REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: toxicity; effect; fish; invertebrate; mussels
Online: 1 September 2021 (15:52:02 CEST)
Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a herbicide used to kill broadleaf weeds and grass, developed in the early 1970s. The widely occurring degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is a result of glyphosate and amino-polyphosphonate degradation. The massive use of the parent compounds leads to the ubiquity of AMPA in the environment, and particularly in water. Considering this, it can be assumed that glyphosate and its major metabolites could pose a potential risk to aquatic organisms. This review summarises current knowledge about residual glyphosate and their major metabolite AMPA in the aquatic environment, including status and toxic effects in aquatic organisms, mainly fish, are reviewed. Based on the above, we identify major gaps in the current knowledge and some directions for future research knowledge about the effects of worldwide use of herbicide glyphosate and its major metabolite AMPA. The toxic effect of glyphosate and their major metabolite AMPA has mainly influenced growth, early development, oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant enzymes, haematological, biochemical plasma indices, caused histopathological changes in the aquatic organism.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1899.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Ciliophora; DNA barcoding; NGS sequencing; endosymbionts; parasites; freshwater mussels Unionidae
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:22:20 CEST)
Infections with symbiotic single-celled organisms classified as Ciliophora, are commonly reported in various species of invertebrates. Freshwater mussels also play the role of a host for them, being responsible for their biodiversity. Knowledge about these relationships is insufficient. Freshwater mussels are among the most endangered groups of animals. Ciliate endosymbionts in mussels may be responsible for the diseases and increasingly frequent cases of mass mussel deaths and are particularly dangerous for commercially farmed mussels and for restocking of mussels as part of active conservation measures. On the other hand the Ciliophora parasites and commensals living in freshwater mussels is undescribed. Many of these species are likely to become extinct before they are known to science. Recently, two genera of Ciliophora, Conchophthirus sp. and Trichodina sp., have been described in the mantle cavity of U. crassus - an endangered and protected species in the EU. The basis of extensive research on the impact of endosymbiotic ciliates on U. crassus populations is the knowledge of their species composition, proportion of infected individuals, level of infection intensity and distribution in different types of rivers. Such studies were carried out in the mantle cavity of U. crassus from three rivers in three seasons. Cloning, sequencing and functional analysis of the genetic material of Ciliophora was carried out using NGS (Next-Generation Sequencing) analysis based on the hypervariable V4 and V9 regions of the 18SrRNA gene, which enables the identification of taxonomic groups, including genera and species. The most numerous OTUs are common and cosmopolitan species. But some commensals and potentially parasites were found too. Ciliophora associated with mantle cavity form an interesting, hierarchical biocomplex but their interactions with mussels need further studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0180.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Trojan Horse effect; B[a]P; nC60; co-exposure; Mussels; DNA damage; proteomics
Online: 15 May 2019 (09:57:16 CEST)
This study aimed to assess the ecotoxicological effects of the interaction of fullerene (C60) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) on the marine mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. The uptake of nC60, B[a]P and mixtures of nC60 and B[a]P into tissues was confirmed by GC-MS, LC-HRMS and ICP-MS. Biomarkers of DNA damage as well as proteomics analysis were applied to unravel the toxic effect of B[a]P and C60. Antagonistic responses were observed at the genotoxic and proteomic level. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were only identified in the B[a]P single exposure and the B[a]P mixture exposure groups containing 1 mg/L of C60, the majority of which were down-regulated (~52%). No DEPs were identified at any of the concentrations of nC60 (p < 0.05, 1% FDR). Using DEPs identified at a threshold of (p < 0.05; B[a]P and B[a]P mixture with nC60), gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that these proteins were enriched with a broad spectrum of biological processes and pathways, including those broadly associated with protein processing, cellular processes and environmental information processing. Among those significantly enriched pathways, the ribosome was consistently the top enriched term irrespective of treatment or concentration and plays an important role as the site of biological protein synthesis and translation. Our results demonstrate the complex multi-modal response to environmental stressors in M. galloprovincialis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1165.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: non-destructive DNA sampling; DNA collection methods; Louisiana Pigtoe; visceral swabbing; freshwater mussels; Fusconaia askewi; genotyping-by-sequencing; population genetic structure; genomic coverage; sequencing depth
Online: 16 May 2023 (14:15:33 CEST)
Limiting harm to organisms via genetic sampling is an important consideration for rare species. Nondestructive sampling techniques have been developed to address this issue in freshwater mussels. Two methods, visceral swabbing and tissue biopsies, have proven to be effective for DNA sampling, though it is unclear as to which method is preferable for genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Tissue biopsies may cause undue stress and damage to organisms, while visceral swabbing potentially reduces the chance of such harm. Our study compared the efficacy of these two DNA sampling methods for generating GBS data for the Unionid freshwater mussel, Texas Pigtoe (Fusconaia askewi). Our results find both methods generate quality sequence data, though some considerations are in order. Tissue biopsies produced significantly higher DNA concentrations and larger numbers of reads when compared to swabs, though there was no significant association between starting DNA concentration and number of reads generated. Swabbing produced greater sequence depth (more reads per sequence) while tissue biopsies revealed greater coverage across the genome (at lower sequence depth). Patterns of genomic variation as characterized in principal component analyses were similar regardless of the sampling method, suggesting that the less invasive swabbing is a viable option for producing quality GBS data in these organisms.