ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0094.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: host-parasite interactions; systems biology; giardiasis; gut-liver axis; integrated multiomics; metabolic pathways
Online: 6 December 2022 (07:39:57 CET)
Apicomplexan infections, such as giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis, negatively impact a considerable proportion of human and commercial livestock populations. Despite this, the molecular mecha-nisms of disease, particularly the effect on the body beyond the gastrointestinal tract, are still poorly understood. To highlight host-parasite-microbiome biochemical interactions, we utilised integrated metabolomics-16S rRNA genomics and metabolomics-proteomics approaches in a C57BL/6J mouse model of giardiasis and compared these to Cryptosporidium and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) infections. Comprehensive samples (faeces, blood, liver, and luminal contents from duo-denum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon) were collected 10 days post infection and subjected to proteome and metabolome analysis by liquid and gas chromatographic mass-spectrometry, re-spectively. Microbial populations in faeces and luminal washes were examined using 16S rRNA metagenomics. Proteome-metabolome analyses indicated that 12 and 16 key pathways were sig-nificantly altered in the gut and liver, respectively, during giardiasis with respect to other infections. Energy pathways including glycolysis and supporting pathways of glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, and redox pathway of glutathione metabolism, were upregulated in small intestinal luminal contents and the liver during giardiasis. Metabolomics-16S rRNA genetics integration in-dicated that populations of three bacterial families –Autopobiaceae (Up), Desulfovibrionaceae (Up) and Akkermanasiaceae (Down) – were most significantly affected across the gut during giardiasis, causing upregulated glycolysis and short-chained fatty acid (SCFA) metabolism. In particular, the perturbed Akkermanasiaceae population seemed to cause oxidative stress responses along the gut-liver axis. Overall, the systems biology approach applied in this study highlighted that the effects of host-parasite-microbiome biochemical interactions extended beyond the gut ecosystem to the gut-liver axis. These findings form the first steps in a comprehensive comparison to ascertain the major molecular and biochemical contributors of host-parasite interactions and contribute towards the development of biomarker discovery and precision health solutions for apicomplexan infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0017.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: LC-MS; mesenchymal stem cells; stromal cells; fat differentiation; lipidomics; metabolomics; proteomics; multiomics; network analysis; mathematical modelling
Online: 2 September 2019 (06:07:17 CEST)
The molecular study of fat cell development in the human body is essential for our understanding of obesity and related diseases. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are the ideal source to study fat formation as they are the progenitors of adipocytes. In this work, we used human MSCs, received from surgery waste, and differentiate them into fat adipocytes. The combination of several layers of information coming from lipidomics, metabolomics and proteomics enabled comprehensive analysis of the biochemical pathways in adipogenesis. Simultaneous analysis of metabolites, lipids and proteins in cell culture is challenging due to the compound’s chemical difference so that most studies involve separate analysis with unimolecular strategies. In this study, we employed a multimolecular approach using a two–phase extraction to monitor the crosstalk between lipid metabolism and protein-based signaling in a single sample (~105 cells). We developed an innovative analytical workflow including standardization with in-house produced 13C-isotopically labeled compounds, hyphenated high-end mass spectrometry (high-resolution Orbitrap MS) and chromatography (HILIC, RP) for simultaneous untargeted screening and targeted quantification. Metabolite and lipid concentrations ranged over 3-4 orders of magnitude and were detected down to the low fmol (absolute on column) level. Biological validation and data interpretation of the multiomics workflow was performed based on proteomics network reconstruction, metabolic modelling (MetaboAnalyst 4.0) and pathway analysis (OmicsNet). Comparing MSCs and adipocytes, we observed significant regulation of different metabolites and lipids such as triglycerides, gangliosides and carnitine with 113 fully reprogrammed pathways. The observed changes are in accordance with literature findings dealing with adipogenic differentiation of MSC. These results are a proof of principle for the power of multimolecular extraction combined with orthogonal LC-MS assays and network construction. Considering the analytical and biological validation performed in this study, we conclude that the proposed multiomics workflow is ideally suited for comprehensive follow-up studies on adipogenesis and is fit for purpose for different applications.