Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Penetration mechanisms; gels, particles; mucus, biofilms; multi-scale modeling
Online: 7 August 2020 (04:03:13 CEST)
Biological gels (bio-gels) are hydrated polymer networks that serve diverse biological functions, which often lead to intentional or unintentional exposure to particulate matter. In this work, we derive a microscopically motivated framework that enables the investigation of penetration mechanisms into bio-gels. We distinguish between two types of mechanisms: spontaneous (unforced) penetration and forced penetration. Using experimental data available in literature, we exploit the proposed model to characterize and compare between the micro-structures of respiratory, intestinal, and cervicovaginal mucus and two types of biofilms. Next, we investigate the forced penetration process of spherical and ellipsoidal particles into a locally quadrilateral network. The proposed framework can be used to improve and complement the analysis of experimental findings in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. Additionally, the insights from this work pave the way towards enhanced designs of nano-medicines and allow to assess risk factors related to the nano-pollutants exposure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: COPD; muco-obstructive lung diseases; airway mucus hypersecretion; MUC5AC; cell differentiation
Online: 11 August 2020 (09:20:57 CEST)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality globally. Studies show that airway mucus hypersecretion strongly compromises lung function, leading to frequent hospitalization and mortality, highlighting an urgent need for effective COPD treatments. MUC5AC is known to contribute to severe muco-obstructive lung diseases, worsening COPD pathogenesis. Various pathways are implicated in the aberrant MUC5AC production and secretion MUC5AC. These include signaling pathways associated with mucus-secreting cell differentiation [ nuclear factor-κB (NF-кB)and IL-13-STAT6- SAM pointed domain containing E26 transformation-specific transcription factor (SPDEF), as well as epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)], and signaling pathways related to mucus transport and excretion-ciliary beat frequency (CBF). Various inhibitors of mucus hypersecretion are in clinical use but have had limited benefits against COPD. Thus, novel therapies targeting airway mucus hypersecretion should be developed for effective management of muco-obstructive lung disease. Here, we systematically review the mechanisms and pathogenesis of airway mucus hypersecretion, with emphasis on multi-target and multi-link intervention strategies for the elucidation of novel inhibitors of airway mucus hypersecretion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0239.v1
Subject: Keywords: OptiCell; microbial diversity; gut microbiota; gut health; free-range chickens; caged chickens; SCFA; mucus layer; welfare
Online: 18 December 2019 (05:25:45 CET)
It is of merit to study the appropriate amount of fiber to add to free-range chickens feed to improve the microbial diversity and gut health in times of plant fiber deprivation. OptiCell is a useful source of fiber as a type of eubiotic lignocellulose, and its positive effects on the growth performance and laying performance of chickens has already been proven. However, few researchers have researched the effects of adding OptiCell on the gut microbiota of chickens. In this research we added three different levels of OptiCell (0%, 2% and 4%) to the feed of caged and free-range Bian chickens from September to November, aiming to observe the effects of adding OptiCell and different feeding modes on the gut microbial diversity and gut health of chickens, and aiming to determine an appropriate amount of OptiCell. The results showed that adding OptiCell could increase the thickness of the cecum mucus layer and the abundance of Akkermansia and Faecalibacterium in caged chickens, and 4% OptiCell was optimum. In addition, adding OptiCell increased the microbial diversity and the abundance of the butyrate-producing bacteria Faecalibacterium and Roseburia of fee-range chickens. The α-diversity and the length of the small intestine with 2% OptiCell in free-range chickens were better than with 2% OptiCell in caged chickens. In addition, compared with caged chickens, the free-range chickens had longer small intestine and lower GLP-1. Taken together, an appropriate amount of OptiCell benefitted the microbial diversity and health of chickens; it was necessary to add dietary fiber to the feed of free-range chickens when plant fibers was lacking, and 2% OptiCell was found to be optimum.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: nose to brain delivery; nanoparticles; pharmaceutical nanotechnology; mucoadhesion; mucus penetrating particles; targeting; CNS disorders; neurodegenerative diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease
Online: 9 February 2018 (10:37:33 CET)
In the field of nasal delivery, one of the most fascinating applications is the delivery of drugs directly to the central nervous system bypassing the blood brain barrier. This approach would provide a series of benefits, such as dose lowering and direct targeting of potent drugs, ultimately reducing their systemic side effects. Recently, clinical trials have explored the nasal administration of insulin for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, with promising results. The use of nanomedicines could provide further options for making nose-to-brain delivery reality. In particular, apart from the selection of devices able to deposit the formulation in the upper part of the nose, surface modification of these nanomedicines appears the key strategy to optimize the delivery of drugs from the nasal cavity to the brain. In this review, nanomedicines delivery approaches based on surface electrostatic charges, mucoadhesive polymers, as well as chemical moieties targeting nasal epithelium, will be discussed and critically evaluated for nose-to-brain delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0056.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Cornu aspersa mucus; antimicrobial peptides; antibacterial activity; bacterial strains; Pseudomonas aureofaciens AP9; Escherichia coli NBIMCC 8785; Brevibacillus laterosporus strain BT-271; Clostridium perfringens NBIMCC 8615
Online: 3 August 2020 (00:25:22 CEST)
Natural products have long played a major role in medicine and science. The garden snail Cornu aspersa is a rich source of biologically active natural substances which might be an important source for new drugs to treat human disease. Based on our previous studies seven fractions containing compounds with Mw <3 kDa, <10 kDa, <20 kDa, >20 kDa, and between 3-5 kDa, 5-10 kDa, and 10-30 kDa were purified from the mucus of C. aspersa and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). Seventeen novel peptides with potential antibacterial activity have been identified by de novo MS/MS sequencing using tandem mass spectrometry. The different fractions were tested for antibacterial activity against Gram─ (Pseudomonas aureofaciens and Escherichia coli) and Gram+ (Brevibacillus laterosporus) bacterial strains as well anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens. These results revealed that the peptide fractions exhibit a predominant antibacterial activity against B. laterosporus, the fraction with Mw 10 – 30 kDa against E. coli, another peptide fraction <20 kDa against P. aureofaciens, and the protein fraction >20 kDa against the bacterial strain C. perfringens. The discovery of new antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from natural sources is of great importance for public health due to their effective antimicrobial activities and low resistance rates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: lifestyle factors; chronic inflammatory diseases; treatment result; treatment response; diet; meat intake; dietary pattern; food; mucosa associated bacteria; epithelium-associated bacteria; microbiome; fibre intake; personalized medicine; mucus; sulphate-reducing bacteria; mucin-degrading bacteria; Western style diet; anti-TNF
Online: 15 March 2017 (07:29:13 CET)
We wanted to investigate the current knowledge on the impact of diet on anti-TNF response in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), to identify dietary factors that warrant further investigations in relation to anti-TNF treatment response, and, finally, to discuss potential strategies for such investigations. PubMed was searched using specified search terms. One small prospective study on diet and anti-TNF treatment in 56 patients with CD found similar remission rates after 56 weeks among 32 patients with good compliance that received concomitant enteral nutrition and 24 with poor compliance that had no dietary restrictions (78% versus 67%, p = 0.51). A meta-analysis of 295 patients found higher odds of achieving clinical remission and remaining in clinical remission among patients on combination therapy with specialised enteral nutrition and Infliximab (IFX) compared with IFX monotherapy (OR 2.73; 95% CI: 1.73–4.31, p < 0.01, OR 2.93; 95% CI: 1.66–5.17, p < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, evidence-based knowledge on impact of diet on anti-TNF treatment response for clinical use is scarce. Here we propose a mechanism by which Western style diet high in meat and low in fibre may promote colonic inflammation and potentially impact treatment response to anti-TNF drugs. Further studies using hypothesis-driven and data-driven strategies in observational, animal and interventional studies are warranted.