ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0161.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: multi-agent systems; multi-agent reinforcement learning; internet of vehicles; urban area
Online: 11 March 2022 (05:13:15 CET)
Smart Internet of Vehicles (IoVs) combined with Artificial Intelligence (AI) will contribute to vehicle decision-making in the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). Multi-Vehicle Pursuit games (MVP), a multi-vehicle cooperative ability to capture mobile targets, is becoming a hot research topic gradually. Although there are some achievements in the field of MVP in the open space environment, the urban area brings complicated road structures and restricted moving spaces as challenges to the resolution of MVP games. We define an Observation-constrained MVP (OMVP) problem in this paper and propose a Transformer-based Time and Team Reinforcement Learning scheme (T3OMVP) to address the problem. First, a new multi-vehicle pursuit model is constructed based on decentralized partially observed Markov decision processes (Dec-POMDP) to instantiate this problem. Second, by introducing and modifying the transformer-based observation sequence, QMIX is redefined to adapt to the complicated road structure, restricted moving spaces and constrained observations, so as to control vehicles to pursue the target combining the vehicle’s observations. Third, a multi-intersection urban environment is built to verify the proposed scheme. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed T3OMVP scheme achieves significant improvements relative to state-of-the-art QMIX approaches by 9.66%~106.25%. Code is available at https://github.com/pipihaiziguai/T3OMVP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0507.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: wireless sensor network; agent cooperation; mobile agent; itinerary; multi agent system; communication
Online: 26 July 2018 (08:48:35 CEST)
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is designed to collect information across a large number of limited battery sensor nodes. Therefore, it is important to minimize the energy consumption of each node, which leads to the extension of the network life. Our goal is to design an intelligent WSN that collects as much information as possible to process it intelligently. To achieve this goal, an agent has been migrated to each node in order to process the information and to cooperate with these neighboring nodes while Mobile Agents (MA) can be used to reduce information between nodes and send those to the base station (Sink). This work proposes to use communication architecture for wireless sensor networks based on the Multi Agent System (MAS) to ensure optimal information collection. The collaboration of these agents generates a simple message that summarizes the important information in order to transmit it by a mobile agent. To reduce the size of the MA, the nodes of the network have been grouped into sector. As for each MA, we have established an optimal itinerary, consuming a minimum amount of energy with the data aggregation efficiency in a minimum time. Successive simulations in large scale wireless sensor networks through the SINALGO simulator show the performance of our proposal, in terms of energy consumption and package delivery rate.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0600.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Continuous Learning; Multi-agent System; Prediction; Adaptability
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:23:29 CEST)
In this work, we propose a self-supervised multi-agent system that meets the online learning of clustering tasks for video behavior recognition spatio-temporal tasks. Encoding visual behavioral actions as discrete temporal sequence(DTS). Real-time clustering recognition task in a multi-agent system for continuous model building, training, and correction. Finally, we implemented a fully decentralized multi-agent system and completed its feasibility verification in a surveillance video application scenario on vehicle path clustering.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0058.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: synthetic biology; multi-agent modelling; individual-based modelling; agent-based modelling; systems biology; emergence; multi-scale; bioengineering; consortia; collectives
Online: 5 May 2020 (03:45:16 CEST)
Many complex behaviours in biological systems emerge from large populations of interacting molecules or cells, generating functions that go beyond the capabilities of the individual parts. Such collective phenomena are of great interest to bioengineers due to their robustness and scalability. However, engineering emergent collective functions is difficult because they arise as a consequence of complex multi-level feedback, which often spans multiple length-scales. Here, we present a perspective on how some of these challenges could be overcome by using multi-agent modelling as a design framework within synthetic biology. Using case studies covering the construction of synthetic ecologies to biological computation and synthetic cellularity, we show how multi-agent modelling can capture the core features of complex multi-scale systems and provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms which guide emergent functionalities across scales. The ability to unravel design rules underpinning these behaviours offers a means to take synthetic biology beyond single molecules or cells and towards the creation of systems with functions that can only emerge from collectives at multiple scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0066.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: Convergence; multi-agent; reinforcement learning; reward; user association
Online: 3 October 2023 (08:50:12 CEST)
Machine learning offers advanced tools for efficient management of radio resources in modern wireless networks. In this study, we leverage a multi-agent deep reinforcement learning (DRL) approach, specifically the Parameterized Deep Q-Network (DQN), to address the challenging problem of power allocation and user association in massive multiple-input multiple-output (M-MIMO) communication networks. Our approach tackles a multi-objective optimization problem aiming to maximize network utility while meeting stringent quality of service requirements in M-MIMO networks. To address the non-convex and nonlinear nature of this problem, we introduce a novel multi-agent DQN framework. This framework defines a large action space, state space, and reward functions, enabling us to learn a near-optimal policy. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of our Parameterized Deep DQN (PD-DQN) approach when compared to traditional DQN and RL methods. Specifically, we show that our approach outperforms traditional DQN methods in terms of convergence speed and final performance. Additionally, our approach shows 72.2 % and 108.5 % improvement over DQN methods and RL method respectively in handling large-scale multi-agent problems in M-MIMO networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0307.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: CMA; Path Planning; Dynamic Environment; Multi Agent; Autonomous Navigation
Online: 14 December 2020 (08:26:16 CET)
This investigation explores a novel path-planning and optimization strategy for multiple cooperative robotic agents, applied in a fully observable and dynamically changing obstacle field. Current dynamic path planning strategies employ static algorithms operating over incremental time-steps. We propose a cooperative multi-agent (CMA) based algorithm, based on natural flocking of animals, using vector operations. It is preferred over more common graph search algorithms like A* as it can be easily applied for dynamic environments. CMA algorithm executes obstacle avoidance using static potential fields around obstacles, that scale based on relative motion. Optimization strategies including interpolation and Bezier curves are applied to the algorithm. To validate effectiveness, CMA algorithm is compared with A* using static obstacles due to lack of equivalent algorithms for dynamic environments. CMA performed comparably to A* with difference ranging from -0.2% to 1.3%. CMA algorithm is applied experimentally to achieve comparable performance, with an error range of -0.5% to 5.2%. These errors are attributed to the limitations of the Kinect V1 sensor used for obstacle detection. The algorithm was finally implemented in a 3D simulated space, indicating that it is possible to apply with drones. This algorithm shows promise for application in warehouse and inventory automation, especially when the workspace is observable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0008.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Glucose Oscillation; Prediction; Multi-agent; Type 1 Diabetes; Personalized; Recommendation
Online: 1 September 2022 (07:13:20 CEST)
The glucose-insulin regulatory system and its glucose oscillations is a recurring theme in the literature because of its impact on human lives, mostly the ones affected by diabetes mellitus. Several approaches were proposed, from mathematical to data-based models, with the aim of modeling the glucose oscillation curve. Having such a curve, it is possible to predict, when injecting insulin in type 1 diabetes (T1D) individuals. However, the literature presents prediction horizons no longer than 6 hours, which could be a problem considering their sleeping time. This work presents Tesseratus, a model that adopts a multi-agent approach to combine machine learning and mathematical modeling to predict the glucose oscillation up to 8 hours. Tesseratus uses the pharmacokinetics of insulins and data collected from T1D individuals. Its outcome can support endocrinologists while prescripting daily treatment for T1D individuals, and provide personalized recommendations for such individuals, to keep their glucose concentration in the ideal range. Tesseratus brings pioneering results for prediction horizons of 8 hours for nighttime, in an experiment with seven real T1D individuals. It is our claim that Tesseratus will be a reference for classification of glucose prediction model, supporting the mitigation of short- and long-term complications in the T1D individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0455.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: matrix-weighted graphs; multi-agent systems; clustered consensus; global consensus
Online: 23 August 2021 (14:48:25 CEST)
This paper extends the concept of weighted graphs to matrix weighted graphs. The consensus algorithms dictate that all agents reach consensus when the weighted graph is connected. However, it is not always the case for matrix weighted graphs. The conditions leading to different types of consensus have been extensively analysed based on the properties of matrix-weighted Laplacians and graph theoretic methods. However, in practice, there is concern on how to pick matrix-weights to achieve some desired consensus, or how the change of elements in matrix weights affects the consensus algorithm. By selecting the elements in the matrix weights, different clusters may be possible. In this paper, we map the roles of the elements of the matrix weights in the systems consensus algorithm. We explore the choice of matrix weights to achieve different types of consensus and clustering. Our results are demonstrated on a network of three agents where each agent has three states.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0317.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: multi agent systems; high-dimensional; optimization; email spam; metaheuristic algorithms
Online: 26 January 2020 (08:25:07 CET)
There exist numerous high-dimensional problems in the real world which cannot be solved through the common traditional methods. The metaheuristic algorithms have been developed as successful techniques for solving a variety of complex and difficult optimization problems. Notwithstanding their advantages, these algorithms may turn out to have weak points such as lower population diversity and lower convergence rate when facing complex high-dimensional problems. An appropriate approach to solve such problems is to apply multi-agent systems along with the metaheuristic algorithms. The present paper proposes a new approach based on the multi-agent systems and the concept of agent, which is named Multi-Agent Metaheuristic (MAMH) method. In the proposed approach, several basic and powerful metaheuristic algorithms, including Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Firefly Algorithm (FA), Bat Algorithm (BA), Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA), Gray Wolf Optimizer (GWO), Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA), Crow Search Algorithm (CSA), Farmland Fertility Algorithm (FFA), are considered as separate agents each of which sought to achieve its own goals while competing and cooperating with others to achieve the common goals. In overall, the proposed method was tested on 32 complex benchmark functions, the results of which indicated effectiveness and powerfulness of the proposed method for solving the high-dimensional optimization problems. In addition, in this paper, the binary version of the proposed approach, called Binary MAMH (BMAMH), was executed on the spam email dataset. According to the results, the proposed method exhibited a higher precision in detection of the spam emails compared to other metaheuristic algorithms and methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0021.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: interbank market; contagion risk; multi-agent system; reinforcement learning agents
Online: 2 April 2018 (10:51:49 CEST)
In this study, we examine the relationship of bank level lending and borrowing decisions and the risk preferences on the dynamics of the interbank lending We develop an agent-based model that incorporates individual bank decisions using the temporal difference reinforcement learning algorithm with empirical data of 6600 S. banks. The model can successfully replicate the key characteristics of interbank lending and borrowing relationships documented in the recent literatur A key finding of this study is that risk preferences at individual bank level can lead to unique interbank market structures which are suggestive of the capacity that the market responds to surprising
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0193.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: multi-agent system; decision support; anti-money laundering; anti-fraud
Online: 22 January 2018 (04:46:20 CET)
The anti-money laundering (AML) process has failed both in identifying suspicious cases in due time as in assisting the AML analysts in decision making. Starting from a new generic anti-fraud approach, this article presents the main aspects related to the development of a multi-agent system that goes beyond the capture of suspicious transactions, seeking to assist the human expert in the analysis of suspicious behaviour. First, a transactional behavioural profile of clients is obtained in a data mining process. A set of rules, obtained through data mining over a real database, in conjunction with specific rules based on legal aspects and in the expertise of the AML analysts make up the agents' knowledge base. The cases for which the system was unable to suggest a decision are flagged as requiring more detailed analysis. The system analysed 6 months of real transactions and indicated several suspicious profiles, a set of these suspects was investigated by the AML analysts who proved the suspicion of several cases, including some that had not been identified by the systems in execution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0656.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: LEO satellite networks; satellite routing; multi-agent reinforcement learning; distributed routing
Online: 21 April 2023 (02:25:03 CEST)
Fast convergence routing is an important issue for LEO constellation network, due to its dynamical topology changing and time varying transmission requests. Most of existing research focus on the OSPF routing algorithm, which cannot handle the frequently links state changing of network. In this paper, we propose a Fast-Convergence Reinforcement Learning Satellite Routing Algorithm (FRL-SR) for LEO satellite networks, in which the satellite gets the network links status fast and adjusts its routing strategy. In FRL-SR, each satellite node is regarded as an agent. The agent selects the port for packet forwarding according to its own routing policy. When the satellite network state changes, agent would send ’hello’ packets to the neighbor node to update the neighbor node’s routing policy. Compared with traditional reinforcement learning, FRL-SR can perceive network information faster, and then converge faster. Also, FRL-SR can mask the dynamics of satellite network topology and adaptively adjust the forwarding strategy according to the link state. Various simulation is constructed, the results show that the proposed FRL-SR algorithm out performance the Dijkstra algorithm in performance of average delay, packet arriving ratio, network load balance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0252.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: multi-agent; HTN; distributed architecture; command and control model; algorithm performance comparison
Online: 23 April 2019 (11:01:03 CEST)
For the task planning problem of the command and control architecture, the existing algorithms have problems such as low efficiency and poor re-planning quality under abnormal conditions. Based on the requirements of the current accusation architecture, this paper constructs a distributed command and control architecture model based on multi-agents, which makes use of the superiority of multi-agents in dealing with complex tasks. The concept of MultiAgents-HTN is proposed under the framework. The original hierarchical task network planning algorithm is optimized, the multi-agent collaboration framework is redefined, and the coordination mechanism of local conflict is designed. Taking the classical resource scheduling problem as the experimental background, the comparison between the proposed algorithm and the classical HTN algorithm is carried out. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has higher quality and higher efficiency than the existing algorithm, and the space anomaly is heavy during processing. The planning is more efficient, and the time is more complicated and superior in dealing with the same problem, with good convergence and adaptability. The conclusion proves that the distributed command and control architecture proposed in this paper has high practicability in related fields and can solve the problem of distributed command and control architecture in multi-agent environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: multi-agent systems; information theory; distributed control; value of information; collaborative search
Online: 29 November 2016 (07:20:46 CET)
We present information theoretic search strategies for single and multi-robot teams to localize the source of biochemical contaminants in turbulent flows. The robots synthesize the information provided by sporadic and intermittent sensor readings to optimize their exploration strategy. By leveraging the spatio-temporal sensing capabilities of a mobile sensing network, our strategies result in control actions that maximize the information gained by the team while optimizing the time spent localizing the position of the biochemical source. By leveraging the team's ability to obtain simultaneous measurements at different locations, we show how a multi-robot team is able to speed up the search process resulting in a collaborative information theoretic search strategy. We validate our proposed strategies in both simulations and experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0026.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: smart sensor; multi-agent system; modular architecture; Blade Health Monitoring; system on chip
Online: 1 July 2021 (12:33:59 CEST)
Blade Health Monitoring (BHM) is often necessary in power plants and in aviation to prevent excessive blade vibration and cracks. This article proposes a network of blade tip timing sensors operated in a distributed BHM system. A number of cooperating agents is implemented in smart conditioning units which can autonomously operate in an adverse environment and communicate with other nodes via a serial interface. The project uses special versions of reduced instruction set chips that are able to operate near the hot section of the engine. Due to the limited number of types of microprocessors available in the extended temperature range grading, it was necessary to fully utilize the limited hardware resources and implement preemptive multitasking. For this purpose, a custom operating system and communication protocol were designed. The protocol hosts the middle layer which hides the implementation of the distributed system. The presented architecture ensures the sufficient computational capacity in individual nodes of the network operated in adverse conditions. It is scalable and resistant to transmission errors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0279.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Long Term Evolution; Radio Resource Management; Packet Scheduling; Cognitive Radio; Multi agent Qlearning; Matlab
Online: 21 June 2022 (03:57:22 CEST)
In this paper, we propose, implement, and test two novel downlink LTE scheduling algorithms. The implementation and testing of these algorithms were in Matlab, and they are based on the use of Reinforcement Learning, more specifically, the Qlearning technique for scheduling two types of users. The first algorithm is called a Collaborative scheduling algorithm, and the second algorithm is called a Competitive scheduling algorithm. The first type of the scheduled users is the Primary Users, and they are the licensed subscribers that pay for their service. The second type of the scheduled users is the Secondary Users, and they could be unlicensed subscribers that dont pay for their service, device to device communications, or sensors. Each user whether it is a primary or secondary is considered as an agent. In the Collaborative scheduling algorithm, the primary user agents will collaborate in order to make a joint scheduling decision about allocating the resource blocks to each one of them, then the secondary user agents will compete among themselves to use the remaining resource blocks. In the Competitive scheduling algorithm, the primary user agents will compete among themselves over the available resources, then the secondary user agents will compete among themselves over the remaining resources. Experimental results show that both scheduling algorithms converged to almost ninety percent utilization of the spectrum, and provided fair shares of the spectrum among users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0775.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: multi-agent system; GEO-spatial simulation model; COVID-19; modelling; geo-object; real-time simulation
Online: 12 July 2023 (11:31:07 CEST)
The paper proposed a modification of the GeoSER(D) model previously developed by us by detailing the age structure of the population, personal schedule on weekdays and working days, and individual health characteristics of the agents, this made it possible to build a more realistic model of the functioning of the city and its residents. The developed model made it possible to simulate the spread of 3 types of the strain of the COVID-19 virus, and to analyze the adequacy of this model in the case of unhindered spread of the virus among city residents. The paper showed that SARS COV 2 spreads mainly from contacts in workplaces and transport, and schoolchildren and preschool children are the consequence, not the initiator of the epidemic. Fluctuations in the dynamics of various indicators of the spread of SARS COV 2 associated with the difference in the daily schedule on weekdays and weekends. It has been shown that people's daily schedules strongly influence the spread of SARS COV 2. For the more contagious "rapid" strains of SARS COV 2 (omicron), immunocompetent people become a significant source of infection. For the less contagious "slow strains" (alpha) of SARS COV 2, the most active source of infection is immunocompromised individuals (pregnant women). The more contagious – "fast" strain of the SARS COV 2 virus (omicron) spreads faster in public transport. For less contagious – "slow" strains of the virus (alpha), the greatest infection occurs due to work and educational contacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0066.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: platoon of heterogeneous trucks; lateral maneuvers; longitudinal maneuvers; truck platoon; multi-agent systems; autonomous trucks
Online: 7 June 2020 (08:13:32 CEST)
This paper presents control algorithms enabling autonomous heterogeneous trucks to drive in platoons. Heterogeneous trucks imply that the hardware information (e.g., truck length, break, accelerator, or engine) of a truck may be distinct from that of another truck. We define a platoon as a collection of trucks where a manually driven truck (leader truck) is followed by several automatically controlled following trucks. The proposed approach is to make every autonomous truck keep following the leader's trajectory while maintaining a designated distance from its predecessor truck. As far as we know, this paper is unique in developing both lateral maneuver and speed control considering a platoon of heterogeneous trucks. The efficiency of the proposed approach is verified using simulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: industrial automation; autonomous design; multi-agent systems; industry 4.0; biologically inspired techniques; AGV systems; energy efficiency
Online: 1 September 2016 (10:48:48 CEST)
In this paper, modelling, simulation and verification of multi-agent manufacturing system with application of bio-inspired techniques are addressed. To this end, the new solution of abstract architecture for control and coordination decentralized systems - CODESA is suggested. Centralized architecture suffers from various problems, such as rigidity, scalability, low fault-tolerance or very limited flexibility, agility, energy efficiency and productivity. Prime is concrete application of CODESA in manufacturing domain. The undesirable characteristics of emergent behaviour are the problem to achieve optimization and impossibility to predict future states of the system. CODESA-Prime has been tested by simulations for automatic guided vehicle (AGV) systems guided by magnetic tape in Ella Software Platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0322.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: binding agent; disintegrating agent; natural polymer; mucilage; Coccinia grandis
Online: 18 November 2021 (11:14:32 CET)
Mucilage from Coccinia grandis was extracted, isolated by maceration technique and precipitated, accordingly. The mucilage was evaluated for its physicochemical, binding, and disintegrant properties in tablets using paracetamol as a model drug. The crucial physicochemical properties such as flow properties, solubility, swelling index, loss on drying, viscosity, pH, microbial load, cytotoxicity were evaluated and the compatibility was analysed using sophisticated instrumental methods (TGA, DTA, DSC, and FTIR). The binding properties of the mucilage were used at three different concentrations and compared with starch and PVP as standard binders. The disintegrant properties of mucilage were used at two different concentrations and compared with standard disintegrants MCCP, SSG, and CCS. The wet granulation technique was used for the preparation of granules and was evaluated for the flow properties. The tablets were punched and evaluated for their hardness, friability, assay, disintegration time, in vitro dissolution profiles. In vitro cytotoxicity study of the mucilage was performed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line using cytotoxic assay by MTT method. The outcome of the study indicated that the mucilage had good performance when compared with starch and PVP. Further, the mucilage acts as a good disintegrant than MCCP, SSG and CCS to paracetamol tablets. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation results demonstrated that the mucilage is non-cytotoxic to human cells and is safe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0190.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: sustainability; smart cities; Internet of Things (IoT); multi-agent deep reinforcement learning; smart waste management; smart sensors
Online: 10 November 2022 (04:49:09 CET)
Ever-increasing need for improving the livability of a city and improve outcomes for its residents, over the last decade, the adoption of technology to develop urbanised societies around the world has given rise to the need for developing smart cities. The speed at which the world population is growing, the use of Internet of Things in smart cities have really advanced the quality of life. One significant area of concern within the smart city framework is waste management. If the waste within a city is not adequately managed, then it leads to issues in the health of the citizens. Additionally, the waste management has such a high impact on the environmental footprint, hence the need to have a smart way of managing waste is of critical importance. Through our research, we analyse the challenges of waste management within a city to understand the impact of the problem on to the citizens and overall city operations. We then investigate ways in which we can solve these problems using the emerging technologies, such as the Internet of Things, to collect valuable data of large volumes arriving at an astronomical rate, then apply multi-agent deep reinforcement learning algorithms to harness the power of big data to extract meaningful information and actionable insights. We ingest data generated by our Internet of Things into our algorithm for three main purposes including providing the notifications to an external system, for example, a map navigation engine out of the scope for this project but a future extension for route optimisation and waste vehicle tracking; extracting and reporting the actionable insights from the underlying data; and consuming the extracted data for predictive forecasting to draw out the unknown patterns of waste fill levels within various geographical locations and again send out triggers and notification to external systems for example a waste collection authority who can efficiently schedule the waste collection vehicles and optimise the route. To achieve the above mentioned outcomes, we propose a framework that is agnostic of the hardware that it connects to and can effectively interface with a wide variety of hardware keeping a level of abstraction in the architecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0048.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: threaded connection; life cycle; information system; PLM; multi-agent; actor model; isomorphism; system-wide regularities; systematic approach; open-source
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:54:27 CET)
The PLM concept implies the use of heterogeneous information resources at different stages of the product life cycle, the joint work of which allows you to effectively solve the problems of product quality and various costs. According to the principle of isomorphism of regularities of complex systems, an effective PLM system must have these regularities. Unfortunately, this principle is not often fundamental when designing PLM systems. The purpose of the work is to show, using a simple example, the principles of development, operation and use of an educational multi-agent PLM system, the main purpose of which is to study and research these regularities in the life cycle of a special threaded connection. The multi-agent approach to the development of a PLM system provides the necessary prerequisites for the emergence of system-wide regularities in it. The parallel work of agents is implemented using the actor model and the Ray Python-package. Agents for the logical inference of knowledge base facts, CAD/FEA/CAM/SCADA agents, agents for optimization by various methods, and other agents have been developed. Open source software was used to develop the system. Each agent has relatively simple behavior, implemented by its rule function, and can interact with other agents. The system can work in interactive mode with the user or in automatic mode according to a simple algorithm: the rule functions of all agents are executed until at least one of them returns a value other than None. Examples of the operation of the system are given and such system-wide regularities as emergence, historicity and self-organization are demonstrated in it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: urban freight transport; multi agent; vehicle routing problem; decarbonization; fuel cell electricvehicles; well to wheel; total cost of ownership
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:58:43 CEST)
The option of decarbonizing urban freight transport using Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) seems promising.However, there is currently a strong debate whether Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) might be the bettersolution. The question arises as to how a fleet of FCEV influences the operating cost, the Greenhouse Gas(GHG) emissions and primary energy demand in comparison to BEVs and to Internal Combustion EngineVehicle (ICEV). To investigate this, we simulate the urban food retailing as a representative share of urbanfreight transport using a multi-agent transport simulation software. Synthetic routes as well as fleet size andcomposition are determined by solving a Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). We compute the operating costsusing a total cost of ownership (Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)) analysis and the use phase emissions as wellas primary energy demand using the Well To Wheel (WTW) approach. While a change to BEV results in 17 -23% higher costs compared to ICEV, using FCEVs leads to 22 - 57% higher costs. Assuming today’s electricitymix, we show a GHG emission reduction of 25% compared to the ICEV base case when using BEV. Currenthydrogen production leads to a GHG reduction of 33% when using FCEV which however cannot be scaled tolarger fleets. Using current electricity in electrolysis will increase GHG emission by 60% compared to the basecase. Assuming 100% renewable electricity for charging and hydrogen production, the reduction from FCEVsrises to 73% and from BEV to 92%. The primary energy requirement for BEV is in all cases lower and forhigher compared to the base case. We conclude that while FCEV have a slightly higher GHG savings potentialwith current hydrogen, BEV are the favored technology for urban freight transport from an economic andecological point of view, considering the increasing shares of renewable energies in the grid mix.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2165.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: sobrerol; mucolytic agent; respiratory infections
Online: 29 June 2023 (14:42:35 CEST)
Respiratory infections are usually characterized by mucus hypersecretion. This condition may worsen and prolong symptoms and signs. Mucoactive agents include different molecules with different mechanisms of action. Sobrerol is a monoterpene able to fluidify mucus, increase mucociliary clearance, and exert antioxidant activity. Sobrerol is available in various formulations (granules, syrup, nebulized, and suppository). Sobrerol has been on the market for over 50 years. Several studies investigated its efficacy and safety in acute and chronic respiratory diseases characterized by mucus hyperproduction. Seven pediatric studies have been conducted with favorable outcomes. Recently, regulatory agencies reduced the treatment duration to three days. Therefore, a future study will test the hypothesis that a combination of oral and topical sobrerol could benefit children and adults with frequent respiratory infections. The rationale considers that mucus accumulation could be a risk factor for increased susceptibility to have infections.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0884.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: benzylamine; chiral solvating agent; thioamide
Online: 25 April 2023 (04:18:23 CEST)
(R)-(+)-3,5-Dinitro-N-(1-phenylethyl)benzothioamide 1 is a potential chiral solvating agent (CSA) for the spectral resolution of enantiomers by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The single enantiomer of 1 was synthesized from commercially (R)-(+)-a-methylbenzylamine 2 in two-steps with 85% yield.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0998.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: alkenyl succinic anhydride; ASA; cellulose; paper sizing; covalent bonding; sizing agent stability; sizing agent retention
Online: 14 June 2023 (07:16:50 CEST)
Alkenyl Succinic Anhydride (ASA) is a sizing agent used in papermaking to increase the water repellency of paper. Almost 60 years after the introduction of the chemical in papermaking, scientists still have differing views on how ASA interacts with cellulose. Several experiments were conducted to bring more clarity to the ASA sizing mechanism, especially on the contentious question of ASA-cellulose covalent bonding or the esterification reaction between ASA and cellulose during papermaking. Herein, research papers and patents, including experiments and results, from the1960’s to 2020 were reviewed. Our investigation revealed that the ester bond formation between ASA and cellulose is insignificant and is not a prerequisite for sizing effectiveness; the main ASA related material found in sized paper is hydrolyzed ASA or both hydrolyzed ASA and ASA salt. In addition, ASA emulsion stability and ASA emulsion retention are important for sizing efficiency improvement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1571.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: social-environmental systems; agent-based complex systems; sustainability science; agent-based models; artificial intelligence; data science
Online: 22 September 2023 (13:39:57 CEST)
A significant number and range of challenges besetting sustainability can be traced to the actions and interactions of multiple autonomous agents (people mostly) and the entities they create (e.g., institutions, policies, social network) in the corresponding social-environmental systems (SES). To address these challenges, we need to understand decisions made and actions taken by agents, the outcomes of their actions, including the feedbacks on the corresponding agents and environment. The science of Agent-based Complex Systems—ACS science—has a significant potential to handle such challenges. The advantages of ACS science for sustainability are addressed by way of identifying the key elements and challenges in sustainability science, the generic features of ACS, and the key advances and challenges in modeling ACS. Artificial intelligence and data science promise to improve understanding of agents’ behaviors, detect SES structures, and formulate SES mechanisms.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: bed bugs; Cimex spp.; Hong Kong; sleep disturbance; health impact; public health; causal agent; infectious agent; vector
Online: 6 October 2021 (09:09:17 CEST)
Bedbug (Cimex spp.) are a nuisance public-health pest that is on the rise globally, particularly in crowded cities such as Hong Kong. To investigate the health impacts of bedbug infestations among bedbug victims, online surveys were distributed in Hong Kong between June 2019 to July 2020. Data on sociodemographics, self-rated health, average hours of sleep per day, and details of bedbug infestation were collected. Bivariate and multivariable analysis were performed using logistic regression. The survey identified 422 bedbug victims; among them, 223 (52.9%) experienced ≥5 bites in the past month, most bites occurred on the arms (n=202, 47.8%) and legs (n=215, 51%), and the most common reaction to bites were itchiness (n=322, 76.3%), redness, and swelling of the skin (n=246, 58.1%), and difficulties sleeping or restlessness (n=125, 29.6%). Bites usually occurred during sleep (n=230, 54.5%). For impact on daily life in the past month, most bedbug victims reported moderate to severe impact on mental and emotional health (n=223, 52.8%) and sleeping quality (n=239, 56.6%). Lower self-rated health (aOR<1) was independently associated with impact to physical appearance (p=0.008), spending money on medication or doctor consultation (p=0.04), number of bites in the past month (p=0.023), and irregular time of bites (p=0.003). Lower average hours of sleep per day (aOR<1) was independently associated with impact on mental and emotional health (p=0.016). This study brings attention to the neglected issue of bedbug infestation by considering bedbugs as an infectious agent instead of a vector and providing empirical evidence describing its health impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0083.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: RAMI4.0; Asset Administration Shell (AAS); Multi-Agent Systems (MAS); Evolutionary Assembly Systems (EAS); Engineering Capabilities Based, Production Flow Scheme (PFS); Petri Net (PN).
Online: 18 November 2021 (14:26:42 CET)
Manufacturing systems need to meet I4.0 guidelines to deal with uncertainty in scenarios of turbulent demand for products. The engineering concepts to define the service’s resources to manufacture the products will be more flexible, ensuring the possibility of re-planning in operation. These can follow the engineering paradigm based on capabilities. The virtualization of industry components and assets achieves the RAMI 4.0 guidelines and (I4.0C), which describes the Asset Administration Shell (AAS). However, AAS are passive components that provide information about I4.0 assets. The proposal of specific paradigms is exposed for managing these components, as is the case of multi-agent systems (MAS) that attribute intelligence to objects. The implementation of resource coalitions with evolutionary architectures (EAS) applies cooperation and capabilities’ association. Therefore, this work focuses on designing a method for modeling the asset administration shell (AAS) as virtual elements orchestrating intelligent agents (MAS) that attribute cooperation and negotiation through contracts to coalitions based on the engineering capabilities concept. The systematic method suggested in this work is partitioned for the composition of objects, AAS elements, and activities that guarantee the relationship between entities. Finally, Production Flow Schema (PFS) refinements are applied to generate the final Petri net models (PN) and validate them with Snoopy simulations. The results achieved demonstrate the validation of the procedure, eliminating interlocking and enabling liveliness to integrate elements behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1436.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Gadolinium; Contrast Agent; ICP-MS; Chemical Stability
Online: 22 November 2023 (14:17:12 CET)
Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA) are complexes, highly stable in vivo, used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), administered in patients and then eliminated via renal, passing through wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) before being discarded in the receiving medium, without apparent removal. In this study, it was studied if different exposure periods to several environmental parameters (solar radiation, different salinities, temperatures and pH) will influence the stability of these complexes, namely, the Gd-DOTA. Gd-DOTA solutions were processed in a seaFAST-pico saline matrix pre-concentration and elimination system and Gd concentrations were determined by ICP-MS. Results showed that the complex remained stable in fresh, brackish and saline water environments, even when exposed to extreme temperatures (40ºC) or slightly acidic to basic conditions (6-10), for an exposure period of 96h. A small increase in the free Gd concentration was observed after 18 days when exposed to pH<4, in all tested salinities (0, 18 and 36 PSU), with a degradation increase of up to 29%, after 5 weeks of exposure in freshwater. When exposed to direct solar radiation a low Gd-DOTA degradation (4%) was observed after 24h at salinity 18 PSU and remained constant until the end of the exposure period (96h), while the remaining salinities showed negligible values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0955.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: dentin-bonding agent; chelators; fiber post; ultrasonics
Online: 16 October 2023 (10:55:26 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of Chitosan 0.2% in various final cleaning methods on the bond strength of fiberglass post (FP) to intrarradicular dentin. Ninety bovine incisors were sectioned to obtain root remnants measuring 18 mm in length. The roots were divided: G1: EDTA 17%; G2: EDTA 17% + PUI; G3: EDTA 17% + EA; G4: EDTA 17% + XPF; G5: Chitosan 2%; G6: Chitosan 2% + PUI; G7: Chitosan 2% + EA; G8: Chitosan 2% +XPF. After carrying out the cleaning methods, the posts were installed, and the root cleaved to to generate two disks from each root third. Bond strength values (MPa) obtained from the micro push-out test data were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner tests for multiple comparisons (α = 5%). Differences were observed in the cervical third between G1 and G8 (p=0.038), G4 and G8 (p=0.003), G6 and G8 (p=0.049), and Control and G8 (p=0.019). The final cleaning method influenced the adhesion strength of cemented FP to intrarradicular dentin. Chitosan 0.2% + XPF positively influenced adhesion strength, with the highest values in the cervical third.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2129.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: epidemiology; COVID-19; agent-based model; forecasting
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:37:07 CEST)
Background. We created agent-based model for short- and longterm forecasting of COVID-19 and for evaluation how the actions of the regulator affected the human and material resources of the healthcare system. Methods. The model was implemented in the AnyLogic software. It includes two state charts – social network and disease transmission. The COVID-19 Essential Supplies Forecasting Tool (COVID-ESFT, version 2.0) was used to determine healthcare resources needed. Results. Satisfactory results were obtained with long-term (up to 50 days) forecasting in the case of a monotonous change in total cases curve. However, if periods of relative stability are accompanied by sudden outbreaks, relatively satisfactory results were obtained with short-term forecasting, up to 10 days. Simulation of various scenarios showed that the most important place for the spread of infection are families. Wherein the maximum number of cases of COVID-19 is observed in the age group of 26-59 years. Due to a set of measures taken by government agencies, the number of cases in Karaganda city was 3.2 times less than was predicted in “no intervention” scenario. Economic effect is estimated at 40 %. Conclusion. Performed model is an attempt to consider as much as possible the peculiarities of the socio-demographic situation in the country. In the future, we will be prepared to some extent for challenges like those we have experienced in the past three years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1065.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: jade waste; antibacterial agent; activation temperature; coatings
Online: 27 April 2023 (09:53:36 CEST)
Jade waste is a normal byproduct that makes up much more than the amount of jade extracted. Therefore, recycling jade waste is worth investigating from the point of view of energy conservation. Moreover, it is an environment-friendly material, which is desirable for use in building materials. In this study, Xiuyan jade waste was repurposed as antibacterial additives for building coatings. The powder waste was activated by milling and subsequent annealing. The antibacterial properties of the treated waste were mostly related to the annealing temperatures. Based on the investigations of the phase change and the release of metal ions of a series of samples and their antibacterial activities, the antibacterial mechanism of the treated samples was explored experimentally. The most applicable sample for coatings was finally chosen by considering its pH values and its antibacterial abilities. Antibacterial testing showed that the addition of treated jade waste could enhance the bacterial inhibition rate of building coatings from 60% to 99.9%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0556.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Agent-based-model; epidemiology; python; zoonotic diseases
Online: 1 December 2022 (02:09:32 CET)
Agent-based models (ABMs) are computational models for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous agents in time and space. These models allow users to simulate the complex interactions between individual agents and the landscapes they inhabit and are increasingly used in epidemiology to understand complex phenomena and make predictions. However, as the complexity of the simulated systems increases, notably when disease control interventions are considered, model flexibility and processing speed can become limiting. Here we introduce SamPy, an open-source Python library for stochastic agent-based modeling of epidemics. SamPy is a modular toolkit for model development, providing adaptable modules that capture host movement, disease dynamics, and disease control interventions. Memory optimization and design provide high computational efficiency allowing modelling of large, spatially-explicit populations of agents over extensive geographical areas. In this article, we demonstrate the high flexibility and processing speed of this new library. The version of SamPy considered in this paper is available at https://github.com/sampy-project/sampy-paper .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0403.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: anticancer agent; cytotoxicity; cell viability test; QSAR
Online: 22 November 2021 (14:18:14 CET)
2-(Morpholin-4-yl)-4,5-bis(2’’,2’’,2’’-trinitroethoxy)-1,3,5-triazine having QSAR-predicted anti-tumor activity was tested for the cytotoxicity using MTT and LDH cell viability tests. The experiments were conducted using human fibroblasts, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and breast cancer cells and allowed to identify effective cytotoxic concentration ant therapeutic range of this compound. The data obtained suggest the feasibility of the further studies of the test compound as a potential anti-cancer agent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0189.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: flaxseed gum; konjac glucomannan; agar; gelling agent
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:10:42 CEST)
In this study, a natural-based gelling agent comprised of blended flax seed gum (FSG), konjac glucomannan (KG), and agar gel (AG) was developed for application to control the textural properties of foods. The compound gels, including FSG, KG, and AG, were investigated to determine their physicochemical properties, including minimum gelling concentration, water binding capacity, water soluble index, and swelling power. In addition, we analyzed the rheological properties of the compound gel through texture analysis, frequency sweep, and creep and recovery. The microstructure of the compound gel was identified and compared with the viscoelastic properties of the gel. Overall, these results showed that the F4K6 (4:6:2 of FSG:KG:AG) could serve as an excellent gelling agent, which endowed food gel with the promoted elastic properties, water capacity, and rigid surface morphology. This work suggests that novel gelling agents, including FSG, KGM, and AG, successfully prepared food gels with improved physicochemical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0046.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: CO2; diethyl carbonate; ethanol; dehydrating agent; catalyst
Online: 5 January 2020 (16:58:11 CET)
Excessive CO2 emissions and alternative energy fuels are two major difficult issues. The utilization of CO2 into fine chemicals is an optimal route. Diethyl carbonate (DEC) is an extremely versatile chemical intermediate. DEC is used in gasoline, pharmaceutical, chemical and other fields. DEC synthesis from CO2 and ethanol is a typical green synthetic route. Ni-Cu@Na3PW12O40 catalysts were synthesized by two novel methods of supported and mixed. The catalyst prepared by mixed method showed nice catalytic performance. It was confirmed that water removal was the key to improving conversion efficiency. In the presence of dehydrating agent of ethylene, ethanol conversion increased from ca. 3% to ca. 40%. Propylene oxide (PO) was participated in the reaction and ethanol conversion continued to reach to ca.90% while DEC selectivity dropped by half. Under optimal conditions, our Ni-Cu@Na3PW12O40 catalyst effectively solved the two major issues above.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0457.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electronic, Optical And Magnetic Materials Keywords: bitumen; antioxidant agent; rheology; electron paramagnetic resonance
Online: 24 July 2018 (13:20:22 CEST)
Bitumen aging is the major factor which contributes to the deterioration of the road pavement. Oxidation and volatilization are generally considered as the most important phenomena affecting aging in asphalt paving mixtures. The present study was carried to investigate whether various antioxidants provided by natural resources such as phospholipids, ascorbic acid as well as lignin from rice husk, could be used to reduce age hardening in asphalt binders. A selected bituminous material was modified by adding 2 % w/w of the anti-aging natural additives and subjected to accelerated oxidative aging regimes according to the Rolling Thin Film Oven Test (RTFOT) method. The effects of aging were evaluated based on changes in sol-gel transition temperature of modified bitumens measured through Dynamic Shear Rheology (DSR). Moreover, changes of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectra were monitored on the bituminous fractions asphaltene and maltene separated by solvent extraction upon oxidative aging. The phospholipids-treated binder exhibited the highest resistance to oxidation and the lowest age-hardening effect compared to the other tested anti-oxidants. The combination of EPR and DSR techniques represents a promising method for elucidating the changes in associated complex properties of bitumen fractions promoted by addition of free radical scavengers borrowed by green resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0269.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electric Moped Scooter Sharing; E-Moped; Shared Mobility; Urban Mobility; Life Cycle Assessment; Sustainability; Total Cost Of Ownership; Multi-Agent Transport Simulation; MATSim; Berlin
Online: 9 June 2021 (15:30:13 CEST)
Electric moped scooter sharing services have recently experienced strong growth rates, particularly in Europe. Due to their compactness, environmental-friendliness and convenience, shared e-mopeds are suitable modes of transport in urban mobility to help reduce the environmental impact. However, its traffic-related, economic and environmental effects are merely represented in academic research. We used passenger car traffic data in Berlin generated by the multi-agent transport simulation framework MATSim to develop a python-based simulation, resembling an e-moped sharing system. Based on the results, a total cost of ownership and a life cycle assessment for fleet sizes of 2,500, 10,000 and 50,000 vehicles were conducted. The results indicate that a substantial part of all passenger car trips in Berlin can be substituted. The larger the fleet, the more and longer trips are replaced. Simultaneously, the efficiency in terms of fleet utilization decreases. The scenario with 10,000 e-mopeds offers the lowest total distance-based costs for sharing operators, whereas a fleet consisting of 2,500 vehicles exhibits the lowest environmental emissions per kilometer driven over the expected lifespan of a shared e-moped. Based on the renewable energy potential for 2050 forecasted by the German Federal Environment Agency, a significant overall decline in environmental impacts can be achieved.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0627.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: pathfinding; algorithms; multi-criteria; multi-modal; multi-network; transportation
Online: 28 August 2020 (09:09:37 CEST)
In daily travel and activities, pathfinding is a significant process. They are often used in transportation routes calculation. They have now evolved to be able to solve most situations of the pathfinding and its related problems. This review describes previous and recent studies on the pathfinding algorithms. It reviews the development of pathfinding algorithms in a classification base on their usage. The aim is to summarize the application of the pathfinding algorithms for the readers interested in the subject that can be used as a supplement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0059.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: multi-faith spaces; secularisation; multi-faith paradigm; unaffiliated; multi-belief
Online: 15 January 2018 (08:24:56 CET)
Multi-Faith Spaces (MFS) are a relatively recent invention that quickly gained in significance. On the one hand, they offer a convenient solution for satisfying needs of people with diverse beliefs in the institutional context of hospitals, schools, airports, etc. On the other hand, as Andrew Crompton pointed out, they are politically significant because the multi-faith paradigm “is replacing Christianity as the face of public religion in Europe” (2012, p. 493). Due to their ideological entanglement, MFS are often used as the means to promote either a more privatised version of religion, or a certain denominational preference. Two distinct designs are used to achieve these means: negative in the case of the former, and positive in the latter. Neither is without problems, and neither adequately fulfils its primary purpose of serving diverse groups of believers. Both, however, seem to follow the biases and main problems of secularism. In this paper, I analyse recent developments of MFS to detail their main problems and answer the question, whether the MFS, and the underlying Multi-Faith Paradigm, can be classified as a continuation of secularism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0434.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: natural polysaccharide; composite hydrogel; wound healing; therapeutic agent
Online: 7 November 2023 (11:14:38 CET)
Numerous innovative advancements in dressing technology for wound healing have emerged. Among the various types of wound dressings available, hydrogel dressings, structured with a three-dimensional network and composed of predominantly hydrophilic components, are widely used for wound care due to their remarkable capacity to absorb abundant wound exudate, maintain a moisture environment, provide soothing and cooling effects, and mimic the extracellular matrix. Composite hydrogel dressings, one of the evolved dressings, address the limitations of traditional hydrogel dressings by incorporating additional components, including particles, fibers, fabrics, or foams, within the hydrogels, effectively promoting wound treatment and healing. The added elements enhance the features or add specific functionalities of the dressings, such as sensitivity to external factors, adhesiveness, mechanical strength, control over the release of therapeutic agents, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, and tissue regeneration behavior. They can be categorized as natural or synthetic based on the origin of the main components of the hydrogel network. This review focuses on recent research on developing natural polysaccharide-based composite hydrogel wound dressings. Their preparation and composition, the reinforcement materials integrated into hydrogels, and therapeutic agents are also explored. Furthermore, their features and the specific types of wounds where applied are discussed as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1137.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: embolic agent; ONYX; SQUID; PHIL; vascular malformations; paragangliomas
Online: 18 October 2023 (07:14:26 CEST)
Objectives: Non-adhesive gel-like embolic materials (NAGLEMs) are becoming increasingly dominant in the endovascular treatment of hypervascularised formations in the head and neck due to a combination of their key properties. The main advantages include their lack of adhesion, effective distribution and penetration through pathological vessels, and crucially, their controlla-bility during the process. Our assigned duty was to scrutinise the literature and assess the efficacy and outcomes of administering NAGLEMs, in comparison to other embolizing substances (name-ly, coils, glue, and particles), among patients treated at our clinic. The procedures involved ana-lyzing the technical aspects, efficiency, and safety of endovascular therapy applied to two catego-ries of hypervascular pathological anomalies, surgically managed from 2015 to 2023. Arteriove-nous malformations (AVMs) located in the head, neck, and paragangliomas with jugular/carotid body localization are combined by intense shunting blood flow and shared requirements for em-bolizates used in endovascular treatment (such as penetration, distribution, delayed polymeriza-tion and controllability). An analysis of the literature was also conducted. Results showed 18 pa-tients diagnosed with neck paragangliomas of the carotid body and jugular type. Five patients with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the face and neck were included, consisting of 16 fe-males and 7 males with an average age of 55 ± 13 years. Endovascular procedures were conduct-ed using NAGLEMs (ONYX (Medtronic), SQUID (Balt), and PHIL (Microvention)) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-compatible balloon catheters. All patients achieved complete or partial embo-lization of hypervascularized formations using one or more stages of endovascular treatment. Additionally, three AVMs of the face and two paragangliomas of the neck were surgically ex-cised following embolization. In other instances, formations were not deemed necessary to be re-moved. The patients' condition upon discharge was assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRs) and rated between 0 and 2. Conclusion: Currently, NAGLEMs are predominantly used to treat hypervascularized formations in the neck and head due to their fundamental properties. These properties include a lack of adhesion and a delay in predictable polymerization (after 30-40 minutes). NAGLEMs also exhibit excellent distribution and penetration throughout the vascular bed of the formation. Adequate controllability of the process is largely achieved through the pres-ence of embolism forms of different viscosity, as well as excellent X-ray visualization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0814.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Agent-based modelling; antimicrobial-resistant gonorrhea; surveillance systems
Online: 12 October 2023 (11:24:24 CEST)
We aim to evaluate efficiency of two American surveillance systems for monitoring the spread of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) gonorrhea among men who have sex with men (MSM) using the novel continuous-time agent-based model of gonorrhea transmission. The model was developed using the simulation modelling tool AnyLogic and accounts for susceptible and resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, symptomatic and asymptomatic infection and various routes of transmission between different anatomical sites. The model was calibrated using a Bayesian calibration approach. The surveillance systems are the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) and the enhanced Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (eGISP). We calculated accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and estimation error for each surveillance system based on the number of isolates submitted in 2018. We also varied that number to see its effect on the outcomes. Our results show that the accuracy of eGISP was between 66% and 92%, while GISP demonstrates low accuracy between 44% and 48%. We also determined that increasing the number of isolates results in improved performance for eGISP, while GISP is not particularly sensitive to it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1953.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Candida parapsilosis; Antifungal agent; Nanoliposomes; Nigella sativa oil
Online: 28 June 2023 (07:23:02 CEST)
The aim of current study is adjusted and synthesized liposomal compound of N. sativa and evaluation its antifungal properties against C. parapsilosis isolates. Fifteen clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis complex isolates were obtained from hospitalized patients affected by candidemia in Mashhad city, Iran, along with a reference strain of C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019) were assessed by flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) method, as described previously. N. sativa is encapsulated in liposomal Nanocariers by using thin film hydration technique. At the beginning liposomal nanoparticles was characterized and confirmed with the dynamic light scattering technique (DLS) and Transmission electron microscopy. Then minimum inhibitory concentration of liposomal N. sativa oil was conducted with the CLSI M27 A3 protocol and finally Cytotoxicity function of N. sativa oil liposomal nanocarriers on PBMCs was investigated and confirmed with MTT assay by the results of this research N. sativa oil-Lip-NP didn’t show any toxic effect on PBMCs and The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of free N. sativa oil and liposomal formulation with inhibitory effects on candida isolates was between 128 - 8, 250 - 31.25 µg ml also MIC50 and MIC90 were 125,187 and 32,96, µg ml respectively. Due to the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, particle size, non-toxic effect, and higher cell viability of N. sativa oil -Lip-NP, it could be considered a more effective approach to treating fungal infections.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0129.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: Chemical warfare agent; decontamination; nitrogen mustard; ferrate(VI)
Online: 2 June 2023 (04:31:53 CEST)
Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are one of the most toxic compounds. Degradation of CWAs using decontamination agents is one of the few ways to protect human health against the harmful effects of CWAs. A ferrate Fe(VI) based potential chemical warfare agent decontaminant was studied for degradation of persistent nitrogen mustard (tris(2-chloroethyl)amine, HN3). By optimizing the reaction conditions, the complete degradation of HN3 was achieved in 4 minutes. The degradation products contained mostly reduced Fe species which confirmed the environmental friendliness of the proposed decontamination solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0; SME; agent-based simulation; causal loop
Online: 6 June 2022 (08:37:39 CEST)
ASEAN SME has a role as the regional socioeconomic stabilizer. This particular role is inseparable from endogenous multi-sector collaboration. Although, Indonesian SMEs were struggled in adopting Industry 4.0 correspond to digital infrastructure and digital literacy problems. This study evaluates Indonesian SME collaboration dynamics with government and technology startup (TS). The integration of agent-based model and causal loop simulation were employed to assess the TS collaboration impact on SME Industry 4.0 adoption and SME competition with larger competitors. The simulation results imply the SME collaboration with TS can lead to early adoption of Industry 4.0 which balances the business competition environment. The model also shows rising the government aid exponentially can help the SME to late adoption of Industry 4.0 which unable to sustain the SME in business competition. Thus, the developed integrative simulation model is a state-action planning model with each state result bounded to the previous state result that determined by initial input parameters. Conclusively, the model can be used as a resiliency planner for SME Industry 4.0 adoption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0271.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Micro-mobility; Ride-sharing; Agent-based modelling; Crowdsourcing
Online: 12 May 2021 (13:48:39 CEST)
Substantial research is required to ensure that micro-mobility ride sharing provides a better fulfillment of user needs. This study proposes a novel crowdsourcing model for the ride-sharing system where light vehicles such as scooters and bikes are crowdsourced. The proposed model consists of three entities: suppliers, customers, and a management party responsible for receiving, renting, booking, and demand matching with offered resources. It can allow suppliers to define the location of their private e-scooters/e-bikes and the period of time they are available for rent. Using a dataset of over 9 million e-scooter trips in Austin, Texas, we ran an agent-based simulation six times using three maximum battery ranges (i.e., 35, 45, and 60 km) and different numbers of e-scooters (e.g., 50 and 100) at each origin. Computational results show that the proposed model is promising and might be advantageous to shift the charging and maintenance efforts to a crowd of suppliers.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0116.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: DAPT; workflow; agent-based modeling; model exploration; crowdsourcing
Online: 10 May 2021 (09:47:54 CEST)
Modern agent-based models (ABM) and other simulation models require evaluation and testing of many different parameters. Managing that testing for large scale parameter sweeps (grid searches) as well as storing simulation data requires multiple, potentially customizable steps that may vary across simulations. Furthermore, parameter testing, processing, and analysis are slowed if simulation and processing jobs cannot be shared across teammates or computational resources. While high-performance computing (HPC) has become increasingly available, models can often be tested faster through the use of multiple computers and HPC resources. To address these issues, we created the Distributed Automated Parameter Testing (DAPT) Python package. By hosting parameters in an online (and often free) "database", multiple individuals can run parameter sets simultaneously in a distributed fashion, enabling ad hoc crowdsourcing of computational power. Combining this with a flexible, scriptable tool set, teams can evaluate models and assess their underlying hypotheses quickly. Here we describe DAPT and provide an example demonstrating its use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0283.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: TEM; thermal degradation; wall paper; blowing agent; foam
Online: 27 June 2019 (06:29:11 CEST)
This study was conducted to improve the white index (WI) by preparing thermally expandable microspheres (TEMs) for wallpaper. The thermal properties, foam expansion ratio and WI were studied depending on the particle size of colloidal silica in the preparation of TEMs. As a result, the TEMs with small particles of colloidal silica showed the best results for whiteness and yellowing. Additionally, TGA results indicated that it was highly possible that colloidal silica with small particle sizes was physically or chemically attached to the surface of the TEMs that led to an improvement in whiteness at high temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0312.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Access control; Blockchain; Multi-Blockchain; Multi-Authority; Multi-Domain; Attribute-Based Encryption
Online: 19 December 2022 (03:19:23 CET)
Although there are several access control systems in the literature for flexible policy management in multi-authority and multi-domain environments, achieving interoperability & scalability, without relying on strong trust assumptions, is still an open challenge. We present HMBAC, a distributed fine-grained access control model for shared and dynamic multi-authority and multi-domain environments, along with Janus, a practical system for HMBAC policy enforcement. The proposed HMBAC model supports: (a) dynamic trust management between different authorities; (b) flexible access control policy enforcement, defined at domain and cross-domain level; (c) a global source of truth for all entities, supported by an immutable, audit-friendly mechanism. Janus implements the HMBAC model and relies on the effective fusion of two core components. First, a Hierarchical Multi-Blockchain architecture that acts as a single access point that cannot be bypassed by users or authorities. Second, a Multi-Authority Attribute Based Encryption protocol that supports flexible shared multi-owner encryption, where attribute keys from different authorities are combined to decrypt data distributedly stored in different authorities. Our approach was implemented using Hyperledger Fabric as the underlying blockchain, with the system components placed in Kubernetes Docker container pods. We experimentally validated the effectiveness and efficiency of Janus, while fully reproducible artifacts of both our implementation and our measurements are provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2025.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Nanocomposites; mechanical alloying; process control agent; carbon nanotubes; titanium
Online: 31 October 2023 (07:53:46 CET)
The current work shows the optimization in the preparation of nanosized titanium carbide (TiC) in-situ through mechanical alloying (MA). Metallic titanium (Ti) powders, along with two carbon sources, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and stearic acid (SA), were used to reduce the particle size using a high-energy Spex800 mill. The combined use of 2 wt % of these carbon sources and n-heptane as a liquid process control agent (PCA) proved crucial in generating nanoscale powder composites through a simple and scalable synthesis process within a 4-hour timeframe. The use of 20 wt % of both carbon sources was compared to determine the ability of CNTs to form carbides and the decomposition of PCAs during mechanical milling. The result reveals structures like nanoblocks and nanolumps with and important size reduction. The structure and morphology of the composites and starting materials were evaluated through x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1439.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: agent-based model; trade wars; scenario calculations; sanctions; industries.
Online: 21 August 2023 (08:57:07 CEST)
In the context of growing global political tension and introduction of world trade barriers, the urgent task is to develop new tools for assessing their consequences. In the paper we present the agent-based model of trade wars, considering organizations, states and residents generated using initial statistical data. Simulation determines changes in output and supplies of organizations under trade restrictions. Results of calculations on the developed model and comparison of various model complexes forecasts with real consequences of trade wars between the USA and China in 2018 and Western countries against Russia in 2022 are presented. Within calculations four scenarios were considered: (1) baseline, (2) new restrictions between China and the USA, (3) more serious sanctions against China and Russia by the USA and the EU, (4) a global trade war. In the second scenario deviation GDP of the USA and China from the baseline scenario does not exceed 0.5%. In the third scenario, the range of countries involved is expanding, and the fall in GDP in them is expected at the level of 0.7-1%. In the fourth scenario, the entire world economy experiences a serious slowdown, and the EU are facing the most severe consequences, going into recession.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1337.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: indigo carmine; food dye; textile dye; diagnostic agent; toxicity
Online: 18 August 2023 (07:28:53 CEST)
Dyes, as indigo carmine have become indispensable to modern life being widely used in food, textile, pharmaceutical, medicine and cosmetic industries. Although indigo carmine is considered toxic and presents many adverse effects, it is heavily used in the food industry because the blue pigment is difficult to obtain from natural sources and is one of the most used dyes in the textile industry, especially for dyeing denim. Also, indigo carmine is one of the dyes used in medicine as diagnostic agent because it has impressive applicability in terms of diagnostic methods and surgical procedures. In the literature it is reported that indigo carmine is toxic for humans and can cause various pathologies, such as hypertension, hypotension, skin irritations, corneal and conjunctival disorders or gastrointestinal disorders. In this review, we discuss the structure and properties of indigo carmine, its use in various industries and medicine, the adverse effects of its ingestion, injection or skin contact, the effects on environmental pollution and its toxicity testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1085.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: chitosan nanoparticle; Schiff base; complexation; antimicrobial agent; antibiotic sensitivity
Online: 17 July 2023 (09:50:30 CEST)
The present study produced and characterised chitosan, chitosan nanoparticle, chitosan n – benzaldehyde Schiff base, chitosan nanoparticle n – benzaldehyde Schiff base, Fe(III) chitosan n – benzaldehyde Schiff base and Fe(III) chitosan nanoparticle n – benzaldehyde Schiff base for biomedical application as antimicrobial agents. The materials were characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray Diffractogram and biologically evaluated using disc diffusion method with three gram-positive bacteria. The FTIR absorption peaks were shifted to a lower wave number than the micro materials from which it was modified. These clearly indicate the linkage between phosphate, ammonium ion, Schiff base and Fe(III) metal. The diffracted peaks of Fe(III) chitosan nanoparticle n – benzaldehyde Schiff base were new peaks at 2θ = 24o and 42o when compare to the peak of Fe(III) chitosan n – benzaldehyde Schiff base of 2θ = 22.5o and 34o. The difference in peak shift were attributed to the ionic bonding of the complexation of Fe(III) with the blending of benzaldehyde to chitosan – Tpp backbone structure. Fe(III) chitosan nanoparticle Schiff base has more antimicrobial activity against same bacteria and fungi tested than Fe(III) chitosan n – benzaldehyde Schiff base, chitosan n – benzaldehyde Schiff base and chitosan. The antimicrobial activities of the synthesised six materials shown that the materials have high activities than the above – mentioned standard drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0489.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: adhesive; aluminum trihydrate; benzoxazine; flame retardancy; silane coupling agent
Online: 18 April 2023 (05:07:10 CEST)
Epoxy was blended with benzoxazine resin and aluminum trihydrate (ATH) additive to render flame retardancy while maintaining mechanical properties. The ATH was modified using three different silane coupling agents and then added to 60/40 epoxy/benzoxazine mixtures. The effect of blend compositions and surface modification on flame retardant and mechanical properties of the composites was investigated by UL94, tensile, and shear tests. Resin mixtures containing more than 40 wt% benzoxazine revealed a UL94 V-1 rating with enhanced tensile and shear strength. Upon addition of 20 wt% ATH to 60/40 epoxy/benzoxazine, a V-0 rating was achieved. The lowered tensile and adhesive properties of the composites in the presence of ATH were improved by modifying the ATH surface using silane coupling agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0020.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Epidemics; Optimal Policy; Trace and Quarantine strategy; Agent networks
Online: 4 April 2022 (15:12:26 CEST)
The sudden onset of the Covid-19 pandemic disrupted the modern multi-national interconnected society and led the countries and societies to enforce unprecedented restrictions on movement. Among myriad containment measures, the policy of trace and quarantine found universal adoption among countries; the swift adoption of the policy was soon met with widespread criticism and opposition activists who questioned the utility and the risk associated with such a large scale collection of data and infringement on the movement of individuals. Consequently, one often tends to be either pro- or anti-trace and quarantine; the ensuing polarizing and politicized left little room for nuance. In this work, we undertake a methodology study to understand the nuances of the impact of different implementations of trace and quarantine. To this end, we design a user-friendly and intuitive tool that can be employed by experts to model the disease dynamics and societal structure. We focus on the study of the cost of policy with respect to quarantine degree, which captures the distance between the person required to quarantine after a person is detected to be infected. Our study results in a surprising conclusion: the cost is not necessarily monotone with respect to the degree of quarantine. Our analysis indicates that governments must curb the urge to adopt simplistic policy and the optimal policy of trace and quarantine for a country strongly depends on its societal structure and disease dynamics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0124.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging; perfluorocarbons; imaging agent; nanosystems; nanoparticles; fluorine
Online: 8 December 2021 (12:18:26 CET)
Simultaneously being a non-radiative and non-invasive technique makes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) one of the highly sought imaging techniques for the early diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Despite more than four decades of research on finding a suitable imaging agent from fluorine for clinical applications, it still lingers as a challenge to get the regulatory approval compared to its hydrogen counterpart. The pertinent hurdle is the simultaneous intrinsic hydrophobicity and lipophobicity of fluorine and its derivatives that make them insoluble in any liquids, strongly limiting their application in areas such as targeted delivery. A blossoming technique to circumvent the unfavorable physicochemical characteristics of perfluorocarbon compounds (PFCs) and guarantee a high local concentration of fluorine in the desired body part is to encapsulate them in nanosystems. In this review, we will be emphasizing different types of nanocarrier systems studied to encapsulate various PFCs and fluorinated compounds, headway to be applied as a contrast agent (CA) in fluorine-19 MRI (19F MRI). We would also scrutinize the different types of PFCs and their specific applications and limitations concerning the nanoparticle (NP) system used to encapsulate them studied over the last decade. A critical evaluation for future opportunities would be speculated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0209.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: influenza virus; apoptosis; antiviral agent; innate immunity; host response
Online: 14 August 2017 (04:41:22 CEST)
Human influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause global pandemics and epidemics, which remain serious threats to public health because of the shortage of effective means of control. To combat the surge of viral outbreaks, new treatments are urgently needed. Developing new virus control modalities requires better understanding of virus-host interactions. Here we describe how IAV infection triggers cellular apoptosis, and how this process can be exploited towards development of new therapeutics, which might be more effective than the currently available anti-influenza drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0121.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: agent-based modelling; agent-based simulation; urban energy system; district energy system; systematic literature review; net-zero energy district; positive energy district
Online: 8 December 2021 (12:06:02 CET)
There is an increased interest in the district-scale energy transition within interdisciplinary research community. Agent-based modelling presents a suitable approach to address variety of questions related to policies, technologies, processes, and the different stakeholder roles that can foster such transition. This state-of-the-art review focuses on the application of agent-based modelling for exploring policy interventions that facilitate the decarbonisation (i.e., energy transition) of districts and neighbourhoods while considering stakeholders’ social characteristics and interactions. We systematically select and analyse peer-reviewed literature and discuss the key modelling aspects, such as model purpose, agents and decision-making logic, spatial and temporal aspects, and empirical grounding. The analysis reveals that the most established agent-based models’ focus on innovation diffusion (e.g., adoption of solar panels) and dissemination of energy-saving behaviour among a group of buildings in urban areas. We see a considerable gap in exploring the decisions and interactions of agents other than residential households, such as commercial and even industrial energy consumers (and prosumers). Moreover, measures such as building retrofits and conversion to district energy systems involve many stakeholders and complex interactions between them that up to now have hardly been represented in the agent-based modelling environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1628.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Agriculture Demand; Agricultural Risk; Agent-Based Model; Standard Operating Policy
Online: 28 November 2023 (01:39:57 CET)
Modelling and presenting mathematical relationships for human behaviour is one of the most complex issues that researchers have always dealt with. In this article, a bottom-up framework for calculating agricultural needs is presented using the socioeconomic characteristics of farmers (such as education level, age, and dependence on income on agriculture) and how their lands are located concerning each other (interactions between neighbours). The objective function of this framework is to maximize the profit of individual farmers based on the amount of water received. Two scenarios, ABM1 (not considering neighbourhood effects) and ABM2 (all cases of farmers' placement and feeling neighbourhood effects), were investigated. In the first scenario (ABM1), there was a noteworthy reduction in water deficit volumes by approximately 35%, accompanied by a 20% increment in farmers' profits. Interestingly, higher risk-taking tendencies correlated with reduced profit margins. The second scenario (ABM2) underscored the significant role of neighborhood dynamics in cultivating diverse behavioral patterns among farmers, subsequently affecting their profitability. A granular examination revealed that farmers with a higher propensity for risk-taking generally accrued lower profits. Additionally, the study facilitated the calculation of total annual profits and average water consumption for each farmer, offering valuable insights for optimizing water resource management and allocation strategies. These findings are instrumental for planners and water resource managers aiming to promote sustainable agricultural practices and efficient water use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0732.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Salmonella Typhi; Typhoid Fever; Fimbriae; Vaccine; Antibacterial Agent; Drug Target
Online: 13 November 2023 (10:04:43 CET)
Despite recent public health and hygiene advancements, enteric fever, commonly referred to as typhoid fever, remains a common disease in developing nations. The common mode of infection is contaminated water or food. Additionally, person-to-person transmission through poor hygiene and sewage contamination of water supplies has been blamed for most outbreaks. The exact burden of typhoid has yet to be discovered because of the lack of surveillance systems in many developing nations. This makes it difficult to estimate the number of cases. Recent studies have shown that the actual number of cases of typhoid has been estimated to be around 21.6 million annually. The mortality studies suggest that the incidence of typhoid is highest in children under five years old. Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever have been demonstrated to be life-threatening illnesses. Salmonella serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) is the causative organism of typhoid fever whereas Salmonella serotype Paratyphi is the causative organism for paratyphoid fever. The S. Typhi bacterium is known to be resistant to various drugs. There is a dire need to develop new drugs to treat and overcome the current drug-resistant S. Typhi. The identification of new targets marks the beginning of the process of developing new anti-S. Typhi drugs. The S. Typhic genome sequencing and recent cutting-edge molecular biology tools have led to the discovery of numerous new inhibitors and targets. The goal of this review is to identify the most critical targets in the S. Typhi that are targeted by drugs. It also highlights the various promising vaccines on the market or are still in preclinical studies. A detailed understanding of the targets could help researchers develop safer and more efficient antibacterial agents against S. Typhi.Additionally, the advancement of molecular techniques and the knowledge of the Salmonella pathogenesis pathways have opened better avenues to develop effective antibiotics and vaccines against this pathogen. This review also sought to identify and summarize critical structures of this pathogen that play significant roles in the maturation, development, and pathogenesis of S. Typhi. The endpoint of this work is to provide valuable information on potential therapeutic targets of S. Typhi for drug and vaccine developers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1826.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: moisture stability; anti-stripping agent; solid waste filler; asphalt mixture
Online: 30 October 2023 (06:36:22 CET)
In recent years, the use of solid waste fillers to partially replace natural fillers in asphalt mixtures to produce high-performance asphalt mixtures has received widespread attention. However, differences in the material properties of solid waste fillers remain a problem for this recycling method. To address this issue, limestone powder in asphalt mixtures was replaced by three solid waste fillers (steel slag powder, tailings powder and calcium carbide slag powder) in this study. The chemical composition of the fillers was first characterized to assess the homogeneity of the material. Then, AC and SMA asphalt mixtures were designed and produced and characterized for wet stability. The results showed that asphalt mixtures with solid waste fillers were superior to LP asphalt mixtures in terms of resistance to water damage, and steel slag powder showed the best improvement in moisture stability of asphalt mixtures. The optimum substitution of solid waste filler for limestone filler was 25%. In addition, the moisture stability of asphalt mixture with limestone filler was significantly improved with the addition of anti-stripping agents. In contrast, the moisture stability of asphalt mixtures with solid waste filler was slightly improved. Solid waste fillers could be used in asphalt mixtures and have a similar function as the anti-stripping agent. In summary, the use of solid waste fillers to replace mineral fillers in asphalt mixtures is a reliable, value-added, recycling option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2097.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: cellular dynamics; multicellular agent-based model; computer simulation; developmental toxicity.
Online: 29 September 2023 (12:02:33 CEST)
Developmental hazard evaluation is an important part of assessing chemical risks during pregnancy. Toxicological outcomes from prenatal testing in pregnant animals result from complex chemical-biological interactions, and while New Approach Methods (NAMs) based on in vitro bioactivity profiles of human cells offer promising alternatives to animal testing, most of these assays lack cellular positional information, physical constraints, and regional organization of the intact embryo. Here, we engineered a fully computable model of the embryonic disc in the compucell3d.org modeling environment to simulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition of epiblast cells and self-organization of mesodermal domains (chordamesoderm, paraxial, lateral plate, posterior/extraembryonic). Cell fate in the model is determined by an autonomous homeobox (HOX) clock driven by morphogenetic signals (e.g., FGF, WNT, ATRA, CDX). Executing the model renders a quantitative cell-level computation of mesodermal subpopulations and consequences of perturbation based on known embryogeny. For example, synthetic perturbation of the control network rendered altered phenotypes (cybermorphs) mirroring experimental mouse embryology, with 50% reductions in FGF4, FGF8 and BMP4 signaling resulting in 86%, 98% and 59% reductions, respectively in the posterior mesodermal population, while ATRA exposure also resulted in a 78% decrease in this population. This model enables integration of in vitro chemical bioactivity data for specific molecular targets with known embryology to test mechanistic veracity and quantitative prediction of altered development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1696.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: MRI; Molecular Imaging; CAIX; Breast cancer; Gd-contrast agent; liposomes
Online: 24 August 2023 (09:39:11 CEST)
The Carbonic Anidrase isoform IX (hCA IX) is one of the main player in extracellular tumor pH regulation and it is known to be overexpressed in breast cancer as well as in many common tu-mors. hCA IX has shown to contribute to the growth and survival of tumor cells and its expres-sion is correlated to metastasis and resistance to therapies making it an interesting biomarker for diagnosis and potential image-guided therapy. The aim of this work is the development of an MRI Imaging probe able to target the extracellular non catalytic PG domain of CAIX. A new specific nano probe has been designed by conjugating a peptidic interactor of PG domain on the surface of a liposome loaded with Gd-based contrast agents. Mouse Mammary Adenocarcinoma Cell Line (TS/A ) has been chosen as in vitro breast cancer model to test the efficacy of the de-veloped probe. MRI results display a high selectivity towards hCA IX marker and a good sensi-tivity of the Imaging probe. These findings make this approach promising for future develop-ment of in vivo diagnostic protocols aimed at visualizing this enzyme expression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1555.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: limonene; alpha-pinene; biotransformation; terpene; flavouring agent; solid-state fermentation
Online: 23 August 2023 (02:49:42 CEST)
This review provides an overview of the biotransformation of limonene and α-pinene, which are commonly found in wood residues and citrus fruit by-products, to produce high-value-added products. Essential oils derived from various plant parts contain monoterpene hydrocarbons, such as limonene and pinenes which are often considered waste due to their low sensory activity, poor water solubility, and tendency to autoxidize and polymerise. However, these terpene hydrocarbons serve as ideal starting materials for microbial transformations. Moreover, agro-industrial byproducts can be employed as nutrient and substrate sources, reducing fermentation costs, and enhancing industrial viability. Terpenes, being secondary metabolites of plants, are abundant in byproducts generated during fruit and plant processing. Microbial cells offer advantages over enzymes due to their higher stability, rapid growth rates, and genetic engineering potential. Fermentation parameters can be easily manipulated to enhance strain performance in large-scale processes. The economic advantages of biotransformation are highlighted by comparing the prices of substrates and products. For instance, R-limonene, priced at US$34/L, can be transformed into carveol, valued at around US$530/L. This review emphasises the potential of biotransformation to produce high-value products from limonene and α-pinene molecules, particularly present in wood residues and citrus fruit by-products. The utilisation of microbial transformations, along with agro-industrial byproducts, presents a promising approach to extract value from waste materials and enhance the sustainability of the antimicrobial, the fragrance and flavour industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1444.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: opinion dynamics; econophysics; prediction markets; complex networks; agent-based modelling
Online: 21 July 2023 (08:12:54 CEST)
Prediction markets are heralded as powerful forecasting tools, but models to describe them often fail to capture the full complexity of the underlying mechanisms that drive price dynamics. To address this issue, we propose a model in which agents belong in a social network, have an opinion about the probability of a particular event to occur, and bet on the prediction market accordingly. Agents update their opinions about the event by interacting with their neighbours in the network, following the Deffuant model of opinion dynamics. Our results suggest that a simple market model that takes into account opinion formation dynamics is capable to replicate the empirical properties of historical prediction market time series, including volatility clustering and fat-tailed distribution of returns. Interestingly, the best results are obtained when there is the right level of variance in the opinions of the agents. Moreover, this paper provides a new way to indirectly validate opinion dynamics models against real data by using historical data obtained from PredictIt, an exchange platform whose data has never been used before to validate models of opinion diffusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1626.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; biofilm; Antimicrobial agent; eugenol; Raman spectroscopy.
Online: 22 June 2023 (12:40:14 CEST)
Prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria has become a major challenge worldwide. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)—a leading cause of infections—forms biofilms on polymeric medical devices and implants, increasing their resistance to antibiotics. Antibiotic administration before biofilm formation is crucial. Raman spectroscopy was used to assess MRSA biofilm development on solid culture media from 0 to 48 h. Biofilm formation was monitored by measuring DNA/RNA-associated Raman peaks and protein/lipid-associated peaks. The search for an antimicrobial agent against MRSA biofilm revealed that Eugenol was a promising candidate as it showed significant potential for breaking down the biofilm. Eugenol was applied at different times to test the optimal time for inhibiting MRSA biofilms, and the Raman spectrum showed that the first 5 h of biofilm formation was the most antibiotic-sensitive time. This study investigated the performance of Raman spectroscopy coupled with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to identify planktonic bacteria from biofilm conglomerates. Raman analysis, microscopic observation, and quantification of the biofilm growth curve indicated early adhesion from 5 to 10 h of incubation time. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy can help in monitoring biofilm formation on a solid culture medium and performing rapid antibiofilm assessments with new antibiotics during the early stages of the procedure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0873.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: augmented reality; mobile AR; virtual agent, user engagement; gamified learning
Online: 25 April 2023 (03:40:30 CEST)
Augmented reality (AR) offers an accessible, inexpensive, and rich user experience that has the potential to engage end-users in an immersive environment. Along with vivid visualizations coupled with virtual agents, this technology further develops learning interest in end-users, guides them in various tasks, and boosts motivation and productivity. In this study, we leverage the deep penetration of mobile phones in daily lives and their advanced features to design, develop and demonstrate an AR application (CirculAR) that offers unique user-environment interaction in a gamified way. CirculAR combines learning with enjoyment to help end-users understand fundamental sustainability and circular economy principles. The application has been showcased in a controlled environment to heterogenous audiences and has been shown to improve end-user engagement and motivation. First, participants older than 18 were recruited to showcase the technology acceptance and engagement towards circular economy principles through AR. Then, students aged 5 to 15 years old, along with their parents and educators, were invited to a treasure hunt game where our virtual agent ARis guided them through a map full of virtual experiences. Assessment and evaluation were performed through a survey and a questionnaire. The outcome of their analysis showcased an increase in the dedication and enjoyment of the performed activities, engagement and learning attributes given the AR virtual agent supporting functionalities. Observations during showcasing reported a need for more commitment from the younger audience compared to the older one. This application contributes to the discourse on mobile AR as a tool for the education of novel concepts with a high impact on our daily lives and decisions and aims to shed light on the design principles of educative tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0834.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Antifungal agent; in vitro susceptibility; oral Candida; nystatin; fluconazole; caspofungin
Online: 24 April 2023 (07:49:36 CEST)
The carriage of Candida albicans in children's oral cavities is associated with a higher risk for early childhood caries, so controlling this fungus in early life is essential for preventing caries. In a prospective cohort of 41 mothers and their children from 0-2 years of age, this study addressed 4 main objectives: 1) Evaluate in vitro the antifungal agent susceptibility of oral Candida isolates from the mother-child cohort, 2) Compare Candida susceptibility between isolates from the mothers and children; 3) Assess longitudinal changes in the susceptibility of the isolates collected between 0-2 years; and 4) Detect mutations in C. albicans antifungal resistance genes. Susceptibility to antifungal medications was tested by in vitro broth microdilution and expressed as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). C. albicans clinical isolates were sequenced by whole genome sequencing, and the genes related to antifungal resistance, ERG3, ERG11, CDR1, CDR2, MDR1, and FKS1, were assessed. Four Candida spp (n=126) were isolated: C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. dubliniensis, and C. lusitaniae. Caspofungin was the most active drug for oral Candida, followed by fluconazole and nystatin. Two missense mutations in the CDR2 gene were shared among C. albicans isolates resistant to nystatin. Most of the children’s C. albicans isolates had MIC values similar to those from their mothers, and 70% remained stable to antifungal medications from 0-2 years. For caspofungin, 29% of the children’s isolates showed an increase in MIC values from 0-2 years. Results of the longitudinal cohort indicated that clinically used oral nystatin was ineffective in reducing the carriage of C. albicans in children; novel antifungal regimens in infants are needed for better oral yeast control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0407.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: continuous intraday market; agent-based model; genetics algorithm; power system
Online: 17 April 2023 (05:33:52 CEST)
The high penetration of intermittence resources in the energy market accelerates significantly the decarbonization process but, on the other hand, the electrical system has to face the problem of unbalances. Renewable Energies Sources (RES) are hard to precisely forecast, and power plants are not able to predict the amount of energy that they can provide far from the real time delivery. In this frame, the intraday market gets a fundamental role allowing agents to adjust their position close to the delivery time. In this work we suggest an agent-based model of intraday market combined with genetics algorithms to understand what the best strategy could be adopted by players in order to optimize the market efficiency in terms of welfare and unsold quantity. In the first part we show the effect on the market prices of different scenarios in which players aim at maximizing their revenues and selling/buying all their volumes. In the second part we show the effect of a particular genetic algorithm on the model, focusing on how agents can adapt their strategy to enhance the market efficiency. Comparative analyses are also performed to investigate how the welfare of the system increases as well as the unsold quantity decrease when genetic algorithm is introduced
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0383.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Bipolaris sorokiniana; Bacillus halotolerans; common root rot; biocontrol agent; wheat
Online: 23 January 2023 (01:40:03 CET)
Common root rot caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana infestation of wheat is one of the main reasons of yield reduction in wheat crops worldwide. In current study, strain JK-25 was isolated from soil of wheat rhizosphere and identified as Bacillus halotolerans based on morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics and molecular identification. The strain showed significant antagonism to B.sorokiniana and broad-spectrum resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium graminearum and Rhizoctonia zeae. Inhibition of Bipolaris sorokiniana mycelial dry weight and spore germination rate by JK-25 fermentation supernatant reached 60% and 88% respectively. The crude extract of JK-25 was found by MALDI-TOF-MS to contain the surfactin that exerted an inhibitory effect on B.sorokiniana. The disruption of mycelial cell membranes was observed under microscopy (LSCM) after treatment of B.sorokiniana mycelium with the crude extract. The antioxidant enzyme activity of B.sorokiniana was significantly reduced and the oxidation product MDA content increased after treatment with the crude extract. The incidence of root rot was significantly reduced in pot experiments with the addition of JK-25 culture ferment, which had a significant biological control effect of 72.06%. Its ability to produce siderophores may help to promote wheat growth, and the production of proteases and pectinases may also be part of the strain's role in suppressing pathogens. These results demonstrate the excellent antagonistic effect of JK-25 against B.sorokiniana and suggest that this strain has great potential as a resource for biological control of wheat root rot strains.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: cyber-physical systems; digital twin; subject orientation; agent-based systems
Online: 7 December 2020 (09:00:51 CET)
Cyber-Physical Systems form the new backbone of digital ecosystems. Their design can be coupled with engineering activities to facilitate dynamic adaptation and (re-)configuration. Behavior-oriented technologies enable highly distributed and while coupled operation of systems. Utilizing them for digital twins as self-contained design entities with federation capabilities makes them promising candidates to develop and run highly functional CPS. In this paper we discuss mapping CPS components to behavior-based digital twin constituents mirroring integration and implementation through subject-oriented models. These models, inspired by agent-oriented system thinking can be executed and increase transparency at design and runtime. Patterns recognizing environmental factors and operation details facilitate configuration of CPS. Subject-oriented runtime support enable dynamic adaptation and federated use.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: 3,4-dimethoxy-β-nitrostyrene derivatives; antimicrobial agent; PTP1B; molecular docking
Online: 20 July 2020 (11:31:48 CEST)
A derivative series of 3,4-dimethoxy-β-nitrostyrene were synthesized and identified including new compound 6. The effect of antimicrobial activity of 3,4-alkyloxy modification of β-nitrostyrene was investigated. A molecular docking was also performed to obtain information about their interactions with Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). PTP1B containing cysteine 215 and arginine 221 as essential active residues plays a key role in signaling pathways that regulate various cell functions of microorganisms, which also act as negative regulator in signaling pathways of insulin that are involved in type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Compound 5 and 6 were the most potent as fragment of PTP1B inhibitor based on molecular docking, but compound 5 was more effective against Candida albicans. These compounds interact with serine 216 and arginine 221 residues. However, further research is needed to investigate their potential medicinal use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0228.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: TiO2 nanorods; water splitting; photoelectrocatalyst; sacrificial agent; one-pot hydrothermal
Online: 19 October 2019 (17:04:29 CEST)
Photoelectrocatalytic water splitting by using various TiO2 nanostructures is a promising approach to generate hydrogen without harmful byproducts. However, their effective performance is restricted by some drawbacks such as high rapid electron-hole pair recombination and backward reaction producing H2O. Thus in this study, the probability of enhancing hydrogen generation rate by adding methanol as a sacrificial agent to the anodic chamber of a two-compartment photoelectrochemical cell is investigated. Herein, one-dimensional elongated TiO2 nanorods that were fabricated via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method are utilized as potent photoanode. Voltammetric characterizations confirm that addition of alcoholic sacrificial agent has a significant effect on photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 nanorods which by adding 10 wt% of methanol, the photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency increased from 0.8mA.cm-2 to 1.5mA.cm-2 and from 0.28% to 0.45%, respectively. The results of photoelectrocatalytic water splitting indicated that the hydrogen generation rate in the presence of methanol was about 1.2 times higher than that from pure water splitting. These enhancements can be attributed to the key role of methanol. Methanol molecules not only inhibit the electron-hole pair recombination but also accelerate the hydrogen generation rate by sharing their hydrogen atoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0128.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: virus; broad-spectrum antiviral; antiviral agent; drug target; systems biology
Online: 12 September 2019 (08:55:23 CEST)
Viruses are the major causes of acute and chronic infectious diseases in the world. According to the World Health Organization, there is an urgent need for better control of viral diseases. Re-purposing existing antiviral agents from one viral disease to another could play a pivotal role in this process. Here we identified novel activities of obatoclax and emetine against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), echovirus 1 (EV1), human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in cell cultures. Moreover, we demonstrated novel activities of emetine against influenza A virus (FluAV), niclosamide against HSV-2, brequinar against HIV-1, and homoharringtonine against EV1. Our findings may expand the spectrum of indications of these safe-in-man agents and reinforce the arsenal of available antiviral therapeutics pending the results of further in vivo tests.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0478.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: synchronization; human decision makin; decoupling; opinion formation; agent-based modeling
Online: 29 August 2018 (00:57:01 CEST)
We introduce tools to capture the dynamics of three different pathways, in which the synchronization of human decision making could lead to turbulent periods and contagion phenomena in financial markets. The first pathway is caused when stock market indices, seen as a set of coupled integrate-and-fire oscillators, synchronize in frequency. The integrate-and-fire dynamics happens due to "change blindness", a trait in human decision making where people have the tendency to ignore small changes, but take action when a large change happens. The second pathway happens due to feedback mechanisms between market performance and the use of certain (decoupled) trading strategies. The third pathway occurs through the effects of communication and its impact on human decision making. A model is introduced in which financial market performance has an impact on decision making through communication between people. Conversely, the sentiment created via communication has an impact on financial market performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0289.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: surfactant polymer; supercritical carbon dioxide; foaming agent; blockage; recovery factor
Online: 16 July 2018 (13:12:14 CEST)
Optimum selectivity of enhanced oil recovery techniques would play a substantial role in the economic prosperity of petroleum industries which might be virtually eliminated unnecessary expenditures. In this paper, the simultaneous utilization of foaming agent, surfactant polymer (SP), and supercritical carbon dioxide were taken into the investigation under the miscible condition to evaluate the efficiency of each scenario on the cumulative recovery factor, water cut and pressure drop. According to the results of this experimental evaluation, SP-foam flooding had witnessed the highest blockage which is caused to have the maximum recovery factor due to the mobilization of more oil volume in the low permeable pores and cracks. Furthermore, the utilization of surfactant with supercritical carbon dioxide had experienced the least recovery factor regarding the insufficient foam generation which is led to less mobilization of oil phase in the pore throats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0489.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: antibacterial agent; antibiofilm; ferulic acid grafted chitosan; human pathogenic bacteria
Online: 29 June 2018 (15:21:41 CEST)
Emergence of more virulent forms of human pathogenic bacteria with multi drug resistance is a serious global issue and requires alternative control strategies. The current study was focused to investigate the antibacterial and antibiofilm potential of ferulic acid grafted chitosan (CFA) against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), and Staphylococcus aureus (SA). The present result showed that CFA at 64 µg/mL concentration exhibit bactericidal action against LM and SA (>4 log reduction) and bacteriostatic action against PA (<2 log CFU) within 24 h of incubation. Further studies based on propidium iodide uptake assay, measurement of material released from the cell, and electron microscopic analysis revealed that the bactericidal action of CFA was due to the altered membrane integrity and permeability. CFA dose-dependently inhibited biofilm formation (52-89% range), its metabolic activity (30.8-75.1% range) and eradicated mature biofilms, and reduced viability (71-82% range) of the test bacteria. Also, the swarming motility of LM was differentially affected at sub-MIC concentration of CFA. In the present study, the ability of CFA to kill and alter the virulence production in human pathogenic bacteria will insight a new scope for the application of these biomaterials in healthcare to effectively treat bacterial infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0423.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: shielding agent; polysarcosine; biodistribution; click-chemistry; lipopolyplex; nucleic acid carrier
Online: 29 May 2018 (10:39:48 CEST)
Shielding agents are commonly used to shield polyelectrolyte complexes, e.g. polyplexes, from agglomeration, precipitation in complex media, like blood, and thus enhance their circulation times in vivo. Since up to now primarily poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) has been investigated to shield non-viral carriers for systemic delivery, we report on the use of polysarcosine (pSar) as a potential alternative for steric stabilization. A redox-sensitive, cationizable lipo-oligomer structure (containing two cholanic acids attached via a bioreducible disulfide linker to an oligoaminoamide backbone in T-shape configuration) was equipped with azide-functionality by solid phase supported synthesis. After mixing with small interfering RNA (siRNA), lipopolyplexes formed spontaneously and were further surface-functionalized with polysarcosines. Polysarcosine was synthesized by living controlled ring-opening polymerization using an azide-reactive dibenzo-aza-cyclooctyne-amine as an initiator. The shielding ability of the resulting formulations was investigated with biophysical assays and by near-infrared fluorescence bioimaging in mice. The modification of ~100 nm lipopolyplexes was only slightly increased upon functionalization. Cellular uptake into cells was strongly reduced by the pSar shielding. Moreover, polysarcosine-shielded polyplexes showed enhanced blood circulation times in bioimaging studies compared to unshielded polyplexes and similar to PEG-shielded polyplexes. Therefore, polysarcosine is a promising alternative for the shielding of non-viral, lipo-cationic polyplexes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0105.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: multi-objective multi-level programming; fuzzy parameters; TOPSIS; fuzzy goal programming; multi-objective decision making
Online: 15 February 2018 (20:29:20 CET)
The paper proposes TOPSIS method for solving multi-objective multi-level programming problem (MO-MLPP) with fuzzy parameters via fuzzy goal programming (FGP). At first, - cut method is used to transform the fuzzily described MO-MLPP into deterministic MO-MLPP. Then, for specific , we construct the membership functions of distance functions from positive ideal solution (PIS) and negative ideal solution (NIS) of all level decision makers (DMs). Thereafter, FGP based multi-objective decision model is established for each level DM for obtaining individual optimal solution. A possible relaxation on decisions for all DMs is taken into account for satisfactory solution. Subsequently, two FGP models are developed and compromise optimal solutions are found by minimizing the sum of negative deviational variables. To recognize the better compromise optimal solution, the concept of distance functions is utilized. Finally, a novel algorithm for MO-MLPP involving fuzzy parameters is provided and an illustrative example is solved to verify the proposed procedure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0061.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: multi-target tracking; multi-Bernoulli filter; sequential Monte-Carlo
Online: 16 February 2017 (09:39:29 CET)
We develop an interactive likelihood (ILH) for sequential Monte-Carlo (SMC) methods for image-based multiple target tracking applications. The purpose of the ILH is to improve tracking accuracy by reducing the need for data association. In addition, we integrate a recently developed deep neural network for pedestrian detection along with the ILH with a multi-Bernoulli filter. We evaluate the performance of the multi-Bernoulli filter with the ILH and the pedestrian detector in a number of publicly available datasets (2003 PETS INMOVE, AFL, and TUD-Stadtmitte) using standard, well-known multi-target tracking metrics (OSPA and CLEAR MOT). In all datasets, the ILH term increases the tracking accuracy of the multi-Bernoulli filter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0812.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Renal angiogram; chronic kidney disease; IRIS staging and contrast agent complications.
Online: 13 November 2023 (11:52:05 CET)
Renal angiogram is a promising tool for diagnosing renal vasculature and structural alterations in renal diseases. In renal diseases, the vascular changes were observed earlier than the structural and other changes. However, the literature on angiograms in kidney diseases was limited. Six client-owned dogs with chronic kidney diseases with International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stage II and III were selected for this study. Under general anesthesia, the femoral arterial catheterization was performed. With a Cobra (C2) catheter, Iohexol saline (50:50) was administered to evaluate the vascular changes of Renal failure, using selective and non-selective angiograms. The procedures were completed successfully with minimal complications. Serum biochemistry and urine protein creatinine ratio were estimated sequentially and quality of life was monitored. Due to contrast agent complications, a dog died within 14 days and necropsy was conducted. Though the renal angiogram has complications, it is a reliable tool for the diagnosis of vasculature changes associated with kidney diseases, in veterinary medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1599.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: mine fire prevention; lignite; spontaneous combustion of coal; retarding agent; microorganism
Online: 25 October 2023 (08:06:38 CEST)
The spontaneous combustion of coal in goaf is the main cause of mine fire at present. Lignite has become a major hidden danger in mine production safety because of its easy oxidation. In this paper, an innovative strategy was proposed to inhibit the spontaneous combustion of lignite by using the principle of microbial-induced calcium deposition. Based on the optimized culture method, a novel composite inhibitor of Bacillus pasteurelli was prepared. SEM, pore size analysis and FT-IR experiments were carried out simultaneously, and the oxidation properties of lignite before and after inhibition were quantitatively characterized from the perspective of microstructure, and the flame retardant properties of microbial and chemical retardants on coal samples were compared. The results show that a large number of deposited calcium carbonate particles are obviously attached to the surface of lignite after microbial inhibition treatment, which plays a physical oxygen insulation role. At the same time, the total pore volume and specific surface area of the coal sample decreased by 68.49% and 74.01%, respectively, indicating that microbial inhibitors can effectively plug the primary pores of lignite. Based on the peak measurement of 400-4000cm-1 infrared spectrum of coal samples, it is found that the contents of active groups including hydroxyl, carboxyl and methyl/methylene in lignite molecules after microbial inhibition are lower than those in raw coal, especially the methyl/methylene content involved in the initial oxidation reaction decreased by 96.5% compared with the baseline content in raw coal. The results show that the oxidation and self-heating capacity of lignite after microbial inhibition is effectively restrained in the initial spontaneous combustion. The research results of this paper can provide effective solutions for the prevention and control of coal spontaneous combustion risk in mined-out area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1684.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Agent-based Modeling and Simulation; Reinforcement Learning; COVID-19; Social Simulation.
Online: 25 September 2023 (11:41:53 CEST)
This study assesses the impact of incorporating an adaptive learning mechanism into an agent-based model (ABMS) simulating behavior on a university campus during the course of a pandemic outbreak, with a particular case on the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim is to reduce overcrowding and infections on campus through the use of Reinforcement Learning (RL). Our findings indicate that RL is a viable approach for effectively representing agents’ behavior within this context. The results reveal specific temporal patterns of overcrowding violations. While our study successfully mitigated campus crowding, it had limited influence on altering the course of the epidemic. This highlights the necessity for comprehensive epidemic control strategies that consider the role of individual decision-making influenced by adaptive learning, along with the implementation of targeted interventions. This research significantly contributes to our understanding of adaptive learning within complex systems and offers valuable insights for shaping future public health policies in similar community settings. Future research directions encompass exploring various parameter settings and updating representations of the disease’s natural history.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0561.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: cucurbits; melon fly; sierozem soil; agent "Vermiserbent"; insecticide; disinfection; soil fertility.
Online: 8 September 2023 (09:48:01 CEST)
The research employs both literature and experimental data to develop reasonable strategies for melon fly control. The objects of research were sierozem soils of the Zhanakorgan region (Kyzylorda region), bentonite clays of the Sauran region (Turkestan region), vermicompost obtained at the production site of the Research Institute "Ecology" at the International Kazakh-Turkish University named after Khoja Ahmed Yasawi. The competitive agent 'Vermiserbent' was developed by combining sulphur-perlite-containing waste (SPCW), vermicompost (VC), and natural bentonite clay. When incorporated into the soil, it serves as both an insecticide and a fertiliser recovery agent. Disinfection and enrichment of barren Sierozem soils in southern Kazakhstan could provide an eco-friendly approach to protect cucurbits (melon, watermelon, and pumpkin) against the melon fly. The average yield of watermelon treated with vermiserbent increased by 2.3 t/ha compared to the control, melon by 4.6 t/ha, pumpkin by 5.6 t/ha. The marketability of gourds as watermelons and melon after treatment with fertilizer increased by 1.2 times, and pumpkin by 1.1 times. The findings of studies conducted in agricultural fields in the Turkestan and Kyzylorda regions have shown that it is possible to produce environmentally sound gourds using a mixture of vermicompost, bentonite, and SPCW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1272.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: ZSM-5; Polycrystalline aggregates; Nanosized crystal; Crystal seeds; Structure-directing agent
Online: 18 May 2023 (05:09:58 CEST)
Synthesis of ZSM-5 zeolite from OSDA-free systems has been a very interesting alternative method because it can avoid the usage of organic templates and consequent calcination step. However, in opened reports, organic substance such as alcohol is more or less involved. In the present work, a calcined commercial ZSM-5 zeolite was used as a seed, sodium aluminate as an aluminum source, silica sol as a silicon source, which ensures that there is no any organics (template) in the synthesis system, and polycrystalline ZSM-5 aggregates consisting of rod-like nanocrystals are successfully prepared in a completely OSDA-free system. The effects of seed (chemical component, dosage) and crystallization conditions on the synthesis of ZSM-5 were systematically investigated. The results show that highly crystallinity ZSM-5 aggregate consisting of primary nano-sized crystals with a size of less than 100 nm can be yielded from a gel precursor with 5.6 wt.% seed after hydrothermal treatment for 48 h. The results also shows that the chemical composition of the seeds had little effect on the topological structure and pore structure of the synthesized samples, but the seed with a low Si/Al ratio is more conducive to the rapid crystallization of zeolite and to the improvement of the acid, especially the strong acid centers of the catalyst.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0039.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Echovirus; enterovirus; broad-spectrum antiviral agent; antiviral drug combination; antiviral strategy
Online: 2 August 2022 (05:01:21 CEST)
Background: Enterovirus infections affect people around the world, causing a range of illnesses, from mild fevers to severe, potentially fatal conditions. There are no approved vaccines or treatments for enterovirus infections. Methods: We have tested our library of broad-spectrum antiviral agents (BSAs) against echovirus 1 (EV1) in human adenocarcinoma alveolar basal epithelial A549 cells. We also tested combinations of the most active compounds against EV1 in A549 and human immortalized retinal pigment epithelium RPE cells. Results: We confirmed anti-enteroviral activities of pleconaril, rupintrivir, cycloheximide, vemurafenib, remdesivir, emetine, and anisomycin and identified novel synergistic rupintrivir-vemurafenib, vemurafenib-pleconaril and rupintrivir-pleconaril combinations against EV1 infection. Conclusions: Because rupintrivir, vemurafenib, and pleconaril require lower concentrations to inhibit enterovirus replication in vitro when combined, their combinations may have fewer side effects in vivo and therefore should be further studied in pre- and clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0245.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: online dating, social networks, agent-based modeling, mobile dating applications, MRQAP
Online: 17 January 2022 (16:18:07 CET)
We report an agent-based model to compare the effectiveness of simple and complex mobile dating application interfaces in generating matches for virtual users. We define the relative complexity of dating applications as the number of available features and dub this variable, the multiplicity. We replicate some of the most popular mobile dating applications through the generation of a synthetic population endowed with attributes, preferences, and behaviors drawn from literature. We treat our data as a network dataset and use a robust statistical procedure (MRQAP) to issue a valid and reliable comparison between simulated applications. We show how the quadratic assignment procedure can be used to compare network simulations rigorously. As a result, we observe a direct relationship between multiplicity and agent-level experiences and expectations in match generation. We also observe the emergence of divergent matching systems with minor rule changes as well as several expected properties of online dating systems. This work serves as a proof-of-concept in the integration of classical social network analysis methods with agent-based modeling to compare virtual designs and to enhance the policy-generation process of online social networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0662.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: thymine; gadolinium; contrast agent; magnetic resonance; metal complexes; crystal structure; relaxivity
Online: 26 March 2021 (12:13:33 CET)
The paramagnetic gadolinium(III) ion is used as contrast agent in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to improve the lesion detection and characterization. It generates a signal by changing the relaxivity of protons from associated water molecules and creates a clearer physical distinction between the molecule and the surrounding tissues. New gadolinium-based contrast agents displaying larger relaxivity values and specifically targeted might provide higher resolution and better functional images. We have synthesized the gadolinium(III) complex of formula [Gd(thy)2(H2O)6](ClO4)3·2H2O (1) [thy = 5-methyl-1H-pyrimidine-2,4-dione or thymine], which is the first reported compound based on gadolinium and thymine nucleobase. 1 has been characterized through vis-IR, SEM-EDAX and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques, and its magnetic and relaxometric properties have been investigated by means of SQUID magnetometer and MR imaging phantom studies, respectively. On the basis of its high relaxivity values, this gadolinium(III) complex can be considered a suitable candidate for contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0046.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Signal Processing Keywords: WSN; multi-targets classification; DBN classifier; multi-DBN weighted voting algorithm
Online: 1 November 2023 (09:35:38 CET)
One of the most important applications in the wireless sensor networks (WSN) is to classify mobile targets in the monitoring area. In this paper, a multi-DBN weighted voting classification algorithm is proposed on the basis of the Deep Belief Network (DBN) classifier and combined with the idea of voting method, which is implemented on the nodes of the WSN monitoring system by means of "upper training, lower transplantation" appraoch. The performance of the algorithm is verified by using real-world experimental data, and the results show that the proposed method has a higher accuracy in classifying the target signal features, achieving an average classification accuracy of 84.63% across four different types of moving targets. The experiment reveals that the multi-DBN weighted voting algorithm enhances the target classification accuracy by approximately 5% in comparison to the single DBN classifier, but the memory and computation time required for the algorithm to run are also increased at the same time. Compared to the FFNN classifier, which exhibited the highest classification accuracy among the four selected methods, the algorithm achieves an improvement of approximately 8.8% in classification accuracy. However, it incurs greater time overhead to run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1967.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: UAV images; multi-feature fusion; information aggregation; multi-scale object detection
Online: 29 May 2023 (04:52:15 CEST)
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) image object detection has great application value in military and civilian fields. However, the objects in the captured images from UAVs have problems of large scale variation, complex backgrounds, and a large proportion of small objects. To resolve these problems, a multi-scale object detector based on coordinate and global information aggregation is proposed, named CGMDet. Firstly, a Coordinate and Global Information Aggregation Module (CGAM) is designed by aggregating local, coordinate, and global information, which can obtain features with richer context information. Secondly, a Multi-Feature Fusion Pyramid Network (MF-FPN) is proposed, which can better fuse features of different scales and obtain features containing more context information through repeated use of feature maps, to better detect multi-scale targets. Moreover, more location information of low-level feature maps is integrated to improve the detection results of small targets. Furthermore, we modified the bounding box regression loss of the model to make the model more accurately regress the bounding box and faster convergence. Finally, the proposed CGMDet was tested on VisDrone and UAVDT datasets and mAP0.5 of 50.9% and 48% was obtained, respectively. At the same time, our detector achieved the best results compared to other detectors.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: UAV; multi-spectral imageries; multi-locational; Maize yield; smallholder; vegetation indices
Online: 19 October 2020 (16:00:27 CEST)
Rapid assessment of maize yields in smallholder farming system is important to understand its spatial and temporal variability and for timely agronomic decision-support. Imageries acquired with unmanned air vehicles (UAV) offer opportunity to assess agronomic variables at field scale, however, it is not clear if this can be translated into reliable yield assessment on smallholder farms where field conditions, maize genotypes, and management practices vary within short distances. In this study, we assessed the predictability of maize grain yield using UAV-derived vegetation indices (VI), with(out) biophysical variables, in smallholder farms. High-resolution images were acquired with UAV-borne multispectral sensor at 4 and 8 weeks after sowing (WAS) on 31 farmers’ managed fields (FMFs) and 12 nearby Nutrient Omission Trials (NOT), all distributed across 5 locations within the core maize region of Nigeria. The NOTs included non-fertilized and fertilized plots (with and without micronutrients), sown with open-pollinated or hybrid maize genotypes. Acquired multispectral images were post-processed into several three (s) vegetation indices (VIs), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference red-edge (NDRE), green-normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI). Biophysical variables, plant height (Ht) and percent canopy cover (CC), were measured with the georeferenced plot locations recorded. In the NOTs, the nutrient status, not genotype, influenced the grain yield variability and outcome. The maximum grain yield observed in NOTs was 9.3 tha-1, compared to 5.4 tha-1 in FMF. Without accounting for between- and within-field variations, there was no relationship between UAV-derived VIs and grain yield at 4WAS (r<0.02, P>0.1), but significant correlations were observed at 8WAS (r≤0.3; p<0.001). Ht was positively correlated with grain yield at 4WAS (r=0.5, R2=0.25, p<0.001), and more strongly at 8WAS (r=0.7, R2=0.55, p<0.001), while relationship between CC and yield was only significant at 8WAS. By accounting for within- and between-field variations in NOTs and FMF (separately) through linear mixed-effects modeling, predictability of grain yield from UAV-derived VIs was generally (R2≤0.24), however, the inclusion of ground-measured biophysical variable (mainly Ht) improved the explained yield variability (R2 ≥0.62, RMSEP≤0.35) in NOTs but not in FMF. We conclude that yield prediction with UAV-acquired imageries (before harvest) is more reliable under controlled experimental conditions (NOTs), than in actual farmer-managed fields where various confounding agronomic factors can amplify noise-signal within the vegetation canopy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0209.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Sign Language Recognition; Multi-modality; Late Fusion; multi-sensor; Gesture Recognition
Online: 8 August 2020 (17:28:00 CEST)
In this work, we show that a late fusion approach to multi-modality in sign language recognition improves the overall ability of the model in comparison to the singular approaches of Computer Vision (88.14%) and Leap Motion data classification (72.73%). With a large synchronous dataset of 18 BSL gestures collected from multiple subjects, two deep neural networks are benchmarked and compared to derive a best topology for each. The Vision model is implemented by a CNN and optimised MLP and the Leap Motion model is implemented by an evolutionary optimised deep MLP topology search. Next, the two best networks are fused for synchronised processing which results in a better overall result (94.44%) since complementary features are learnt in addition to the original task. The hypothesis is further supported by application of the three models to a set of completely unseen data where a multi-modality approach achieves the best results relative to the single sensor method. When transfer learning with the weights trained via BSL, all three models outperform standard random weight distribution when classifying ASL, and the best model overall for ASL classification was the transfer learning multi-modality approach which scored 82.55% accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1811.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: sustainability; social-ecological system; natural capital; ecosystem services; biodiversity agent-based model
Online: 29 November 2023 (02:11:36 CET)
At the Rio Conference in 1992, the sustainable development agenda promised a new era for natural resource management, where the well-being of human society would be enhanced through the sustainable use of natural capital. Several decades on, economic growth continues unabated at the expense of natural capital, as evidenced by biodiversity loss, climate change and further environmental issues. Why is this happening and what can be done about it? In this research, we present three Agent-Based Models that explore the social, economic and governance factors driving (un)sustainability in complex social-ecological systems. Our modelling results reinforce the idea that the current economic system does not protect the natural capital on which it depends. This is due to a disjunction between the economic and environmental elements upon which the sustainable development paradigm is founded. Additionally, various factors appear to enhance social-ecological system unsustainability: the role of financial entities and monetary debt; economic speculation; technological development and efficiency; lack of long-term views and late government interventions; inefficient tipping point management; and the absence of strong top-down and bottom-up conservation forces. Interestingly, alternative scenarios showed that these same factors could be redirected to enhance sustainable development. The current economic system may, therefore, not be inherently unsustainable, but rather specific economic mechanisms, agents’ decision-making, and the kinds of links between economic and natural systems could be at the root of the problem. We argue that short- and medium-term sustainability can be enhanced by implementing mechanisms that shift capitalist forces to support environmental conservation. Long-term sustainability, however, requires further paradigm change: where the economy integrates, and fully accounts for, externalities and recognises the actual value of natural capital.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; agent-based modelling; dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models; scenario analyses
Online: 18 November 2020 (11:30:24 CET)
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has raised numerous questions concerning the shape and range of state interventions whose goals are to reduce the number of infections and deaths. The lockdowns, which have become the most popular response worldwide, are assessed as being an outdated and economically inefficient way to fight the disease. However, in the absence of efficient cures and vaccines, there is a lack of viable alternatives. In this paper we assess the economic consequences of the epidemic prevention and control schemes that were introduced in order to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. The analyses report the results of epidemic simulations that were obtained using the agent-based modelling methods under the different response schemes and their use in order to provide conditional forecasts of the standard economic variables. The forecasts were obtained using the DSGE model with the labour market component.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0231.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid); oligomer; polyethylene glycol; antimicrobial agent; synergistic antimicrobial effect
Online: 12 October 2020 (11:41:21 CEST)
We reported previously that poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) oligomer is an effective antimicrobial agent against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, fungi and multi-drug resistant bacteria. In this work, it was further found that polyethylene glycol (PEG) can promote the antimicrobial effect of PHB oligomer synergistically. Three hypothetic mechanisms were proposed, that is, generation of new antimicrobial components, degradation of PHB macromolecules and dissolution/dispersion of PHB oligomer by PEG. With a series of systematic experiments and characterizations of HPLC-MS, it was deducted that dissolution/dispersion of PHB oligomer dominated the synergistic antimicrobial effect between PHB oligomer and PEG. This work demonstrates a way for promoting antimicrobial effect of PHB oligomer and other antimicrobial agents through improving hydrophilicity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0276.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: genetic improvement; genetic variation; heritability; systematic review; biocontrol agent; life history traits
Online: 24 January 2020 (10:39:55 CET)
The concept of genetic improvement in relation to biological control involves the exploitation of natural genetic variation for the benefit of existing biological control agents (BCAs). Despite recent calls for this process to be adopted in biological control research, there is no clear overview of the current state of research into genetic variation within a biological control context, including quantifiable estimates such as narrow-sense heritability (h2). In this systematic review, we aim to determine the current state of research on the genetic variation of biological control traits in natural enemies. After the searching process, screening for papers that can deliver on our research question reduced the initial 2,927 search hits to only a mere 69 papers for data extraction. Of these, the majority (73.6%) did not report quantitative values for genetic variation. Extracting the traits measured in these papers, we categorized them according to two approaches; the first related to fitness components, and the second related to biological control importance. This systematic review highlights the need for more rigorous reporting of the quantitative values of genetic variation to enable the successful genetic improvement of biological control agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0229.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle networks (UAVNs); secure communication; agent-based self-protective; HIS
Online: 21 January 2020 (03:02:34 CET)
UAVNs (unmanned aerial vehicle networks) may become vulnerable to threats and attacks due to their characteristic features such as high mobility, highly dynamic network topology, and open-air wireless environments. Since previous work has focused on classical and metaheuristic-based approaches, none of these approaches have a self-adaptive approach. In this article, we examine the challenges of cyber detection methods to secure UAVNs and review exiting security schemes proposed in the current literature. Furthermore, we propose an agent-based self-protective method (ASP-UAVN) for UAVNs that is based on the Human Immune System (HIS). In ASP-UAS, the safest route from the source UAV to the destination UAV is chosen according to a self-protective system. In this method, a multi-agent system using an Artificial Immune System (AIS) is employed to detect the attacking UAV and choose the safest route. In the proposed ASP-UAVN, the route request packet (RREQ) is initially transmitted from the source UAV to the destination UAV to detect the existing routes. Then, once the route reply packet (RREP) is received, a self-protective method using agents and the knowledge base is employed to choose the safest route and detect the attacking UAVs. The method is evaluated here via extensive simulations carried out in the NS-3 environment. The experimental results of four scenarios demonstrated that the ASP-UAS increases the Packet Delivery Rate (PDR) by more than 17.4, 20.8, and 25.91%, and detection rate by more than 17.2, 23.1, and 29.3%, and decreases the Packet Loss Rate (PLR) by more than 14.4, 16.8, and 20.21%, the false-positive and false-negative rate by more than 16.5, 25.3, and 31.21% those of SUAS-HIS, SFA and BRUIDS methods, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0174.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: computational modeling; agent based modeling; systems biology; multiple sclerosis; immunity; degenerative disease.
Online: 16 January 2020 (12:00:22 CET)
As of today, 20 disease modifying drugs (DMD) have been approved for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) and, based on their efficacy, they can be grouped into moderate-efficacy DMDs and high-efficacy DMDs. The choice of the drug mostly relies on the judgement and experience of neurologists and the evaluation of therapeutic response can only be obtained by monitoring clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) status during follow up. In an era where therapies are focused on personalization, the aim of this study is to develop a modeling infrastructure to predict the evolution of relapsing MS and the response to treatments. We built a computational modeling infrastructure named UISS (Universal Immune System Simulator) able to simulate the main features and dynamics of the immune system activities. We extended UISS to simulate all the underlying MS pathogenesis and its interaction with the host immune system. This simulator is a multi-scale, multi-organ, agent based simulator with an attached module capable of simulating the dynamics of specific biological pathways at the molecular level. We simulated six MS patients with different relapsing-remitting courses. These patients were characterized on the basis of their age, sex, presence of oligoclonal bands, therapy and MRI lesion load at onset. The simulator framework is made freely available and can be used following the links provided in the availability section. Even though the model can be further personalized employing immunological parameters and genetic information, based on the available data we generated a few simulation scenarios for each patient, including those who matched the real clinical and MRI history. Moreover, for two patients, the simulator anticipated the timing of subsequent relapses, which really occurred, suggesting that UISS may have the potential to assist MS specialists in predicting the course of the disease and the response to treatment.