ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0329.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar; Doppler frequencies; multi-chromatic analysis; micro-motion; Pyramid of Khnum-Khufu; sonic images
Online: 18 August 2022 (03:45:58 CEST)
A problem with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is that, due to the poor penetrating action of electromagnetic waves inside solid bodies, the capability to observe inside distributed targets is precluded. Under these conditions, imaging action is provided only on the surface of distributed targets. The present work describes an imaging method based on the analysis of micro-movements on the Khnum-Khufu Pyramid, which are usually generated by background seismic waves. The results obtained prove to be very promising, as high-resolution full 3D tomographic imaging of the pyramid's interior and subsurface was achieved. Khnum-Khufu becomes transparent like a crystal when observed in the micro-movement domain. Based on this novelty, we have completely reconstructed internal objects, observing and measuring structures that have never been discovered before. The experimental results are estimated by processing series of SAR images from the second-generation Italian COSMO-SkyMed satellite system, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0335.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Neutrosophic Connctedness; Neutrosophic Graphs; Chromatic Number
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:33:11 CET)
New setting is introduced to study chromatic number. Different types of chromatic numbers and neutrosophic chromatic number are proposed in this way, some results are obtained. Classes of neutrosophic graphs are used to obtains these numbers and the representatives of the colors. Using colors to assign to the vertices of neutrosophic graphs is applied. Some questions and problems are posed concerning ways to do further studies on this topic. Using different types of edges from connectedness in same neutrosophic graphs and in modified neutrosophic graphs to define the relation amid vertices which implies having different colors amid them and as consequences, choosing one vertex as a representative of each color to use them in a set of representatives and finally, using neutrosophic cardinality of this set to compute types of chromatic numbers. This specific relation amid edges is necessary to compute both types of chromatic number concerning the number of representative in the set of representatives and types of neutrosophic chromatic number concerning neutrosophic cardinality of set of representatives. If two vertices have no intended edge, then they can be assigned to same color even they’ve common edge. Basic familiarities with neutrosophic graph theory and graph theory are proposed for this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0226.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Neutrosophic Connctedness; Neutrosophic Graphs; Chromatic Number
Online: 14 December 2021 (11:14:50 CET)
New setting is introduced to study chromatic number. vital chromatic number and n-vital chromatic number are proposed in this way, some results are obtained. Classes of neutrosophic graphs are used to obtains these numbers and the representatives of the colors. Using colors to assign to the vertices of neutrosophic graphs is applied. Some questions and problems are posed concerning ways to do further studies on this topic. Using vital edge from connectedness to define the relation amid vertices which implies having different colors amid them and as consequences, choosing one vertex as a representative of each color to use them in a set of representatives and finally, using neutrosophic cardinality of this set to compute vital chromatic number. This specific relation amid edges is necessary to compute both vital chromatic number concerning the number of representative in the set of representatives and n-vital chromatic number concerning neutrosophic cardinality of set of representatives. If two vertices have no vital edge, then they can be assigned to same color even they’ve common edge. Basic familiarities with neutrosophic graph theory and graph theory are proposed for this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0177.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Neutrosophic Strong; Neutrosophic Graphs; Chromatic Number
Online: 10 December 2021 (13:08:38 CET)
New setting is introduced to study chromatic number. Neutrosophic chromatic number and chromatic number are proposed in this way, some results are obtained. Classes of neutrosophic graphs are used to obtains these numbers and the representatives of the colors. Using colors to assigns to the vertices of neutrosophic graphs is applied. Some questions and problems are posed concerning ways to do further studies on this topic. Using strong edge to define the relation amid vertices which implies having different colors amid them and as consequences, choosing one vertex as a representative of each color to use them in a set of representatives and finally, using neutrosophic cardinality of this set to compute neutrosophic chromatic number. This specific relation amid edges is necessary to compute both chromatic number concerning the number of representative in the set of representatives and neutrosophic chromatic number concerning neutrosophic cardinality of set of representatives. If two vertices have no strong edge, then they can be assigned to same color even they’ve common edge. Basic familiarities with neutrosophic graph theory and graph theory are proposed for this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0302.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: graph entropy; chromatic classes; random graphs
Online: 22 May 2018 (11:59:26 CEST)
Combinatoric measures of entropy capture the complexity of a graph, but rely upon the calculation of its independent sets, or collections of non-adjacent vertices. This decomposition of the vertex set is a known NP-Complete problem and for most real world graphs is an inaccessible calculation. Recent work by Dehmer et al. and Tee et al. identified a number of alternative vertex level measures of entropy that do not suffer from this pathological computational complexity. It can be demonstrated that they are still effective at quantifying graph complexity. It is intriguing to consider whether there is a fundamental link between local and global entropy measures. In this paper, we investigate the existence of correlation between vertex level and global measures of entropy, for a narrow subset of random graphs. We use the greedy algorithm approximation for calculating the chromatic information and therefore Körner entropy. We are able to demonstrate close correlation for this subset of graphs and outline how this may arise theoretically.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0299.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: chromatic polynomial; chromatically equivalent; chromatically unique; necklace graph
Online: 17 August 2018 (11:24:33 CEST)
For a graph G, let P(G, λ) be its chromatic polynomial. Two graphs G and H are said to be chromatically equivalent if P(G,λ) = P(H,λ). A graph is said to be chromatically unique if no other graph shares its chromatic polynomial. In this paper, chromatic polynomial of the necklace graph Nn, for n ≥ 2 has been determined. It is further shown that N3 is chromatically unique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0113.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: ion beam; copper oxide; chromatic change; photoemission spectrum; beam viewer
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:38:45 CET)
The color of a thin copper oxide layer formed on a copper plate was transformed from reddish-brown into blue-purple by irradiation with 5 keV Ar+ ions to a fluence as low as 1 1015 Ar+ cm–2. In the unirradiated copper oxide layer, the copper valence state of Cu2+ as well as Cu+ and/or Cu0 was included as indicated by the presence of a shake-up satellite line in a photoemission spectrum. While for the irradiated one, the satellite line decreased in intensity, indicating that irradiation resulted in the reduction from Cu2+ to Cu+ and/or Cu0. Furthermore, nuclear reaction analysis using a 16O(d, p)17O reaction with 0.85 MeV deuterons revealed a significant loss of oxygen (51015 O atoms cm–2) in the irradiated layer. Thus, the chromatic change observed in the present work originated in the irradiation-induced reduction of a copper oxide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0178.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: chromatic number; graph partitioning; NP to P; motif identifier; protein design
Online: 11 May 2018 (08:58:35 CEST)
Graph coloring is a manifestation of graph partitioning, wherein, a graph is partitioned based on the adjacency of its elements. Partitioning serves potentially as a compartmentalization for any structural problem. Vertex coloring is the heart of the problem which is to find the chromatic number of a graph. The fact that there is no general efficient solution to this problem that may work unequivocally for all graphs opens up the realistic scope for combinatorial optimization algorithms to be invoked. The algorithmic complexity of graph coloring is non-deterministic in polynomial time (NP) and hard. To the best of our knowledge, there is no algorithm as yet that procures an exact solution of the chromatic number comprehensively for any and all graphs within the polynomial (P) time domain. However, several heuristics as well as some approximation algorithms have been attempted to obtain an approximate solution for the same. Here, we present a novel heuristic, namely, the 'trailing path', which returns an approximate solution of the chromatic number within polynomial time, and, with a better accuracy than most existing algorithms. The ‘trailing path’ algorithm is effectively a subtle combination of the search patterns of two existing heuristics (DSATUR and Largest First), and, operates along a trailing path of consecutively connected nodes (and thereby effectively maps to the problem of finding spanning tree(s) of the graph) during the entire course of coloring, where essentially lies both the novelty and the apt of the current approach. The study also suggests that the judicious implementation of randomness is one of the keys towards rendering an improved accuracy in such combinatorial optimization algorithms. Apart from the algorithmic attributes, essential properties of graph partitioning in random and different structured networks have also been surveyed, followed by a comparative study. The study reveals the remarkable stability and absorptive property of chromatic number across a wide array of graphs. Finally, a case study is presented to demonstrate the potential use of graph coloring in protein design – yet another hard problem in structural and evolutionary biology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: multi Server; remote user; mutual authentication; attack
Online: 3 July 2019 (12:08:40 CEST)
From ancient time, electric grid system developed as one way direction in which users get the electricity from generators to far end. However, it is not the consumer centric as its one way process and consumer have no way to communicate to the server. Thus, with the development of digital revolution, the grid converted to smart grid and meter converted to smart meter. In smart grid, the protocol follows the bidirectional way of communication with support of consumers in the system. Recently in 2016, Jo et al. proposed the scheme for smart grid system using privacy preserving model and claimed to be efficient and secure. However, in this paper we have analyzed the scheme of Jo et al. and proved that the scheme is vulnerable to Replay attack and afterwards shows the change in protocol to withstand against this attack.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0187.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: remote sensing; multi-temporal; Landsat; age; canopy; FCD
Online: 9 October 2018 (11:33:18 CEST)
In the oil palm industry, stands age is an important parameter to monitor the sustainability of cultivation, to develop the growth yield model, to identify the disease or stressed area, and to estimate the carbon storage capacity. This research is focused to estimate and distinguish oil palm stands age based on crown/ canopy density obtained using Forest Canopy Density (FCD) model derived from four indices as follows; Advanced Vegetation Index, Bare Soil Index, Shadow Index, and Thermal Index. FCD model employs multi temporal image analysis resulting four classes of oil palm stands age categorized as seed with FCD value of 29–56% (0 years), young with FCD value of 56–63% (1–9 years), teen with FCD value of 63–80% (10–15 years), and mature with FCD value of >80% (>15 years). Minimum canopy density value is 29% even in the zero years old indicates incomplete land clearance or the type of seed planted in the land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0282.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: land-use/land-cover; multi-decadal change analysis; irrigation ponds; textural features; supervised classification; multi-source data
Online: 18 June 2018 (16:40:31 CEST)
A multi-decadal change analysis of the irrigation ponds in Taoyuan, Taiwan was conducted by using multi-source data including digitized ancient maps, declassified single-band CORONA satellite images, and multispectral SPOT images. Supervised LULC classifications were conducted using four textural features derived from the single-band CORONA images and spectral features derived from SPOT images. Post-classification analysis revealed that the number of irrigation ponds in the study area decreased during the post-World War II farmland consolidation period (1945 – 1965) and the subsequent industrialization period (1970 – 2000). However, efforts on restoration of irrigation ponds in recent years have resulted in gradual increases in the number (9%) and total area (12%) of irrigation ponds in the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0274.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: big data; deep learning; intelligent systems; medical imaging; multi-data processing
Online: 16 May 2020 (17:43:42 CEST)
Big Data in medicine includes possibly fast processing of large data sets, both current and historical in purpose supporting the diagnosis and therapy of patients' diseases. Support systems for these activities may include pre-programmed rules based on data obtained from the interview medical and automatic analysis of test results diagnostic results will lead to classification of observations to a specific disease entity. The current revolution using Big Data significantly expands the role of computer science in achieving these goals, which is why we propose a Big Data computer data processing system using artificial intelligence to analyze and process medical images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0173.v1
Online: 16 August 2019 (07:16:53 CEST)
Accurate channel estimation is of utmost importance for massive MIMO systems that allow providing significant improvements in spectral and energy efficiency. In this work, we investigate the spectral efficiency performance and present a channel estimator for multi-cell massive MIMO systems subjected to pilot-contamination. The proposed channel estimator performs well under moderate to aggressive pilot contamination scenarios without prior knowledge of the inter-cell large-scale channel coefficients and noise power. The estimator approximates the performance of a linear Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) as the number of antennas increases. Following, we derive a lower bound closed-form spectral efficiency of the Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) detector in the proposed channel estimator. The simulation results highlight that the proposed estimator performance approaches the linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) channel estimator asymptotically.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: multi-strand cable lines; ampacity; coupled electromagnetic and thermal phenomena
Online: 2 March 2021 (11:16:25 CET)
The paper is focused on numerical modeling of multi-strand cable lines placed in free air. Modeling is carried out within the framework of the so-called multi-physics approach using commercial software. The paper describes in detail the steps undertaken to develop realistic, reliable numerical models of power engineering cables, taking into account their geometries and heat exchange conditions. The results might be of interest to the designers of multi-strand cable systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0219.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: solar energy; micro-cogeneration; exergy; multi-objective optimization; PVT collector; PV panel
Online: 10 September 2020 (04:42:24 CEST)
A photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) collector is a solar-based micro-cogeneration system which generates simultaneously heat and power for buildings. The novelty of this paper is to conduct energy and exergy analysis on PVT collector performance under two different European climate conditions. The performance of the PVT collector is compared to a PV panel. Finally, the PVT design is optimized in terms of thermal and electrical exergy efficiencies. The optimized PVT designs are compared to the PV panel performance as well. The main focus is to find out if the PVT is still competitive with the PV panel electrical output, after maximizing its thermal exergy efficiency. The PVT collector is modelled into Matlab/Simulink to evaluate its performance under varying weather conditions. The PV panel is modelled with the CARNOT toolbox library. The optimization is conducted using Matlab gamultiobj-function based on Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II). The results indicated 7.7% higher annual energy production in Strasbourg. However, the exergy analysis revealed a better quality of thermal energy in Tampere with 72.9% higher thermal exergy production. The electrical output of the PVT is higher than from the PV during the summer months. The thermal exergy- driven PVT design is still competitive compared to the PV panel electrical output.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0171.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: geomechanics; fractures; multi-scale; x-ray tomography; carbonates
Online: 10 May 2018 (16:24:06 CEST)
Abstract: Comparing outcrop data to laboratory results is important to verify and validate experiments of analogue and reservoir materials especially regarding conditions for deformation experiments. This is important better understand highly complex carbonate reservoir strata and their response to changes in subsurface conditions, reducing subsurface uncertainty. This study develops methods to allow for a more straightforward comparison of outcrop data (m-scale) with experimentally created fracture arrays developed in cylindrical samples (cm-scale). The main objective is to assess usefulness of experimentally-produced fracture networks as analogues for subsurface structures, typically at the meter and above scale by developing new techniques to use the lab deformation. It analyses key characteristics of laboratory-induced fracture networks by adapting scanline methods to use with x-ray tomography (XRT) images to allow for comparison with outcrop and field data. To test and verify these new methods two low permeability carbonate samples were used for deformation testing and analysis. Applying the different scanline methods we show that they can be used to analyse lab induced fractures (mm to cm-scale) identified in XRT images for comparison with outcrop data (m-scale). In addition, these methods also allow for quantification of fracture network attributes e.g. fracture spacing, fracture apertures, orientation. This new data bridges the gap between micro-scanlines using thin sections and outcrop scanlines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0042.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: ambient intelligence; ACL; bluetooth; delay, empirical model; intelligent environment; latency; multi-hop; scatternet
Online: 7 April 2017 (04:32:44 CEST)
Intelligent systems are driven by the latest technological advances in so different areas as sensing, embedded systems, wireless communications or context recognition. This paper focuses on some of those areas. Concretely, the paper deals with wireless communications issues on embedded systems. More precisely, the paper combines the multi-hop networking with Bluetooth technology and a quality of service (QoS) metric, the latency. Bluetooth is a radio license free worldwide communication standard that makes low power multi-hop wireless networking available. It establishes piconets (point-to-point and point-to-multipoint links) and scatternets (multi-hop networks). As a result, many Bluetooth nodes can be interconnected to set up ambient intelligent networks. Then, this paper presents the results of the investigation on multi-hop latency with park and sniff Bluetooth low power modes conducted over the hardware test bench previously implemented. In addition, the empirical models to estimate the latency of multi-hop communications over Bluetooth Asynchronous Connectionless Links (ACL) in park and sniff mode are given. The designers of devices and networks for intelligent systems will benefit from the estimation of the latency in Bluetooth multi-hop communications that the models provide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0045.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: verbal decision analysis; multi-objective optimization; software release planning; ZAPROS III-i
Online: 3 July 2018 (12:24:02 CEST)
The activity of prioritizing software requirements should be done as efficiently as possible. Selecting the most stable requirements for the most important customers for the development company can be a positive factor when we consider that the available resource does not always encompass the implementation of all requirements. Quantitative methods for reaching software prioritization in releases are many in the field of Search-Based Software Engineering (SBSE). However, we show that it is possible to use qualitative Verbal Decision Analysis (VDA) methods to solve this same type of problem. Moreover, we will use the ZAPROS III-i methods to prioritize requirements considering the opinion of the decision-maker, who will participate in this process. Finally, the results obtained in the VDA structured methods were quite satisfactory when compared to the methods using SBSE. A comparison of results between quantitative and qualitative methods will be made and discussed later.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0380.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: APR1400; COM3D; Containment Integrity; Hydrogen Flame Acceleration; Multi-Dimensional Hydrogen Analysis System; Overpressure; PAR; Severe Accident
Online: 19 October 2020 (13:20:32 CEST)
Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) established a multi-dimensional hydrogen analysis system to evaluate a hydrogen release, distribution, and combustion in the containment of a nuclear power plant using MAAP, GASFLOW, and COM3D. KAERI developed the COM3D analysis methodology on the basis of the COM3D validation results against the experiments of ENACCEF and THAI. The proposed analysis methodology accurately predicts the peak overpressure with an error range of approximately ±10% using the Kawanabe turbulent flame speed model. KAERI performed a hydrogen flame acceleration analysis using the multi-dimensional hydrogen analysis system for a severe accident initiated by a station blackout (SBO) under the assumption of 100% metal-water reaction in the reactor pressure vessel for evaluating an overpressure buildup in the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe (APR1400). The COM3D calculation results using the established analysis methodology showed that the calculated peak pressure in the containment was much lower than the fracture pressure of the APR1400 containment. This calculation result may have resulted from a large air volume of the containment, a reduced hydrogen concentration owing to passive auto-catalytic recombiners installed in the containment, and a lot of stem presence during the hydrogen flame acceleration in the containment. Therefore, we can know that the current design of the APR1400 containment maintains its integrity when the flame acceleration occurs during the severe accident initiated by the SBO accident.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0431.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban resilience; regional resilience; sustainability; cities; multi-level approach; complex systems; panarchy; adaptive cycles
Online: 19 October 2018 (04:16:55 CEST)
This study aims to understand the current state of research in urban resilience and to open a discussion about multi-level perspectives for this concept. Starting with the history of the concept of resilience, we identify three main stages in resilience concept’s evolution: conceptualization, contextualization and operationalization. Confusion occurs between sustainability and resilience, therefore we clearly separate these two concepts by creating conceptual maps. Such maps also underline the specificities of urban and regional resilience discourses. We illustrate that urban resilience research, operating within intra-urban processes, is oriented towards natural disasters, while regional resilience research, operating mostly within inter-urban processes, is oriented towards economic shocks. We show that these two approaches to resilience – urban and regional – are complementary, and we propose to integrate them into a multi-level perspective. By combining these two discourses, we propose a multi-level approach to urban resilience that takes into account both top-down and bottom-up resistance processes. In the discussion section, we propose to take the panarchy perspective as a theoretical framework for multi-level urban resilience, that explains the interactions between different levels through adaptive cycles, relationships between which can help to explain urban resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0277.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Multi-point iterative methods; Banach space; local-semi-local convergence analysis.
Online: 24 December 2018 (12:37:26 CET)
The aim of this article is to extend the local as well as the semi-local convergence analysis of multi-point iterative methods using center Lipschitz conditions in combination with our idea, of the restricted convergence region. It turns out that this way a finer convergence analysis for these methods is obtained than in earlier works and without additional hypotheses. Numerical examples favoring our technique over earlier ones completes this article.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0627.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: pathfinding; algorithms; multi-criteria; multi-modal; multi-network; transportation
Online: 28 August 2020 (09:09:37 CEST)
In daily travel and activities, pathfinding is a significant process. They are often used in transportation routes calculation. They have now evolved to be able to solve most situations of the pathfinding and its related problems. This review describes previous and recent studies on the pathfinding algorithms. It reviews the development of pathfinding algorithms in a classification base on their usage. The aim is to summarize the application of the pathfinding algorithms for the readers interested in the subject that can be used as a supplement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0408.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: tidal forces, numeric simulation, acceleration vectors, multi-planetary system, extrasolar planets/planet systems
Online: 19 July 2021 (11:50:17 CEST)
Volcanism powered by tidal forces inside celestial bodies can provide enough energy to keep important solvents for living systems in the liquid phase. Moreover, tidal forces and their environmental consequences may strongly influence habitability of planets and other celestial bodies and may result in special forms of live and living conditions. A prerequisite to calculate such tidal interactions and consequences is depending on simulations for tidal accelerations in a multi-body system. Unfortunately, from measurements in many extrasolar planetary systems only few physical and orbital parameters are well enough known for investigated celestial bodies. For calculating tidal acceleration vectors under missing most orbital parameter exactly, a simulation method is developed that is only based on a few basic parameters, easily measurable even in extrasolar planetary systems. Such a method as being presented here, allows finding a relation between the tidal acceleration vectors and potential heating inside celestial objects. Using values and results of our model approach to our solar system as a “gold standard” for feasibility allowed us to classify this heating in relation to different forms of volcanism. This “gold standard” approach gave us a classification measure for the relevance of tidal heating in other extrasolar systems with a reduced availability of exact physical parameters. We would help to estimate conditions for the identification of potential candidates for further sophisticated investigations by more complex established methods like viscoelastic multi-body theories. As a first example, we applied the procedures developed here to the extrasolar planetary system TRAPPIST-1 as an example to check our working hypothesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0269.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: IIoT; Platform Selection; Multi criteria analysis; MCDA; AHP; PROMETHEE-II; Cloud; Methodology
Online: 19 February 2020 (04:02:12 CET)
Industry 4.0 is having a great impact in all smart efforts. This is not a single product, but is composed of several technologies, being one of them Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). Currently, there are very varied implementation options offered by several companies, and this imposes a new challenge to companies that want to implement IoT in their processes. This challenge suggests to use multi-criteria analysis to make a repeatable and justified decision, requiring a set of alternatives and criteria. This paper proposes a new methodology and comprehensive criteria to help organizations to take an educated decision by applying multi-criteria analysis. Here, we suggest a new original use of PROMETHEE-II with full example from weight calculation up to IoT platform selection, showing this methodology as an effective study for other organizations interested to select an IoT platform. The criteria proposed outstands from previous work by including not only technical aspects, but economic and social criteria, providing a full view of the problem analyzed. A case of study was used to prove this proposed methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0366.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: NBA; player’s value; entropy; multi-attribute decision-making; player’s value matrix; value positioning model
Online: 25 May 2018 (12:00:44 CEST)
The value of an NBA basketball player varies at each crucial point in time, depending on the player’s career and performance. This study constructs a player’s value assessment model. The model comprises two parts. First, from an objective perspective, entropy is employed to measure each player’s achievement in five categories—rebounds, assists, steals, blocked shots, and scores. The total entropy assessment value is calculated and then combined with the players’ scores to develop a player's value matrix to assess the relative value model among players of the same type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0059.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: multi-faith spaces; secularisation; multi-faith paradigm; unaffiliated; multi-belief
Online: 15 January 2018 (08:24:56 CET)
Multi-Faith Spaces (MFS) are a relatively recent invention that quickly gained in significance. On the one hand, they offer a convenient solution for satisfying needs of people with diverse beliefs in the institutional context of hospitals, schools, airports, etc. On the other hand, as Andrew Crompton pointed out, they are politically significant because the multi-faith paradigm “is replacing Christianity as the face of public religion in Europe” (2012, p. 493). Due to their ideological entanglement, MFS are often used as the means to promote either a more privatised version of religion, or a certain denominational preference. Two distinct designs are used to achieve these means: negative in the case of the former, and positive in the latter. Neither is without problems, and neither adequately fulfils its primary purpose of serving diverse groups of believers. Both, however, seem to follow the biases and main problems of secularism. In this paper, I analyse recent developments of MFS to detail their main problems and answer the question, whether the MFS, and the underlying Multi-Faith Paradigm, can be classified as a continuation of secularism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0227.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: Data integration; Metabolomics; Multi-tissue; Multiblock; Joint and unique multiblock analysis (JUMBA), OnPLS; Multiblock Orthogonal Component Analysis (MOCA)
Online: 11 July 2020 (04:01:03 CEST)
Data integration has been proven to provide valuable information. The information extracted using data integration in the form of multiblock analysis can pinpoint both common and unique trends in the different blocks. When working with small multiblock datasets the number of possible integration methods is drastically reduced. To investigate the application of multiblock analysis in cases where one has few number of samples, we studied a small metabolomic multiblock dataset containing six blocks (i.e. tissue types), only including common metabolites. We used a single model multiblock analysis method called Joint and unique multiblock analysis (JUMBA) and compare it to a commonly used method, concatenated PCA. These methods were used to detect trends in the dataset and identify underlying factors responsible for metabolic variations. Using JUMBA, we were able to interpret the extracted components and link them to relevant biological properties. JUMBA shows how the observations are related to one another, the stability of these relationships and to what extent each of the blocks contribute to the components. These results indicate that multiblock methods can be useful even with a small number of samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0476.v1
Subject: Keywords: urban form; landscape metrics; factor analysis; multi-dimensional scaling; Seoul metropolitan region (SMR)
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:43:06 CEST)
Urban form is associated with both socio-economic and urban physical properties. This study explores the differences among urban forms in the Seoul Metropolitan Region with a comparison between census-based socioeconomic variables and landscape metrics computed from remotely sensed data. To accomplish this, factor analysis and multi-dimensional scaling were used with the selected variables and metrics. When all of the measures are considered together, four types of cities and towns emerged: 1) exurban-fragmented high growth, 2) exurban-fragmented low growth, 3) compact-extensive urban core and 4) sub-urban compact-high growth. The results indicate that the fusion of knowledge of the physical urban layout and that of socio-economic characteristics is beneficial for a better understanding of urban spatial patterns. However, there remain challenges in delineating each urbanized area and with indicator selection for comparing urban form across cities and towns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0060.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: multi-layer core corrugated sandwich panel; three-point bending; 3D printing; core shape; number of core layers
Online: 2 August 2022 (10:00:47 CEST)
Single-layer core corrugated sandwich panels generally consist of a corrugated core and two layers of panels, while multi-layer core corrugated sandwich panels are formed by stacking multiple layers of panels with multiple layers of core layers. In this study, integrated multilayer core corrugated sandwich panels with different shapes of corrugated cores (triangular, trapezoidal, and rectangular) and the different number of core layers were fabricated using 3D printing technology, and the mechanical behavior of such multilayer core corrugated sandwich panels under quasi-static three-point bending was investigated using experiments and numerical simulations. The effects of core shape and number of core layers on the bending deformation process, damage mode, load carrying capacity, and bending energy dissipation capacity of multilayer core sandwich panels are discussed. Parametric design of multilayer triangular core corrugated sandwich panels was also carried out by finite element software ABAQUS. It was found that a new multilayer corrugated sandwich panel with a multi-layer core is better than the single core shape multilayer corrugated sandwich panel in terms of bending load capacity, energy dissipation capacity and deformation capacity can be obtained through the combination design of different core shapes.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: probability exponent; multi-server parallel system; discrete time model; arrangement of multiple sets; large deviation theory
Online: 26 December 2019 (10:51:23 CET)
A multi-server parallel system dispatches the incoming job, which contains kn tasks into n servers. A job is considered to be computed if all the tasks associated with the job are processed. One job’s tasks can be encoded into at least kn “replicas” such that the job is considered to be served if any kn replicas finishing computation. In this paper, we analyze the random scheduling policy of a multi-server computing system under discrete time model in terms of Quality of Exponent (QoE), which is defined as the probability exponent that a typical job can be computed within a given number of time slots. We let kn/n be a constant. Assuming that any task of any job can be randomly dispatched by a “scheduler” to any server, and computing each task takes exactly one time slot. We divide the calculation of probability exponent into two parts, exponent of numerator and exponent of denominator. For the denominator, we give the almost exact exponent using Lagrange multiplier method, while for the numerator, an upper bound of the numerator’s exponent is provided. In addition, we also express the exponent in terms of information theoretical quantities and reconsider both of exponents in the context of large deviation theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: active distribution network; distributed generation; multi-scene analysis; Scene reduction; improved clustering algorithm; bi-level programming; comprehensive security index
Online: 8 September 2019 (16:28:28 CEST)
In recent years, distributed generation technology has developed rapidly. Renewable energy, represented by wind energy and solar energy, has been widely studied and utilized. In order to give full play to the advantages of Distributed Generation (DG) and meet the challenges after power grid access, Active Distribution Network (ADN) is considered as the future development direction of traditional distribution network because of its ability of active management. Nowadays, multi-scenario analysis is widely used in the research of optimal allocation of distributed power supply in active distribution network. Aiming at the problems that may arise when using multi-scenario analysis to plan DG with uncertainties in large-scale scenarios, a scenario reduction method based on improved clustering algorithm is proposed. The validity of the scene reduction method is tested, and the feasibility of the method is verified. At present, there are few studies on the optimal allocation of DG in ADN under fault state. In this paper, comprehensive safety indicators are introduced. Considering the timing characteristics of DG and the influence of active management mode, a bi-level programming model is established, which aims at minimizing the investment of annual life cycle and the removal of active power. The bi-level model is a complex mixed integer non-linear programming model. A hybrid algorithm combining cuckoo search algorithm and primal dual interior point method is used to solve the model. Finally, through the simulation of the IEEE-33 node system, the superiority of the scenario reduction method and the comprehensive security index used in this paper to optimize the configuration of DG in ADN is verified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0105.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: multi-objective multi-level programming; fuzzy parameters; TOPSIS; fuzzy goal programming; multi-objective decision making
Online: 15 February 2018 (20:29:20 CET)
The paper proposes TOPSIS method for solving multi-objective multi-level programming problem (MO-MLPP) with fuzzy parameters via fuzzy goal programming (FGP). At first, - cut method is used to transform the fuzzily described MO-MLPP into deterministic MO-MLPP. Then, for specific , we construct the membership functions of distance functions from positive ideal solution (PIS) and negative ideal solution (NIS) of all level decision makers (DMs). Thereafter, FGP based multi-objective decision model is established for each level DM for obtaining individual optimal solution. A possible relaxation on decisions for all DMs is taken into account for satisfactory solution. Subsequently, two FGP models are developed and compromise optimal solutions are found by minimizing the sum of negative deviational variables. To recognize the better compromise optimal solution, the concept of distance functions is utilized. Finally, a novel algorithm for MO-MLPP involving fuzzy parameters is provided and an illustrative example is solved to verify the proposed procedure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0061.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: multi-target tracking; multi-Bernoulli filter; sequential Monte-Carlo
Online: 16 February 2017 (09:39:29 CET)
We develop an interactive likelihood (ILH) for sequential Monte-Carlo (SMC) methods for image-based multiple target tracking applications. The purpose of the ILH is to improve tracking accuracy by reducing the need for data association. In addition, we integrate a recently developed deep neural network for pedestrian detection along with the ILH with a multi-Bernoulli filter. We evaluate the performance of the multi-Bernoulli filter with the ILH and the pedestrian detector in a number of publicly available datasets (2003 PETS INMOVE, AFL, and TUD-Stadtmitte) using standard, well-known multi-target tracking metrics (OSPA and CLEAR MOT). In all datasets, the ILH term increases the tracking accuracy of the multi-Bernoulli filter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0081.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: age-related skeletal muscle loss; sarcopenia; malnutrition risk assessment; DXA; multi-frequency BIA; aging
Online: 23 August 2017 (17:57:14 CEST)
Background: Appendicular skeletal muscle (or lean) mass (ALM) estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is considered to be a preferred method for sarcopenia studies. However, DXA is expensive, has limited portability, and requires radiation exposure. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is inexpensive, easy to use, and portable; thus BIA might be useful in sarcopenia investigations. However, a large variety of models have been commercially supplied by different companies, and for most consumer products, the equations estimating ALM are not disclosed. It is therefore difficult to use these equations for research purposes. In particular, the BIA equation is often age-dependent, which leads to fundamental difficulty in examining age-related ALM loss. The aims of the current study were as follows: (1) to develop and validate an equation to estimate ALM using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA) based on theoretical models, and (2) to establish sarcopenia cutoff values using the equation for the Japanese population. Methods: We measured height (Ht), weight, and ALM obtained using DXA and a standing-posture 8-electrode MF-BIA (5, 50, 250 kHz) in 756 Japanese individuals aged 18 to 86-years-old (222 men and 301 women as developing equation group and 97 men and 136 women as a cross validation group). The traditional impedance index (Ht2/Z50) and impedance ratio of high and low frequency (Z250/Z5) of hand to foot values were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with ALM as dependent variable in men and women separately. Results: We created the following equations: ALM = (0.6947 × (Ht2/Z50)) + (−55.24 × (Z250/Z5)) + (−10,940 × (1/Z50)) + 51.33 for men, and ALM = (0.6144 × (Ht2/Z50)) + (−36.61 × (Z250/Z5)) + (−9332 × (1/Z50)) + 37.91 for women. Additionally, we conducted measurements in 1624 men and 1368 women aged 18 to 40 years to establish sarcopenia cutoff values in the Japanese population. The mean values minus 2 standard deviations of the skeletal muscle mass index (ALM/Ht2) in these participants were 6.8 and 5.7 kg/m2 in men and women, respectively. Conclusion: The current study established and validated a theoretical and age-independent equation using MF-BIA to estimate ALM and provided reasonable sarcopenia cutoff values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: shale gas reservoir; stress sensitivity; multi-fractured horizontal well; spatially varying permeability; pressure transient analysis
Online: 14 August 2019 (09:22:26 CEST)
Shale gas reservoirs (SGR) are important replacements for conventional energy resources and have been widely exploited by hydraulic fracturing technologies. On the one hand, due to the inherent ultra-low permeability and porosity, there is stress sensitivity in the reservoirs generally. On the other hand, hydraulic fractures and the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) generated by the massive hydraulic fracturing operation have contrast properties with the original reservoirs. These two phenomena bring huge challenges in SGR transient pressure analysis. Although some works in the literatures have been done on the transient pressure analysis of multi-fractured horizontal wells in SGR, unfortunately, none of them has taken the stress sensitivity and spatially varying permeability of SRV zone into consideration simultaneously. To fill this gap, this paper first idealizes the SGR to be four linear composite regions. What’s more, SRV zone is further divided into sub-sections on the basis of non-uniform distribution of proppant within SRV zone which easily yields spatially varying permeability away from the main hydraulic fracture. The stress sensitivity is characterized by the varying permeability depended on the pore pressure. By means of perturbation transformation and Laplace transformation, an analytical multi-linear flow model (MLFM) is obtained and validated by the comparison with the previous model. On the basis of our model, the flow regimes are identified and the sensitivity analysis of critical parameters are conducted to further understand the transient pressure behaviors. The research results provided by this work are of significance for well test interpretation and production performance analysis of SGR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0033.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: MV20/20; PoDFA; LiMCA; Business Analytics; anomaly detection; statistical process control; K-Means; DBSCAN; multi-layer perceptron; activation fucntion; inclusion; confusion matrix
Online: 19 August 2022 (06:03:08 CEST)
This paper presents work done as part of a transformation effort towards a greener and more sustainable Aluminium manufacturing plant. The effort includes reducing the carbon footprint by minimising waste and increasing operational efficiency. The contribution of this work includes the reduction of waste through the implementation of autonomous, real-time quality measurement and classification at an Aluminium casthouse. Data is collected from the MV20/20 which uses ultrasound pulses to detect molten Aluminium inclusions, which degrade the quality of the metal and cause subsequent metal waste. The sensor measures cleanliness, inclusion counts and distributions from 20 - 160 microns. The contribution of this work is in the development of business analytics to implement condition-based monitoring through anomaly detection, and to classify inclusion types for samples that failed. For anomaly detection, multivariate K-Means and DBSCAN algorithms are compared as they have been proven to work in a wide range of datasets. For classification, a two-stage classifier is implemented. The first stage classifies the success or failure of the sample, while the second stage classifies the inclusion responsible for the failed sample. The algorithms considered include logistic regression, support vector machine, multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function network. The multi-layer perceptron offers the best performance using k-fold cross-validation, and is further tuned using grid search to explore the possibility of an even better performance. The results reveal that the model has achieved a global maximum in performance. Recommendations include the integration of additional sensor systems and the improvements in quality assurance practices.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0497.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: fatty acids; lipid content; invasive species; Kjeldahl; Gas chromatography; Integrated Multi Trophic Aquaculture; Pagasitikos Gulf
Online: 26 November 2021 (10:24:14 CET)
The total lipid and protein content of the invasive caprellid amphipod Caprella scaura, from the biofouling communities of fish farm cages in the Pagasitikos Gulf were analyzed and compared among seasons. Proteins were the most abundant component (48.5 – 49.3%). Lipid content was relatively lower, with a wider range (6.7 – 34%) and showed a distinct seasonal fluctuation with high values in the winter population and a gradual decrease in spring and summer, with the lowest values in Autumn. Composition of the fatty acids profile was consistent among the seasons, with palmitic (16:0), Oleic (18:1n-9), Eicosapentanoic (20:5n-3)(EPA) and Docosahexanoic acid (22:6n-3 )(DHA) being the most abundant fatty acids. The presence of high levels of EPA and DHA fatty acids makes the species a potential candidate for use of these organisms in aquaculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0125.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA); online broker; misspecification of criteria; structural uncertainty; unsupervised machine learning; factor analysis, quality of service (QoS)
Online: 15 January 2018 (11:29:56 CET)
Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), one of the prevalent branches of operations research, aims to design mathematical and computational tools for selecting the best alternative among several choices with respect to specific criteria. In the cloud, MCDA based online brokers uses customer specified criteria to rank different service providers. However, subjected to limited domain knowledge, the customer may exclude relevant or include irrelevant criterion, which could result in suboptimal ranking of service providers. To deal with such misspecification, this research proposes a model, which uses notion of factor analysis from the domain of unsupervised machine learning. The model is evaluated using two quality-of-service (QoS) based datasets. The first dataset i.e., feedback from customers, was compiled using leading review websites such as Cloud Hosting Reviews, Best Cloud Computing Providers, and Cloud Storage Reviews and Ratings. The second dataset i.e., feedback from servers, was generated from cloud brokerage architecture that was emulated using high performance computing (HPC) cluster at University of Luxembourg (HPC @ Uni.lu). The simulation runs in a stable cloud environment i.e. when uncertainty is low, shows that online broker (equipped with the proposed model) produces optimized ranking of service providers as compared to other brokers. This is due the fact that proposed model assigns priorities to criteria objectively (using machine learning) rather than using priorities based on subjective judgments of the customer. This research will benefit potential cloud customers that view insufficient domain knowledge as a limiting factor for acquisition of web services in the cloud.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0363.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: multibody simulation; multi-way sensitivity analysis; spinal implant anchor screw; stiffness and damping parameters
Online: 24 January 2022 (14:56:06 CET)
Finite element (FE) modeling is commonly used as a method to investigate the influence of medical devices, such as implants and screws and their effects on the biomechanical behavior of the spine. Another simulation method is a multi-body simulation (MBS), where the model is composed of several non-deformable bodies. MBS solvers generally require a very short computing time for dynamic tasks compared to an FE analysis. Considering this computational advantage, in this study, we examine whether parameters whose values are not known a priory can be determined with sufficient accuracy using MBS model. Therefore, we propose a Many-at-a-time sensitivity analysis method that allows approximating these a priory unknown parameters without requiring long simulation times. This method enables a high degree of MBS model optimization to be achieved in an iterative process. The sensitivity analysis method is applied to a simplified screw-vertebra model, consisting of an anterior anchor implant screw and vertebral body of C4. An experiment described in the literature is used as a basis for developing and assessing the potential of the method for sensitivity analysis and to validate the models action. The optimal model parameters for the MBS model were determined to be c=823224N/m for stiffness and d=488Ns/m for damping. The presented method of parameter identification can be used in studies including more complex MBS spine models or to set initial parameter values that are not available as initial values for FE models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0245.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: preload loss; conical abutment screw; Multi-Unit-Abutment; OT-Bridge; prosthetic connection; implant-supported prosthesis; loosening torque; tightening torque
Online: 10 December 2020 (10:21:40 CET)
Background: To compare the loss of preload in absence of loading and after a fixed number of ideal masticatory cycles in two different connection systems using all-on-four prosthetic model. Methods: Two equal models of an edentulous mandible rehabilitated with all-on-four technique with two types of abutment system (MUA and OT-Bridge) supporting a hybrid prosthesis, were used. Initial torque values of the prosthetic fixing screw, after ten minutes from initial screw tightening and after 400000 masticatory cycles were registered using a mechanical torque gauge. Differences between initial and final torque values were reported for each anchoring system and the two systems were finally compared. Results: No statistically significant differences regarding the loss of preload between MUA and OT-Bridge system were found after 400000 masticatory cycles; however, in MUA system it was found between anterior and posterior implant screws. A significant difference in preload loss was found only for MUA system comparing the initial screw torque to that measured after 10 minutes from the tightening in absence of cyclic loadings. Conclusions: MUA and OT-Bridge are reliable prosthetic anchoring systems able to tolerate repeated masticatory cycles also on distal cantilever in all-on-four rehabilitation model without any significant loss of preload in screw tightening
Subject: Keywords: UAV; multi-spectral imageries; multi-locational; Maize yield; smallholder; vegetation indices
Online: 19 October 2020 (16:00:27 CEST)
Rapid assessment of maize yields in smallholder farming system is important to understand its spatial and temporal variability and for timely agronomic decision-support. Imageries acquired with unmanned air vehicles (UAV) offer opportunity to assess agronomic variables at field scale, however, it is not clear if this can be translated into reliable yield assessment on smallholder farms where field conditions, maize genotypes, and management practices vary within short distances. In this study, we assessed the predictability of maize grain yield using UAV-derived vegetation indices (VI), with(out) biophysical variables, in smallholder farms. High-resolution images were acquired with UAV-borne multispectral sensor at 4 and 8 weeks after sowing (WAS) on 31 farmers’ managed fields (FMFs) and 12 nearby Nutrient Omission Trials (NOT), all distributed across 5 locations within the core maize region of Nigeria. The NOTs included non-fertilized and fertilized plots (with and without micronutrients), sown with open-pollinated or hybrid maize genotypes. Acquired multispectral images were post-processed into several three (s) vegetation indices (VIs), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference red-edge (NDRE), green-normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI). Biophysical variables, plant height (Ht) and percent canopy cover (CC), were measured with the georeferenced plot locations recorded. In the NOTs, the nutrient status, not genotype, influenced the grain yield variability and outcome. The maximum grain yield observed in NOTs was 9.3 tha-1, compared to 5.4 tha-1 in FMF. Without accounting for between- and within-field variations, there was no relationship between UAV-derived VIs and grain yield at 4WAS (r<0.02, P>0.1), but significant correlations were observed at 8WAS (r≤0.3; p<0.001). Ht was positively correlated with grain yield at 4WAS (r=0.5, R2=0.25, p<0.001), and more strongly at 8WAS (r=0.7, R2=0.55, p<0.001), while relationship between CC and yield was only significant at 8WAS. By accounting for within- and between-field variations in NOTs and FMF (separately) through linear mixed-effects modeling, predictability of grain yield from UAV-derived VIs was generally (R2≤0.24), however, the inclusion of ground-measured biophysical variable (mainly Ht) improved the explained yield variability (R2 ≥0.62, RMSEP≤0.35) in NOTs but not in FMF. We conclude that yield prediction with UAV-acquired imageries (before harvest) is more reliable under controlled experimental conditions (NOTs), than in actual farmer-managed fields where various confounding agronomic factors can amplify noise-signal within the vegetation canopy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0209.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Sign Language Recognition; Multi-modality; Late Fusion; multi-sensor; Gesture Recognition
Online: 8 August 2020 (17:28:00 CEST)
In this work, we show that a late fusion approach to multi-modality in sign language recognition improves the overall ability of the model in comparison to the singular approaches of Computer Vision (88.14%) and Leap Motion data classification (72.73%). With a large synchronous dataset of 18 BSL gestures collected from multiple subjects, two deep neural networks are benchmarked and compared to derive a best topology for each. The Vision model is implemented by a CNN and optimised MLP and the Leap Motion model is implemented by an evolutionary optimised deep MLP topology search. Next, the two best networks are fused for synchronised processing which results in a better overall result (94.44%) since complementary features are learnt in addition to the original task. The hypothesis is further supported by application of the three models to a set of completely unseen data where a multi-modality approach achieves the best results relative to the single sensor method. When transfer learning with the weights trained via BSL, all three models outperform standard random weight distribution when classifying ASL, and the best model overall for ASL classification was the transfer learning multi-modality approach which scored 82.55% accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0269.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electric Moped Scooter Sharing; E-Moped; Shared Mobility; Urban Mobility; Life Cycle Assessment; Sustainability; Total Cost Of Ownership; Multi-Agent Transport Simulation; MATSim; Berlin
Online: 9 June 2021 (15:30:13 CEST)
Electric moped scooter sharing services have recently experienced strong growth rates, particularly in Europe. Due to their compactness, environmental-friendliness and convenience, shared e-mopeds are suitable modes of transport in urban mobility to help reduce the environmental impact. However, its traffic-related, economic and environmental effects are merely represented in academic research. We used passenger car traffic data in Berlin generated by the multi-agent transport simulation framework MATSim to develop a python-based simulation, resembling an e-moped sharing system. Based on the results, a total cost of ownership and a life cycle assessment for fleet sizes of 2,500, 10,000 and 50,000 vehicles were conducted. The results indicate that a substantial part of all passenger car trips in Berlin can be substituted. The larger the fleet, the more and longer trips are replaced. Simultaneously, the efficiency in terms of fleet utilization decreases. The scenario with 10,000 e-mopeds offers the lowest total distance-based costs for sharing operators, whereas a fleet consisting of 2,500 vehicles exhibits the lowest environmental emissions per kilometer driven over the expected lifespan of a shared e-moped. Based on the renewable energy potential for 2050 forecasted by the German Federal Environment Agency, a significant overall decline in environmental impacts can be achieved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0413.v1
Online: 21 January 2021 (09:31:21 CET)
Urgent environmental challenges and emerging additive manufacturing (AM) technologies push research towards more performant and new materials. In the field of metallurgy, high entropy alloys (HEAs) have recently represented a topic of intense research because of their promising properties, such as high temperature strength and stability. Moreover, this class of multi-principal element alloys (MPEAs) have opened up researcher community to unexplored compositional spaces, making prosper literature of high-throughput methodologies and tools for rapidly screening large number of alloys. However, none of the methods has been aimed to design new MPEAs for AM process known as selective laser melting (SLM) so far. Here we conducted nanoindentation testing on single scan tracks of elemental powder blends and pre-alloyed powders after ball milling of AlTiCuNb and AlTiVNb. Results show that nanoindentation can represent an effective technique to gain information about phase evolution during laser scanning, contributing to accelerate the development of new MPEAs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0161.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: multi-agent systems; multi-agent reinforcement learning; internet of vehicles; urban area
Online: 11 March 2022 (05:13:15 CET)
Smart Internet of Vehicles (IoVs) combined with Artificial Intelligence (AI) will contribute to vehicle decision-making in the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). Multi-Vehicle Pursuit games (MVP), a multi-vehicle cooperative ability to capture mobile targets, is becoming a hot research topic gradually. Although there are some achievements in the field of MVP in the open space environment, the urban area brings complicated road structures and restricted moving spaces as challenges to the resolution of MVP games. We define an Observation-constrained MVP (OMVP) problem in this paper and propose a Transformer-based Time and Team Reinforcement Learning scheme (T3OMVP) to address the problem. First, a new multi-vehicle pursuit model is constructed based on decentralized partially observed Markov decision processes (Dec-POMDP) to instantiate this problem. Second, by introducing and modifying the transformer-based observation sequence, QMIX is redefined to adapt to the complicated road structure, restricted moving spaces and constrained observations, so as to control vehicles to pursue the target combining the vehicle’s observations. Third, a multi-intersection urban environment is built to verify the proposed scheme. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed T3OMVP scheme achieves significant improvements relative to state-of-the-art QMIX approaches by 9.66%~106.25%. Code is available at https://github.com/pipihaiziguai/T3OMVP.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Desalination; Multi Effect Distillation; Multi Stage Flash; Vapor Compression Distillation; Renewable Energies.
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:33:03 CET)
Abstract: Thermal desalination is yet a reliable technology in the treatment of brackish water and seawater; however, its demanding high energy requirements have lagged it compared to other non-thermal technologies such as reverse osmosis. This review provides an outline of the development and trends of the three most commercially used thermal or phase change technologies worldwide: Multi Effect Distillation (MED), Multi Stage Flash (MSF), and Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD). First, state of water stress suffered by regions with little fresh water availability and existing desalination technologies that could become an alternative solution are shown. The most recent studies published for each commercial thermal technology are presented, focusing on optimizing the desalination process, improving efficiencies, and reducing energy demands. Then, an overview of the use of renewable energy and its potential for integration into both commercial and non-commercial desalination systems is shown. Finally, research trends and their orientation towards hybridization of technologies and use of renewable energies as a relevant alternative to the current problems of brackish water desalination are discussed. This reflective and updated review will help researchers to have a detailed state of the art of the subject and to have a starting point for their research, since current advances and trends on thermal desalination are shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Bayesian Network; Root Cause Analysis; Failure Mode and Effect Analysis; Lithium-Ion 15 Battery Cell; Failure Propagation; Multi-Stage Production; Manufacturing Process; Process Optimization; Scrap Rate
Online: 14 December 2020 (09:31:30 CET)
The production of lithium-ion battery cells is characterized by a high degree of complexit due to numerous cause-effect relationships between process characteristics. Knowledge about the multi-stage production is spread among several experts, rendering tasks such as failure analysis challenging. In this paper, a method is presented, which includes expert knowledge acquisition in production ramp-up by combining Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) with a Bayesian Network. We show the effectiveness of this holistic method by building up a large scale, cross-process Bayesian Failure Network in lithium-ion battery production. Using this model, we are able to conduct root cause analyses as well as analyses of failure propagation. The former support operators in identifying root causes once a cell possesses a specific failure by calculating most-probable explanations matched to the individual battery cell data. The latter enable us to analyze propagation of failures and deviations in the production chain and thus provide support for placement of quality gates, leading to a significant reduction in scrap rate. Moreover, it gives an insight into which process steps are key drivers for which final product characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0560.v1
Subject: Keywords: Urbanization growth prediction; Sustainable development, Land Change Modeler; IDRISI Selva; Land use land cover; Coastal cities; Lagos; Markov Chain; Multi-Layer Perceptron; Sustainability; Agenda 2063
Online: 23 July 2020 (12:32:04 CEST)
The most extensive urban growths in the next 30 years are expected to occur in developing countries. Lagos, Nigeria - Africa’s second most populous megacity- is a prime example. To achieve more sustainable and resilient cities, there is a need for modeling the urban growth patterns of major cities and analyzing their implications. In this study, the urban growth of Lagos state was modeled using the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network for the transition modeling and the Markov Chain analysis for the change prediction, achieving a model accuracy of 81.8%. An innovative visual validation of the model results using the ArcGIS was combined with kappa correlation statistics. The results show that by 2031, built-up areas will be the most spatially extensive LULC class in the study area with percentage coverage of 34.1% as opposed to 9% in 1986. The coverage of bare areas is also expected to increase by 53% between 2016 and 2031. Conversely, 24.9% and 68.3% loss of forestlands and wetlands respectively, are expected between 2016 and 2031. In view of the 11th goal of SDGs which focuses on achieving sustainable cities and communities, the objectives of African Union’s Agenda 2063, and based on the urban growth trends observed, the study recommends a prioritization of vertical expansion as opposed to the current horizontal urban growth trends in the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0307.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: constrained optimization; multi-operator; multi-parameter adaptation; ensemble constraint handling techniques; Evolutionary Algorithms
Online: 17 August 2022 (08:35:44 CEST)
Real-world optimization problems are often governed by one or more constraints. Over the last few decades, extensive research has been performed in Constrained Optimization Problems (COPs) fueled by advances in computational intelligence. In particular, Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) are a preferred tool for practitioners for solving these COPs within practicable time limits. We propose an ensemble of multi- method hybrid EA framework with four mutation operators, two crossover operators, multi-search [Differential Evolution (DE) & Gaining Sharing Knowledge (GSK)] optimization algorithm, and ensemble of constraint handling techniques to solve global real- world constrained optimization problem. The proposed frame- work FEPEA has an ascendancy of multiple adaptation strategies concerning the control parameters, search mechanisms, two sub-populations as well as uses knowledge sharing mechanism between junior and senior phases. The algorithm also combines the power of four popular constraint handling techniques (CHT) and uses a voting mechanism to select any particular CHT. On top of that, this algorithm also uses both linear and non- linear population size reduction in every step of the evolutionary process. We test our method on 57 real-world problems provided as part of the CEC 2020 special session & competition on real- world constrained optimization benchmark suite. Experimental results indicate that FEPEA is able to achieve state-of-the- art performance on real-world constrained global optimization when compared against other well-known real-world constrained optimizers.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: bond graph; multi bond; vector bond; hybrid; switching; multi-body; dynamics; system; model
Online: 23 April 2020 (10:33:06 CEST)
The hybrid bond graph has been studied in depth for scalar bond graphs, but how does this translate to the multi-bond graph? Here, the controlled junction – used to model structural switching such as contact – is extended to the multi-bond case. This is a simple process, assuming that all bonds switch simultaneously (which makes physical sense). A controlled 0-junction is applied to multi-bond graph of a car, which can lose contact with the ground in cornering. Dynamic causality features, but this can be accommodated using an equational submodel in 20-Sim (in a manner similar to that used with scalar bond graphs). The junction is proposed for subsequent work to develop a validated multi-body dynamics car model in cornering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0036.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: digital elevation models; multi-source fusion; multi-scale fusion; global evaluation; accuracy validation.
Online: 5 June 2019 (10:26:30 CEST)
The quality of digital elevation models (DEMs) is inevitably affected by the limitations of the imaging modes and the generation methods. One effective way to solve this problem is to merge the available datasets through data fusion. In this paper, a fusion-based global DEM dataset (82°S-82°N) is introduced, which we refer to as GSDEM-30. This is a 30-m DEM mainly reconstructed from the unfilled SRTM1, AW3D30, and ASTER GDEM v2 datasets combining the multi-source and multi-scale fusion techniques. A comprehensive evaluation of the GSDEM-30 data, as well as the 30-m ASTER GDEM v2 and AW3D30 DEM, was presented. Global ICESat GLAS data and the local National Elevation Dataset (NED) were used as the reference for the vertical accuracy validation, while GlobeLand30 was introduced for the landscape analysis. Furthermore, we employed the maximum slope approach to detect the potential artefacts in the DEMs. The results show that the GDEM data are seriously affected by noise and artefacts. With the advantage of the multiple datasets and the refined post-processing, the GSDEM-30 are contaminated with fewer anomalies than both ASTER GDEM and AW3D30. The fusion techniques used can also be applied to the reconstruction of other fused DEM datasets.
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: vendor selection; product life cycle; multi-objective linear programming; Multi-choice goal programming.
Online: 3 June 2019 (09:52:41 CEST)
The framework of product life cycle (PLC) cost analysis is one of the most important evaluation tools for a contemporary high-tech company in an increasingly competitive market environment. The PLC-purchasing strategy provides the framework for a procurement plan and examines the sourcing strategy of a firm. The marketing literature emphasizes that ongoing technological change and shortened life cycles are important elements in commercial organizations. From a strategic viewpoint, the vendor has an important position between supplier, buyer and manufacturer. The buyer seeks to procure the products from a set of vendors to take advantage of economies of scale and to exploit opportunities for strategic relationships. However, previous studies have seldom considered vendor selection (VS) based on PLC cost (VSPLCC) analysis. The purpose of this paper is to solve the VSPLCC problems considering the situation of a single-buyer-multiple-supplier. For this issue, a new VSPLCC procurement model and solution procedure are derived by this paper to minimize net cost, rejection rate, late delivery and PLC cost subject to vendor capacities and budget constraints. Moreover, a real case in Taiwan is provided to show how to solve the VSPLCC procurement problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: multi-slope sliding-mode control (MSSMC); single-phase inverter; multi-slope function (MS)
Online: 19 July 2016 (04:54:06 CEST)
In this paper, a new approach to the sliding-mode control of single-phase inverters under linear and non-linear loads is introduced. The main idea behind this approach is to utilize a non-linear, flexible and multi-slope function in controller structure. This non-linear function makes the controller possible to control the inverter by a non-linear multi-slope sliding surface. In general, this sliding surface has two parts with different slopes in each part and the flexibility of the sliding surface makes the multi-slope sliding-mode controller (MSSMC) possible to reduce the total harmonic distortion, to improve the tracking accuracy, and to prevent overshoots leading to undesirable transient-states in output voltage which are occurred when the load current sharply rises. In order to improve the tracking accuracy and to reduce the steady-state error, an integral term of the multi-slope function is also added to the sliding surface. The improved performance of the proposed controller is confirmed by simulations and finally, the results of the proposed approach are compared with a conventional SMC and a SRFPI controller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0159.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: relaxation; spectral methods; multi-domain
Online: 18 April 2022 (08:28:47 CEST)
In gravitational theory and astrophysical dynamics, singular initial value problems (IVPs) are frequently encountered. Finding the solutions to this class of IVPs can be challenging due to their complex nature. This study strives to circumvent the complexity by proposing a numerical method for solving such problems. The approach proposed in the current research seeks solutions to the IVP by partitioning the domain [0,L] of the problem into two intervals and solving the problem on each domain. The study seeks a closed-form solution to the IVP in the interval containing the singular point. A linearization technique and piecewise partitioning of the domain not containing the singularity are applied to the nonlinear IVP. The resulting linearized differential equation is solved using the Chebyshev spectral collocation method. Some examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Numerical analysis of the solution and residual errors are shown to ascertain convergence and accuracy. The results suggest that the technique gives accurate convergent solutions using a few collocation points.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0400.v1
Online: 18 May 2021 (09:31:15 CEST)
Dracunculiasis (also known as Guinea worm disease) is caused by Dracunculus medinensis parasite and it spreads by drinking water containing Larvae of Guinea worm. The lack of safe water facilities, preventions and treatments resulted in highly dangerous consequences in its endemic regions. The economy of the affected regions totally falls down due to less production which is the result of agricultural field worker’s bad health. In this study, a multi epitope vaccine was designed against Dracunculus medinensis by using immune-informatics. The vaccine was designed by using T-Cell and B-Cell epitopes derived from Dracunculus medinensis proteins (Lactamase-B domain-containing protein, G-Domain containing protein and Ferrochelatase) in addition to Adjuvants and Linkers. The tertiary structure, physiochemical properties and immunogenic elements of vaccine were achieved. The validation of tertiary structure was accessed, and quality was achieved. In addition, the world coverage of parasite’s CTL and HTL epitopes is 95.61%. The stability of the chimeric vaccine was achieved through disulfide engineering. The molecular docking with Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR-4) of vaccine showed its binding efficiency followed by Molecular Dynamic Simulation. The immune simulation suggested the mediated cell immunity and repeated antigen clearance. At the end, the optimized codon was used in in silico cloning to ensure vaccine’s higher exposure in bacterium E. coli strain K12. With further assessments, it is believed that the proposed multi epitope vaccine has strong immunogen to control Dracunculus medinensis which may result in better social and economic conditions of endemic regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0327.v1
Online: 12 November 2020 (08:24:40 CET)
Introduction Tuberculosis is common in Pakistan. Due to various factors including socioeconomic factors, compliance is poor to anti-tuberculosis drugs, leading to resistance. We aim to determine the prevalence of Multidrug resistance (MDR) tuberculosis in Pakistani population.Methods A prospective observational study was conducted from April 1, 2019, to December 31, 2019, in the Pulmonology department of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Culture and sensitivity were assessed using a sputum sample or, in cases of an absent sputum sample, from Broncho alveolar lavage.ResultsApproximately 71.3% percent patients who had tuberculosis were found to be resistant to Isoniazid and around 48.6% did not respond to Rifampin. Multi-drug resistant was found in 29.4% participants.ConclusionMulti-drug resistance tuberculosis is very prevalent in Pakistan, which may increase burden on health care system and may lead to various complications of tuberculosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0614.v1
Online: 31 July 2018 (09:49:06 CEST)
Phenotypic studies require large datasets for accurate inference and prediction. Collecting plant data in a farm can be very labor intensive and costly. This paper presents the design, architecture (hardware and software) and deployment of a distributed modular agricultural multi-robot system for row crop field data collection. The proposed system has been deployed in a soybean research farm at Iowa State University.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0299.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: dispersion management; mid-span spectral inversion; dispersion map; optical phase conjugator; residual dispersion per span; random distribution; chromatic dispersion; nonlinear Kerr effect; wavelength division multiplexed
Online: 17 August 2022 (04:17:45 CEST)
The weakness of the dispersion-managed link combined with optical phase conjugation to compensate for optical signal distortion caused by chromatic dispersion and nonlinear Kerr effect of standard single mode fiber is its limited structural flexibility. We propose dispersion map that can simultaneously compensate for the distorted wavelength division multiplexed signal while increasing the configurational flexibility. Each residual dispersion per span (RDPS) in the former half of the proposed link is randomly determined, and in the latter half, the arrangement order of RDPS is the same as or inverted in the former half. We confirm that the dispersion maps in which the RDPS distribution pattern in the latter half is opposite to the arrangement order in the former half are more effective in compensation, and rather, the compensation effect is better than in the dispersion map of the conventional scheme. The notable result of this paper is that the increase of flexibility can be achieved through random arrangement of RDPS in the former half, and the compensation improvement can be achieved by through inverse arrangement in the latter half which make the distribution profile of each half link roughly symmetric with respect to the midway optical phase conjugator.
Subject: Keywords: Single image deraining; Multi-layer Laplacian pyramid; Multi-scale feature extraction module; Channel attention module.
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:41:25 CEST)
Deep convolutional neural network (CNN) has shown their great advantages in the single image deraining task. However, most existing CNN-based single image deraining methods still suffer from residual rain streaks and details lost. In this paper, we propose a deep neural network including the Multi-scale feature extraction module and the channel attention module, which are embed in the feature extraction sub-network and the rain removal sub-network respectively. In the feature extraction sub-network, the Multi-scale feature extraction module is constructed by a Multi-layer Laplacian pyramid, and is then integrated multi-scale feature maps by a feature fusion module. In the rain removal sub-network, the channel attention module, which assigns different weights to the different channels, is introduced for preserving image details. Experimental results on visually and quantitatively comparison demonstrate that the proposed method performs favorably against other state-of-the-art approaches
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0157.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Multi-frequency eddy current; lift-off inversion; coating thickness; non-destructive testing; multi-layer conductor.
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:08:37 CET)
Defect detection in ferromagnetic substrates is often hampered by non-magnetic coating thickness variation when using conventional eddy current testing technique. The lift-off distance between the sample and the sensor is one of the main obstacles for the thickness measurement of non-magnetic coatings on ferromagnetic substrates when using the eddy current testing technique. Based on the eddy current thin-skin effect and the lift-off insensitive inductance (LII), a simplified iterative algorithm is proposed for reducing the lift-off variation effect using a multi-frequency sensor. Compared to the previous techniques on compensating the lift-off error (e.g., the lift-off point of intersection) while retrieving the thickness, the simplified inductance algorithms avoid the computation burden of integration, which are used as embedded algorithms for the online retrieval of lift-offs via each frequency channel. The LII is determined by the dimension and geometry of the sensor, thus eliminating the need for empirical calibration. The method is validated by means of experimental measurements of the inductance of coatings with different materials and thicknesses on ferrous substrates (dual-phase alloy). The error of the calculated coating thickness has been controlled to within 3 % for an extended lift-off range of up to 10 mm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0027.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: porous; ceramics; additive manufacturing; multi-material; multi-property; CerAMfacturing; CerAM VPP; CerAM T3DP; CerAM Replica
Online: 4 February 2019 (11:31:43 CET)
Porous ceramics can be realized by different methods and are used for manifold applications, like cross-flow-membranes or wall-flow-filters, porous burners, solar receivers, structural design elements or catalytic supports. Within this paper three different alternative process routes are presented, which can be used to manufacture porous ceramic components with different properties or even graded porosity. The first process route bases on additive manufacturing (AM) of macro porous ceramic components, the second on AM of a polymeric template, which is used to manufacture porous ceramic components via replica technique. Finally, the third process route bases on an AM technology, which allows the manufacturing of multi-material or multi-property ceramic components, like components with dense and porous volumes in one complex shaped component.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0075.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: hydrated multi-dimensional nanoparticles; advanced electronics
Online: 6 June 2022 (09:10:17 CEST)
The paper considers new effects of the nanoscale state of matter, which open up prospects for the creation of electronic devices using new physical principles. The contact of chemically homogeneous different sizes hydrated nanoparticles of yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide (ZrO2 – x %mol Y2O3, x=0, 3, 4, 8; YSZ) with particle sizes of 7.5 nm and 7,5 nm; 7.5 nm and 9 nm; 7.5 nm and 11 nm; 7.5 nm and 14 nm in the form of compacts obtained using high hydrostatic pressure (HP-compacts of 300MPa) was studied at direct and alternating current. A unique size effect of the nonlinear (semiconductor) dependence of the electrical properties (in the region U <2.5 V, I ≤ 2.7 mA) of the contact of different-sized YSZ nanoparticles of the same chemical composition is revealed, which indicates the possibility of creating semiconductor structures of a new type based on chemically homogeneous nanostructured systems. The electronic structure of the near-surface regions of nanoparticles of a special type of oxide materials and the possibility, on this basis, to obtain specifically rectifying properties of the contacts were studied theoretically. Models of surface states of the Tamm type are constructed, but considering the Coulomb long-range action. The discovered variance and its dependence on the curvature of the surface of nanoparticles made it possible to study the conditions for the formation of a contact potential difference in cases of nanoparticles of the same radius (synergistic effect), different radii (doped and undoped variants), as well as to discover the possibility of describing a group of powder particles from material within the Anderson model. The established effect makes it possible to solve the problem of diffusion instability of semiconductor heterojunctions and opens up prospects for creating electronics devices with a fundamentally new level of properties for use in various fields of the national economy and breakthrough critical technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0006.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: structured illumination; fluorescence; brain; multi-camera
Online: 4 May 2022 (12:24:22 CEST)
Fluorescence microscopy provides an unparalleled tool for imaging biological samples. However, producing high-quality volumetric images quickly and without excessive complexity remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate a simple multi-camera structured illumination microscope (SIM) capable of simultaneously imaging multiple focal planes, allowing for the capture of 3D fluorescent images without any axial movement of the sample. This simple setup allows for the acquisition of many different 3D imaging modes, including 3D time lapses, high-axial-resolution 3D images, and large 3D mosaics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0381.v1
Online: 22 November 2021 (11:08:58 CET)
Our work uses Iterative Boltzmann Inversion (IBI) to study the coarse-grained interaction between 20 amino acids and the representative carbon nanotube CNT55L3. IBI is a multi-scale simulation method that has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. It can effectively modify the coarse-grained model derived from the Potential of Mean Force (PMF). IBI is based on the distribution result obtained by All-Atom molecular dynamics simulation, that is, the target distribution function, the PMF potential energy is extracted, and then the initial potential energy extracted by the PMF is used to perform simulation iterations using IBI. Our research results have gone through more than 100 iterations, and finally, the distribution obtained by coarse-grained molecular simulation (CGMD) can effectively overlap with the results of all-atom molecular dynamics simulation (AAMD). In addition, our work lays the foundation for the study of force fields for the simulation of the coarse-graining of super-large proteins and other important nanoparticles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: multi-morbidity; CGA; frailty; polypharmacy; deprescribing
Online: 2 September 2020 (06:04:17 CEST)
Multi-morbidity and polypharmacy are common in older people and pose a challenge for health and social care systems especially in context of global population ageing. They are complex and interrelated concepts in the care of older people that require early detection and patient centred decision making that are underpinned by the principles of multidisciplinary led comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). Personalised care plans need to remain responsive and adaptable to the needs of a patient, enabling an individual to maintain their independence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0134.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: multi-sensor fusion; satellite; radar; precipitation
Online: 27 September 2017 (04:09:22 CEST)
This paper presents a new and enhanced fusion module for the Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) that would objectively blend real-time satellite quantitative precipitation estimates (SQPE) with radar and gauge estimates. This module consists of a preprocessor that mitigates systematic bias in SQPE, and a two-way blending routine that statistically fuses adjusted SQPE with radar estimates. The preprocessor not only corrects systematic bias in SQPE, but also improves the spatial distribution of precipitation based on SQPE and makes it closely resemble that of radar-based observations. It uses a more sophisticated radar-satellite merging technique to blend preprocessed datasets, and provides a better overall QPE product. The performance of the new satellite-radar-gauge blending module is assessed using independent rain gauge data over a 5-year period between 2003-2007, and the assessment evaluates the accuracy of newly developed satellite-radar-gauge (SRG) blended products versus that of radar-gauge products (which represents MPE algorithm currently used in the NWS operations) over two regions: I) inside radar effective coverage and II) immediately outside radar coverage. The outcomes of the evaluation indicate a) ingest of SQPE over areas within effective radar coverage improve the quality of QPE by mitigating the errors in radar estimates in region I; and b) blending of radar, gauge, and satellite estimates over region II leads to reduction of errors relative to bias-corrected SQPE. In addition, the new module alleviates the discontinuities along the boundaries of radar effective coverage otherwise seen when SQPE is used directly to fill the areas outside of effective radar coverage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0459.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: current-potential curve; multi-enzymatic cascades; multi-analyte detection; mass-transfer-controlled amperometric response; potentiometric coulometry
Online: 20 July 2020 (08:16:47 CEST)
Bioelectrocatalysis provides the intrinsic catalytic-functions of redox enzymes to non-specific electrode reactions and is the most important and basic concept for biosensors. This review starts by describing fundamental characteristics of bioelectrocatalytic reactions in mediated and direct electron transfer types from a theoretical viewpoint and summarizes amperometric biosensors based on multi-enzymatic cascades and for multi-analyte detection. The review also introduces prospective aspects of two new concepts of biosensors: mass-transfer-controlled (pseudo)steady-state amperometry at microelectrodes with enhanced enzymatic activity without calibration curves and potentiometric coulometry at enzyme/mediator-immobilized biosensors for absolute determination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0236.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: 3D models; multi-sensor; multi-scale; SLAM; MMS; LiDAR; UAV; data integration; data fusion; cultural heritage
Online: 23 January 2019 (10:08:42 CET)
This article proposes the use of a multi-scale and multi-sensor approach to collect and modelling 3D data concerning wide and complex areas in order to obtain a variety of metric information in the same 3D archive, based on a single coordinate system. The employment of these 3D georeferenced products is multifaceted and the fusion or integration among different sensors data, scales and resolutions is promising and could be useful for the generation of a model that could be defined as hybrid. The correct geometry, accuracy, radiometry and weight of the data models are hereby evaluated comparing integrated processes and results from Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), Mobile Mapping System (MMS), Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), terrestrial photogrammetry, using Total Station (TS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) as topographic survey. The entire analysis underlines the potentiality of the integration and fusion of different solutions and is a crucial part of the “Torino 1911” project whose main purpose is mapping and virtually reconstructing the 1911 Great Exhibition settled in the Valentino Park in Turin (Italy).
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0709.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: intrinsic multi-drug resistance; acquired multi-drug resistance; circulating tumor cells; single cells; cell clusters; cell monolayer; multi-cellular spheroids; cytometry of reaction rate constant; ovarian cancer
Online: 30 July 2020 (09:01:50 CEST)
Does cell clustering influence intrinsic and acquired multi-drug resistance (MDR) differently? To address this question, we studied cultured monolayers (representing individual cells) and cultured spheroids (representing clusters) formed by drug-naïve (intrinsic MDR) and drug-exposed (acquired MDR) lines of ovarian cancer A2780 cells by cytometry of reaction rate constant (CRRC). MDR efflux was characterized by accurate and robust “cell number vs. MDR efflux rate constant (kMDR)” histograms. Both drug-naïve and drug-exposed monolayer cells presented unimodal histograms; the histogram of drug-exposed cells was shifted towards higher kMDR value suggesting greater MDR activity. Spheroids of drug-naïve cells presented a bimodal histogram indicating the presence of two subpopulations with different MDR activity. In contrast, spheroids of drug-exposed cells presented a unimodal histogram qualitatively similar to that of the monolayers of drug-exposed cells but with a moderate shift towards greater MDR activity. The observed greater effect of cell clustering on intrinsic than on acquired MDR can help guide the development of new therapeutic strategies targeting clusters of circulating tumor cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0706.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Euler polynomials; Degenerate multi-polyexponential functions; Degenerate multi-poly-Euler polynomials; Degenerate Stirling numbers; Degenerate Whitney numbers
Online: 31 August 2020 (05:15:55 CEST)
In this paper, we consider a new class of polynomials which is called the multi-poly-Euler polynomials. Then, we investigate their some properties and relations. We provide that the type 2 degenerate multi-poly-Euler polynomials equals a linear combination of the degenerate Euler polynomials of higher order and the degenerate Stirling numbers of the first kind. Moreover, we provide an addition formula and a derivative formula. Furthermore, in a special case, we acquire a correlation between the type 2 degenerate multi-poly-Euler polynomials and degenerate Whitney numbers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0057.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Bernoulli polynomials; Degenerate multi-polyexponential functions; Degenerate multi-poly-Bernoulli polynomials; Degenerate Stirling numbers; Degenerate Whitney numbers
Online: 3 August 2020 (00:28:39 CEST)
Inspired by the definition of degenerate multi-poly-Genocchi polynomials given by using the degenerate multi-polyexponential functions. In this paper, we consider a class of new generating function for the degenerate multi-poly-Bernoulli polynomials, called the type 2 degenerate multi-poly-Bernoulli polynomials by means of the degenerate multiple polyexponential functions. Then, we investigate their some properties and relations. We show that the type 2 degenerate multi-poly-Bernoulli polynomials equals a linear combination of the weighted degenerate Bernoulli polynomials and Stirling numbers of the first kind. Moreover, we provide an addition formula and a derivative formula. Furthermore, in a special case, we acquire a correlation between the type 2 degenerate multi-poly-Bernoulli numbers and degenerate Whitney numbers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0308.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: micro-video classification; 3D CNN; multi-modal
Online: 21 July 2022 (03:09:34 CEST)
Along with the popularity of the Internet, people are exposed to more and more ways of micro-videos, and a huge amount of micro-video data has emerged. micro-videos have gradually become the Internet content preferred by the public, and a large number of micro-video apps have also emerged, such as Tiktok and Kwai. Intelligent classification and mining of micro-videos can greatly enhance user experience, improve business operation efficiency and enhance user experience. Through deep intelligent analysis and mining of micro-videos, important information in micro-videos can be extracted to provide an important basis for beautifying videos, content appreciation, video recommendation, content search, etc. In the past, content understanding for short videos often used human work annotation, but in recent years, with the great success of deep convolutional neural networks in image recognition, short video content understanding based on this method has gradually developed. Nowadays, most recognition algorithms extract the feature representation of each frame independently and then fuse them. However, while extracting the feature representation, some low-level semantic features are lost, which makes the algorithm unable to accurately distinguish the category of the video. At present, the algorithm of micro-video recognition based on deep learning has surpassed the iDT algorithm, making these traditional methods fade out of people’s view. In this paper according to the micro-video classification task, a new network model is proposed to concatenate features of each modality into the overall features of various modalities through the network, and then fuse the various modal features with the attention mechanism to obtain the whole micro-video features, which will be used for classification. In order to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm proposed in this paper, experiments are conducted in the public dataset, and it is shown the effectiveness of our model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0151.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: high-performance; heritable; multi-environments; credibility interval
Online: 10 February 2022 (11:14:21 CET)
The giant challenge breeding flood-irrigated rice is to identify superior genotypes that present high-yielding with specific grain qualities, resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses, excellent adaptation to the target environment. Thus, the objectives of this study were to propose a bayesian multi-trait model, estimate genetic parameters, and select flood-irrigated rice genotypes with better genetic potentials in different evaluation environments. For this, twenty-five rice genotypes belonging to the flood-irrigated rice improvement program were evaluated. The grain yields, grain length, width and thickness, grain length, and grain width and weight of 100 grains in the agricultural year 2016/2017. The experimental design used in all experiments was a randomized block design with three replications. The Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm estimated genetic parameters and genetic values. The grain thickness trait was considered highly heritable, with a credibility interval ranging from: h^2: 0.9480; 0.9440; 0.8610, in environments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The grain yields showed a low correlation estimate between grain thickness and 100-grain weight, in all environments, with a credibility interval ranging from (ρ= 0.5477; 0.5762; 0.5618 and 0.5973; 0.5247; 0.5632, grain thickness and 100-grain weight, in environments 1, 2, and 3, respectively). The Bayesian multi-trait model proved to be an adequate strategy for the genetic improvement of flood-irrigated. Genotypes 2 and 15 had similar potential in the three environments, they should be selected as high-performance multi-trait genotypes for the genetic breeding of flood-irrigated rice in the program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0331.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: optimization; multi-objective optimization; decision making; Time
Online: 3 February 2022 (17:30:32 CET)
Multi-objective optimization (MOO) is an optimization involving minimization or maximization of several objective functions more than the conventional one objective optimization, which is useful in many fields. Many of the current methodologies addresses challenges and solutions that attempt to solve simultaneously several Objectives with multiple constraints subjoined to each. Often MOO are generally subjected to linear inequality, equality and or bounded constraint that prevent all objectives from being optimized at once. This paper reviews some recent articles in area of MOO and presents deep analysis of Random and Uniform Entry-Exit time of objectives. It further break down process into sub-process and then provide some new concepts for solving problems in MOO, which comes due to periodical objectives that do not stay for the entire duration of process lifetime, unlike permanent objectives which are optimized once for the entire process duration. A methodology based on partial optimization that optimizes each objective iteratively and weight convergence method that optimizes sub-group of objectives are given. Furthermore, another method is introduced which involve objective classification, ranking, estimation and prediction where objectives are classified based on their properties, and ranked using a given criteria and in addition estimated for an optimal weight point (pareto optimal point) if it certifies a coveted optimal weight point. Then finally predicted to find how far it deviates from the estimated optimal weight point. A Sample Mathematical Tri-Objectives and Real world Optimization was analyzed using partial method, ranking and classification method, the result showed that an objective can be added or removed without affecting previous or existing optimal solutions. Therefore suitable for handling time governed MOO. Although this paper presents concepts work only, it’s practical application are beyond the scope of this paper, however base on analysis and examples presented, the concept is worthy of igniting further research and application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0525.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Wildlife Monitoring; Multi-UAV System; Optimal Transport
Online: 22 March 2021 (11:59:55 CET)
This paper addresses a wildlife monitoring problem using a team of UAVs for efficient monitoring of wildlife. The state-of-the-art technology using UAVs has been an increasingly popular tool to monitor wildlife compared to the traditional methods such as satellite imagery-based sensing or GPS trackers. However, there still exist unsolved problems as to how the UAVs need to cover a spacious domain to detect animals as many as possible. In this paper, we propose the optimal transport-based wildlife monitoring strategy for a multi-UAV system, to prioritize monitoring areas while incorporating complementary information such as GPS trackers and satellite-based sensing. Through the proposed scheme, the UAVs can explore the large-size domain effectively and collaboratively with a given priority. The time-varying nature of wildlife due to their movements is modeled as a stochastic process, which is included in the proposed work to reflect the spatio-temporal evolution of their position estimation. In this way, the proposed monitoring plan can lead to efficient wildlife monitoring with a high detection rate. Various simulation results including statistical data are provided to validate the proposed work.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0521.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Data integration; multi-omics; integration strategies; genomics
Online: 25 January 2021 (16:19:31 CET)
Metabolomics deals with multiple and complex chemical reactions within living organisms and how these are influenced by external or internal perturbations. It lies at the heart of omics profiling technologies not only as the underlying biochemical layer that reflects information expressed by the genome, the transcriptome and the proteome, but also as the closest layer to the phenome. The combination of metabolomics data with the information available from genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics offers unprecedented possibilities to enhance current understanding of biological functions, elucidate their underlying mechanisms and uncover hidden associations between omics variables. As a result, a vast array of computational tools have been developed to assist with integrative analysis of metabolomics data with different omics. Here, we review and propose five criteria – hypothesis, data types, strategies, study design and study focus – to classify statistical multi-omics data integration approaches into state-of-the-art classes under which all existing statistical methods fall. The purpose of this review is to look at various aspects that lead the choice of the statistical integrative analysis pipeline in terms of the different classes. We will draw a particular attention to metabolomics and genomics data to assist those new to this field in the choice of the integrative analysis pipeline.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0385.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: autonomous robots; multi-robot systems; teamwork; coordination
Online: 30 November 2019 (09:47:30 CET)
The increasing number of robots around us will soon create a demand for connecting these robots in order to achieve goal-driven teamwork in heterogeneous multi-robot systems. In this paper, we focus on robot teamwork specifically in dynamic environments. While the conceptual modeling of multi-agent teamwork has been studied extensively during the last two decades, related engineering concerns have not received the same degree of attention. Therefore, this paper makes two contributions. The analysis part discusses general design challenges that apply to robot teamwork in dynamic application domains. The constructive part presents a review of existing engineering approaches for challenges that arise with dynamically changing runtime conditions. An exhaustive survey of robot teamwork aspects would be beyond the scope of this paper. Instead, we aim at creating awareness for the manifold dimensions of the design space and highlight state-of-the-art technical solutions for dynamically adaptive teamwork, thus pointing at open research questions that need to be tackled in future work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0091.v4
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Preference learning; Multi-label ranking; Neural network; Kendall’s tau; Preference mining
Online: 24 December 2021 (16:08:06 CET)
Equality and incomparability multi-label ranking have not been introduced to learning before. This paper proposes new native ranker neural network to address the problem of multi-label ranking including incomparable preference orders using a new activation and error functions and new architecture. Preference Neural Network PNN solves the multi-label ranking problem, where labels may have indifference preference orders or subgroups which are equally ranked. PNN is a nondeep, multiple-value neuron, single middle layer and one or more output layers network. PNN uses a novel positive smooth staircase (PSS) or smooth staircase (SS) activation function and represents preference orders and Spearman ranking correlation as objective functions. It is introduced in two types, Type A is traditional NN architecture and Type B uses expanding architecture by introducing new type of hidden neuron has multiple activation function in middle layer and duplicated output layers to reinforce the ranking by increasing the number of weights. PNN accepts single data instance as inputs and output neurons represent the number of labels and output value represents the preference value. PNN is evaluated using a new preference mining data set that contains repeated label values which have not experimented on before. SS and PS speed-up the learning and PNN outperforms five previously proposed methods for strict label ranking in terms of accurate results with high computational efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0350.v1
Online: 28 December 2018 (15:55:25 CET)
The concept of transit-oriented development (TOD) has been widely recognized in recent years for its role in reducing car traffic, improving public transportation, and enhancing traffic sustainability. This paper conducts empirical research on a developed rail transit network, using Shanghai as a case study. In addition to traditional TOD features, other factors based on urban rail transit are introduced, including multi-level modeling (MLM), which is used to analyze the possible factors influencing rail patronage. To avoid the bias of research results led by the correlation between independent variables, factors are divided into two levels. The first level includes three groups of variables: the built environment, station characteristics, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. The second level includes a set of variables which are regional characteristics. Results show that the most significant impact on train patronage is station location in the business district area. Other factors that have a positive effect on promoting rail transit travel include the number of service facilities around the station, degree of employment around the station, economic level, intensity of residential development, if the station is a transfer station, the operating period of the station, and the size of the large transportation hub around the station.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0107.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: multibeam echosounder; backscatter; multi-frequency; machine-learning
Online: 5 October 2018 (16:09:53 CEST)
We propose a probabilistic graphical model for discriminative substrate characterization, to support geological and biological habitat mapping in aquatic environments. The model, called a fully connected conditional random field (CRF), is demonstrated using multispectral and monospectral acoustic backscatter from heterogeneous seafloors in Patricia Bay, British Columbia, and Bedford Basin, Nova Scotia. Unlike previously proposed discriminative machine learning algorithms, the CRF model considers both the relative backscatter magnitudes of different substrates and their relative proximities. The model therefore combines the statistical flexibility of a machine learning algorithm with an inherently spatial treatment of the substrate. The CRF model predicts substrates such that nearby locations with similar backscattering characteristics are likely to be in the same substrate class. The degree of proximity and allowable backscatter similarity are controlled by parameters that are learned from the data. CRF model results were evaluated against a popular generative model known as a Gaussian Mixture model that doesn't include spatial dependencies, only covariance between substrate backscattering response over different frequencies. Both models are used in conjunction with sparse bed observations/samples in a supervised classification. A detailed accuracy assessment, including a leave-one-out cross-validation analysis, was performed using both models. Using multispectral backscatter, the GMM model trained on 50% of the bed observations resulted in a 75% and 89% average accuracies in Patricia Bay and Bedford Basin, respectively. The same metrics for the CRF model were 78% and 95%. Further, the CRF model resulted in a 91% mean cross-validation accuracy across four substrate classes at Patricia Bay, and a 99.5% mean accuracy across three substrate classes at Bedford Basin, which suggest that the CRF model generalizes extremely well to new data. This analysis also showed that the CRF model was much less sensitive to the specific number and locations of bed observations than the generative model, owing to its ability to incorporate spatial autocorrelation in substrates. The CRF approach therefore may prove to be a powerful `spatially aware' alternative to other discriminative classifiers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0174.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Hierarchical search; Image retrieval; Multi-feature fusion
Online: 26 April 2017 (18:51:42 CEST)
Aiming at the problems that are poor generalization performance, low retrieval accuracy and large time consumption of existing content-based image retrieval system, the hierarchical image retrieval method based on multi feature fusion is proposed in this paper. The retrieval accuracy rates on Corel5K, UKbeach and Holidays are 68.23(Top 1), 3.73(N-S) and 88.20(mAp), respectively. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper can effectively improve the deficiency of single feature retrieval and save time significantly in the premise of a small amount of loss of accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0160.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: visibility; PM; MLH; multi-cities; northeast China
Online: 20 March 2017 (11:57:10 CET)
The variations of visibility, PM mass concentration and mixing layer height (MLH) at four major urban-industry regions (Shenyang, Anshan, Benxi and Fushun) in multi-cities of central Liaoning over northeast China were evaluated from 2009-2012 to characterize the dynamics effect on air pollution. The annual mean visibilities were about 13.7±7.8km, 13.5±6.5km, 12.8±6.1km and 11.5±6.8km in Shenyang, Anshan, Benxi and Fushun, respectively. The pollution load (PM×MLH) shown a weaker vertical diffusion in Anshan with a higher PM concentration in the near-surface. High concentrations of fine mode particles may be partially attributed to the biomass burning emissions from September in Liaoning Province and surrounding regions in Northeast China as well as the coal burning during the heating period with lower MLH in winter. The increasing wind speed has a similar change as the increasing of mixing layer height to make the effect on the aerosol vertical diffusion. The visibility on the non haze-fog days was about 2.5-3.0 times higher than that on hazy and fog days. The fine particle concentrations of PM2.5 and PM1.0 on the haze and fog days were ~1.8-1.9 times and ~1.5 times higher than that on no hazy-fog days. The MLH during fog pollution showed more declining trend than haze pollution compared with non haze-fog days. The results of this study could provide the useful information to better recognize the effects of vertical pollutants diffusion on air quality in the multi-cities of central Liaoning over Northeast China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrid; multi-microgrid; measured admittance; protection scheme
Online: 16 February 2017 (09:17:26 CET)
Multi-microgrid has many new characteristics, such as bi-directional power flows, flexible operation modes and variable fault currents with different control strategy of inverter interfaced distributed generations (IIDGs). All these featuring aspects pose challenges to multi-microgrid protection. In this paper, current and voltage characteristics of different feeders are analyzed when fault occurs in different positions of multi-microgrid. Based on the voltage and current distribution characteristics of the line parameters, a new protection scheme for the internal fault of multi-microgrid is proposed, which takes the change of phase difference and amplitude of measured bus admittance as the criterion. This scheme with high sensitivity and reliability, has a simple principle and is easy to be adjusted. PSCAD/EMTDC is used in simulation analysis, and simulation results have verified the correctness and effectiveness of the protection scheme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0216.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: block cokriging; clay composition; granulometry; multi-collocated cokriging; multi-collocated fac-torial cokriging; regularization; SIDSAM; VIS-NIR-SWIR spectroscopy
Online: 11 August 2022 (11:30:23 CEST)
Traditional soil characterization methods are time consuming, laborious and invasive and do not allow long-term repeatability of measurements. The overall aim of this paper was to assess and model spatial variability of the soil in an olive grove in south Italy by using data from two sensors of different type: a multi-spectral on-board drone radiometer and a hyperspectral visible-near infrared-shortwave infrared (VIS-NIR-SWIR) reflectance radiometer as well as sample data, to arrive at a delineation of homogeneous areas. The hyperspectral data were processed using continuum removal methodology to obtain information about the content and composition of clay. Differently, the multispectral data were firstly upscaled to the support of soil data using geostatistics and taking into account change of support. Secondly, the two-sensor data were integrated with soil granulometric properties by using the multivariate geostatistical techniques of multi-collocated cokriging and factor cokriging, in order to achieve a more exhaustive and finer-scale soil characterisation. The paper shows the impact of change of support on the uncertainty of soil prediction that can have a significant effect on decision making in Precision Agriculture. Moreover, four regionalised factors at two different scales (two per each scale) were retained and mapped. Each factor provided a different delineation of the field with areas characterised by different granulometry and clay composition. The applied method is sufficiently flexible and could be applied to any number and type of sensors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0048.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Plant Breeding; Speed Breeding; Training Population; Field Design; Multi-Environment; Multi-Trait; Deep Learning; High-Throughput Phenotyping; Genetic Gain
Online: 3 February 2022 (10:41:44 CET)
Plant geneticists and breeders have used marker technology since the 1980s in quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification. Marker-assisted selection is effective for large-effect QTL but has been challenging to use with quantitative traits controlled by multiple minor effect alleles. Therefore, genomic selection (GS) was proposed to estimate all markers simultaneously, thereby capturing all their effects. However, breeding programs are still struggling to identify the best strategy to implement it into their programs. Traditional breeding programs need to be optimized to implement GS effectively. This review explores the optimization of breeding programs for variety release based on aspects of the breeder’s equation. Optimizations include reorganizing field designs, training populations, increasing the number of lines evaluated, and leveraging the large amount of genomic and phenotypic data collected across different growing seasons and environments to increase heritability estimates, selection intensity, and selection accuracy. Breeding programs can leverage their phenotypic and genotypic data to maximize genetic gain and selection accuracy through GS methods utilizing multi-trait and, multi-environment models, high-throughput phenotyping, and deep learning approaches. Overall, this review describes various methods that plant breeders can utilize to increase genetic gains and effectively implement GS in breeding .
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0058.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: synthetic biology; multi-agent modelling; individual-based modelling; agent-based modelling; systems biology; emergence; multi-scale; bioengineering; consortia; collectives
Online: 5 May 2020 (03:45:16 CEST)
Many complex behaviours in biological systems emerge from large populations of interacting molecules or cells, generating functions that go beyond the capabilities of the individual parts. Such collective phenomena are of great interest to bioengineers due to their robustness and scalability. However, engineering emergent collective functions is difficult because they arise as a consequence of complex multi-level feedback, which often spans multiple length-scales. Here, we present a perspective on how some of these challenges could be overcome by using multi-agent modelling as a design framework within synthetic biology. Using case studies covering the construction of synthetic ecologies to biological computation and synthetic cellularity, we show how multi-agent modelling can capture the core features of complex multi-scale systems and provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms which guide emergent functionalities across scales. The ability to unravel design rules underpinning these behaviours offers a means to take synthetic biology beyond single molecules or cells and towards the creation of systems with functions that can only emerge from collectives at multiple scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0180.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: endometriosis; multi-omics; expression profile; menstrual blood; MenSCs
Online: 13 September 2022 (12:32:56 CEST)
Given the importance of menstrual blood in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and the multifunctional roles of menstrual mesenchymal stem cells (MenSCs) in regenerative medicine, this issue has gained prominence in the scientific community. Moreover, recent reviews highlight how robust the integrated assessment of omics data is for endometriosis. To our knowledge, no study has applied the multi-omics approaches to endometriosis MenSCs. It is a case-control study at a university-affiliated hospital. MenSCs transcriptome and proteome data were obtained by RNA-seq and UHPLC-MS/MS detection. Among the differentially expressed proteins and genes, we emphasize ATF3, ID1, ID3, FOSB, SNAI1, NR4A1, EGR1, LAMC3, and ZFP36 genes and MT2A, TYMP, COL1A1, COL6A2, and NID2 proteins that were already reported in the endometriosis. Our functional enrichment analysis reveals integrated modulating signaling pathways such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (↑) and PI3K signaling via AKT to mTORC1 (↓in proteome), mTORC1 signaling, TGF beta signaling, TNFA signaling via NFkB, and response to hypoxia via HIF1A targets (↑in transcriptome). Our findings highlight primary changes in the endometriosis MenSCs, suggesting that the chronic inflammatory endometrial microenvironment can modulate these cells, providing opportunities for endometriosis etiopathogenesis. Moreover, they identify challenges for future research leveraging knowledge for regenerative and precision medicine in endometriosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0331.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Drug-Target Binding Affinity; Multi-Instance Learning; Transformer
Online: 18 August 2022 (03:58:34 CEST)
The prediction of drug-target interactions plays a fundamental role in facilitating drug discovery, where the goal is to find prospective drug candidates. With the increase in the number of drug-protein interactions, machine learning techniques, especially deep learning methods, have become applicable for drug-target interaction discovery because they significantly reduce the required experimental workload. In this paper, we present a spontaneous formulation of the drug-target interaction prediction problem as an instance of multi-instance learning. We address the problem in three stages, first organizing given drug and target sequences into instances via a private-public mechanism, then identifying the predicted scores of all instances in the same bag, and finally combining all the predicted scores as the output prediction. A comprehensive evaluation demonstrates that the proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods on three benchmark datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0347.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Multi Modal Fusion; Channel Attention; Land Cover Mapping
Online: 25 July 2022 (04:51:46 CEST)
Land cover mapping provides spatial information on the physical properties of the Earth’s surface, for various classes of wetlands, artificial surface and constructions, vineyards, water bodies, etc. Having reliable information on land cover is crucial to developing solutions to a variety of environmental problems such as destruction of important wetlands/forests, and loss of fish and wildlife habitats. This has made land cover mapping one of the most widespread application areas in remote sensing computational imaging. However, due to the differences between modalities in terms of resolutions, content, and sensors, integrating complementary information that multi-modal remote sensing imagery exhibits into a robust and accurate system still remains challenging, and classical segmentation approaches generally do not give satisfactory results for land cover mapping. In this paper, we propose a novel dynamic deep network architecture, AMM-FuseNet, that promotes the use of multi-modal remote sensing images for the purpose of land cover mapping. The proposed network exploits the hybrid approach of the Channel Attention mechanism and Densely Connected Atrous Spatial Pyramid Pooling (DenseASPP). In the experimental analysis, in order to to verify the validity of the proposed method, we test AMM-FuseNet applied to four datasets whilst comparing it to the 6 state-of-the-art models of DeepLabV3+, PSPNet, UNet, SegNet, DenseASPP, and DANet. In addition, we also demonstrate the capability of AMM-FuseNet under minimal training supervision (reduced number of training samples) compared to the state-of-the-art, achieving less accuracy loss even for the case with 1/20 of the training samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0254.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: multi-target tracking; DeepSORT; feature extraction; target detection
Online: 27 April 2022 (09:01:45 CEST)
Pedestrian multi-target tracking technology plays an important role in artificial intelligence, driverless, virtual reality and other fields. The pedestrian multi-target tracking algorithm DeepSORT based on detection is widely used in industry. It mainly tracks multiple pedestrian targets continuously and keeps their ID unchanged. In order to improve the applicability and tracking accuracy of DeepSORT algorithm, this paper improved the IOU distance measurement in the matching process. At the same time, ResNet50 is used as the feature extraction backbone network, and combined with FPN (Feature Pyramid Network), the appearance features of multi-layer pedestrians are fused to improve the tracking accuracy of DeepSORT algorithm. The proposed algorithm is verified on the public data set MOT-16 and it’s tracking accuracy is enhanced to 4.1%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0024.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: multi scale; quality of life; wavelets; mathematical models
Online: 1 March 2022 (13:32:59 CET)
The present paper is concerned with the study of the quality of life index. Such an index has become an important index for measuring the well-being of individuals. However, the quality of life index is always a subjective, intangible, and often hard to quantify with precision due to the lack of quantitative models dealing with. The main goal of the present paper is thus to propose a mathematical, quantitative model for the measurement of a quality of life index. The main novelty is firstly the construction of a wavelet dynamic multiscale model to quantify and investigate the effect of time scale on the quality of life index measuring. The proposed procedure is acted empirically on a sample corresponding to Saudi Arabia as a case of study during the period from 2003 to 2020 as part of the 2030-vision plan. Saudi Arabia has implemented the so-called 2030-vision plan where the quality of life improvement is one of the main goals to be attempted. The findings show that wavelets are capable to localize the time-wise behavior of the index contrarily to classical studies which estimate a global view of the index. Moreover, the study shows the link between the quality of life behavior and many other indices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0233.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: up-conversion; nanomaterials; photothermal conversion; multi-modality imaging
Online: 14 December 2021 (12:15:52 CET)
In this study, a new method for synthesizing Au-NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+-DSPE-PEG2K nanocomposites was introduced. Using a hydrothermal method, the synthesized Yb3+- and Er3+-codoped NaYF4 upconversion luminescent materials and Au nanoparticles were doped into upconversion nanomaterials and modified with DSPE-PEG2k up-conversion nanomaterials. This material is known as Ag-UCNPs-DSPE-PEG2k, it improves both the luminous intensity because of the doped Au nanoparticles and has low cytotoxicity because of the DSPE-PEG2k modified. Exciting UCNPs with a wavelength of 980nm near-infrared light will emit light with a wavelength of 520nm to further excite gold nanoparticles to convert light energy into heat. Successful synthesized gold nanoparticles was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The morphology of UCNPs was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the mapping confirmed the successful doping of Au nanoparticles. Fluorescence spectra were used to compare changes in luminescence intensity before and after doping Au nanoparticles. The cytotoxicity of Au-UCNPs-DSPE-PEG2K was tested via the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method, and its imaging ability was characterized using the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0368.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Long Covid; rehabilitation; virtual methods; multi-disciplinary team
Online: 19 November 2021 (15:00:47 CET)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected people from more deprived communities. The experience of Long Covid is similarly distributed but very few investigations have concentrated on the needs of this population. The aim of this project was to co-produce an acceptable intervention for people with Long Covid, living in communities recognised as more deprived. Methods: The intervention was based on a multi-disciplinary team using approaches from sport and exercise medicine and functional rehabilitation. The co-production process was undertaken with a stakeholder advisory group and patient public involvement representation. This study identified participants by postcode and the indices of multiple deprivation (IMD); recruitment and engagement were supported by an existing health and wellbeing service. A virtual ‘clinic’ was offered with a team of professional practitioners who met participants three times each; to directly consider their needs and offer structured advice. The acceptability of the intervention was based on the individual’s participation and their completion of the intervention. Results: Ten participants were recruited with eight completing the intervention. The partnership with an existing community health and wellbeing service was deemed to be an important way of reaching participants. Two men and six women ages ranging from 38 to 73 were involved and their needs were commonly associated with fatigue, anxiety and depression with overall de-conditioning. None reported serious hardship associated with the pandemic although most were in self-employment/part-time employment or were not working due to retirement or ill-health. Two older participants lived alone, and others were single parents and had considerable challenges associated with managing a household alongside their Long Covid difficulties. Conclusions: This paper presents the needs and perspectives of eight individuals involved in the process and discusses the needs and preferences of the group in relation to their support for self- managed recovery from Long Covid.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Path planning; Multi-UAV system; Shortest path algorithm
Online: 25 August 2021 (12:03:59 CEST)
A graph based path planning method consisting of off-line part and on-line part for multi-UAV system in windy condition is proposed. In the off-line part, the task area is divided into grids. When two nodes is close enough, they are connected and weighted by the cost, obtained by solving an optimization problem based on difference method, between them. In order to ensure the accuracy of the difference method, the adjacent radius is set to be small enough. In order to ensure the generated paths close to analytical solution, the grid size is set to be much smaller than the adjacent radius. The shortest path algorithm is used to update the adjacent matrix and path matrix. In the on-line part, the target position assignment and optimal velocity can be obtained by accessing the adjacent matrix and path matrix. At the end of this paper, some numerical examples are taken to illustrate the validity of our method and the influence of the parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0458.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: quantum dots; bias source; multi-channel; high precision
Online: 9 August 2021 (18:17:09 CEST)
To realize precise control of the quantum dots (Qdots) device, multi-channel precision bias source plays the key role. In this paper, the 16-channel high precision bias source with 18-bit resolution for Qdots device was designed. The prototype was made and its performance was tested. The short time fluctuations can reach 50μV. The step response time is less than 3μs. The resolution, stability, linearity and dynamic range of the bias source exhibits good performance. What's more, the bias source can be controlled locally and online. The results show that it is one effective and feasible topology for experiments in Qdots device application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: damage detection; multi-cracked beam; eigenfrequency; deflection; superposition
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:13:05 CEST)
Identifying cracks in the incipient state is essential to prevent the failure of engineering structures. Detection methods relying on the analysis of the changes in modal parameters are widely used because of the advantages they present. In our previous research, we have found that eigenfrequencies were capable of indicating the position and depth of damage when sufficient vibration modes were considered. The damage indicator we developed was based on the relative frequency shifts (RFS). To calculate the RFSs for various positions and depths of a crack, we established a mathematical relation that involved the squared modal curvatures in the healthy state and the deflection of the healthy and damaged beam under dead mass, respectively. In this study, we propose to calculate the RFS for beams with several cracks by applying the superposition principle. We demonstrate that this is possible if the cracks are far enough from each other. In fact, if the cracks are close to each other, the superposition method does not work and we distinguish two cases: (i) when the cracks affect the same beam face, the frequency drop is less than the sum of the individual frequency drops, and (ii) on the contrary, cracks on opposite sides cause a decrease in frequency, which is greater than the sum of the frequency drop due to individual damage. When the RFS curves are known, crack assessment becomes an optimization problem, the cost function being the distance between the measured RFSs and all possible RFSs for several vibration modes. Thus, the RFS constitutes a benchmark that characterizes damage using only the eigenfrequencies. We can accurately locate multiple cracks and estimate their severity trough experiments and thus prove the reliability of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0647.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing, STEP-NC, Boundary representation, Multi-materials
Online: 28 June 2021 (11:59:26 CEST)
The paper describes problems with the current additive manufacturing chain before considering additive manufacturing as part of a modern manufacturing chain. Additive manufacturing can be used for near net-shape for finishing, for repair or for adding special features which cannot be made with traditional manufacturing. This paper describes how STEP-NC deals with these different scenarios in terms of accuracy, multi-material and variation of slice direction. The possibilities of multi-material objects also raises questions about the design of such objects and how these need to be handled by an advanced controller. The paper also describes non-planar slicing. Curved direction and cylindrical direction are shown to improve the accuracy of curved structure additive manufacturing. STEP-NC using boundary representation has better capability of depicting complex internal structures for additive processes. By using exact model of the final product represented by STEP-NC, the paper demonstrates improvements in data size reduction, slicing accuracy, and precise manipulation of internal structure.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0111.v1
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:13:38 CEST)
Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods and techniques have been applied to many real-world problems in different fields of engineering science and technology. The evaluation based on distance from average solution (EDAS) method is a new and efficient MCDM method. The aim of this study is to propose a modification to address two exceptional cases in which the EDAS method fails to solve an MCDM problem.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0618.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Interpolation; Hydraulic Conductivity; Multi-Point Geostatistics; Training Image
Online: 26 February 2021 (12:47:53 CET)
Hydraulic conductivity is the key and one of the most uncertain parameters in groundwater modeling. The grid based numerical simulation require spatial distribution of sampled hydraulic conductivity at un-sampled locations in the study area. This spatial interpolation has been routinely performed using variogram based models (two-point geostatistics methods). These traditional techniques fail to capture the complex geological structures, provides smoothing effects and ignore the higher order moments of subsurface heterogeneities. In this work, a multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) method is applied to interpolate hydraulic conductivity data which will be further used in WASH123D numerical groundwater simulation model for regional smart groundwater management. To do this, MPS need ‘training images (TIs) as a key input. TI is a conceptual model of subsurface geological heterogeneity which was developed by using concept of ages, topographic slope as an index criteria and knowledge of geologist. After considerations of full physics of study area, an example shows the advantages of using multiple-point geostatistics compared with the traditional two-point geostatistics methods (such as Kriging) for the interpolation of hydraulic conductivity data in a complex geological formation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0244.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: microbial communities; synergistic interactions; ecosystem processes; multi-omics
Online: 9 February 2021 (16:59:36 CET)
Mining interspecies interactions remain a challenge due to the complex nature of microbial communities and the need for computational power to handle big data. Our meta-analysis indicates that genetic potential alone does not resolve all issues involving mining of microbial interactions. Nevertheless, it can be used to define the building blocks to infer synergistic interspecies interactions and to limit the search space (i.e., number of species and metabolic reactions) to a manageable size. A reduced search space decreases the number of additional experiments necessary to validate the inferred putative interactions. As validation experiments, we examine how multi-omics and state of the art imaging techniques may further improve our understanding of species interactions’ role in ecosystem processes. Finally, we analyze pros and cons from the current methods to infer microbial interactions from genetic potential and propose a new theoretical framework based on: (i) genomic information of key members of a community; (ii) information of ecosystem processes involved with a specific hypothesis or research question; (iii) the ability to identify putative species’ contributions to ecosystem processes of interest; and, (iv) validation of putative microbial interactions through integration of other data sources.