ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0468.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Neisseria mucosa; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; inhibition
Online: 24 August 2021 (13:57:51 CEST)
We used agar overlay assays to assess if 24 circulating and historical isolates of Neisseria mucosa could inhibit the growth of 28 circulating and historical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae. We found no evidence of inhibition by N. mucosa (n=24). Positive controls Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli demonstrated a strong inhibitory effect against the growth of N. gonorrhoeae.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0057.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Oral mucositis mucositis; oral mucosa; genitourinary mucosa; microbiome; dysbiosis; saliactive; cancer; PROMs; cancer toxicity; chemotherapy; radiotherapy; pain; olive oil; betaine; trimethylglycine
Online: 1 June 2023 (07:52:02 CEST)
Oral mucosa is a key player in the cancer patient and during cancer treatment. The increasing prevalence of cancer and cancer therapy associated side effects are behind the major role that oral mucosa plays in the oncological patient. Oral mucositis is a debilitating severe complication caused by early toxicity of chemo and/or radiotherapy that can restrict treatment outcome possibilities, even challenging patient’s survival. It has been referred to as the most feared cancer treatment complication. Predictive variables as to who and to what extent will be affected are still unclear. Additionally, oral mucositis is one of the sources of the increasing economic burden of cancer, not only for patients and their families but also for institutions and governments. All efforts should be implemented in the search for new approaches to minimize the apparently ineluctable outburst of oral mucositis along the cancer treatment. New perspectives derived from different approaches in explaining the interrelation between oral mucositis and oral microbiome or the similarities with genitourinary mucosa may help elucidate the biomolecular pathways and mechanisms behind oral mucosa cancer-therapy related toxicity and what is more important its management in order to minimize treatment side effects and to provide enhanced cancer support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0348.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Agar over assay; bacterial inhibition; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Neisseria mucosa
Online: 19 November 2021 (12:23:16 CET)
Antibiotic-sparing treatments are required to prevent the further emergence of anti-microbial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Commensal Neisseria species have previously been found to inhibit the growth of pathogenic Neisseria species. For example, a previous study found that 3 out of 5 historical isolates of Neisseria mucosa could inhibit the growth of N. gonorrhoeae. In this study, we used agar overlay assays to assess if 24 circulating and historical isolates of Neisseria mucosa could inhibit the growth of 28 circulating and historical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae. Although pitting around each colony of N. mucosa created an optical illusion of decreased growth of N. gonorrhoeae, we found no evidence of inhibition (n=24). In contrast, positive controls of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli demonstrated a strong inhibitory effect against the growth of N. gonorrhoeae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0162.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: biofilm; Candida albicans; E-cadherin; Enterococcus faecalis; FISH; oral mucosa.
Online: 8 October 2020 (08:20:36 CEST)
Candida albicans as an opportunistic pathogen exploits the host immune system and causes a variety of life-threatening infections. The polymorphic nature of this fungus gives it tremendous advantage to breach mucosal barriers and cause a variety of oral and disseminated infections. Enterococcus faecalis, another opportunistic pathogen co-exists with C. albicans in several niches in the human body, including the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. However, interactions between E. faecalis and C. albicans on oral mucosal surfaces remain unknown. Here, for the first time, we comprehensively characterized the interactive profiles between laboratory and clinical isolates of C. albicans (SC5314 and BF1) and E. faecalis (OG1RF and 846) on an organotypic oral mucosal model. Our results demonstrated that the two species formed robust biofilms on the mucosal tissue surface with profound surface erosion and fungal invasion. Specifically, this effect was more pronounced in the laboratory isolates than in the clinical isolates. Notably, several genes of C. albicans involved in tissue adhesion, hyphal formation, fungal invasion, and biofilm formation were significantly upregulated in the presence of E. faecalis. This study highlights the strain-dependent cross-kingdom interactions between E. faecalis and C. albicans on oral mucosa, demonstrating the requisite to study more substrate-dependent polymicrobial interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1237.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: aniridia; biomarker; COMET; cornea; LSCD; neovascularization; oral mucosa; PITX2; ocular surface
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:45:28 CEST)
Total bilateral Limbal Stem Cells Deficiency is a pathologic condition of the ocular surface due to the loss of corneal stem cells. Cultivated Oral Mucosa Epithelial Transplantation (COMET) is the only autologous successful treatment for this pathology in clinical application, although non-physiological peripheric corneal vascularization often occurs. Properly characterizing the regenerated ocular surface is needed for a reliable follow-up. So far, the univocal identification of transplanted oral mucosa had been challenging. Previously proposed markers were shown co-expressed by the different ocular surface epithelia in a homeostatic or perturbated environment. In this study, we compared the transcriptome profile of human oral mucosa, limbal and conjunctival cells, identifying PITX2 as a new marker that univocally distinguishes the transplanted oral tissue from the other epithelia. We validated PITX2 at RNA and protein levels to investigate 10-year follow-up cor-neal samples derived from a COMET-treated aniridic patient. Moreover, we found novel angiogenesis-related factors differentially expressed in the three epithelia and instrumental in explaining the neovascularization in COMET-treated patients. These results will support the follow-up analysis of patients transplanted with oral mucosa and provide new tools to understand the regeneration mechanism of the transplanted cornea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0150.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: oral; mucosa; mucins; tight junctions; wound-healing; E-liquids; cytotoxicity; viability; confluency.
Online: 3 April 2023 (03:33:37 CEST)
Background: Expansion of OKF6/TERT-2 oral epithelial cells in vitro is important for studying the molecular biology of disease and pathology affecting the oral cavity. Keratinocyte Serum-Free Medium (KSFM) is the medium of choice for this cell line. This study compares three media for OKF6/TERT-2 cultures: KSFM, Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium/Nutrient Mixture of Hams F-12 (DMEM/F12) and a composite medium comprised of DMEM/F-12 and KSFM (1:1 v/v), referred as DFK. The toxicological effects of electronic cigarette liquids (E-liquids) on OKF6/TERT-2 cells cultured in these media were also compared. Methods: Cells were cultured in KSFM, DMEM/F12 or DFK and cellular morphology, growth, wound healing and gene expression of mucins and tight junctions were evaluated. Additionally, cytotoxicity was determined after E-liquid exposures. Results: Switching from KSFM to DMEM/F12 or DFK 24-hours post-seeding leads to typical cellular morphologies, and these cultures reach confluency faster than those in KSFM. Wound-healing recovery occurred fastest in DFK. Except for claudin-1, there is no difference in expression of the other genes tested. Additionally, E-liquid cytotoxicity appears to be amplified in DFK cultures. Conclusions: DMEM/F12 and DFK are alternative media for OKF6/TERT-2 cell culture to study molecular biology of disease and pathology, provided cells are initially seeded in KSFM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0445.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: human mucosa models; nanotoxicology; titanium dioxide; zinc oxide; barrier health; barrier integrity
Online: 25 January 2023 (04:19:16 CET)
As common industrial by-products, airborne engineered nanomaterials are considered important environmental toxicants to monitor due to their potential health risks to humans and animals. The main uptake routes of airborne nanoparticles are nasal and/or oral inhalation, which are known to enable the transfer of nanomaterials into the blood stream resulting in rapid distribution in the body. Consequently, mucosal barriers present in nose, buccal and lung have been identified and intensively studied as the key tissue barrier to nanoparticle translocation. Despite decades of research, surprisingly little is known about the differences among various mucosa tissue types to tolerate nanoparticle exposures. One limitation in comparing nanotoxicological data sets can be linked to a lack of harmonization and standardization of cell-based assays, where a) different cultivation conditions such as air-liquid interface or submerged cultures, b) varying barrier maturity and c) diverse media substitutes have been used. The current comparative nanotoxicological study therefore aims at analyzing the toxic effects of nanomaterials on four human mucosa barrier models including nasal (RPMI2650), buccal (TR146), alveolar (A549), and bronchial (Calu-3) mucosal cell lines to better understand the modulating effects of tissue maturity, cultivation conditions and tissue type using standard Transwell cultivations at liquid-liquid and air-liquid interfaces. Overall, cell size, confluency, tight junction localization, and cell viability as well as barrier formation using 50% and 100% confluency was monitored using trans-epithelial-electrical resistance (TEER) measurements and Presto Blue assays of immature (e.g. 5 days) and mature (e.g. 22 days) cultures in the presence and absence of corticosteroids such as hydrocortisone. Results of our study show that cellular responses to increasing nanoparticle exposures are highly cell type specific, where bronchial mucosal cell barriers models cultivated under ALI conditions showed less tolerance to acute ZnO nanoparticle exposures. Additionally, stronger toxicities are found using early mucosa barriers compared to later barrier models being maturated under air-liquid cultivation conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0274.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Peripheral Nerve Injury; peripheral nerve regeneration; sciatic nerve; Olfactory Mucosa Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells; Olfactory Ensheating Cells; secretome; conditioned medium; nerve guidance conduit; tibial cranial muscle; rat
Online: 28 April 2022 (05:49:40 CEST)
Cell secretome has been explored as a cell-free technique with high scientific and medical interest for Regenerative Medicine. In this work, the secretome produced and collected from Olfactory Mucosa Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Olfactory Ensheating Cells was analyzed and therapeutically applied to promote peripheral nerve regeneration. The analysis of the conditioned medium revealed the production and secretion of several factors with immunomodulatory functions, capable of intervening beneficially in the phases of nerve regeneration. Subsequently, the conditioned medium was applied to sciatic nerves of rats after neurotmesis, using Reaxon® as tube-guides. Over 20 weeks, the animals were subjected to periodic functional assessments, and after this period, the sciatic nerves and cranial tibial muscles were evaluated stereologically and histomorphometrically, respectively. The results obtained allowed to confirm the beneficial effects resulting from the application of this therapeutic combination. The administration of conditioned medium from Olfactory Mucosal Mesenchymal Stem Cells led to the best results in motor performance, sensory recovery, and gait patterns. Stereological and histomorphometric evaluation also revealed the ability of this therapeutic combination to promote nervous and muscular histologic reorganization during the regenerative process. The therapeutic combination discussed in this work shows promising results and should be further explored to clarify irregularities found in the outcomes and to allow establishing the use of cell secretome as a new therapeutic field applied in the treatment of peripheral nerves after injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0791.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Helicobacter pylori-uninfected gastric cancer; gastric adenocarcinoma of foveolar type; raspberry-shaped gastric lesion; gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic-gland type; gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic-gland mucosa type; hyperplastic polyp; proton pump inhibitor-related lesion; early gastric cancer.
Online: 23 April 2023 (08:12:59 CEST)
Objectives: We aimed to clarify the endoscopic and clinicopathological features of raspberry-shaped gastric lesions (RSGLs) and to establish an endoscopic diagnostic algorithm for RSGLs. Methods: We collected RSGLs from an endoscopic database at our hospital between May 2009 and August 2021. All RSGLs were histopathologically classified and compared based on their endoscopic and clinicopathological characteristics. Results: Sixty-five RSGLs in 54 patients were classified into five histopathological types: gastric adenocarcinoma of foveolar type (GA-FV, n = 43), gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic-gland type (GA-FG, n = 2), gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic-gland mucosa type (GA-FGM, n = 4), hyperplastic polyp (HP, n = 12), and proton pump inhibitor-related lesion (PPI-L, n = 4). All RSGLs exhibited polygonal or curved marginal crypt epithelium (MCE). GA-FV lesions had homogenously reddish (95%) and irregular microvascular (MV) pattern (91%). GA-FG lesions were heterogeneously reddish with a submucosal tumor shape (100%) and had a regular MV pattern (50%). GA-FGM lesions were homogenously reddish (75%) and occasionally had a submucosal tumor shape (50%) with an irregular MV pattern (75%). HP and PPI-L were homogeneously reddish (93%), with linear or dotted MCE (81%) and a regular MV pattern (100%). Conclusion: Our diagnostic algorithm for RSGLs constructed using endoscopic features might be useful for the endoscopic differential diagnosis of RSGLs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: lifestyle factors; chronic inflammatory diseases; treatment result; treatment response; diet; meat intake; dietary pattern; food; mucosa associated bacteria; epithelium-associated bacteria; microbiome; fibre intake; personalized medicine; mucus; sulphate-reducing bacteria; mucin-degrading bacteria; Western style diet; anti-TNF
Online: 15 March 2017 (07:29:13 CET)
We wanted to investigate the current knowledge on the impact of diet on anti-TNF response in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), to identify dietary factors that warrant further investigations in relation to anti-TNF treatment response, and, finally, to discuss potential strategies for such investigations. PubMed was searched using specified search terms. One small prospective study on diet and anti-TNF treatment in 56 patients with CD found similar remission rates after 56 weeks among 32 patients with good compliance that received concomitant enteral nutrition and 24 with poor compliance that had no dietary restrictions (78% versus 67%, p = 0.51). A meta-analysis of 295 patients found higher odds of achieving clinical remission and remaining in clinical remission among patients on combination therapy with specialised enteral nutrition and Infliximab (IFX) compared with IFX monotherapy (OR 2.73; 95% CI: 1.73–4.31, p < 0.01, OR 2.93; 95% CI: 1.66–5.17, p < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, evidence-based knowledge on impact of diet on anti-TNF treatment response for clinical use is scarce. Here we propose a mechanism by which Western style diet high in meat and low in fibre may promote colonic inflammation and potentially impact treatment response to anti-TNF drugs. Further studies using hypothesis-driven and data-driven strategies in observational, animal and interventional studies are warranted.