatology of schizophrenia. Methods: This study measured cesium, rubidium, and rhenium, cognitive impairments (using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) and the cytokines/chemokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and CCL11 (eotaxin) in 120 schizophrenia patients and 54 healthy controls. Severity of illness was assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Rating (FF) Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). Results: Serum cesium was significantly lower in schizophrenia patients as compared with controls. Serum cesium was significantly and inversely associated with CCL11 and TNF-α, but not IL-1β. Moreover, there were significant inverse associations between serum cesium levels and the BPRS, FF, HAM-D and SANS scores and positive correlations between cesium and neurocognitive probe results including the Tower of London, Symbol Coding, Controlled Word Association, Category Instances, Digit Sequencing Task, and List Learning tests. Conclusion: The results suggest that lowered serum cesium levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of SCZ, specific symptom domains including negative, depressive and fatigue symptoms, neurocognitive impairments (spatial working, episodic and semantic memory and executive functions) and neuro-immune pathways as well.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2264.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Chronic fatigue syndrome; myalgic encephalomyelitis; multiple sclerosis; cortical vein; venous pressure
Online: 31 May 2023 (14:31:49 CEST)
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) share similarities regarding their epidemiology, symptomatology and craniospinal physiology. Indeed, the cardinal feature of CFS, fatigue, is also a major factor in the symptomatology of the majority of MS patients. Recently, we have found that there is a significant reduction in the craniospinal compliance in MS which affects both the stiffness of the walls of the spinal canal and the walls of the cerebral venous system. This change in compliance brings about an alteration in the effectiveness of the pulse wave dampening in the craniospinal system. The result is an impedance mismatch between the cortical veins and their draining sinuses, leading to dilatation of these upstream veins. We deduce this dilatation can only be brought about by an increase in the pressure gradient between the vein lumen and the subarachnoid space (i.e. the transmural pressure gradient). We hypothesise that given the similarities between MS and CFS, a similar mechanism underlies the physiology of CFS. We present two case studies to highlight the expected findings in CFS patients if this hypothesis were proven to be correct.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0043.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis; Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; mitochondria; Complex V; TORC1; Seahorse respirometry
Online: 3 February 2020 (09:34:29 CET)
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is an enigmatic condition characterized by exacerbation of symptoms after exertion (post-exertional malaise or “PEM”), and by fatigue whose severity and associated requirement for rest are excessive and disproportionate to the fatigue-inducing activity. There is no definitive molecular marker or known underlying pathological mechanism for the condition. Increasing evidence for aberrant energy metabolism suggests a role for mitochondrial dysfunction in ME/CFS. Our objective was therefore to measure mitochondrial function and cellular stress sensing in actively metabolising patient blood cells. We immortalized lymphoblasts isolated from 51 ME/CFS patients diagnosed according to the Canadian Consensus Criteria and an age- and gender-matched control group. Parameters of mitochondrial function and energy stress sensing were assessed by Seahorse extracellular flux analysis, proteomics, and an array of additional biochemical assays. As a proportion of the basal oxygen consumption rate (OCR), the rate of ATP synthesis by Complex V was significantly reduced in ME/CFS lymphoblasts, while significant elevations were observed in Complex I OCR, maximum OCR, spare respiratory capacity, nonmitochondrial OCR and “proton leak” as a proportion of the basal OCR. This was accompanied by a reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, chronically hyperactivated TOR Complex I stress signalling and upregulated expression of mitochondrial respiratory complexes, fatty acid transporters and enzymes of the β-oxidation and TCA cycles. By contrast, mitochondrial mass and genome copy number, as well as glycolytic rates and steady state ATP levels were unchanged. Our results suggest a model in which ME/CFS lymphoblasts have a Complex V defect accompanied by compensatory upregulation of their respiratory capacity that includes the mitochondrial respiratory complexes, membrane transporters and enzymes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation. This homeostatically returns ATP synthesis and steady state levels to “normal” in the resting cells, but may leave them unable to adequately respond to acute increases in energy demand as the relevant homeostatic pathways are already activated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0182.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome; Myalgic encephalomyelitis; oxidative stress; neuro-immune; inflammation; bacterial translocation
Online: 10 May 2021 (12:27:45 CEST)
Background: A meaningful part of schizophrenia patients suffer from physiosomatic symptoms (formerly named psychosomatic) which are reminiscent of chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia (FF) and are associated with signs of immune activation and increased levels of tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). Aims: To examine whether FF symptoms in schizophrenia are associated with breakdown of the paracellular pathway, zonulin, lowered natural IgM responses to oxidative specific epitopes (OSEs); and whether FF symptoms belong to the behavioral-cognitive-physical-psychosocial-(BCPS)-worsening index consisting of indices of a general cognitive decline (G-CoDe), symptomatome of schizophrenia, and quality of life (QoL)-phenomenome. Methods: FF symptoms were assessed using the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Rating scale in 80 schizophrenia patients and 40 healthy controls and serum cytokines/chemokines, IgA levels to TRYCATs, IgM to OSEs, zonulin and transcellular/paracellular (TRANS/PARA) molecules were assayed using ELISA methods. Results: A large part (42.3%) of the variance in the total FF score was explained by the regression on the PARA/TRANS ratio, pro-inflammatory cytokines, IgM to zonulin, IgA to TRYCATs (all positively) and IgM to OSEs (inversely). There were highly significant correlations between the total FF score and G-CoDe, symtopmatome, QoL phenomenome and BCPS-worsening score. FF symptoms belong to a common core shared by G-CoDe, symtopmatome, and QoL phenomenome. Discussion: The physio-somatic symptoms of schizophrenia are driven by various pathways including increased zonulin, breakdown of the paracellular tight-junctions pathway, immune activation with induction of the TRYCAT pathway, and consequent neurotoxicity. It is concluded that FF symptoms are part of the phenome of schizophrenia and BCPS-worsening as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0336.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome; Wnt pathway; inflammation; neuro-immune; oxidative stress; biomarkers
Online: 12 March 2021 (08:46:45 CET)
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with fatigue and physio-somatic symptoms. The aims of this study are to delineate the associations between severity of fatigue and physio-somatic symptoms and glomerular filtration rate, inflammatory biomarkers, and Wnt/catenin-pathway proteins. The Wnt-pathway related proteins β-catenin, Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), R-spondin-1, and sclerostin were measured by ELISA technique in 60 ESRD patients and 30 controls. The Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (FF) Rating Scale was used to assess severity of FF symptoms. ESRD is characterized by a significant increase in the total FF score, muscle tension, fatigue, sadness, sleep disorders, GI symptoms, and a flu-like malaise. The total FF score was significantly correlated with serum levels of urea, creatinine, phosphate, and copper (positively), and β-catenin, eGFR, hemoglobin, albumin, and zinc (inversely). The total FF score was associated with the number of total dialysis and weekly dialysis sessions, and these dialysis characteristics were more important in predicting FF scores than eGFR measurements. Partial Least Squares analysis showed that the FF score comprised two factors which are differently associated with biomarkers: a) 43.0% of the variance in fatigue, GI symptoms, muscle tension, sadness, and insomnia is explained by hemoglobin, albumin, zinc, β-catenin, and R-spondin-1; and b) 22.3% of the variance in irritability, concentration and memory impairments by increased copper and cations/chloride ratio, and male sex. ESRD patients show high levels of fatigue and physio-somatic symptoms which are associated with hemodialysis and mediated by dialysis-induced changes in inflammatory pathways, the Wnt/catenin pathway, and copper.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0735.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ME/CFS; myalgic encephalomyelitis; chronic fatigue syndrome; primary care; GP knowledge and understanding
Online: 30 November 2020 (15:44:20 CET)
Background and Objectives The socioeconomics working group of the European ME/CFS Research Network (EUROMENE) has conducted a review of the literature pertaining to GPs’ knowledge and understanding of ME/CFS. Materials and Methods A MEDLINE search was carried out. The papers identified were reviewed following the Synthesis Without Meta-analysis (SWiM) methodology, and were classified according to the focus of the enquiry (patients, GPs, database and medical record studies, evaluation of a training programme, and overview papers), and whether they were quantitative or qualitative in nature. Results 33 papers were identified in the MEDLINE search. The quantitative surveys of GPs demonstrated that a third to a half of all GPs did not accept ME/CFS as a genuine clinical entity and, even when they did, they lacked confidence in diagnosing or managing it. Patient surveys indicated that a similar proportion of patients was dissatisfied with the primary medical care they had received. These findings were consistent with the findings of the qualitative studies that were examined, and have changed little over several decades. Conclusions Lack of knowledge and understanding of ME/CFS among GPs is widespread, and the resultant diagnostic delays constitute a risk factor for severe and prolonged disease. Failure to diagnose ME/CFS renders problematic attempts to determine its prevalence, and hence its economic impact.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0744.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), Data Collection Standardisation, Research Guidelines, Europe
Online: 30 September 2020 (12:24:58 CEST)
The European Network on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (EUROMENE) was established after a successful grant application to the European Cooperation is Science and Technology (COST). This network aimed to assess the existing knowledge and/or experience on health care delivery for people with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) in the European countries and worldwide, and to enhance coordinated research and health care provision in this field. The EUROMENE proposal, was based on the establishment of interrelated working groups (WGs), where the participants contributed with specific knowledge and viewpoints according to their specialties and/or areas of interest. In this paper we outline the work of a multidisciplinary team of researchers, including epidemiologists, clinicians, statisticians, biomedical scientist and heath economists, who set out their recommendations to guide data acquisition for ME/CFS research, aiming to standardise data collection and improve epidemiological research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1554.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome; coenzyme Q10; fibromyalgia; Long COVID; mitochondrial dysfunction; myalgic encephalomyelitis; post-viral fatigue syndrome
Online: 24 November 2023 (11:27:34 CET)
Post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS) encompasses a wide range of complex neuroimmune disorders of unknown cause characterized by disabling post-exertional fatigue, myalgia and joint pain, cognitive impairments, unrefreshing sleep, autonomic dysfunction, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. It includes myalgic encephalomyelitis, also known as chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), fibromyalgia (FM), and more recently post-COVID-19 condition (Long COVID). To date, there are no definitive clinical case criteria and no FDA-approved pharmacological therapies for PVFS. Given the current lack of effective treatments, there is a need to develop novel therapeutic strategies for these disorders. Mitochondria, the cellular organelles responsible for tissue energy production, have recently garnered attention in research into PVFS due to their crucial role in cellular bioenergetic metabolism in these conditions. Accumulating literature has identified a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and low-grade systemic inflammation in ME/CFS, FM, and Long COVID. To address this issue, this article aimed to critically review the evidence relating to mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of these disorders; in particular, to evaluate the effectiveness of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on chronic fatigue and pain symptoms as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PVFS.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Fibromyalgia; Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS); Pressure Point Threshold (PPT); Physiotherapy; Manual Therapy (MT)
Online: 15 September 2020 (09:01:16 CEST)
Current pharmacological treatments of Fibromyalgia (FM) are merely symptom palliative, as clinical trials have so far failed to provide overall benefits without associated harms. Polypharmacy often leads to patient´s health deterioration and chronic drug use to an eventual lack of patient´s response. Emerging evidence support that physiotherapy treatments based on mechanical triggers improve FM symptoms and therefore could be used for therapeutic purposes by themselves, or in combination with current pharmacological treatments, as part of integrative medicine programs. However, a paucity of studies rigorously and systematically evaluating this possibility exists. This study uses scores from validated standardized questionnaires, algometer pressure point threshold (PPT) readings and responses from a custom self-developed questionnaire to determine the impact of a pressure-controlled manual protocol on FM hyperalgesia/allodynia, fatigue and patient´s quality of life. The results show that patient´s baseline sensitivity to pain inversely correlates with treatment response in FM. Moreover, patients presenting comorbid ME/CFS do not seem to respond to the applied therapy as those presenting FM only. Thus, pre-treatment PPTs and ME/CFS comorbidity may serve as indicators to predict patient´s response to physiotherapy programs based on mechanical triggers, as the one evaluated here. These unexpected findings grant further explorations including the study of gene expression profiles associating to patient´s treatment response in the blood collection of samples generated by this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0478.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; Long COVID; data acquisition source; post-infectious; longitudinal cohort study; patient-powered
Online: 25 November 2021 (13:51:54 CET)
ME/CFS (Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome) is a chronic, complex, heterogeneous disease that affects millions and lacks both diagnostics and treatments. Big data, or the collection of vast quantities of data that can be mined for information, has transformed the understanding of many complex illnesses like cancer (1,2) and multiple sclerosis (3,4), by dissecting heterogeneity, identifying subtypes, and enabling the development of personalized treatments. It is possible that big data can reveal the same for ME/CFS. Solve M.E. developed and launched the You + ME Registry to collect longitudinal health data from people with ME/CFS, people with Long COVID (LC) and control volunteers using rigorous protocols designed to harmonize with other groups collecting data from similar groups of people. The Registry is an invaluable resource because it integrates with a symptom tracking app, as well as a biorepository, to provide a robust and rich dataset that is available to qualified researchers. Accordingly, it facilitates collaboration that may ultimately uncover causes and help accelerate the development of therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0358.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: fibromyalgia; Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS); HERV (Human Endogenous Retrovirus); transposable elements; epigenetics; DNA methylation; tsRNAs (transfer RNA small fragments); interferon; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
Online: 27 December 2019 (03:30:53 CET)
The development of nucleic acid sequencing technology and the unprecedented availability of metadata has evidenced that 45% of human genome constituted by transposable elements (TEs) is not only transcriptionally active but also physiologically needed. Aberrant regulation of TEs, and of human retroviral endogenous sequences (HERVs) in particular, associates with several neurologic and autoimmune diseases, including the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) frequently comorbid with fibromyalgia (FM). However, no study has yet addressed whether abnormal expression of these sequences correlates with FM. The work presented here shows, for the first time, that in fact HERVs of the H, K and W types are overexpressed in the cells of the immune system of FM patients with or without comorbid ME/CFS. The patients with increased HERV expression (N=14) presented increased levels of interferon (INF-β and INF-γ) but unchanged levels of TNF-α. In support of our proposal that TE activation is a contributor to FM, we find that the tRNA pools are decreased in comparison to matched healthy participants (N=14). The findings reported here could explain the flu-like symptoms FM patients present with in the absence of concomitant infections. Future work towards identifying specific genomic loci differentially affected in FM and ME/CFS is granted.